Judicial Nominations by President Clinton During the 103rd and 104th Congresses

96-567 GOV Judicial Nominations by President Clinton During the 103rd and 104th Congresses Updated January 24, 1997 Denis Steven Rutkus Specialist in American National Government Government Division -- CRS Judicial Nominations by President Clinton During the 103rd and 104th Congresses SUMMARY Under the Constitution of the United States, the President nominates, and subject to confirmation by the Senate, appoints Justices to the Supreme Court as well as judges to nine other courts or court systems. Altogether during the 103rd and 104th Congresses, President William Jefferson Clinton transmitted to the Senate: 0 two Supreme Court nominations, both of which were confirmed during the 103rd Congress; e 42 nominations to the U.S. Courts of Appeals, 30 of which were confirmed; e 204 nominations to the U.S. District Courts, 170 of which were confirmed; e two nominations to the U.S. Court of International Trade, both of which were confirmed during the 104th Congress; e one nomination to the U.S. Court of Federal Claims, which, after referral t o committee, advanced no further in the Senate and was returned to the President a t the end of the 104th Congress; e the names of four nominees to the U.S. Tax Court, two of whom were nominated twice (first in the 103rd Congress, and again in the 104th Congress) and all of whom eventually were confirmed; 0 eleven nominations to the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, nine of which were confirmed; * two nominations to the District of Columbia Court ofAppeals, both of which were confirmed; and one nomination to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, which received Senate confirmation during the 104th Congress. During President Clinton's first term in office, the first and only judicial vacancy on the U.S. Court of Veterans Appeals occurred during the second session of the 104th Congress; the President, however, failed to make a nomination to fill the vacancy before the Congress' final adjournment. All but two of President Clinton's judicial appointees continue to hold their judicial office. CONTENTS Introduction .............................................. 1 Nominations to the Supreme Court of the United States Nominations to the U.S. Courts of Appeals Nominations to the U.S. District Courts ........................7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 ............... 19 ................... 21 Nominations to the U.S. Court of International Trade Nominations to the U.S. Court of Federal Claims Nominations to the U.S. Tax Court .............. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Nominations to the U.S. Court of Veterans Appeals ................. 25 ........ 27 ............ 29 Nominations to the Superior Court of the District of Columbia Nominations to the District of Columbia Court of Appeals Nominations to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces . . . . . . . 31 Judicial Nominations by President Clinton During the 103rd and 104th Congresses Introduction Under the Constitution of the United States,' the President nominates and, subject to confirmation by the Senate, appoints Justices to the Supreme Court as well as judges to nine other courts or court systems. Specifically, the Chief Executive makes judicial appointments to the: Supreme Court of the United States; o United States Courts of Appeals; e United States District Courts (including the Territorial courts); o United States Court of International Trade; 0 United States Court of Federal Claims; 0 United States Tax Court; o United States Court of Veterans Appeals; 0 Superior Court of the District of Columbia; 0 District of Columbia Court of Appeals; and e United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces.' 0 Judicial terms of office vary, depending on the court. Justices on the Supreme Court andjudges on other courts established by Congress under Article I11 of the Constitution "hold their Offices during good Behaviour"-i.e., they receive lifetime appointments. In addition to the Supreme Court, the "Article 111courts" consist of the U.S. Courts of Appeals, the U.S. Court of International Trade, and the U.S. District Courts in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Appointment to other courts in the above list entail fixed terms of various lengths. These are the so-called "legislative courts," which are created by ' Article 11, Section 2, Clause 2 provides that the President "shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint . . . Judges of the supreme Court and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law. . . ." The President, it should be noted, does not nominate federal bankruptcy judges (who are appointed by the United States Courts of Appeals), administrative law judges (appointed by Federal agencies), U.S. magistrates (appointed by the United States District Courts), or trial and intermediate court judges in the Armed Forces (appointed by the Judge Advocate General in each service), nor are