Countries of the World and International Organizations: Sources of Information

This report provides a selection of materials for locating information on foreign countries and international organizations. In the general information section, it presents sources giving an overview of politics, economics, and recent history. A specialized information section cites sources on human rights, immigration, international organizations, military strengths, terrorism, and other topics. Included are titles of some of the most frequently consulted bibliographic sources that are available for use in many libraries. Electronic information on foreign countries is also provided, via the Internet, by agencies of the federal government, international organizations, and related sources. Included is a list of foreign chanceries located in Washington, D.C.

Order Code 96-816 C CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Countries of the World and International Organizations: Sources of Information Updated June 11, 2003 Barbara A. Salazar Information Research Specialist Information Research Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Countries of the World and International Organizations: Sources of Information Summary This report provides a selection of materials for locating information on foreign countries and international organizations. In the general information section, it presents sources giving an overview of politics, economics, and recent history. A specialized information section cites sources on human rights, immigration, international organizations, military strengths, terrorism, and other topics. Included are titles of some of the most frequently consulted bibliographic sources that are available for use in many libraries. Electronic information on foreign countries is also provided, via the Internet, by agencies of the federal government, international organizations, and related sources. Included is a list of foreign chanceries located in Washington, D.C. This report will be updated periodically through the year as new materials become available. Contents General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Specialized Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Human Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Immigration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 International Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 International Trade and Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Military Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 People (Heads of State, Diplomats, Etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Travel and Travel Advisories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Treaties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Working and Studying Abroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Internet Sources for Countries of the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Search Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Federal and Related Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Foreign Embassies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 International and Regional Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Regional Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Selected Topics of Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Foreign Chanceries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Countries of the World and International Organizations: Sources of Information General Information This report provides a selection of materials for locating information on foreign countries and international organizations. This first section presents sources giving an overview of politics, economics, and recent history; the next section covers specialized topics. Included are titles of some of the most frequently consulted bibliographic sources that are available for use in many libraries. The third section provides Internet addresses for travel and international information. Finally, included is a list of foreign chanceries located in Washington, D.C. Those who may wish to write to the U.S. government agencies included here can consult local libraries for addresses. Background Notes (Washington, GPO) are published by the U.S. Department of State for each country of the world and revised intermittently. Profile information is given on the people, geography, economy, government, and U.S. relations with the country. Also included is tourist information and a basic reading list. Europa Yearbook (London, Europa Publications), an annual publication, is valued for its economic statistics and trade figures, as well as for its brief historical and economic background. It contains listings of cabinet members and media in each country, and a section on international organizations including the United Nations. Statesman’s Year-Book (New York, St. Martin’s Press) contains similar information in a more abbreviated form. General encyclopedias, such as Encyclopedia Americana (New York, Grolier), World Book Encyclopedia (Chicago, Field Enterprises), American Academic Encyclopedia (Danbury, CT, Grolier) and New Encyclopedia Britannica (Chicago, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.), provide detailed narratives on the history, geography, culture, economics, etc., of various nations. Pictures, maps, and charts are featured. Political Handbook of the World (Binghamton, NY, CSA Publications) is an annual publication that contains narrative information on the government, politics, political parties, legislature, and news media of each country in the world. Statistical Abstract of the United States (Washington, GPO), an annual publication by the Bureau of the Census at the Department of Commerce, includes comparative international statistics on population, households, health, education, economic measures, and a guide to foreign statistical abstracts. CRS-2 World Almanac and Book of Facts (New York, Funk & Wagnalls) and Time Almanac (New York, Little, Brown) are two annual publications with sections on countries of the world. They include statistics on population, geography, names of government officials, and brief historical background. World Factbook (Washington, GPO) is a popular annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), which contains statistics and facts on the land, language, people, economy, defense, religion, literacy, etc., of each country of the world. Specialized Information Listed below are selected sources on the following topics: human rights, immigration, international organizations, international trade and business, maps, military strengths, people, terrorism, travel, and working/studying abroad. Human Rights Amnesty International Report (New York, Amnesty International USA) documents Amnesty International’s work annually throughout the world. Entries contain accounts of imprisonment, torture, and killing by repressive governments. