Congressional Districts: How to Compile Histories of Their Composition and Representation

Members of Congress, their staff, and their constituents sometimes request historical information on the composition and representation of congressional districts: Who are the Members who have ever represented the area a Member currently represents? What are the names and party affiliations of the House Members who have represented a particular county since it was created? Have two counties always been within the same congressional district? This report explains how researchers may prepare compilations called congressional "district histories," which answer these and other such questions. The report identifies selected sources from which information may be obtained and provides details on how data may be compiled and presented. While there is no one way to conduct the research, compile the data, or present findings, the sources and procedure described here have proven useful to those who have prepared district histories in the past.

97-1052 GOV CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Congressional Districts: How to Compile Histories of Their Composition and Representation December 9, 1997 (name redacted) Analyst in American National Government Government Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Congressional Districts: How to Compile Histories of Their Composition and Representation Summary Members of Congress, their staff, and their constituents sometimes request historical information on the composition and representation of congressional districts: Who are the Members who have ever represented the area a Member currently represents? What are the names and party affiliations of the House Members who have represented a particular county since it was created? Have two counties always been within the same congressional district? This report explains how researchers may prepare compilations called congressional “district histories,” which answer these and other such questions. The report identifies selected sources from which information may be obtained and provides details on how data may be compiled and presented. While there is no one way to conduct the research, compile the data, or present findings, the sources and procedure described here have proven useful to those who have prepared district histories in the past. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Basic Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Caveat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Research Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Step 1. Identify and list the relevant counties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Step 2. Determine each county’s origin and year of creation. . . . . . . . . . . 7 Step 3. Determine the years and Congresses to be covered . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Step 4. Select and review other sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Step 5. Prepare a worksheet for collecting information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Step 6. Record the earliest Congress number and years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Step 7. Identify and record the congressional district(s) in which each relevant county has been located. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Step 8. Identify the relevant Representatives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Step 9. Add Data on Recent Congresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Step 10. Cross-check for Errors and Discrepancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Step 11. Repeat the Steps of this Process as Appropriate . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Appendix A: Sources of Congressional District Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Appendix B: Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Worksheet 1: Relevant Counties and Their Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Worksheet 2: Data Collection Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Appendix C: Sessions of Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Appendix D: Example District History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 List of Tables Quick Reference Guide for Locating Information in Selected Sources . . . . . . . 25 Congressional Districts: How to Compile Histories of Their Composition and Representation Introduction Overview Members of Congress, their staff, and their constituents frequently ask such questions as “Who has represented the 6th congressional district of Maryland since the 1st Congress?” The question, which could be asked about any congressional district in any state and for any time period, is straightforward. But the answer can be complicated. The boundaries of today’s 6th congressional district of Maryland are different from the boundaries of the 6th district in years past. Reapportionment and redistricting often change district boundaries. Moreover, district boundaries do not necessarily conform to the boundaries of any other entity, such as a county or municipality. Thus, the question must be recast. One useful way to reformulate the question is to ask, “Who has represented the counties that constitute today’s 6th congressional district of Maryland since the 1st Congress?” This guide is a tool to help you answer that historical question—or analogous questions for other states and congressional districts. It outlines the research you will need to do and identifies useful sources of information. It suggests how you can organize your work and present the results as what has come to be called a “congressional district history.” It also includes worksheets for compiling data and models for presenting your findings. There is no one best way to prepare a congressional district history. The approach described in this guide has been used successfully over many years, but variants are sometimes appropriate. Law, local and state history, and the vehicles and procedures for elections vary across time and among states. Such circumstances may require you to work in ways different from those suggested here. Nonetheless, this guide will likely meet the needs of most researchers who must compile historical data on the representation and composition of congressional districts. CRS-2 Basic Sources In most instances, researchers may use the sources indicated in Table 1 to compile comprehensive district histories.1 Table 1. Historical Information Sources Congress 1st - 27th Years 1789-1841 Sources ! Everton, Handy Book for Genealogists ! Parsons, et al, United States Congressional Districts, 1788-1841 28th - 78th 1841-1945 ! ! ! ! 79th - 97th 1945-1983 ! CQ, Biographical Directory of the American CQ, Guide to U.S. Elections A Biographical Directory of Congress2 Everton, Handy Book for Genealogists Martis, Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts, 1789-1983 Congress, 1774-1996 ! Everton, Handy Book for Genealogists ! Martis, Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts, 1789-1983 98th - 105th 1983-1999 ! Congressional Directory for each Congress ! CQ, Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 Caveat. Although the sources listed in this guide will probably be sufficient for your work, special circumstances may require you to consult sources not identified here. 1 For complete references, see the bibliography at the back of the guide; for a more detailed explanation of sources see the quick reference table in Appendix A. 2 Two biographical directories are available and are listed in the bibliography. The privately published biographical directory covers all Members through the 104th Congress. Beginning with the 79th Congress (1945-1947), it identifies the congressional district represented by each Member. The directory published as a Senate document covers all Members through the 100th Congress, but it does not identify congressional districts the Members represented. The Senate document is also available to Members of the House in electronic form via computer from the MIN files managed by House Information Resources (HIR). Congressional offices may consult HIR for access to these files. CRS-3 Research Procedure A step-by-step guide for preparing a congressional district history follows. The steps are illustrated using the hypothetical question, “Who has represented the counties that constitute what is currently the 6th congressional district of Maryland since the 1st Congress?”3 Worksheets. This guide provides two worksheets for collecting the necessary information. Worksheet 1 is entitled “Relevant Counties and Their Origins.” Worksheet 2 is entitled “Data Collection Form.” Both can be found in appendix B of this report. Photocopy as many as you need for your research. Step 1. Identify and list the relevant counties. Identify and list all the counties that currently constitute the congressional district you are researching (hereafter referred to as “relevant counties”).4 Indicate whether each relevant county is completely or partially within the district. Sources. There are two useful sources for this task: 1. Congressional Directory for the current Congress, the biographical section of which describes each congressional district in every state; and 2. Congressional Districts of the 103rd Congress. published by the Bureau of Census. Tip. If the descriptions of the districts are lengthy and detailed, or if several counties are divided among more than one district, you may find the Census publication easier to use.5 Its tables list only the counties within each congressional district, without further description. The notation “(pt)” indicates that the district includes only part of a county. Maps of the counties, their subdivisions, boundaries, and other information appear in the appendices that follow the tables. Caution: Check for redistricting. If you use the Census Bureau’s reports for the 103rd Congress, be sure to determine whether the state you are researching has redistricted since the 103rd Congress (1993-1995).6 3 Remember that the county is the basic unit for compiling information, except in Louisiana, where the parish is the basic unit. 4 Depending on the state and district, the number of counties can range from one to more than 30. 