these judges subject to Senate confirmation. Congress under divers constitutional authority not requiring lifetime ("good Behaviour") t e n ~ r e . ~ During t h e first four years of his Presidency, William Jefferson Clinton nominated persons to judgeships on all of the above-listed courts, except the Court of Veterans Appeals. I n the following pages, ten separate sections provide background and statistics concerning President Clinton's judicial nominations t o each of t h e court categories listed above.4 Each section begins by briefly discussing the composition and jurisdiction of t h e court or court system i n question. Then various statistics are provided, including: t h e number of nominations t o the court which were received, confirmed, or not confirmed by t h e Senate during Mr. Clinton's Presidency; a breakdown of these numbers for t h e 103rd Congress and 104th Congress; and t h e number of Clinton appointees who currently serve on t h e court. Also noted is t h e committee to which nominations to t h e particular court were referred after being received by t h e Senate. The most common ways in which a judicial nomination fails t o receive Senate confirmation are these: (1) The President withdraws t h e nomination (doing so, for example, if t h e Senate committee to which the nomination has been referred either has voted against reporting the nomination to t h e Senate or has made clear its intention not to act on t h e nomination, Two courts of local jurisdiction for the District of Columbia, as well as the Territorial courts in the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam, have been created pursuant to Congress's power "to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States" (Article IV, Section 3, Clause 2). Under this power, Congress has enacted laws providing for 15-year judicial appointments to the District of Columbia courts and for 10year judicial terms on the Territorial courts. Besides the local courts of the District of Columbia, four courts of specialized subject matterjurisdiction-the U.S. Court of Federal Claims, the U.S. Tax Court, the U.S. Court of Veterans Appeals, and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forceshave been created pursuant to constitutional authority other than Article 111. Congress has enacted laws providing for 15-yearjudicial appointments to these courts. The focus of this report is appointments through the process of presidential nomination and Senate confirmation. Historically, on rare occasions, appointments to these courts also have been made without submitting a nomination to the Senate. This may occur when a President exercises his constitutional power to make "recess appointments." Specifically, Article 11, Section 2, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution empowers the President "to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session." So far during his Presidency, Mr. Clinton has made no judicial "recess appointments." The last President to make a judicial "recess appointment" was Ronald Reagan, who did so once during his tenure in office. See: U.S. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. President Reagan's Judicial Nominations During the 100th Congress. Report No. 89-50 GOV, by Denis Steven Rutkus. Washington, 1988 p. 3. or if the nomination, even if reported, is likely to face substantial opposition on the Senate floor); (2) The full Senate votes against confirmation; (3) Without confirming or rejecting the nomination, the Senate adjourns or recesses for more than 30 days, a t which time it returns the nomination to the President pursuant to Rule XXXI, paragraph 6, Standing Rules of the S e n ~ t e . ~ During his tenure in office, President Clinton has withdrawn four judicial nominations6 All other judicial nominations failing to be confirmed were returned upon a Senate adjournment or recess of more than 30 days. No Clinton judicial nomination has been rejected by Senate vote. I n a number of instances, when the Senate returned a judicial nomination pursuant to Rule XXXI: President Clinton renominated the individual involved, after which the Senate then confirmed the individual. Each court section of this report notes, where applicable, the respective number of nominations that were returned by the Senate, were resubmitted by the President, and ultimately were confirmed or failed t o be ~ o n f i r m e d . ~ At the end of each section is a table which lists President Clinton's nominations to the court during the 103rd and 104th Congresses, respectively. Separate columns indicate for each nomination the dates of nomination, committee hearing, committee action, and confirmation or other final Senate action. Nominations are listed in chronological order according to their nomination date. I n the confirmation column, a date by itself indicates that the Senate, on the date given, confirmed the nominee by voice vote or unanimous consent. A confirmation date, with a vote total underneath, indicates that Senate confirmation was by a roll call vote or that a