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (Washington, GPO) is an annual publication by the U.S. Department of State. Contains information on respect for and violation of civil liberties and political rights in each country. Immigration Statistical Yearbook (Washington, GPO) is an annual publication by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) of the Department of Justice. Provides a wide array of statistical information including legal and illegal immigration to the United States by country and region, naturalization, and border enforcement. World Refugee Survey (Washington, GPO), prepared annually by the U.S. Committee for Refugees, documents and reports the conditions of displaced persons worldwide and provides statistics for a given year. International Organizations Encyclopedia of Associations, International Organizations (New York, Gale Research) is published annually and gives brief descriptions of over 23,000 international nonprofit membership organizations, including multinational groups located outside the United States. Yearbook of International Organizations (Munich, Germany, K.G. Saur), edited annually by the Union of International Organizations, is divided into three densely packed volumes by organization description, country, and subject index. Each entry provides a description of the organization, its publications, affiliations, and address. CRS-3 International Trade and Business Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices (Washington, GPO) is an annual publication by the State Department that contains information on individual countries key economic indicators, debt management policies, exchange rates, structural policies, worker rights, and trade policies. Exporters’ Encyclopedia (New York, Dun & Bradstreet) is an annual publication that profiles U.S. commercial requirements for main export areas of the world. Traditionally focused on U.S. exports to Europe and Japan, it now includes profiles on emerging Asian and Latin American markets. Handbook of International Economic Statistics (Washington, GPO) is compiled by the CIA’s Directorate of Intelligence and published intermittently. The Handbook provides basic statistics in comparing worldwide economic performance and is divided by chapters into overall economic profiles by regions of the world. It is also divided by subjects, such as energy, agriculture, foreign trade, and foreign aid. International Financial Statistics (Washington, IMF) is a monthly publication by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) that provides information on exchange rates, money and banking, interest rates, prices, international transactions, government accounts, and national accounts for IMF member countries. Principal International Businesses (New York, Dun & Bradstreet) is published annually and provides business addresses worldwide by geographical areas and by standard industrial classification (SIC) codes. Maps Map Catalog (New York, Tilden Press) is an annual publication that lists government and commercial sources by subject and by state for specialized maps of countries such as topographical, political, and aerial/satellite reproductions. Military Strengths Military Balance (London, Brassey’s) is updated each year to provide timely and quantitative assessment of military forces and defense expenditures of over 140 countries. Data, compiled by the International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS), include statistics on manpower, equipment, and weapons systems. World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers (Washington, GPO) is prepared by the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. It is published biennially and provides statistical tables of military and economic variables including arms transfer deliveries by major supplier and recipient country. World Military and Social Expenditures (Washington, World Priorities), by Ruth Leger Sivard and contributing writers, is a biennial reporting of world resources for social and military purposes by geographic region. Included are summaries of recent CRS-4 conflicts and the ranking of countries by military and social indicators along with detailed maps. People (Heads of State, Diplomats, Etc.) Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments (Washington, GPO) is issued monthly by the Central Intelligence Agency. It provides a listing of names without biographical material. Congressional Directory (Washington, GPO) is published biennially. It contains a section listing foreign diplomatic representatives and consular offices in the United States; it also lists ambassadors and U.S. diplomatic and consular offices abroad. Current Biography (New York, H.W. Wilson) has been published monthly except December since 1940 and compiled annually as Current Biography Yearbook. It provides background information on people prominent in the national news and international affairs. Selected biographical references are listed at the end of each entry. Diplomatic List (Washington, GPO) is issued quarterly by the Department of State. It contains the names of foreign diplomats assigned to Washington, D.C. International Who’s Who (London, Europa) is published annually, a ready reference source that provides biographical information on the world’s most influential people. International Year Book and Statesman’s Who’s Who (West Sussex, England, Reed Information Services) is an annual compilation that provides biographies of leading politicians, diplomats, and businessmen worldwide. Divided into three sections, it also contains background on international organizations and a brief overview of the nations of the world. Key Officers of Foreign Service Posts (Washington, GPO), revised and issued quarterly by the Department of State, provides names of key U.S. personnel at embassies abroad as well as addresses and telephone numbers for all U.S. embassies. Terrorism Patterns of Global Terrorism (Washington, GPO), an annual publication of the Department of State, reviews terrorist activities from the past year. It includes a chronology of terrorist incidents and descriptions of selected terrorist organizations. Travel and Travel Advisories Culturgrams: The Nations Around Us (Provo, UT, Brigham Young Univ.), published annually and developed by the David M. Kennedy Center for International Studies, summarizes the unique customs, traditions, and lifestyles within a country and includes greetings and gestures, languages spoken, and national holidays. CRS-5 The Department of State’s Bureau of Consular Affairs issues current information on areas of the world that may be hazardous for American citizens traveling abroad through its Travel Warnings and Consular Information Sheets, and its Office of American Citizens Services, (202) 647-5225; or automated fax service, (202) 647-3000. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), based in Atlanta, Georgia, has an international travelers’ hotline for the latest information on immunization requirements, recommendations, and health conditions for countries around the world. To receive information contact the CDC at 877-FYI-TRIP toll free; or by fax, 888-232-3299 toll free. Current travel guides for regions and countries of the world can provide up-todate information on entry requirements and documents, monetary exchanges, historical background, as well as information on restaurants and hotels. A reliable travel agent can be a valuable source of service and information for planning a trip abroad, and most countries maintain official tourist information bureaus in major cities such as New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. These offices are often excellent sources of free printed matter — brochures, maps, posters, etc. A directory of tourism offices worldwide is also available on the Internet (see “Selected Topics of Interest” below). Many countries also have similar information available on the Internet. Refer to the section on “Internet Sources for Countries of the World” (below) for details. Treaties Treaties in Force (Washington, GPO), compiled annually by the Department of State, provides information on treaties and other international agreements entered into by the United States and recorded by the Department of State as being in force as of January 1 of each year. Working and Studying Abroad Academic Year Abroad and Vacation Study Abroad (New York, Institute of International Education) are annual publications of the Institute of International Education (IIE), the largest U.S. higher education exchange agency. Both provide details on international education and work opportunities by regions of the world. Recent statistics on study and work abroad are listed in the appendixes. How To Find an Overseas Job With the U.S. Government: A Complete and Comprehensive Guide (Oakton, VA, Cantrell Corporation). Published intermittently, it provides a comprehensive agency-by-agency guide to international federal government positions abroad, including position descriptions and qualifications. Vacation Work’s Work Your Way Around the World and Teaching English Abroad (Distributed in the U.S. by Peterson’s Guides, Inc.). Published irregularly, these sources offer information by field of work (agriculture, business and industry, teaching English, etc,) and by country as well as information on certification, taxes, training, and visa regulations. CRS-6 World of Learning (London, Europa), is an annual publication that lists the addresses and telephone numbers of colleges, universities, research institutions, and libraries, alphabetically by country and briefly describes selected educational organizations. Internet Sources for Countries of the World Information on foreign countries is available electronically on the Internet. These sources can be accessed using various tools. The most popular of these search tools is the World Wide Web (WWW), which uses hypertext links that allow a user to jump from one document to another with the appropriate software (Netscape, Netcruiser, etc.). To browse on a specific topic or country, a search engine is used. Search Engines Internet search engines (Altavista, Google, Yahoo!, etc.) scan the Web on a given topic, then index and create sets for each entry. Below are some examples of search engines for general country and regional information. Altavista World at []. Translations of any text in English to one of 19 other languages listed and vice versa, using Babelfish. Excite Travel Directory at []. Google — International News and Newspapers at [] and a listing of countries at []. InfoPlease Countries of the World at []. Kasbah at [] for global news and travel. Lycos - Travel Guide at []. Yahoo! - Regional at []. Yahoo! - Government: Countries at []. A listing and brief description of selected Internet sites for country information using the Web is itemized below. Federal and Related Agencies Bureau of the Census International Statistical Agencies at []. This Web site is a source of demographic, economic, and social statistics for several nations. Also available is the International Data Base (IDB), a databank containing demographic and socioeconomic statistics (population, migration, ethnicity, etc.) for 227 countries and areas of the world. A ranking of countries by total population is also available for any year CRS-7 from 1950 to 2050 by clicking on “Countries Ranked by Total Population” at []. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) at []. This Web site provides the latest information related to travelers’ health and high-risk areas worldwide at []. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) at []. The Central Intelligence Agency Web site provides information by selected topics — What’s New, employment opportunities, related Web links, and current editions of the World Factbook, Factbook on Intelligence, Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments, a listing of CIA Directors and Deputy director, maps, and other publications at []. Department of Commerce at []. This Web site provides commercial and non-commercial Web links on U.S. trade with other nations and information for American companies doing business overseas. It provides a listing of the Commerce Department agencies on the Web, such as the International Trade Administration, Bureau of Export Administration, and others. Department of State at []. This Web site provides current information on U.S. foreign policy, current hot topics of interest, travel and business information. It also provides Internet links to related agencies and international sources. Current editions of Background Notes, Consular Information Sheets, Country Commercial Guides, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Patterns of Global Terrorism, and Travel Advisories/ Travel Warnings are available full text at []. Information on various countries and regions of the world can be accessed directly at []. Foreign travel information is available through the Bureau of Consular Affairs at []. Information on foreign exchange and training programs, international broadcasting (including foreign commentary on the United States, Voice of America (VOA), Radio Liberty/Radio Free Europe), international youth exchanges, and the Fulbright Program can be found at the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs at []. Links to U.S. embassies and other diplomatic missions abroad is available at []. International Trade Administration (ITA) at []. The International Trade Administration of the Department of Commerce provides background information on the ITA site, and provides sections on How to Export, Export Markets, Trade Statistics, etc. Click on “Trade Statistics” for additional information on U.S. foreign trade highlights and global data links. The ITA also maintains a toll-free number for its Trade Information Center at 1-800-USA-TRADE. Peace Corps at []. This Web site provides background information on its volunteer programs, countries where volunteers serve, press releases, and links to other government agencies. United States Agency for International Development (USAID) at []. This Web site of the USAID offers links to related government and international agencies dealing with development in the Third World. CRS-8 Includes background on USAID, press releases, and programs promoting economic growth, environmental protection, and basic health worldwide. Voice of America (VOA) at []. Official Web site of the VOA provides information on its history and current news releases. It lists more than 50 languages the VOA broadcasts and links to Web sites in those languages at []. It also includes a “Pronunciation Guide” for the names of some world leaders and regions of the world at []. Foreign Embassies The Electronic Embassy at []. This Web site links the staff and resources of selected embassies in Washington, D.C., to their constituencies in business, education, and politics. It also provides links to other Web sites for the foreign affairs community. International and Regional Organizations African Union (AU), formerly the Organization of African Unity (OAU), at []. This is the official Web site for the African Union (AU). In July 2002, the OAU, founded in 1963, was superseded by the AU. This site provides information on its members, the OAU Charter, its current activities, human rights, economy, peacekeeping, and conflict resolution. Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) at []. Official Web site of the APEC secretariat. Contains current news and press releases, APEC publications, and background for its member economies, and provides contact persons, as well as links to related Web sites. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) at []. This Web site contains background information on ASEAN and its members: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand (the original five members), Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar in the areas of politics, economics, business, trade statistics, and culture. It also provides links to each country’s home page, the latest ASEAN Summit and past Summits, press releases, and related Web sites. European Union (EU) at []. The European Union (EU), formerly known as the European Community (EC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), was founded in 1993. There are currently 15 member nations. Included are detailed maps of each nation, a map of Europe, historical information on the EU and its related agencies, and links to other European sites and the EU Home Page at []. G-7/G-8 Summits at []. This site is maintained by the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. It provides background information on G-7/G-8 Summits including the Evian Summit in France from June 1-3, 2003, at [], and links to previous summits (e.g. Kananaskis, Genoa, Halifax, Lyon, Birmingham, Denver CRS-9 “Summit of the Eight,” Cologne, and Okinawa), and documents — including lists of delegations, communiques, and other releases — which can be found at []. International Monetary Fund (IMF) at []. IMF’s Web site provides links to IMF Country Reports on economic trends in IMF member countries, IMF Working Papers, press releases, annual meetings, and general background information on the IMF. It also provides links to other international organizations, such as the United Nations and the World Bank. This Web site can also be translated online into French, German, and Spanish. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) at []. This Web site provides background information on NATO including its members, related agencies, and documents. Current issues of NATO Review are available electronically, as well as the latest press releases and links to related Web sites. Organization of American States (OAS) at []. The OAS is the world’s oldest regional organization (conceived in 1826 and OAS Charter created in 1890). This Web site provides information on the political, social, and economic issues in the region (today comprising Canada, the United States, Latin America, and the Caribbean). Information on the member states, text of speeches, and reports from the General Assembly are included (in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish). Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) at []. The OECD is an international organization composed of industrialized market-economy nations since 1960. This Web site is the Home Page of the OECD’s Washington Center. It provides information on its members, OECD publications, and frequently requested statistics. It also offers links to related agencies and to OECD’s Paris Headquarters Home Page (in English and French), and other OECD centers such as OECD’s Berlin/Bonn Center (in German); OECD’s Mexico Center (in Spanish); and OECD’s Tokyo Center (in Japanese). Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) at []. Official Web site of OPIC, an independent government agency that assists and advises 140 economies around the world. Included is information on the organization, employment, publications and press releases, and Web links. Summit of the Americas at []. The official “Summit of the Americas Information Network” with information and Web links to all summits including the latest summit held in Quebec City, Canada, April 20-22, 2001; Santiago, Chile in 1998; and Miami, Florida, in 1984; at []. Included are texts of each of the summit declarations and information on the summit process. United Nations (U.N.) at []. The official Internet site for the U.N. in either graphic or text versions. An overview of the U.N. system including the U.N. Charter and member states is provided, along with information on U.N. conferences, and U.N. publications. This Web site also provides numerous links to U.N. organizations at []; printable world maps at CRS-10 []; and InfoNation for the latest statistical data (2002) on member states at []. World Bank at []. This Web site provides a detailed collection of worldwide economic data, socioeconomic indicators, and links to other international organizations. Includes information on country projects, the International Development Association (IDA), and business opportunities. World Trade Organization (WTO) at []. This official Web site of the WTO provides information on the organization, WTO publications, news releases, Internet links to U.N. and other related sites, and FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) in English, French, and Spanish. Regional Areas Africa Country Specific Page for Africa at []. Maintained by the African Studies Program at the University of Pennsylvania, this Web site lists each African nation alphabetically and provides a country map, African embassies in the United States, Web links, and background from the CIA’s World Factbook. Asia and the Pacific Asia Source at []. A source of current news on the region and sources of scholarly material on many aspects of Asia from the Asia Society. Included are maps, bibliographies, statistics, and country comparisons using data such as population, GDP, geography, military expenditure, economy, etc., at []. Pacific Islands Internet Resources at []. This Web site offers numerous Web links and information on the nations of the Pacific such as Hawaii, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Tonga, and others. Australia and New Zealand Australian Bureau of Statistics at []. This Web site provides links to statistical information