5 Grouped under the broader title, “Census of Population and Housing” (CHP), the series provides a separate volume for each state. The example in this CRS guide uses the 1990 report for the State of Maryland , CPH-4-22. 6 Except for Maine, all states with more than one congressional district redistricted for the 103rd Congress. CRS-4 ! States that redistricted during the 104th Congress (1995-1997) are: Georgia Minnesota Louisiana South Carolina Maine Virginia ! States that redistricted during the 105th Congress (as of the date of this report) are: Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Texas Florida ! Among the states that are likely to redistrict for the 106th Congress are: New York North Carolina Virginia Remember also that redistricting occurs regularly after each decennial census. The next regularly scheduled redistricting will occur after the census for the year 2000; it will go into effect for the 108th Congress (2003-2005). As a matter of routine, the number and composition of the districts in any of the 50 states may change, depending upon census data from the year 2000. Be sure the source documents you choose reflect the actual composition of the district. Example Now, let us work through this stage of the process, using our example—the 6th Congressional District of Maryland, as currently constituted. Source. Open a Congressional Directory for the 105th Congress to the biographical section, which is arranged alphabetically by state. The Maryland entry begins on page 137. Turn to page 140, and examine the entry for the “Sixth District.” It lists six counties: Allegany, Carroll, Frederick, Garrett, Washington, and part of Howard. Alternate source. You may also use the Census Bureau’s Congressional Districts, 103rd Congress, Maryland (1990 CPH-4-22). Turn to page 18, table 8. In the first column of the table, under the subheading “District 6,” you will see the same six counties: Allegany, Carroll, Frederick, Howard (pt)7, and Washington. Procedure. Use Worksheet 1 to list relevant counties and related information. At the top of the worksheet, enter the state, the district number, and the number and years of the current Congress. Then fill in the name of each relevant county and check the appropriate column to show whether it is completely or partially included in the congressional district. List the relevant counties alphabetically and number them, so you can more easily keep track of them. Leave some rows blank between your relevant county entries in case you need space for information that will be filled in later.8 7 As noted earlier, ‘(pt)’ is used when only part of a county is within the district. 8 For example, you may need the blank rows to list counties from which the relevant (continued...) CRS-5 Figure A illustrates the worksheet partially filled-in with the names of the six counties in the 6th Congressional District of Maryland. 8 (...continued) counties originated. CRS-6 Figure A. Step 1 Worksheet 1: Relevant Counties and Their Origin Current Congress: Years: State: Maryland District: 6th County (alphabetically) All 1. Allegany T 2. Carroll T 3. Frederick T 4. Garrett T T 5. Howard 6. Washington Part T Parent county/ Territory 105th 1997-1999 Year created CRS-7 Step 2. Determine each county’s origin and year of creation. Determine the year when each relevant county was created. If a relevant county is not an original county, it was created from one or more other counties. Identify its “parent” county or counties. Source. Everton’s Handy Book for Genealogists provides the following information on the counties of every state: name, year created, parent county or territory of origin, and other historical information. Alternate Source. Parson, Beach, and Hermann’s United States Congressional Districts, 1788-1841 provides similar information on some of the counties that were created during the period it covers. It lists county name changes, counties that were redefined or abolished, and counties that were originally part of another state.9 Procedure. Continue to use Worksheet 1. Open The Handy Book for Genealogists, 8th ed., to page 114-115, where an alphabetical listing of Maryland’s counties appears under the heading “Maryland County Data.” Across from the name of each county is the year it was created and the parent county or territory from which it originated. The Handy Book for Genealogists indicates that the origin of each relevant county in our example is as follows: ! Allegany County was created in 1789 from part of Washington County; ! Carroll County was created in 1837 from parts of Baltimore and Frederick ! ! ! ! Counties; Frederick County was created in 1748 from part of Prince George’s County; Garrett County was created in 1872 from part of Allegany County; Howard County was created in 1851 from parts of Baltimore and Anne Arundel Counties; Washington County was created in 1776 from part of Frederick County. Use this information to complete columns 4 and 5 of Worksheet 1, as shown in figure B. Step 3. Determine the years and Congresses to be covered. Identify the Congresses and the corresponding years your district history is to cover. Some sources identify Congresses by number without providing the corresponding years; other sources provide years without indicating the corresponding Congresses. Consequently, you will need to know both the number of each Congress and the corresponding years when you consult your source documents. 9 The Appendix includes a “County Creations” section, which begins on page 375 and is arranged alphabetically by state. However, only one of the six relevant counties in our example is listed under “Maryland” (page 381). Consequently, we must use The Handy Book for Genealogists, which provides data on all six of the relevant counties. CRS-8 Figure B: Step 2 Worksheet 1: Relevant Counties and Their Origin Current Congress: Years: State: Maryland District: 6th County (alphabetically) All Parent county/ Territory Part 105th 1997-1999 Year created 1. Allegany T Washington 1789 2. Carroll T Baltimore and Frederick 1837 3. Frederick T Prince George’s 1748 4. Garrett T Allegany 1872 Anne Arundel and Baltimore 1851 Frederick 1776 T 5. Howard 6. Washington T CRS-9 Source. Appendix C of this guide lists each Congress number and its corresponding years. Every Congress begins and ends in an odd numbered year. Alternative Sources. The Congressional Directory for each recent Congress has a table entitled “Sessions of Congress,” which lists the number of each Congress and its precise beginning and adjournment dates.10 Similarly, the CQ Guide to U.S. Elections, 3rd edition, presents the same information in its appendix in a table called “Sessions of the U.S. Congress, 1789-1991.” Step 4. Select and review other sources. You have already used some of the source documents to complete the preceding steps. Now select the other sources you will need. Look over the sources listed on page 2 of this guide and in Appendix A. Get the other sources that are usually needed for congressional district histories. Don’t hesitate to consult additional sources if the need arises. Carefully read background and other notes in your sources. Sometimes the key to apparent errors or discrepancies is knowing the methods used to compile data in the sources. That and other information is detailed in notes. For example, in Parsons, Beach and Hermann’s United States Congressional Districts, 1788-1841, the Methodology Notes (p. xiii-xvi) provide detailed explanations of the methods used to correlate Members with the congressional districts and to ascertain Members’ party affiliations. These explanations make it easier for you to handle instances when the number for the same district or the party affiliation for the same Member varies among sources. Similarly, in Martis’s Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts, the “Introduction” provides clear and useful information that may enable you to account for some of the anomalies you may encounter in the course of your research. (See for example, the text under the subheadings: plural district representation, at-large representation, state statutes, boundary definitions, and terminology on pages 2-13). Step 5. Prepare a worksheet for collecting information Make several photocopies of Worksheet 2 entitled “Data Collection Form,” found in Appendix B. The number you will need depends, in part, upon on how many Congresses you are researching. (If you prefer, reconstruct the worksheet using your own computer. Worksheet 2 has five columns: (1) Congress; (2) years of the Congress; (3) congressional district number; (4) congressional district composition; and (5) the name, party affiliation and place of residence of each Representative. Your completed worksheet will be the basis for a smooth table presenting your research findings. 