specifically identified Paragraph 6 of Senate Rule XXXI provides in part that "ifthe Senate shall adjourn or take a recess for more than thirty days, all nominations pending and not finally acted upon at the time of taking such adjournment or recess shall be returned by the Secretary to the President and shall not again be considered unless they shall again be made to the Senate by the President." President Clinton withdrew one U.S. Court of Appeals nomination and three U.S. District Court nominations during the 104th Congress. See Tables 2 and 3 in the following pages. Thus, the statistics in this report distinguish between the overall number of nominations once failing to receive Senate confirmation and the smaller number of nominees who failed ever to be c o n h e d . The former number covers all instances of nominations failing confirmation when returned pursuant to Rule XXXI, regardless of whether the nominees involved were later renominated and confirmed. The latter number accounts only for individuals who failed ever to be confirmed either because of unfavorable committee action, Senate rejection, the withdrawal of the nomination, or the President's disinclination to renominate upon receiving from the Senate a returned nomination. procedural matter involving the nomination was decided by a roll call vote.8 This column also indicates the final disposition of nominations failing t o receive Senate confirmation. An entry of "Returned, 11/14/94,"for example, indicates that the nomination was returned to the President pursuant t o Senate Rule XXXI, paragraph 6, due t o the Senate's taking a recess of more t h a n 30 days. So far during the Clinton Presidency, there have been six such roll call votes, two involving nominations to the Supreme Court of the United States and four involving U.S. Court of Appeals nominations. See Tables 1 and 2 in the following pages. Nolninations to the Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States consists of a Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices. As the highest appellate court in the federal judiciary, the Supreme Court reviews decisions of lower federal courts as well as rulings of State courts where a federal question is involved. The Court also has original jurisdiction (that is, it can act as a court of first resort) over cases affecting public ministers of foreign states and in certain cases in which a State is a party. Of the Court's present members, two Associate Justices were nominated by President Clinton, both during the 103rd Congress. Ruth Bader Ginsburg became a member of the Court in 1993 and Stephen G. Breyer in 1994. On June 22, 1993: President Clinton nominated Judge Ginsburg, then a judge on the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, to fill a Supreme Court vacancy created by the retirement of Associate Justice Byron R. White. As a Supreme Court nominee, Judge Ginsburg testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee on July 20, 2 1 and 22, 1993: followed by one more day of hearings, on July 23, for witnesses testifying in support of or against the nomination.' The Judiciary Committee on July 29 voted unanimously to report the Ginsburg nomination favorably to the full Senate. The Senate proceeded to consideration of the Ginsburg nomination on August 2 and confirmed the nominee on August 3 by a roll call vote of 96-3. The second occasion for President Clinton to make a Supreme Court appointment arose on April 6,1994, when Associate Justice Harry A. Blackmun announced his retirement effective at the close of the Court's term then in progress. To fill the prospective Court vacancy, President Clinton on May 17 nominated Judge Stephen G. Breyer of the U.S. Circuit Court ofAppeals for the First Circuit. The nominee testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee on July 12, 13 and 14, followed by one more day of hearings, on July 15, for witnesses testifying in support of or against the nomination.1° The Judiciary Committee on July 19 voted unanimously to report the Breyer nomination favorably to the full Senate. The Senate proceeded to consider the nomination on July 29 and the same day confirmed the nominee by a roll call vote of 87-9. Also on July 23 the nominee appeared in a routine closed-door session conducted by the committee to consider any questions arising out of its confidential investigation into the nominee's background. lo On July 14, the nominee also appeared in a routine closed-door session conducted by the committee to consider any questions arising out of its confidential investigation into the nominee's background. TABLE 1. Presidential Nominations to the Supreme Court of the United States During the 103rd and 104th Congresses Ruth Bader Ginsburg of New York Stephen G. Breyer of Massachusetts To Replace Nominated Hearings Reported Byron R. White 06122193 07120-23193 07/29/93 Harry A. Blackmun 05117194 07112-15194 07119194 Confirmed 08/03/93 96-3 vote 07/29/94 87.9 vote Nominations to the U.S. Courts of Appeals The U.S. Courts of Appeals review appeals