on its states and territories as well as key national indicators (social and economic), census, media releases, and international statistics. New Zealand at []. Official New Zealand country site provides a variety of information on its land, people, economy, international comparisons, and links to statistics in the Commonwealth and abroad at []. CRS-11 Canada Statistics Canada at []. This Web site provides statistical data on health, education, foreign trade, the labor market in Canada, census data, and selected international comparisons (in English and French). Europe Europa at []. Europa is a Web server offering information on the EU’s policies and current agenda. Provides Web links to European governments (in English and various other languages). Statistical information is provided by Eurostat at [] in English, French, and German. Latin America (Central and South America) Latinworld at []. Self-proclaimed “premier search engine for Iberoamerica and the Caribbean.” This Web site is searchable in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. Click on “Countries” for information on Spain and countries in North, Central, and South America, and is maintained by Netpoint Communications as a forum for Latin Americans and people interested in Latin America. WWW Virtual Library: Latin American Studies at []. Maintained by the University of Texas at Austin, this Web site is a comprehensive source of information on Latin America and the Caribbean. It allows searches by key word, country, or selected topics (military, population, etc.), and provides links to related Web sources (in English and Spanish). Middle and Near East Center for Middle Eastern Studies at []. Maintained by the University of California at Berkeley, this site contains links to many Middle East country servers, Islamic studies, Judaism and Jewish studies, and Middle East centers in the United States. Middle East Studies at []. Maintained by Columbia University, this Web site provides information to resources on the Middle East and Jewish Studies by region and by country. It also provides Web links to Middle East news sources and bibliographies. Russia and Eastern Europe Russian and Eastern European Studies at []. Maintained by the University of Pittsburgh, the Russian and East European Studies Internet Resources on the Web (REESWeb) provides information by browsing (by subject, geographical region, culture, time period, etc.) or by a key word. REESWeb offers Web links to electronic resources on the Baltic states, Central Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, the CIS, the Russian Federation, and the former Soviet Union. CRS-12 Selected Topics of Interest Armed Forces Worldwide/Foreign Military at [ p_front_door.htm]. This Web site is maintained by, which provide descriptive and statistical information. Click on the map to access data on armed forces by individual country or by continent. Cities of the World at []. This Web site has a database of 3,796 cities guides in 150 countries accessed by either clicking on the world map or by searching city or country name. Conflicts at []. This Web site, Flash Points, is maintained by Earthlink and provides links to contemporary conflicts worldwide by country as well as other related Web links. Constitutions of the World at []. From the International Constitutional Law Project, this Web site offers links to sources for the text of constitutions of selected countries. Country Studies at []. Produced by the Federal Research Division at the Library of Congress, this Web site contains electronic versions of the Country Studies book series. The majority of the text of the published books are included, but without tables, graphs, and other appendixes. Currently, 102 countries are available online. Crime and Justice Information at []. United Nations Crime and Justice Information Network (UNCJIN) in Vienna, Austria, provides statistical information on crime prevention and criminal justice issues for numerous countries. This Web site includes links to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Office of International Criminal Justice. Currency Converter at []. Maintained by OANDA, the Internet arm of Olsen & Associates of Switzerland, this Web site allows currency conversion for 164 currencies, both current and historical. Distance (How Far Is It?) at []. This Web site is a service of Bali Online and uses data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census and a supplementary list of cities around the world to calculate the distance (in miles and kilometers) between any two places worldwide, and also give their respective latitude and longitude as well as a map showing the two places. Elections and Electoral Systems at []. This Web site is a valuable source of information based in the United Kingdom on recent or upcoming elections for a selected list of countries including the United States. It also provides links to government home pages, local elections, and electronic media. Expatriates at []. The EscapeArtist Web site provides information on “overseas living for international job seekers, expatriates, CRS-13 adventurers, and tax exiles.” It lists Web links to living overseas, country destination profiles, investing, expatriate magazines, and resources for global relocation. Foreign Governments at []. Maintained by Northwestern University, this Web site provides official government links worldwide and Internet links to selected international organizations. See also National Parliaments. Foreign Languages at []. Foreign Languages for Travelers allows users to search for a particular word or phrase in 80 languages available at this Web site. Holidays and Festivals Worldwide at []. The Worldwide Holiday and Festival Site provides concise information on public holidays, religious holidays, and movable feast days by clicking on “Countries.” Each entry covers the time period from 1997 to 2004. It also has links to world religions and information by month and on various feast days. Human Rights at []. Amnesty International on the Internet provides links to all Amnesty Web pages by country, including Amnesty International USA, and provides Web links to other human rights organizations at []. International Affairs Resources at []. Maintained by the Political Science Department of Elizabethtown College, this Web site provides over 2,600 annotated links related to international affairs in broad categories: media sources, organizations, regions and countries, and by topic. International Business Resources at []. Now known as Global Edge, this site offers an exhaustive listing of companies, directories, and yellow pages on the Web with links to regional or country specific information by clicking “Multi-Country” under heading for “Research” or go directly to []. This Web site is maintained by Michigan State University. International Business and Economic Sources at []. The Virtual International Business and Economic Sources (VIBES) on the Internet is accessed and maintained by the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Entries in VIBES include