10 For example, see Congressional Directory 105th Congress (1997-1998), p. 505. CRS-10 Tip. As you work, leave plenty of space around your entries. Leave rows blank between entries to avoid crowding and improve legibility. You may also need to go back and add information as your research proceeds. Step 6. Record the earliest Congress number and years. You are now ready to begin recording your findings on Worksheet 2. Start with the earliest Congress or year you are researching. Use the “Sessions of Congress” table in Appendix C to find the Congress number and its corresponding years. Record them in columns 1 and 2, respectively. Tip. If your starting point is a year (rather than a Congress), it may involve two Congresses. For example, if your starting point were the year 1791, that year could be the end of the 1st Congress or the beginning of the 2nd Congress. Consequently, you should begin your research with the earlier Congress to make certain you have covered the entire year. Be sure to provide the Congress number and its corresponding years in the appropriate column of Worksheet 2. Example. Figure C below shows what the data collection form for Maryland’s 6 Congressional District would look like at this stage of the process. In this instance, the starting point is the 1st Congress, so “1st” appears in column 1; the years 1789-1791, in column 2. th Figure C: Step 6 Worksheet 2: Data Collection Form Congressional district Congress Years No. Composition Member (party) residence (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) ... ... ... 1st 1789-1791 ... ... CRS-11 Step 7. Identify and record the congressional district(s) in which each relevant county has been located. This step is relatively complex and sometimes tedious. Proceed carefully. Have your completed Worksheet 1 at hand so that you can refer to it while you add information to Worksheet 2. Starting with the earliest Congress you are researching, read the congressional district descriptions in source documents and find the name of each relevant county. This may be straight forward, or you may face either or both of two problems. Problem 1. Some source documents do not indicate any numbered congressional districts or descriptions for the state during the specified time period. If instead you see such phrases as “one representative,” “two general ticket representatives,” or “at large,”11 then the state had no numbered congressional districts at that time. It elected Members at large. In such instances, record “AL” and “At large” on Worksheet 2 in columns 3 and 4, respectively. If sources indicate that the state had more than one at-large Member, create a note that says precisely how many at-large Members the state had during that Congress. Example. Figure D gives an example of how to record the representation of a state that had 3 Members elected at large during the 1st Congress. The note at the foot of the table says precisely how many at-large Members the state had during the Congress indicated. Using the phrase “during this Congress,” rather than “during the 1st Congress” allows the researcher to apply the same note to any other Congress when the state had three House Members at large. (See also Appendix D, 88th Congress, and note 14 on pages 39 and 41.) 11 Martis’s Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts clearly distinguishes general ticket and at-large representation (pp. 2, 5). In most district histories, however, the description “at -large” is used for both types of representation. CRS-12 Figure D: Step 7 Worksheet 2: Data Collection Form Congressional district Congress Years No. Composition Member (party) residence (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 1789-1791 AL At large AL At large AL At large ... ... 1st a ... a ... ... During this Congress, Maryland had three House Members elected at large. Problem 2. Sometimes the relevant counties are not among the counties listed for a particular time period in source documents. This can happen because the relevant counties did not exist at that time or, if they did exist, because they were not specified in the state redistricting act for that time period. In such instances, you will need to look for the names of the “parent” counties12 in source documents. In some instances, you may need to trace parent counties back another level to the counties from which they originated (i.e, “grandparent” counties of the relevant counties).13 Whether you will need to include data on parent and grandparent counties will depend upon when the relevant counties were created, the point at which their names appear in the state redistricting act, and how far back in time your district history goes. If appropriate, look for the grandparent counties until the point when the parent counties are specified in the state redistricting act. Continue with the parent counties until the relevant counties are specified in the state redistricting act. 12 As noted earlier, parent counties are those from which the relevant counties were created. 13 In step 2, you have already recorded on Worksheet 1 the year each relevant county was created and the parent from which it originated. If you need to include grandparent counties, identify them using the same sources and procedure you used to identify the parent counties. Remember, a grandparent county is the county from which a parent county originated. CRS-13 For the earliest Congress you are researching, continue to read the description of each congressional district in the state until you can account for every relevant county (either by name or through its parent or grandparent) in its entirety.14 Record the number and composition of the districts that include the relevant counties following either of the two approaches explained below. How to record the number and composition of districts comprising relevant counties. On Worksheet 2, in column 3 under the subheading “No.,” record the number of the first congressional district that comprises one or more of the relevant counties (or parent or grandparent counties, if appropriate). Then, in column 4 under the subheading “Composition,” record the names of the counties within that particular congressional district, using either of two approaches. In providing the names of the counties within the congressional district, you may use any of several approaches, including either of these two: 1. List only relevant counties along with any parents and grandparents of relevant counties, as appropriate; or 2. List the names of all of the counties (i.e., including “non-relevant” counties) within the district. This approach provides a more comprehensive description of district composition across time. Approach 1. If you choose to list only relevant counties (and parent counties and grandparent counties, as appropriate), develop some system for distinguishing them from one another. For instance, make typographical distinctions as shown below and in figure G: Distinguishing Among Relevant, Parent, and Grandparent Counties Type of county Typography Example Relevant county Bold Carroll Parent county Normal, between brackets [Anne Arundel] Grandparent county Normal, between braces {Washington} Relevant county that is also a parent of other relevant counties Bold, between brackets [Frederick] Relevant county that is also a grandparent of relevant counties Bold, between braces {Washington} Relevant county that is also both a parent and a grandparent of relevant counties Bold, between braces and brackets {[Washington]} Approach 2. If you choose the second approach, you must list all of the counties within the district(s) comprising relevant counties—that is, all relevant and 14 Remember, a relevant county may be (have been) divided among more than one congressional district. CRS-14 non-relevant counties.15 You can still use the same