from decisions of the federal trial courts and are empowered to review the orders of many administrative agencies. Cases are generally presented to the courts sitting in panels consisting of three judges. Often called circuit courts, the U.S. Courts of Appeals are divided geographically into 12 circuits (including one for the District of Columbia), each having from six to 28 judges. There also exists a Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (consisting of 12 judges), which has nationwide jurisdiction and which reviews, among other things, lower court rulings in patent, trademark, and copyright cases. " Altogether, 179 permanent circuit judgeships are authorized by law. During his first term in office: 30 of President Clinton's 42 nominations to the circuit courts received Senate confirmation, and all but one of the 30 appointees continue to serve as active circuit judges." Upon being transmitted by the President to the Senate, circuit court nominations are referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. During the 103rd Congress, 19 of President Clinton's 22 nominees to the Courts of Appeals received Senate confirmation. Three other nominations failed to be confirmed and were returned to the President a t the s i m die adjournment of the second session of the Congress pursuant to Rule XXXI of the Standing Rules of the Senate. Subsequently, during the 104th Congress: the names of these three nominees were resubmitted by President Clinton and received Senate onf firm at ion.'^ During the 104th Congress, the Senate received 20 appeals court nominations from the President. Eleven of these nominations were confirmed, 'I Besides lower court rulings in patent, trademark, and copyright cases, this court reviews certain appeals from U.S. district and territorial courts in contract, internal revenue, and other cases, as well as decisions of the U.S. Court of Federal Claims and the U.S. Court of International Trade, as well as administrative rulings by the Patent and Trademark Office, the U.S. International Trade Commission,the Secretaryof Commerce, agency boards of contract appeals, and the Merit System Protection Board. l2 One Clinton appointee nominated and confirmed in 1994, Judge H. Lee Sarokin of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, has retired. See MacFarquhar, Neil. Federal Judge to Resign, Citing Political Attacks on Judiciary. New York Times, June 5, 1996. pp. B1, B4. l3 While two of the three nominations were confirmed routinely during the 104th Congress, the third was confirmed only after narrowly surviving a Senate floor vote on a motion to recommit to the Judiciary Committee. See January 31, 1995 nomination of James L. Dennis of Louisiana, in Table 2. one was withdrawn by the President (at the nominee's request),14 and eight were returned to the President at the sine die adjournment of the Congress pursuant to Senate Rule XXXI. Of the eight returned nominations, four had been reported out favorably by the Senate Judiciary Committee but failed to be considered by the full Senate, one had received a committee hearing but was not reported, and three had failed to receive committee hearings. Most of the nomillations listed below were made to fill judicial vacancies created by the death, retirement or resignation of the previous officeholder. Some of the nominations, however, wcrc to judgeships which had been vacant since their creation by the Judicial Improvements Act of 1990 (104 Stat. 5089, 28 U.S.C. 44.). As of the sine die adjournment of Congress on October 4, 1996, there were 18 vacant U.S. circuit judgeships. By January 1, 1997, this vacancy total had increased to 21. TABLE 2. Presidential Nominations to the U.S. Courts of AppeaLs During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96 Nominee Circuit Nominated Hearings Reported Confirmed 103rd Congress Pierre N. Leval of New York M. Biane Michael of West Virginia Martha Craig Daughtrey of Tennessee Rosemary Barkett of Florida Judith W. Rogers of the District Second Fourth Sixth (New position) Eleventh 04/14/94 61-37 vote 03110194 D.C. of Columbia Fortunato P. Fifth Bena~des of Texas Robert M. Parker of Texas Carl E. Stewart of Louisiana Diana Gribbon Motz of Maryland Guido Calabresi of Connecticut Fifth Fifth (New position) Fourth (Kew position) Second 01127194 , .~ 05125194 . . 06114194 . . 