over 1,600 comprehensive Web links to business and economic information by country, region, and various subject areas, including industry sector (commodities), foreign exchange rates, banking, exporting/importing, trade issues, trade law, and intellectual property. International Security at []. The International Relations and Security Network (ISN) on the Internet is maintained by the Center for Security Studies and Conflict Research in Zurich, Switzerland. It is a comprehensive network for information on global security and defense issues, and allows searching by subject, region, or “What’s New” and Web links to other institutions worldwide. CRS-14 Maps []. Maintained by the Perry-Castañeda Library at the University of Texas at Austin, this Web site provides electronic copies of maps by current interest, region (Africa, Asia, Europe, the Americas, polar regions and oceans, etc.) and selected world cities. Also provides links for maps by country, city, and state and maps of special interest for hot spots. See also the entry for the U.N. for a link to 100 printable maps online and Mapsarea at [], for a portal of world maps and atlases. National Parliaments at []. Maintained by the Weidenbaum Center on the Economy, Government, and Public Policy at Washington University in St. Louis, this site provides links to selected national parliaments. It is arranged alphabetically from the Albanian Parliament to Zimbabwe’s Parliament. Political Leaders/Chiefs of State/World Rulers at []. This Web site lists current political leaders worldwide by clicking on “Chiefs of State, “ which links directly to the CIA’s online directory of Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments, updated weekly. This Web site also lists present and past world rulers by individual country. See also “World’s Statesmen,” below. Political Resources on the Net at []. This Web site lists political sites on the Internet by country, and has links to parties, organizations, and national governments worldwide as well as international organizations such as the European Union and United Nations. A unique feature called “Political Site of the Week” focuses on the political activity of one nation for a given week. Refugees at []. The official Web site of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) offers background on the UNHCR, mapbased and text-based access to country-specific information about refugees, Refugees magazine, and related Web links. Social Security in Other Countries at []. Maintained by the Office of International Programs of the U.S. Social Security Administration (SSA), this Web site provides details on 20 social security programs outside the United States and links to selected countries and their agencies. Statistical Resources on the Web []. Maintained by the University of Michigan’s Document Center, this Web site has numerous statistics on foreign economics, foreign trade, and foreign government data sources. It also provides links to U.S. government agencies, foreign governments, news sources, and related sites (in English and other languages). Terrorism at []. The Terrorism Research Center is a noncommercial site dedicated to the study of counter-terrorism abroad and in the United States. It features the current Department of State’s Patterns of Global Terrorism, terrorist profiles, and governmental, academic, and institutional Web links. Tourism Offices at []. The Tourism Offices Worldwide Directory indexes only official government tourism offices, convention and visitors CRS-15 bureaus, and similar agencies since 1994. It provides addresses, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail (if available) for various countries including the United States. Travel Directory at []. Voted among the top 5% of all Web sites, Travel.Org, the Directory for Travel, has extensive Web links by geographic regions, lodgings, travel agents, airlines, etc. Also provides links to travel essays. Travelocity at []. Powered by SABRE, this site offers links to maps, featured destinations, travel discounts, airline reservations, travel merchandise, business and student travel options, and other related Web links. Treaties and International Agreements The Multilaterals Project at [] is maintained by the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. This Web site offers selected international laws and treaties by subject and a chronological listing. It also offers links to historical foreign documents, selected treaties, and the U.N. Treaty Database with selected U.N. documents. Treaties from the Avalon Project at Yale Law School are available at []. Maintained by Yale Law School, this Web site contains documents relevant in the areas of diplomacy, economics, history, government, law, and politics. Provides links supporting documents to the texts, includes a help desk and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). It also allows searching by multiple terms and has a list of commonly named documents like the Camp David Accords, Guadalupe Hidalgo, and others. Work and Study Abroad at []. Maintained by the Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE), this Web site provides materials on work and study abroad opportunities for American students and recent graduates on summer jobs, internships, and overseas career opportunities with a link to at [], a self-proclaimed “comprehensive online source for study abroad, language schools, overseas internships, international volunteer positions, teaching, Eco-travel, and more.” Work Abroad and International Jobs at []. Overseas Job Express provides links to numerous Internet resources such as international job mailing lists, summer job opportunities, resort jobs, internships, résumés, and other international career resources on the Web. Work Opportunities/Resources for International Jobs at []. The Riley Guide to Job Resources includes a section on resources for international job opportunities for selected countries including numerous Internet links. World Information at []. A directory of business, political, and economic information on 228 countries and territories. World’s Statesmen at []. Self-proclaimed “encyclopedia of nations, colonies, international and religious organizations, and CRS-16 other polities mostly since the year 1700.” Included are fun facts, maps, anthems, flags, Web links, and indexes of global politics and history. Foreign Chanceries Washington, D.C. (Area Code 202) Afghanistan, Republic of, 2341 Wyoming Ave., N.W., 20008 234-3770 Albania, Republic of, 2100 S St., N.W., 20008 223-4942 Algeria, 2118 Kalorama Rd., N.W., 20008 265-2800 Iraqi Interest Section, 1801 P St., N.W., 20036 483-7500 Andorra, Two United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, NY, NY 10017 (212) 750-8064 Angola, Republic of, 1615 M St., N.W., Suite 900, 20036 785-1156 Antigua and Barbuda, 3216 New Mexico Ave., N.W., 20016 362-5122 Argentine Republic, 1600 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., 20009 238-6400 Armenia, Republic of, 2225 R St., N.W., 20008 319-1976 Australia, 1601 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20036 