typographic conventions described in Approach 1. The difference in using this approach is that, in addition to the relevant, parent, and grandparent counties, you will also provide the names of all other counties in the districts comprising relevant counties. The names of the “nonrelevant” counties should appear in normal type. (See figure H.) Sources. For the 1st through the 27th Congresses (1789-1841), use the Parsons, Beach, and Hermann book for data on the composition of each congressional district. It compiles in one place all data needed for all five columns of Worksheet 2. Information is arranged chronologically by Congress number and then by state. Within each state, congressional districts are listed sequentially by number; the counties constituting each district, in the first column. A few columns to the right, you will find the name of the House Member representing that district, the number of the Congress in which he served, an abbreviation for the his political party, his home county, and the city or town in which he resided. Instances when Members died in office or resigned are noted in parentheses. Martis’s Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts, 1789-1983, also provides information on the composition of congressional districts. Part III of this book—Legal District Descriptions—provides detailed congressional district descriptions for all the states from 1789-1983. Part III is arranged alphabetically by state. Based upon original legal statutes, it describes every congressional district for every state. Each state is covered from the time it was admitted to statehood up to the 97th Congress (1981-1983). The number of the congressional district in which the relevant county is located appears in the column to the left of the description. Example. Open Parsons, Beach, and Hermann at page 8 to the listing of Maryland’s six congressional districts for the 1st and 2nd Congresses. Beginning with District 1 in the first column on the left of the page, under the subheading “County” are the names of the counties in each district. According to this source, during the 1st and 2nd Congresses, the composition of Maryland’s congressional districts was as follows: 15 A “non-relevant” county is any county that you are not researching and which has no connection (in terms of origin) to any of your relevant counties. It appears in your compilation 2 solely because it lies within the same district as one or more of your relevant, parent, or grandparent counties. CRS-15 Figure E. Composition of Maryland’s Congressional Districts: 1st-2nd Congresses District Number Composition 1 Calvert, Charleston, St. Marys 2 Caecil, Kent, Queen Annes, and Talbot 3 Anne-Arundel, Prince George’s, and City of Annapolis 4 Baltimore, Harford, and Town of Baltimore 5 Caroline, Dorchester, Somerset, and Worcester 6 Frederick, Montgomery, and Washington Source: Parsons, Beach and Hermann’s United States Congressional Districts , 1788-1841. p 8. To use Martis’s Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts, turn to page 234. The listing of Maryland’s congressional districts begins column 3 under the subheading “First and Second Congresses.” The composition of Maryland’s districts is shown as follows: Figure F. Composition of Maryland’s Congressional Districts: 1st-2nd Congresses District number Composition 1 Saint Mary’s, Charles, and Calvert 2 Kent, Talbot, Cecil, Queen Anne’s 3 Anne Arundel, Prince George’s, City of Annapolis 4 Baltimore, Hartford, Town of Baltimore 5 Somerset, Dorchester, Worcester, and Caroline 6 Frederick, Washington, and Montgomery Source: Kenneth Martis’s Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts, 1789-1983, p. 234. Information in the two sources is basically the same, with some variation in the treatment of some county names (e.g., Charles and Charleston are the same county). Of all of the counties listed, two are relevant counties in our example district history for this time period: Washington and Frederick Counties, located in what was then the 6th Congressional District. Consequently, we must account for the CRS-16 remaining four—Allegany, Carroll, Garrett, and Howard Counties—by looking for the names of their parent (and if necessary grandparent) counties. We see in Worksheet 1 (Figure A), that Allegany County was created from another relevant county—Washington County. Thus, Washington County is also the parent of a relevant county. Another relevant county—Carroll— was created in part16 from Frederick County, so Frederick is also both a relevant county and a parent of a relevant county. Garrett was created from Allegany, which, as already noted, was created from Washington. Thus, Washington is a parent of a relevant county and a grandparent of another relevant county. The last of the six relevant counties— Howard—was created from parts of Baltimore and Anne Arundel Counties. Now, read the district descriptions again, this time looking for the parents of Allegany, Carroll, and Howard Counties and for the grandparent of Garrett County. In other words, look for Washington (parent of Allegany), Baltimore and Frederick (parents of Carroll), Baltimore and Anne Arundel (parents of Howard), and Allegany (parent of Garrett). We already know that Allegany, a relevant county, was not specified in a state redistricting act for this time period. Consequently, we need to go back another level to the county from which Allegany originated—to Washington, the grandparent of Garrett.17 The following two figures G and H show how our example worksheet would look when the congressional district number and composition columns (columns 3 and 4) have been filled in. In Figure G, only relevant counties, parent, and grandparent counties of relevant counties are provided in the congressional district composition column. Typographic conventions are used to distinguish relevant counties, parent, and grandparent counties of relevant counties from each other (see Approach 1, below). In figure H, both relevant and “non-relevant” counties within the congressional district are shown, with the same typographic conventions used to distinguish relevant, parent, and grandparent counties from each other (see Approach 2, below). 16 The other parent of Carroll County is Baltimore County. 17 Remember the parent of Garrett is the relevant county of Allegany, which in turn, was created from the relevant county of Washington. CRS-17 Figure G. Step 7, Approach 1 Worksheet 2: Data Collection Form Congressional district Congress Years No. Composition Member (party) residence (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 1st 1789-1791 3 [Anne Arundel] 4 [Baltimore County] 6 [Frederick] {[Washington]} Key to Typographic Conventions: Relevant Counties appear in bold type (e.g., Carroll). Relevant Counties that are also parents of other relevant counties appear in bold type enclosed in brackets (e.g., [Frederick]). Relevant counties that are also grandparents of other relevant counties appear in bold type enclosed in braces (e.g., {Washington}). Relevant Counties that are also parent and grandparent counties of other relevant counties appear in bold typeface enclosed in brackets enclosed in braces (e.g., {[Washington]}). Parent counties of relevant counties appear in normal type enclosed in brackets (e.g., [Anne Arundel]). Figure H: Step 7, Approach 2 Worksheet 2: Data Collection Model Congressional district Congress (1) 1st Years (2) 1789-1791 No. (3) Composition (4) 3 [Anne Arundel], Prince George’s, and the City of Annapolis 4 [Baltimore County], Harford, and the Town of Baltimore 6 [Frederick], {[Washington]}, and Montgomery Member (party) residence (5) Key to Typographic Conventions: Relevant Counties appear in bold type (e.g., Carroll). Relevant Counties that are also parents of other relevant counties appear in bold type enclosed in brackets (e.g., [Frederick]). Relevant counties that are also grandparents of other relevant counties appear in bold type enclosed in braces (e.g., {Washington}). Relevant Counties that are also parent and grandparent counties of other relevant counties appear in bold typeface enclosed in brackets enclosed in braces (e.g., {[Washington]}. Parent counties of relevant counties appear in normal type enclosed in brackets (e.g., [Anne Arundel]). CRS-18 Open Martis’s Historical Atlas of U.S. Congressional Districts to Part III, which begins on page 217. In Part III, turn to the relevant state and scan the descriptions of each congressional district until you see the name of any relevant county. Repeat this process until you have accounted for all relevant counties either directly by name or indirectly through parent or grandparent name. Tip. Read the descriptions carefully. During periods when congressional districts remained unchanged, consecutive Congresses are grouped together. 