06115194 . . - 02/09/94 06/29/94 07/14/94 07/18/94 l4 See in Table 2 the October 27, 1995 nomination of Charles R. Stack of Florida. For background on circumstances surrounding the withdrawal of this nomination, see Biskupic, Joan. Appeals Court Nominee Says No Thanks. Washington Post, May 10, 1996. p. A17. TABLE 2. Presidential Nominations to the U.S. Courts of Appeals During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96--Continued Nominee Circuit Nominated Hearings Reported Confirmed 103rd Congress Robert Harlan Henry of Oklahoma Theodore Alexander McKee of Pennsylvania H. Lee Sarokin of New Jersey Jose A Cabranes of Connecticut James L. Dennis of huisiana David S. Tatel of Maryland William C. Bryson of Maryland Michael D. Hawkins of Arizona Diana E. Murphy of Minnesota Fred L. Parker of Vermont Karen Nelson Moore of Ohio Sandra L. Lynch of Massachusetts Tenth 02/09/94 Third 03/22/94 Third (New position) 05/05/94 Second Fifth 10104194 83-12 vote for cloture; 63-35 vote to confirm 08/09/94 Returned 11/14/94 10107194 D.C. Federal Ninth Eighth Second Sixth Returned 11/14/94 Returned 11/14/94 First 104th Congress Sandra L. Lynch of Massachusettsr Karen Nelson Moore of Ohio" James L. Dennis of Louisiana* Mary Beck Briscoe of Kansas First 01/11/95 Sixth 01/24/95 Fifth 01/31/95 Tenth * Resubmission; see earlier nomination in 103rd Congress. "" Hearing held 09/14/94, on earlier nomination in 103rd Congress. 09128195 46-54 vote on motion to recommit; voice vote to confirm 05125195 TABLE 2. Presidential Nominations to the U.S. Courts of Appeals During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96--Continued Nominee Circuit Nominated Hearings Reported Confirmed 104th Congress Carlos F. Lucero of Colorado Diane P. Wood of Illinois A. Wallace Tashima of California Terence T. Evans of Wisconsin William A. Fletcher of California R. Guy Cole, Jr. of Ohio Sidney R. Thomas of Montana Michael R. Murphy of Utah Merrick B. Garland of Maryland Charles R. Stack of Florida James A. Beaty, J r . of North Carolina J. Rich Leonard of North Carolina Richard A. Paez of California Eric L. Clay of Michigan M. M a r w e t McKeom of Washington Arthur Gajarsa of Maryland Tenth (New position) Seventh Ninth Seventh Ninth Sixth Returned 10/04/96 12/22/95 Ninth Tenth D.C. Eleventh Fourth Fourth (New position) Ninth Sixth Ninth Federal Returned 10104196 Withdrawn 05113196 Returned 10/04/96 Returned 10104196 &turned 10104196 Returned 10/04/96 Returned 10104/96 Returned 10104196 Nominations to the U.S. District Courts The U.S. District Courts are the trial courts of general federal jurisdiction. Each State has a t least one district court, while some have as many as four. There are 636 permanent district judgeships authorized by law, including those for the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Territories of Guam, the Northern Marianas and the Virgin Islands.'' During his first presidential term, 170 of Mr. Clinton's 204 nominations to the district courts have received Senate confirmation. All but one of the individuals confirmed continue to hold their judicial off~ce. During the 103rd Congress, 108 of President Clinton's 119 nominations to the district courts were confirmed. Eleven of his nominations to the district courts, having failed to receive Senate confirmation by the end of the 103rd Congress, were returned to the President pursuant to Rule XXXI of the Standing Rules of the Senate. Of the 11 nominees not confirmed during the 103rd Congress, four eventually were confirmed after being renominated by the President in the 104th Congress. (Of the seven other nominees not confirmed during the 103rd Congress, one was renominated during the 104th Congress, but the resubmitted nomination was later withdrawn by President Clinton. The President declined to renominate the six other individuals.) During the 104th Congress, President Clinton submitted to the Senate 85 district court nominations. Of the 85 nominations, 62 were confirmed, three were withdrawn by the President, and 20 were returned to the President at the sine die adjournment of the second session of the Congress pursuant to Senate Rule XXXI. Of the 20 returned nominations, three had been favorably reported out of the Senate Judiciary Committee, five others had received committee hearings, and 12 failed to receive hearings. In the table below, the phrase "New position" occasionally appears in the "District" column. The phrase refers to a vacant judgeship created by the Judicial Improvements Act of 1990 (104 Stat. 5089, 28 U.S.C. 133). A "New position" vacancy is to be distinguished from a vacancy created when a district judge died, retired, or resigned from office. Unless designated "New position," the nominations listed below are to judgeships which a predecessor held until he or she vacated the office. As of the sine die adjournment of Congress on October 4, 1996, there were 44 vacant U.S. district judgeships. By January 1,1997, this vacancy total had increased to 62. l5 All of the 636 judgeships, except for the four district judgeships in the Territorial district courts, entail lifetime appointments. See discussion on pages 1 and 2 concerning lifetime appointments of judges on "Article 111courts" and the fxed-term appointments of judges on "legislativecourts." TABLE 3. Presidential No~llinationsto the U.S. District Courts During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96 -- Nominee District Nominated Hearings Confirmed 103rd Congress William Roy Wilson, Jr. Jennifer B. Coffman Deborah K. Chasanow Peter J . Messitte Alexander Williams, J r . Thomas M. Shanahan Martha A. Vasquez David G. Trager Lawrence L. Piersol Leonie M. Brinkema Raymond A. Jackson Joanna Seybert D a ~ l dW. Hagen Claudia Wilken Gary