797-3000 Austria, 3524 International Court, N.W., 20008 895-6700 Azerbaijan, Republic of, 927 15th St., N.W., Suite 700, 20035 842-0001 Bahamas, Commonwealth of the, 2220 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 319-2660 Bahrain, State of, 3502 International Dr., N.W., 20008 342-0741 Bangladesh, People’s Republic of, 3510 International Drive, N.W., 20007 244-2745 Barbados, 2144 Wyoming Ave., N.W., 20008 939-9200 Belarus, Republic of, Suite 1619 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., 20009 986-1606 Belgium, 3330 Garfield St., N.W., 20008 333-6900 Belize, 2535 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 332-9636 Benin, Republic of, 2124 Kalorama Road, N.W., 20008 232-6656 Bhutan, 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, NY, NY 10017 (212) 826-1919 Bolivia, 3014 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 483-4410 Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of, 2109 E St., N.W., 20037 337-1500 Botswana, Republic of, 1531 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., 20036 244-4990 Brazil, 3006 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 238-2700 Brunei, 3520 International Court, N.W., 20008 237-1838 Bulgaria, Republic of, 1621 22nd St., N.W., 20008 387-0174 Burkina Faso, 2340 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 332-5577 Burma (see Myanmar) Burundi, Republic of, 2233 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., Suite 212, 20007 342-2574 Cambodia, 4530 16th St., N.W., 20011 726-7742 Cameroon, Republic of, 2349 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 265-8790 Canada, 501 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W., 20001 682-1740 Cape Verde, Republic of, 3415 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20007 965-6820 Central African Republic, 1618 22nd St., N.W., 20008 483-7800 Chad, Republic of, 2002 R St., N.W., 20009 462-4009 Chile, 1732 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20036 785-1746 China, People’s Republic of, 2300 Connecticut Ave., N.W., 20008 328-2500 Colombia, 2118 Leroy Place, N.W., 20008 387-8338 Comoros, Federal and Islamic Republic of, 420 E. 50th St., NY, NY 10022 (212) 972-8010 CRS-17 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 1800 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., 20009 234-7690 (formerly Zaire) Congo, Republic of, 4891 Colorado Ave., N.W., 20011 726-5500 Costa Rica, 2114 S St., N.W., 20008 234-2945 Cote d’Ivoire, Republic of, 2424 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 797-0300 Croatia, Republic of, 2343 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 588-5899 Cuba (see Switzerland for Cuban Interests Section)* Cyprus, Republic of, 2211 R St., N.W., 20008 462-5772 Czech Republic, 3900 Spring of Freedom St., N.W., 20008 274-9100 Denmark, 3200 Whitehaven St., N.W., 20008 234-4300 Djibouti, Republic of, 1156 15th St., N.W., Suite 515, 20005 331-0270 Dominica, Commonwealth of, 3216 New Mexico Ave., N.W., 20016 364-6781 Dominican Republic, 1715 22nd St., N.W., 20008 332-6280 Ecuador, 2535 15th St., N.W., 20009 234-7200 Egypt, Arab Republic of, 3521 International Court, N.W., 20008 895-5400 El Salvador, 2308 California St., N.W., 20008 265-9671 Equatorial Guinea, 2020 16th St., N.W., 20009 518-5700 Eritrea, State of, 1708 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., 20009 319-1991 Estonia, 1730 M Street, Suite 503, N.W., 20036 588-0101 Ethiopia, 3506 International Drive, N.W., 20008 364-1200 Fiji, The Republic of, 2233 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., Suite 240, 20007 337-8320 Finland, 3301 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 298-5800 France, 4101 Reservoir Rd., N.W., 20007 944-6000 Gabon, Gabonese Republic, 2034 20th St., N.W., Suite 200, 20009 797-1000 Gambia, The, 1155 15th St., N.W., Suite 1000, 20005 785-1399 Georgia, Republic of, 1615 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Suite 300, 20009 387-2390 Germany, Federal Republic of, 4645 Reservoir Rd., N.W., 20007 298-4000 Ghana, 3512 International Dr., N.W., 20008 686-4520 Greece, 2221 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 939-5800 Grenada, 1701 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., 20009 265-2561 Guatemala, 2220 R St., N.W., 20008 745-4952 Guinea, Republic of, 2112 Leroy Place, N.W., 20008 483-9420 Guinea-Bissau, 15929 Yukon Lane, Rockville, MD 20855 (301) 947-3958 Guyana, 2490 Tracy Place, N.W., 20008 265-6900 Haiti, Republic of, 2311 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 332-4090 Holy See, The, 3339 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 333-7121 Honduras, 3007 Tilden St., N.W., Suite 4-M, 20008 966-7702 Hungary, Republic of, 3910 Shoemaker St., N.W., 20008 362-6730 Iceland, 1156 15th St., N.W., Suite 1200, 20005 265-6653 India, 2107 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 939-7000 Indonesia, Republic of, 2020 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20036 775-5200 Iran (see Pakistan for Iranian Interests Section)* Iraq (see Algeria for Iraqi Interests Section)* Ireland, 2234 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 462-3939 Israel, 3514 International Drive, N.W., 20008 364-5500 Italy, 3000 Whitehaven St., N.W., 20008 612-4400 Ivory Coast (see Cote d’Ivoire) Jamaica, 1520 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., 20036 452-0660 Japan, 2520 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 238-6700 CRS-18 Jordan, Hashemite Kingdom of, 3504 International Dr., N.W., 20008 966-2664 Kazakhstan, Republic of, 1401 16th St., N.W., 20036 232-5488 Kenya, Republic of, 2249 R St., N.W., 20008 387-6101 Korea, Republic of (South), 2450 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 939-5600 Kuwait, State of, 2940 Tilden St., N.W., 20008 966-0702 Kyrgyzstan, Kyrgyz Republic, 1732 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., 20007 338-5141 Laos, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, 2222 S St., N.W., 20008 332-6416 Latvia, 4325 17th St., N.W., 20011 726-8213 Lebanon, 2560 28th St., N.W., 20008 939-6300 Lesotho, Kingdom of, 2511 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 797-5533 Liberia, Republic of, 5201 16th St., N.W., 20011 723-0437 Liechtenstein (represented by Switzerland) Lithuania, Republic of, 2622 16th St., N.W., 20009 234-5860 Luxembourg, 2200 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 265-4171 Macedonia, Republic of, 3050 K St., N.W., Suite 210, 20007 337-3063 Madagascar, Democratic Republic of, 2374 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 265-5525 Malawi, 2408 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 797-1007 Malaysia, 3516 International Court, N.W., 20008 572-9700 Maldives, 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400E, NY, NY 10017 (212) 599-6195 Mali, Republic of, 2130 R St., N.W., 20008 332-2249 Malta, 2017 Connecticut Ave., N.W., 20008 462-3611 Marshall Islands, Republic of, 2433 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 234-5414 Mauritania, Islamic Republic of, 2129 Leroy Place, N.W., 