98th and Subsequent Congresses. Information on the 98th and subsequent Congresses (1983-present) must be obtained from other sources. For details on sources and research, see Step 9, below. Step 8. Identify the relevant Representatives. Identify the Members who have represented the congressional district(s) that have comprised the relevant counties. The sources you will need to use depends upon the time period you are researching. 1st-27th Congresses (1789-1840). See the discussion on using Parsons, Beach, and Hermann’s United States Congressional Districts, under the subheading “Sources” in step 7, above. Remember, you can use this one source to complete your entire worksheet for the 1st through the 27th Congresses. It is always good however, to cross check data from one source with data from at least one other source. 28th through the 78th Congresses (1841-1945). This time period must be done in two phases: first, identify Members selected in the regular election cycle; second, identify membership changes that have occurred between regular elections. Phase 1. Use the Congressional Quarterly’s Guide to U.S. Elections (3rd ed)18 to identify Members elected in the regular election cycle to represent the congressional district(s) that have comprised the relevant counties. It provides House election results from 1824-1993 in a section with the heading “House Popular Vote Returns.” Data are arranged chronologically by election year, within each election year alphabetically by state, and within each state, chronologically by district number. Across from each congressional district number are the names of candidates who ran for that district and their party affiliation along with the number and percentage of votes each candidate received. Tip: How to Identify the Correct Election Year in CQ’s Guide to U.S. Elections. Congresses begin in odd-numbered years. In most instances, the regular election19 of House Members occurs during the even-numbered year that precedes the year the Congress begins. For example, House Members chosen to serve in the 105th Congress, which began in 1997, 18 Earlier editions may be substituted, since they provide the same information. 19 As used here, the word “regular” is meant to distinguish these House Members from those elected in special elections to fill the vacancies caused by the death or resignation of their predecessors. CRS-19 were elected in the general elections of November 1996.20 Under special circumstances, some Members are chosen in special elections at other times. Prior to the election for the 47th Congress in 1880, the regular election cycle (i.e., except for special elections to fill vacancies) for most states occurred in even numbered years; but sometimes in some states21 it occurred in odd-numbered years.22 Consequently, for the 28th through the 46th Congresses, look first for the state you are researching among those that held their House elections during the even-numbered year before each Congress began. If the state is not listed there, look for it among those that held their House elections during the same odd-numbered year that the Congress began. (Before 1933, when the 20th Amendment was ratified, regular sessions of Congress began in December of odd-numbered years, which allowed states 11 months to hold their House elections before the Congress began.)23 After you have located the proper election year for the state you are researching in the Guide to U.S. Elections, look for the number of the first congressional district that included any of your relevant counties. The total votes cast and percentage of the total votes cast for each candidate appears in the column to the right of the candidate’s name and party affiliation. Record the name of the winning candidate in column 5 of your worksheet 2, followed by an abbreviation for his or her party affiliation enclosed in parenthesis. Members Elected at Large. You may find some instances when states elected Members at large in addition to Members who were elected to represent each of the state’s numbered congressional districts.24 Whenever this occurs, be sure to include them all on your worksheet. For example, see Appendix D, 88th Congress. Multi-Member Districts. Before 1842, five states—Massachusetts, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey—had districts that were represented by more than one Member at the same time. The practice ended in 1842, when Congress enacted 20 For further explanation of the universal election day (i.e., the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years) and how it came into existence, see: “Election Day for Federal Officials,” In: U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, The Election Process in the United States, by Kevin Coleman, (name redacted), and Joseph Cantor, CRS report 95-800 GOV (Washington: July 6, 1995), p. 10-11. 21 For example: Alabama, California, Connecticut, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland Mississippi, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. 22 See: “Elections in Odd-Numbered Years,” In: Congressional Quarterly’s Guide to U.S. Elections, 3rd ed., (Washington, D.C., Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1994), p. 916. 23 CQ’s Guide to U.S. Elections, p. 916. 24 There are a few instances where states used some other means to identify their congressional districts. In the earlier years, for example some states used proper names (often the primary county within the district) to identify their congressional districts. For example, between 1788 and 1841 in Massachusetts congressional districts were identified in the session laws according to the name of the primary county within the district (e.g., Barnstable District) or according to a number and letter combination (e.g., 1W and 2N). In most sources, these alternatives for identifying congressional districts have been renumbered in order to maintain uniformity and consistency across time and among states. However, because the basis for renumbering the districts varied among sources, the number identifying the same geographic district may vary among sources. CRS-20 reapportionment legislation to prohibit individual congressional districts from being represented by more than one U.S. Representative. If your history includes a multi-Member district, list the names of all Members and note that the district is a multi-Member district on your worksheet. (For example, see Appendix D, notes 2 and 12) . Phase 2: Changes in Membership. The Guide to U.S. Elections provides data on candidates who won election to represent congressional districts. However, it does not reflect all of the changes in membership that may have occurred after the general election and during the Congress. For example, some of the candidates who were elected died or resigned before the opening of the Congress to which they had been elected; others may have died or resigned during the Congress to which they were elected, leaving a vacancy that may or may not have been filled for the remainder of the Congress. Some Members may have served until they were replaced by candidates who successfully contested their election. In order to ensure that you have identified all of the Members who served and not just those who were elected to serve, you will need to consult additional sources that reflect such membership changes. Further, you will need to consult these sources in order to identify the city or town in which the Members resided when they served. Either the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996, (BDAC) or the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989, (BDUSC) is helpful for these and other purposes. Members who did not serve a full term, Members who were elected to fill vacancies, and Members who successfully contested their predecessors’ elections are listed after their predecessors. Footnotes give the circumstances surrounding vacancies and the relevant dates of service for the Members. For years subsequent to those covered in these sources see step 9. 79th Congress through the 104th Congress (1945-1996). All of the data for phases 1 and 2 can be obtained from CQ’s Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 17741996. In this one source, you can find for each district: the district number; the name of the Member who represented it; his or her party affiliation; the city or town in which the Member resided, as well as instances of death, resignation, and interim election.25 Be sure to read the footnotes so that your data include Members who died, resigned, and filled vacancies. 