L. Lancaster Donetta W. Ambrose Wilkie D. Ferguson, Jr. Charles A. Shaw Harry F. Barnes Nancy Gertner Reginald C. Lindsay Patti B. Saris Allen G. Schwartz Richard G . Stearns Henry Lee Adams, J r . Susan C. Buckiew Theodore Klein Daniel T.K. Hurley Thomas I. Vanaskie Helen G. Berrigan Tucker L. MeJancon Michael A. Ponsor Michael J. Davis Lesley Brooks Wells Ancer L. Haggerty Marjorie 0 . Randell Samuel Frederick Biery, Jr. W. Royal Furgeson, J r . East. AR East. &West. KY MD MD MD NE (New position) NM East, hli (New position) SD East. VA East. VA East. NY (New position) hT North. CA (New position) West. PA West. PA South. FL East. MO (New position) West. AR MA MA MA South. NY MA Mid. FL Mid. FL South. FL South. FL Mid. PA (New position) East. LA West. LA MA MN North. OH OR East. PA West. TX (New position) West. TX (New position) . , Returned 11/14/94 03110194 02/10/94 03/10/94 02/10/94 02/10/94 03/25/94 02!10/94 03\25/94 02/10/94 03/10/94 TABLE 3. Presidential Nominations to the U.S. District Courts During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96--Continued Nominee District Nominated Hearings Reported Confirmed Orlando L. Garcia John H. Hannah, J r . West. TX East. TX (New position) South. TX (New position) West. WA South. NY North OH North. IL Cent. CA SC RI North. GA Mid. GA (New position) North., East. & West. OK North. GA East. MI North. OK (New position) North OH Cent. CA (New position) 11/19/93 11/19/93 02/24/94 02/24/94 03/09/94 03/09/94 03/10/94 03/10/94 11/19/93 02/24/94 03/09/94 03110194 11/19/93 01/27/94 01/27/94 01/27/94 01/27/94 01/27/94 01/27/94 02/09/94 02/09/94 03/03/94 04/29/94 0412U94 03/25/94 03/25/94 03/03/94 04/21/94 04/21/94 04/21/94 03/23/94 05/05/94 05/05/94 05/05/94 05/05/94 03/09/94 05/05/94 05/05/94 05/05/94 03/25/94 05/06/94 05/06/94 05/06/94 05/06/94 03/10/94 05/06/94 05/06/94 05/06/94 03/09/94 05/12/94 05/25/94 06/08/94 03/09/94 03/09/94 03109194 04/21/94 05/25/94 05/12/94 05/05/94 06/14/94 05/25/94 05/06/94 06/15/94 06/08/94 03/09/94 03/09/94 04/29/94 05/25/94 05/05/94 06/14/94 05/06/94 06/15/94 03/22/94 03/22/94 03/22/94 03/22/94 03/22/94 03/22/94 03/24/94 03/24/94 04/29/94 05/25/94 05/12/94 05/12/94 05/12/94 05/25/94 06/21/94 07/21/94 05/05/94 06/14/94 05/25/94 06/14/94 06/14/94 06/14/94 08/04/94 08/04/94 05/06/94 06/15/94 06/08./94 06/15/94 06/15/94 06/15/94 08/09/94 08/09/94 03/24/94 08/25/94 04/26/94 04/26/94 04/26/94 04/26/94 04/26/94 07/21/94 06/21/94 06/21/94 08111194 08/11/94 08/04/94 08/04/94 08/04/94 08/25/94 08/25/94 Returned 11/14/94 08/09/94 08/09/94 08/09/94 09/14/94 09/14/94 04/26/94 04/26/94 06/21/94 08111/94 08/04/94 08/25/94 08/09/94 09/14/94 05/05/94 05/25/94 06/14/94 06/15/94 05/05/94 05/05/94 06/08/94 06/08/94 06/21/94 07/21/94 09/21/94 08/11/94 08/04/94 08/04/94 09/28/94 08/25/94 08/09/94 08/09/94 10107194 09/14/94 Janis Graham Jack r'rankiin D. Burgess Deborah A. Batts James G. Carr Ruben Castillo Audrey B. Collins Cameron M. Currie Mary M. Lisi Frank M. Hull W. Louis Sands Billy Michael Burrage Clarence Cooper Denise Page Hood Terry C. Kern Solomon Oliver, Jr. Richard A. Paez Raymond L. Finch Paul L. Friedman Vanessa D. Gilmore Gladys Kessler Emmet G. Sullivan Ricardo M. Urbina Paul D. Borman Denny Chin R. Samuel Paz Harold Baer, J r . Denise Cote John G. Koeltl John Corbett O'Meara Barrington D. Parker, Jr. Rosemary S. Pooler Robert J . Timlin William F. D o m e s Lewis A. Kaplan Blanche M. Manning David F. Hamilton Napoleon A Jones Vl DC South. TX DC DC DC East. MI South. NY (New position) Cent. CA (New position) South. NY South. NY South. NY East. MI South. NY North. h T Cent. CA (New position) WY (New position) South. NY North. IL South. IN South. CA TABLE 3. Presidential Nominations to the U.S. District Courts During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96--Continued Nominee District Nominated Hearias Reported Confirmed Okla Jones, I1 G. Thomas Porteous, J r John R. Tait East. LA North. IA PR -~ PR South. GA East. LA East. MO East. NY East. NY East. NY South. NY CT (New position) CT South. CA (New position) West. PA North. OH West. PA North. IL North. IL North. IL South. IL (New position) Mid. NC West. TX HI (New position) East. LA East. LA ID Returned Maxine M. Chesney North. CA Returned Roslyn Moore-Silver James Robertson Thomas B. Russell Sidney H. Stein AZ Alvin W. Thompson William H. Walls Kathleen M. O'Malley Sven E. Holmes Vicki Miles-LaGrange John D. Snodgrass CT NJ North. OH North. OK West. OK North. AL Returned Patrick J . Toole, J r Mid. PA Returned David Folsom East. TX Returned Sarah S. Vance Mark W. Bennett Salvador E. Casellas Daniel R. Dominguez William T. Moore, Jr. Stanwood R. Duvall, J r . Catherine D. Perry Frederic Block John Gleeson Allyne R. Ross Shira A. Scheindlin Dominic J . Squatrito Robert N. Chatigny Judith D. McConnell Robert J. Cindrich David A. Katz Sean J . McLaughlin Elaine F. Bucklo David H. Coar Robert W. Gettleman Paul E . Riley James A. Beaty, J r . David Briones Helen W. Gillmor 09/28/94 08/09/94 09/28/94 09/28/94 10107194 09/28/94 10/07/94 09/28/94 09/28/94 