20008 232-5700 Mauritius, 4301 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 441, 20008 244-1491 Mexico, 1911 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W., 20006 728-1600 Micronesia, Federated States of, 1725 N St., N.W., 20036 223-4383 Moldova, Republic of, 2101 S St., N.W., 20008 667-1130 Monaco, 565 Fifth Ave., 23rd Floor, NY, NY 10017 (212) 286-0500 Mongolia, 2833 M St., N.W., 20007 333-7117 Morocco, Kingdom of, 1601 21st St., N.W., 20009 462-7979 Mozambique, Republic of, 1990 M St., N.W., Suite 570, 20036 293-7146 Myanmar, Union of, 2300 S St., N.W., 20008, 332-9044 Namibia, Republic of, 1605 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., 20009 986-0540 Nepal, 2131 Leroy Place, N.W., 20008 667-4550 Netherlands, 4200 Linnean Ave., N.W., 20008 244-5300 New Zealand, 37 Observatory Circle, N.W., 20008 328-4800 Nicaragua, 1627 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., 20009 939-6570 Niger, Republic of, 2204 R St., N.W., 20008 483-4224 Nigeria, Federal Republic of, 1333 16th St., N.W., 20036 986-8400 Norway, 2720 34th St., N.W., 20008 333-6000 Oman, Sultanate of, 2535 Belmont Rd., N.W., 20008 387-1980 Pakistan, 2315 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 939-6200 Iranian Interests Section, 2209 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., 20007 965-4990 Palau, Republic of, 1150 18th St., N.W., Suite 750, 20036 452-6814 Panama, Republic of, 2862 McGill Terrace, N.W., 20008 483-1407 Papua New Guinea, 1779 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Suite 805, 20036 745-3680 Paraguay, 2400 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 483-6960 Peru, 1700 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20036 833-9860 Philippines, 1600 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20036 467-9300 CRS-19 Poland, Republic of, 2640 16th St., N.W., 20009 234-3800 Portugal, 2125 Kalorama Rd., N.W., 20008 328-8610 Qatar, State of, 4200 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., 20016 274-1600 Romania, 1607 23rd St., N.W., 20008 332-4848 Russian Federation, 2650 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., 20007 298-5700 Rwanda, Republic of, 1714 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., 20009 232-2882 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 3216 New Mexico Ave., N.W., 20016 686-2636 Saint Lucia, 3216 New Mexico Ave., N.W., 20016 364-6792 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 3216 New Mexico Ave., N.W., 20016 364-6730 Samoa, 800 Second Ave., Suite 400D, NY, NY 10017 (212) 599-6196 San Marino, Republic of, 1899 L St., N.W., 20036 223-3517 Saudi Arabia, 601 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., 20037 337-4076 Senegal, Republic of, 2112 Wyoming Ave., N.W., 20008 234-0540 Seychelles, Republic of, 800 Second Ave., Suite 400, NY, NY 10017 (212) 687-9766 Sierra Leone, 1701 19th St., N.W., 20009 939-9261 Singapore, Republic of, 3501 International Place, N.W., 20008 537-3100 Slovak Republic, 3523 International Court, N.W., 20008 237-1054 Slovenia, Republic of, 1525 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., 20036 667-5363 Solomon Islands, 800 Second Ave., Suite 400L, NY, NY 10017 (212) 599-6192 Somalia — Embassy ceased operations on May 8, 1991. South Africa, 3051 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 232-4400 Spain, 2375 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W., 20037 452-0100 Sri Lanka, 2148 Wyoming Ave., N.W., 20008 483-4025 Sudan, Republic of the, 2210 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 338-8565 Suriname, Republic of, 4301 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 460, 20008 244-7488 Swaziland, Kingdom of, 3400 International Dr., N.W., 20008 362-6683 Sweden, 1501 M St., N.W., 20005 467-2600 Switzerland, 2900 Cathedral Ave., N.W., 20008 745-7900 Cuban Interests Section, 2630 16th St., N.W., 20009 797-8518 Syrian Arab Republic, 2215 Wyoming Ave., N.W., 20008 232-6313 Tajikistan, 136 East 67th St., NY, NY 10021 (212) 861-4900 Tanzania, United Republic of, 2139 R St., N.W., 20008 939-6125 Thailand, 1024 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., Suite 401, 20007 944-3600 Togo, Republic of, 2208 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 234-4212 Tonga, Kingdom of, 800 Second Ave., Suite 400B, NY, NY 10017 (telephone number not available) Trinidad and Tobago, Republic of, 1708 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20036 467-6490 Tunisia, 1515 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20005 862-1850 Turkey, Republic of, 2525 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 612-6700 Turkmenistan, Republic of, 2207 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 588-1500 Tuvalu (resident in Suva, Fiji) address & telephone number not available Uganda, Republic of, 5911 16th St., N.W., 20011 726-7100 Ukraine, 3350 M St., N.W., 20007 333-0606 United Arab Emirates, 1255 22nd St., N.W., Suite 700, 20037 243-2400 United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland, 3100 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 588-6500 Uruguay, 2715 M St., N.W., 20007 331-1313 Uzbekistan, Republic of, 1746 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20036 887-5300 Vanuatu, 416 Convent Ave., NY, NY 10031-4217 (212) 593-0144 CRS-20 Vatican City (see Holy See) Venezuela, Republic of, 1099 30th St., N.W., 20007 342-2214 Vietnam, Socialist Republic of, 1233 20th St., N.W., Suite 400, 20037 861-0737 Western Samoa (see Samoa) Yemen, Republic of, 2600 Virginia Ave., N.W., Suite 705, 20037 965-4760 Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of, 2410 California Street, N.W., 20008 332-0333 Zaire (see Congo, Democratic Republic of) Zambia, Republic of, 2419 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., 20008 265-9717 Zimbabwe, Republic of, 1608 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., 20009 332-7100 Note: Cuba, Iran, and Iraq do not have official diplomatic relations with the United States and therefore do not have chanceries in Washington, D.C. Their interest sections are located at other chanceries (Switzerland, Pakistan, and Algeria, respectively). In addition, North Korea does not have diplomatic relations with the United States and has no interest section in Washington, D.C. Source: Electronic Embassy at []. Updated corrections made by the Congressional Research Service. In addition to the list of chanceries, these addresses may be useful: European Union Delegation of the European Commission to the United States 2300 M Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20037 (202) 862-9500 Fax: (202) 429-1766 [] Hong Kong Trade Development Council 219 East 46th Street New York, NY 10017 (212) 838-8688 Taiwan Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (TECRO) 4201 Wisconsin Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20016 (202) 895-1800 American Institute in Taiwan 1700 North Moore Street Suite 1700 Arlington, VA 22209 (703) 525-8474 Note: The United States maintains unofficial relations with Taiwan through the American Institute in Taiwan.