25 See for example, page 389, where the list of Members of the 79th Congress begins. To the left of each House Member’s name is the number of the congressional district he or she represented, then the Member’s name, followed by an abbreviation for his or her party affiliation (enclosed in parentheses), and the city or town in which the Member resided. (Prior to the 79th Congress, neither the district number nor the Member’s party affiliation is provided beside his or her name. Further, in some instances prior to the 79th Congress, within each state, Members are listed alphabetically according to the surnames, rather than sequentially by district number.) CRS-21 Figure I. Step 7, approach 2 Worksheet 2: Data Collection Form Congressional district Congress Years No. Composition Member (party) residence (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 3 [Anne Arundel], Prince George’s, and the City of Annapolis Benjamin Contee (Ad) Brookefield 4 [Baltimore County], Harford, and the Town of Baltimore William Smith (Ad) Town of Baltimore 6 [Frederick], {[Washington]}, and Montgomery Daniel Carroll (Ad) Forest Glenn 1st 1789-1791 Key to Typographic Conventions: Relevant Counties appear in bold type (e.g., Carroll). Relevant Counties that are also parents of other relevant counties appear in bold type enclosed in brackets (e.g., [Frederick]). Relevant counties that are also grandparents of other relevant counties appear in bold type enclosed in braces (e.g., {Washington}). Relevant Counties that are also parent and grandparent counties of other relevant counties appear in bold typeface enclosed in brackets enclosed in braces (e.g., {[Washington]}. Parent counties of relevant counties appear in normal type enclosed in brackets (e.g., [Anne Arundel]). Both Biographical Directories have two major sections: ! “The Congress of the United States”; and ! “Biographies.” The “Congress” section provides for each Congress, an alphabetical listing by state of each state’s congressional delegation. Senators are listed first, followed by Representatives. Except for the 1st through the 9th Congresses (1789-1809), the hometown or city in which the Member resided is provided beside each Member’s name.26 For the 1st through the 23rd Congresses, Members are listed first by state and then alphabetically by name; thereafter they are apparently listed by congressional district number. No district number is shown in either source prior to the 79th Congress; however, beginning with the 79th Congress (1945-1947), the Biographical Directory of the American Congress provides the congressional district number and an abbreviation for party affiliation for each Member. Neither source provides details on the geographic composition of the individual 26 The city or town in which the Member resided during these earliest congresses can be obtained from Parsons, Beach and Hermann’s United States Congressional Districts, 1788-1841. CRS-22 congressional districts. Both sources provide additional data in the “Biographies” section which follows the “Members” section. Step 9. Add Data on Recent Congresses If you a researching years 1983 and beyond, you may need to add data, using the Congressional Directories.27 Source. The Congressional Directories are a good source to supplement the Guide to U.S. Elections, the two biographical directories, and the Census Bureau’s reports . In the Congressional Directories, the biographical section is arranged by state. Within each state, Senators are listed first, then Representatives are listed by congressional district, along with a description of the district he or she represents. In order to capture deaths, resignations, and special elections, see the “Notes” section which follows the title page in the Congressional Directory for each Congress. Information on changes in membership for that particular Congress and for the previous Congress is provided in two separate tables. (Remember however, that such membership changes through the year 1996 are reflected in CQ’s Biographical Directory of the American Congress). Step 10. Cross-check for Errors and Discrepancies There is more than one source for virtually every data element needed to compile a congressional district history. The use of different sources, may produce different results. In most instances however, thorough researchers will be able to account for the difference by understanding what methods and sources were used. Devise your own systems within sources and across different ones to check for errors as you compile your list. Then, spot check at random points to help ensure accuracy. Step 11. Repeat the Steps of this Process as Appropriate Congratulations! You have completed the first round of the basic steps in the research process. Before you repeat the process as many times as is necessary to compile a district history that covers the entire time period and counties you desire, look at Appendix D. It provides a more comprehensive illustration of the example district history (i.e., the six counties that currently constitute the 6th Congressional District of Maryland). Then read the section below for additional details and suggestions on how you might construct a smooth table showing the results of your research. 27 The Congressional Directories could be used to prepare most congressional district histories in their entirety. However, the process would be cumbersome and time consuming. Further, from the 1st through the 24th Congresses, information on Members’ hometowns (i.e., entries under “post offices” are inconsistent and confusing). Also, the two biographical directories provide information on Members through 1988 and 1996 respectively, but they do not provide information on the composition of congressional districts. CRS-23 Presentation Many researchers may find that the Worksheet 2 provides an adequate format for presenting their findings. Some may want to place an introduction in front of the worksheet. The “Introduction” could include a title, which clearly identifies the current congressional district number and counties within it; background and explanatory notes; the origin and year created for each relevant county; a key to abbreviations for party affiliations and an explanation of typographic conventions used to distinguish relevant, parent, and grandparent counties (see Appendix D, Example District History, “Introduction”). You may decide to use the five columns in the order shown in the data collection worksheet (worksheet 2) or you may choose to rearrange them.28 You may wish add or delete some data elements, or to group some data elements together in a separate and final version of your compilation. Depending upon the number of relevant counties, you may also wish to make your county origin worksheet part of your introduction. 28 For example, in the data collection worksheet, the congressional district number and composition are columns 3 and 4 while, the Member’s name, party affiliation and hometown appear in the last column. This is because columns have been arranged sequentially, according to steps to complete the research. In the final presentation, researchers may prefer to place the column with the Members’ names , party, and hometown in column three and to make the district number and composition the last two columns. Appendix A. Information on Congressional Districts: A Quick Reference Guide to Selected Sources Information needed Congresses Years Selected Source(s) Congress numbers/ corresponding years 1st - 105th 1789-1998 Congressional Directory, 104th Congress, 1995-1996, “Statistical Information,” table entitled “Sessions of Congress.” p. 505-516.1 Congressional Quarterly’s Guide to U.S. Elections, 3rd ed., Appendix, table entitled “Sessions of the U.S. Congress, 1789-1991.” p. 13311338.2 Congressional district numbers and composition 1st - 27th 1789-1841 Parsons, Beach and Hermann, United States Congressional Districts, 1788-1841.3 1st - 97th 1789-1982 Kenneth C. Martis, The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts, 1789-1983, part III, “Legal District Descriptions.” p. 217-278. 1983-Present Congressional districts of the 98th Congress. 1980 Census of Population and Housing.4 Washington, U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1983. 52 vols. Congressional districts of the 99th Congress. 1980 Census of Population and Housing.4 Washington, U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1984. 10vols. Congressional districts of the 100th Congress. Ohio.4 1980 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1986. 52 vols. Congressional districts of the 103rd Congress.4 1990 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1993. 52 vols. Congressional Directories, 98th and subsequent Congresses.5 Member representing each congressional district identified 1st - 27th 1789-1841 Parsons, Bach and Herman, United States Congressional Districts, 17881841. 28th - 102nd 1842-1992 CQ’s Guide to U.S. Elections, 3rd ed., p. 942-1325. Congressional Directories, 102nd-105th Congresses, “Biographical sketches of Members.” Member’s party affiliation6 & 7 79th-104th 1945-1996 CQ’s Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996. 1st - 27th 1789-1841 Parsons, Beach and Hermann, United States Congressional Districts, 1788-1841.8 CRS-25 Information needed Congresses Years Selected Source(s) 19th - 102nd 1823-1992 CQ’s Guide to U.S. Elections, 3rd ed., p. 942-1325. 1823-1996 Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996. “Biographies,” p. 551-2108. 