09/28/94 09/28/94 10107194 09/28/94 Returned 11/14/94 10/07/94 10/07/94 10107194 10107194 10/07/94 10107194 10/07/94 10107i94 10107194 10/0i/94 10/07/94 10!07/94 11/14/94 MD West. KY South. NY 11/14/94 10/07/94 10/07/94 10107194 Returned 11/14/94 10107194 10107/94 10107194 10/07/94 10/07/94 11/14/94 11/14/94 11/14/94 TABLE 3. Presidential Nominations to the U.S. District Courts During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96--Continued Nominee District Nominated Thad Heartfield East. TX 10105194 Lacy H. Thornburg West. NC 10105194 Hearings Reported Confirmed Returned 11/14/94 Returned 11/14/94 104th Congress Lacy H. Thornburg* John D. Snodgrass* West. NC North. AL Sidney H. Stein* Thadd Heartfield" David Folsom* Janet Bond Arterton Willis B. Hunt, J r . Susan Y. Illston Charles B. Kornmann Maxine M. Chesney" Eldon E. Fallon Curtis L. Collier Peter C. Economus Joseph Robert Goodwin Wenona Y. Whitfield South. NY East. TX East. TX CT North. GA North. CA SD North. CA East. LA East. T N (New position) North. OH South. WV South. IL Wiley Y. Daniel Nancy Friedman Atlas John Garvan Murtha George A. O'Toole, Jr. Leland M. Shurin South. TX VT MA West. MO George H. King Donald C. Nugent Andre M. Davis Catherine C. Blake Joseph H. McKinley Robert H. Whaley B. Lynn Winmill Tena Campbell Todd J. Campbell James M. Moody Barry Ted Moskowitz Stephen M. Orlofsky William K. Sessions, 111 Ortrie D. Smith John R. Tunheim John H. Bingler, J r . 01/11/95 01/11/95 04/27/95 06130195 05/08/95 Returned 10/04/96 06/30/95 06/30/95 05/25/95 05/25/95 Withdrawn 09/05/95 06130195 04/27/95 05/04/95 05/04/95 06/24/95 05/24/95 05/24/95 06/22/95 06/27/95 06/27/95 06i30195 06/30/95 08111195 08/11/95 08/11/95 06/30/95 08/11/95 06130195 12/22/95 08/11/95 12/22/95 06130195 06130195 06130195 07110195 07/21/95 12/22/95 08/11/95 08/11/95 12/22/95 Returned 10/04/96 co Cent. CA (New position) North. OH MD MD West. KY East. WA ID UT Mid. TN AK South. CA (New position) NJ VT West. MO mT West. PA 03/17/95 Withdrawn 09/05/95 03/17/95 03/17/95 03/17/95 03/24/95 03/24/95 05/25/95 03/24/95 05/08/95 05/08/95 05/08/95 * Resubmission; see earlier nomination in 103rd Congress. TABLE 3. Presidential Nominations to the U.S. District Courts During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96--Continued Nominee District Bruce W. Greer South. FL Bruce D. Black Susan J. Dlott Hugh Lawson Hilda G. Tagle Kim McLane Wardlaw E. Richard Webber Patricia A. Gaughan Joan A. Lenard Clarence J . Sundram NM South. OH Mid. GA South. TX (New position) Cent. CA East. MO North. OH South. FL North. NY P. Michael Duffy Sue E. Myerscough SC Cent. IL Jed S. Rakoff Nina Gershon Barbara S. Jones John Thomas Marten Nanette K. Laughrey Ann L. Aiken South. NY East. NY South. NY KS East.. & West. MO OR Joseph A. Greenaway Faith S. Hochberg NJ NJ Ann D. Montgomery Charles N. Clevert, J r . Bernice B. Donald C. Lynwood Smith James P . Jones Cheryl B. Wattley Gary A. Fenner Mary Ann Vial Lemmon Michael D. Schattman MN East. m West. TN AL West. VA North. TX (New position) West. MO East. LA North. TX Donald W. Molloy Susan Oki Mollway MT HI Edmund A. S a r p s , Jr. Anabelle RodriguezRodriguez Dean D. Pregerson W. Craig Broadwater Joseph F. Bataillon South. OH PR Cent. CA RV NE Colleen Kollar-Kotelly Joan 3. Gottschall Frank R. Zapata Lawrence E. Kahn North. IL A2 North. NY Nominated Hearins Revorted Confinned Withdrawn 05/13/96 12/22/95 12/22/95 12/22/95 Returned 10/04/96 12/22/95 12/22/95 12/22/95 12/22/95 Returned 10104196 12/22/95 Returned 10/04/96 12/29/95 07130196 12/22/95 01/02/96 07/24/96 Returned 10/04/96 07/16/96 Returned 10104196 08102196 07/17/96 12/22/95 12/22/95 07/18/96 Returned 10104196 07/10/96 07/10/96 Returned 10/04/96 07/18/96 Returned 10/04/96 07/22/96 Returned 10/04/96 07/24/96 07/12/96 Returned 10/04/96 Returned lolo4196 07/25/96 07/31/96 07/16/96 TABLE 3. Presidential Nominations to the LT.S.District Courts During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96--Continued Nominee District Nominated Hearings Reported Confirmed Walker D. Miller Richard A. Lazzara CO Mid. FL 04/18/96 05/09/96 05/02/96 05/09/96 Margaret M. Morrow Cent. CA 05109196 06125196 06/27/96 Christina A. Snyder Cent. CA 05/15/96 Thomas W. Thrash, J r . North. GA 05/16/96 07/31/96 Robert L. Hinkle Jeffrey T. Miller North. FL South. CA 06/06/96 07/19/96 06/25/96 Robert W. Pratt South. IA 08/02/96 Donald M. Middlebrooks South. FL 09/05/96 06/27/96 07/11/96 Returned 10/04/96 Returned 10104196 Returned 10/04/96 Returned 10104196 07/25/96 Returned 10104196 Returned 10/04196 Returned 10/04/96 No~ninationsto the U.S. Court of International Trade The U.S. Court of International Trade has original and exclusive jurisdiction over civil actions against the United States: its agencies and officers, and certain civil actions brought by the United States arising out of import transactions and federal statutes affecting international trade. The court is composed of nine judges, no more than five of whom may belong to any one political party. There currently is one vacancy on the court.16 During his Presidency, Mr. Clinton nominated only two persons to the Court of International Trade-in 1995, in the first session of the 104th Congress. Both nominees received Senate confirmation and presently sit on the court. Upon being transmitted by the President to the Senate, nominations to this court have been referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. T B L E 4. Presidential Nominations to the U.S. Court of international Trade During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96 Nominee Residence Nominated Hearings Reported Confirmed 103rd Congress (There were no nominations to this court during the 103rd Congress.) 