1823-1989 Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1996. “Biographies,” p. 507-2104. Congressional Directories. Member’s residence (city or town)9 1st - 27th 1789-1841 Parsons, Beach and Hermann, United States Congressional District, 1788-1841.10 10th - 104th 1807-1996 Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996. 10th - 100th 1807-1989 Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989. 1.The table appears in Congressional Directories for each Congress as far back as the 59th Congress (1905-1907). 2. The table also appears in the two earlier editions. 3. Be sure to read the “Methodology” section which begins on page xiii. See in particular, these subsections: “Identification of Districts,” “Identification of District and County Boundaries,” “Correlation of Representatives With Districts,” and “District and Congressional Dating.” The key to abbreviations for party affiliation appears in page xvi. 4. Tables in this source list the districts and the counties within them, without further description. Hence, this is a good source for states with many congressional districts or for states where the district descriptions are lengthy and detailed. 5. The Congressional Directories for each Congress provide the congressional district numbers for each year. While, more accessible, they can be more cumbersome to use, depending upon the state and congressional districts involved. Locate the “Member biographies” section. It is arranged alphabetically by state and it provides congressional district descriptions. (For example, in the Congressional Directory, 105th Congress, this section begins on page 17.) 6. For some of the earlier congresses, the party affiliation for a Member could not be determined from the sources consulted or it may have varied among the sources consulted. 7. The author uses the symbol R* to distinguish certain Representatives identified in some sources as “Republicans” prior to 1856 in some sources. The term “Republican”, as currently understood, cannot accurately be applied to a Member who served before the year 1856, when the modern Republican Party was founded. These “Republican” Members are more accurately identified as being affiliated with the Democratic Republicans or one of the other early groupings which evolved into the Democratic Party after 1828. CRS-26 8. See the third column from the left under the heading “Representative” for each state. See also the notes on party affiliation and the key to symbols andYou abbreviations 9. may decideon to pages deletexv-xvi. this data element altogether. It can however, be of particular significance, when counties are divided among more than one congressional district. In absence of a more descriptive description of the district than “part of”, the Member’s hometown or city can help to indicate which part of the county the Member represented. 10. See the fourth column from the left entitled “Address” under the heading “Representatives.” Appendix B: Worksheets Worksheet 1: Relevant Counties and Their Origin State: Current Congress: District: Years: County (alphabetically) All Part Parent county/ territory Year created CRS-29 Worksheet 2: Data Collection Form Congressional district Congress (1) Years (2) No. (3) Composition (4) Member (party) residence (5) CRS-30 Appendix C: Sessions of Congress1 Congress Years Congress Years 1st 1789-1791 29th 1845-1847 2nd 1791-1793 30th 1947-1849 3rd 1793-1795 31st 1849-1851 4th 1795-1797 32nd 1851-1853 5th 1797-1799 33rd 1853-1855 6th 1799-1801 34th 1855-1857 7th 1801-1803 35th 1857-1859 8th 1803-1805 36th 1859-1861 9th 1805-1807 37th 1861-1863 10th 1807-1809 38th 1863-1865 11th 1809-1811 39th 1865-1867 12th 1811-1813 40th 1867-1869 13th 1813-1815 41st 1869-1871 14th 1815-1817 42nd 1871-1873 15th 1817-1819 43rd 1873-1875 16th 1819-1821 44th 1875-1877 17th 1821-1823 45th 1877-1879 18th 1823-1825 46th 1879-1881 19th 1825-1827 47th 1881-1883 20th 1827-1829 48th 1883-1885 21th 1829-1831 49th 1885-1887 22nd 1831-1833 50th 1887-1889 23rd 1833-1835 51st 1889-1891 24th 1835-1837 52nd 1891-1893 25th 1837-1839 53rd 1893-1895 26th 1839-1841 54th 1895-1897 27th 1841-1843 55th 1897-1899 28th 1843-1845 56th 1899-1901 CRS-31 Congress Years Congress Years 57th 1901-1903 82nd 1951-1953 58th 1903-1905 83rd 1953-1955 59th 1905-1907 84th 1955-1957 60th 1907-1909 85th 1957-1959 61st 1909-1911 86th 1959-1961 62nd 1911-1913 87th 1916-1963 63rd 1913-1915 88th 1963-1965 64th 1915-1917 89th 1965-1967 65th 1917-1919 90th 1967-1969 66th 1919-1921 91st 1969-1971 67th 1921-1923 92nd 1971-1973 68th 1923-1925 93rd 1973-1975 69th 1925-1927 94th 1975-1977 70th 1927-1929 95th 1977-1979 71st 1929-1931 96th 1979-1981 72nd 1931-1933 97th 1981-1983 73rd 19332-1935 98th 1983-1985 74th 1935-1937 99th 1985-1987 75th 1937-1939 100th 1987-1989 76th 1939-1941 101st 1989-1991 77th 1941-1943 102nd 1991-1993 78th 1943-1945 103rd 1993-1995 79th 1945-1947 104th 1995-1997 80th 1947-1949 105th 1997-1999 81st 1949-1951 1. For the purposes of our district histories, the dates shown in this table are sufficient. For the precise beginning and adjournment dates of each Congress, see the sources cited earlier in this guide. 2. Pursuant to the 20th Amendment to the Constitution, the regular sessions of Congress hereafter begin on January 3 of each year, unless Congress by law establishes a different date. CRS-32 Appendix D: Example District History House Members Who Have Represented the Six Counties Currently Constituting the 6th Congressional District of Maryland, 1789-1997 (Allegany, Carroll, Frederick, Garrett, Washington, and Part of Howard) This compilation lists Members of the U.S. House of Representatives who have represented six counties in the state of Maryland: Allegany, Carroll, Frederick, Garrett, Howard, and Washington. The compilation begins with the 1st Congress (1789-1791) and is current through 105th Congress, as of December 5, 1997. Data provided are: the Congress, years, Representative and his or her party affiliation, and the number and composition of the district in which the relevant counties are (were) located. The origin of the counties is as follows: Allegany was created from part of Washington in 1789; Carroll was created from parts of Baltimore and Frederick in 1873; Frederick was created from part of Prince George’s in 1748; Garrett was created from part of Allegany in 1872; Howard was created from parts of Anne Arundel and Baltimore in 1851; and Washington was created from Frederick in 1776. Instances of death, resignation and interim election are noted. Two keys—one to symbols and symbols and party abbreviations, the other to typographic devices— appear at the end of the table. CRS-33 House Members Who Have Represented the Six Counties Currently Constituting the 6th Congressional District of Maryland, 1789-1997 (Allegany, Carroll, Frederick, Garrett, Washington, and part of Howard)1 Congressional district2 Member (party)3 residence Cong. Years No. Composition 1st 1789-1791 3 [Anne Arundel], Prince George’s and the City of Annapolis Benjamin Contee (Ad) Brookefield 4 [Baltimore County], Harford, and the Town of Baltimore William Smith (Ad) Town of Baltimore 6 [Frederick], [Washington], and Montgomery Daniel Carroll (Ad) Forest Glen 3 Same as 1st Congress Samuel Sterett (A-Ad) Unknown4 4 Same as 1st Congress William Pinkney (Ad)5 Unknown4 John F. Mercer (A-Ad)5 Unknown4 6 Same as 1st Congress Upton Sheridine (A-Ad) Liberty 2nd 1791-1793 CRS-34 Congressional district2 Member (party)3 residence Cong. Years No. Composition 3rd 1793-1795 2 [Anne Arundel], Prince George’s, and the City of Annapolis John F. Mercer (A-Ad)6 West River Gabriel Duvall (A-Ad)6 Glenn Dale 3 Montgomery and part of [Frederick] Uriah Forest (Ad)7 Unknown4 Benjamin Edwards (Ad)7 Unknown4 4 Washington, [Allegany], and [part of Frederick] Thomas Sprigg (Ad)8 Unknown4 4th 1795-1797 5 [Baltimore County] and the Town of Baltimore 2 Same as 3rd Congress Samuel Smith (A-Ad) City of Baltimore Gabriel Duvall (A-Ad)9 Glenn Dale Richard Sprigg, Jr. (R*) 9 & 10 Unknown 3 Same as 3rd Congress Jeremiah Crabb (Ad)11 Rockville William Craik (F)11 Frederick 4 Same as 3rd Congress Thomas Sprigg (A-Ad)8 Unknown4 5 Same as 3rd Congress Samuel Smith (A-Ad) City of Baltimore CRS-35 Congressional district2 Composition Member (party)3 residence Cong. Years No. 5th 1797-1799 2 Same as 3rd Congress Richard Sprigg, Jr. (R*)9 Unknown4 3 Same as 3rd Congress William Craik (F) Frederick 4 Same as 3rd Congress George Baer, Jr. (F) Frederick 5 Same as 3rd Congress Samuel Smith (R*) City of Baltimore ... ... ... 8th 1803-1805 2 Same as 3rd Congress Walter Bowie (R*) Nottingham 3 Same as 3rd Congress Thomas Plater (F) Georgetown 4 Same as 3rd Congress Daniel Hiester (R)13 Hagerstown Roger Nelson (R*)13 Frederick 512 [Baltimore County] and the City of Baltimore William McCreery (R*) Riestertown Nicholas R. Moore (R*) Ruxton 2 Carroll, Cecil, Harford, and part of Baltimore County Stevenson Archer (LR) Bel Air 5 Howard, St. Mary’s, Charles, Prince George’s, Anne Arundel, the City of Annapolis, and parts of Baltimore County and the City of Baltimore William J. Albert (R) Baltimore 6 Allegany, Washington, Frederick, Garrett, and Montgomery Lloyd Lowndes, Jr. (R) Cumberland 43rd ... ... CRS-36 Congressional district2 Member (party)3 residence Cong. Years No. 88th14 1963-1965 2 Carroll, Harford, and Baltimore County Clarence D. Long (D) Ruxton 5 Howard, St. Mary’s, Charles, Calvert, Prince George’s, Anne Arundel, and part of the City of Baltimore Richard E. Lankford (D) Annapolis 6 Allegany, Garrett, Washington, Frederick, and Montgomery Charles McC. Mathias, Jr. (R) Frederick At large Carlton R. Sickles (D) Lanham AL Composition ... ... ... ... 105th 1995-1997 6 Allegany, Carroll, Frederick, Garrett, Washington and part of Howard Roscoe G. Bartlett (R) Frederick Parts of Howard, Anne Arundel, and Baltimore County, and part of the City of Baltimore Benjamin L. Cardin (D) Baltimore Key to Symbols and Party Abbreviations Ad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-Ad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D .............................................. F .............................................. R ............................................. R* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... Administration Anti-Administration Democrat Federalist Republican Predecessor group of the Democratic Party (e.g., Democratic Republican) Key to Typographic Devices Relevant county . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carroll. Parent county of relevant county . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [Anne Arundel]. Relevant county and parent county of another relevant county . . [Washington]. 1.The origin of the relevant counties is as follows: Allegany was created from part of Washington in 1798; Carroll was created from parts of Baltimore and Frederick in 1837; Frederick was created from part of Prince George’s in 1748; Garrett was created from part of Allegany in 1872; Washington was created from part of Frederick in 1776; and Howard was created from parts of Baltimore and Anne Arundel in 1851. The names of the relevant counties appear in bold typeface (e.g., Carroll); the names of parent and CRS-37 grandparent counties from which the relevant counties were created are enclosed in brackets until the relevant counties derived from them are specified in a state (re)districting act (e.g., [Anne Arundel]; and 2.In earlierofCongresses, Maryland states counties that sometimes more than one the names relevant counties that arewas alsoamong parentsthose of relevant appear inelected bold typeface enclosed Representative for[Washington]) the same district. electingderived two or from morethem Representatives in in thea same in brackets (e.g., untilThis the practice relevant of counties are specified state district (multi-Member district) was discontinued in Maryland during the 1830s. (re)districting act. 3.In most instances, party affiliations for the 1st through the 21st Congresses were obtained from Parsons, Beach, and Hermans’s United States Congressional Districts, 1788-1841. Thereafter and in a few instances where information was unclear or unavailable from that source, party affiliations were obtained from the Guide to U.S. Elections, 3rd ed., the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 17741989, and the Congressional Directories (various Congresses). 4.The city or town in which the Member resided was not identified in the sources consulted. 5. William Pinkney resigned in November, 1791; John Mercer was elected to fill the vacancy caused by Pinkney’s resignation and took his seat on February 6, 1792. 6.John Mercer resigned on April 13, 1794; Gabriel Duvall was elected to fill the vacancy caused by Mercer’s resignation and took his seat on November 11, 1794. 7. Uriah Edwards resigned on November 8, 1794; Benjamin Edwards was elected to fill the vacancy caused by Edwards’s resignation and took his seat on January 2, 1795. 8.Thomas Sprigg is the uncle of Richard Sprigg, Jr., a Representative from Maryland who also represented some of the relevant counties during the 4th, 5th, and 7th Congresses (when he served from May 5, 1796March 3, 1799; and from March 4, 1801 until his resignation on February 11, 1802). 9. Gabriel Duvall resigned on March 28, 1796; Richard Sprigg, Jr., was elected to fill the vacancy caused by Duvall’s resignation and took his seat on May 5, 1796. 10. Richard Sprigg, Jr., is the nephew of Thomas Sprigg, a Representative from Maryland who represented some of the relevant counties during the 3rd and 4th Congresses (when he served from March 4, 1793March 3, 1797). 11. Jeremiah Crabb resigned in 1796; William Craik was elected to fill the vacancy caused by Crabb’s resignation and took his seat on December 5, 1796. 12.Multi-Member district represented by two Members at the same time. 13.Daniel Hiester died on March 7, 1804; Roger Nelson (See note 2.) was elected to fill the vacancy caused by Hiester’s death and took his seat on November 6, 1804. 14.During the Congress(es) indicated, Maryland had one Member elected at large in addition to one Member for each of its numbered congressional districts. CRS-38 Bibliography Biographical directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996, (Alexandria, VA: CQ Staff Directories, Inc., 1997), 2108p. JK1010 .A5 1997 Biographical directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989, (Washington, DC: GPO, 1989), 2104p. JK1010 .A5 1989 Congressional directories, 98th and subsequent Congresses, (Washington, DC: GPO, 1983 and later). JK1011. U53 Congressional districts of the 98th Congress: 1980 Census of Population and Housing, (Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of Census, 1984), 52 vols. (PHC80-4-1— PHC80-4-52) [1 volume for each state, the District of Columbia, and a summary report]. Congressional districts of the 99th Congress: 1980 Census of Population and Housing, (Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of Census, 1984), 10 vols. (PHC80-4-6, 13, 20, 21, 26, 28, 32, 34, 45, 49) [1 volume each for the states of: California, Hawaii, Louisiana, Mississippi, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Texas, and Washington]. Congressional districts of the 100th Congress. Ohio 1980 Census of Population and Housing, (Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1986), 1 vol. (PHC80-4-37) [for state of Ohio]. Congressional districts of the 103rd Congress: 1990 Census of Population and Housing. See : Population and Housing Characteristics for Congressional districts of the 103rd Congress. Congressional Quarterly’s Guide to U.S. elections, 3rd ed., (Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Inc., 1994), 1543p. JK1967 .C662 1994 Everton, George B. Handy book for genealogists: United States of America, 8th ed.. Logan, UT: Everton Publishers, 1991. 326p.. CS47 .E9 1991 Martis, Kenneth C. Historical atlas of United States congressional districts, 1789-1983. New York: Free Press, 1982. 302p. G1201 .F9 M3 1982 CRS-39 Parsons, Stanley B., William W. Beach, and Dan Hermann. United States congressional districts, 1788-1841. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978. 416p. G1201 .F7 P3 1978. Population and Housing Characteristics for Congressional districts of the 103rd Congress: 1990 Census of Population and Housing, (Washington, DC: Bureau of the Census, 1993), 52 vols. (CPH-4-1— CPH-4-52) [1 volume for each state, the District of Columbia, and a summary report] EveryCRSReport.com The Congressional Research Service (CRS) is a federal legislative branch agency, housed inside the Library of Congress, charged with providing the United States Congress non-partisan advice on issues that may come before Congress. EveryCRSReport.com republishes CRS reports that are available to all Congressional staff. The reports are not classified, and Members of Congress routinely make individual reports available to the public. Prior to our republication, we redacted names, phone numbers and email addresses of analysts who produced the reports. We also added this page to the report. We have not intentionally made any other changes to any report published on EveryCRSReport.com. CRS reports, as a work of the United States government, are not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Any CRS report may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without permission from CRS. However, as a CRS report may include copyrighted images or material from a third party, you may need to obtain permission of the copyright holder if you wish to copy or otherwise use copyrighted material. Information in a CRS report should not be relied upon for purposes other than public understanding of information that has been provided by CRS to members of Congress in connection with CRS' institutional role. EveryCRSReport.com is not a government website and is not affiliated with CRS. We do not claim copyright on any CRS report we have republished.