104th Congress Evan J . Wallach NV 06/27/95 07118195 08/03/95 0811U95 Donald C. Pogue CT 06130195 08/03/95 08104195 08/11/95 l6 The vacancy was created when Judge Nicholas Tsoucalas assumed senior status on September 30, 1996. Nominations to the U.S. Court of Federal Claims The U.S. Court of Federal Claims has jurisdiction to render money judgments upon any claim against the United States founded either upon the Constitution or any act of Congress. It also renders money judgments founded upon any regulation of an executive department or any express or implied contract with the United States. The court is composed of 16judges appointed to 15-year terms.'? Only one vacancy was created in this court during President Clinton's first term in office. In March 1996, the nomination to fill that vacancy was transmitted to the Senate and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. However, no formal committee action was taken on the nomination before Congress adjourned sine die on October 4, 1996. TABLE 5. Presidential Nominations to the U.S. Claims Court During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96 Nominee Residence Nominated Hearings Reported Confiimed 103rd Congress (There were no nominations to this court during the 103rd Congress.) 104th Congress Lawrence Baskir MD 03/29/96 Returned 10104196 l7 Until shortly before President Clinton entered office, the court was called the U.S. Claims Court. The change to the court's present name was put in effect in October 1992 when Congress passed, and President George Bush signed, the Federal Courts Administration Act of 1992, 106 Stat. 4506 (1992). Nominations to the U.S. Tax Court The Tax Court tries controversies involving the existence of deficiencies or overpayments in income, estate, and gift taxes, and persona1 holding company surtaxes where deficiencies have been determined by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. The court is composed of 19judges who are appointed by the President for 15-year terms, by and with the Senate's consent. A chief judge is elected biennially by the court's members. There currently are two vacant judgeships on the court. During his Presidency, Mr. Clinton has nominated four persons to be judges on the U.S. Tax Court. All four received Senate confirmation, one during the 103rd and three during the 104th Congress. Two of the individuals confirmed during the 104th Congress had been nominated once before, during the 103rd Congress. When the earlier nominations failed to receive Senate action by the end of that Congress, they were returned to the President, pursuant to Rule XXXI, paragraph 6, Standing Rules ofthe Senate. (Hence, during the Clinton Presidency, the Senate has received six nominations to this court, four of which have been confirmed.) Upon being transmitted by the President to the Senate, nominations to this court have been referred to the Committee on Finance. TABLE 6. Presidential Nominations to the U.S. Tax Court During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96 Nominee Residence Nominated Hearings Reported Confirmed 103rd Congress Herbert L. Chabot (Reappointment) Maurice B. FoIey MD J u a n F. Vasquez TX CA 09/15/94 104th Congress Maurice B. Foley* J u a n F. Vasquez* Joseph H. Gale CA TX VA * Resubmission; see earlier nomination in 103rd Congress. Returned 11/14/94 Returned 11/14/94 Nominations to the U.S. Court of Veterans Appeals The Court ofveterans Appeals has exclusive jurisdiction to review decisions of t h e Board ofveterans Appeals. Decisions of the court may be appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. This court consists of a chief judge and a t least two, but not more than six, associate judges who a r e appointed for 15-year terms.'' Upon being transmitted by t h e President to the Senate, nominations to this court have been referred t o t h e Committee on Veterans' Affairs. During President Clinton's first term in office, only one judicial vacancy occurred o n this court, in May 1996. The President, however, failed to make a nomination to fill t h a t vacancy before Congress adjourned sine die on October 4, 1996. TABLE 7. Presidentid Nominations to the U.S. Court of Veterans Appeals During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96 Nominee Residence Nominated Hearings Reported Confirmed (There were no nominations to this court during the 103rd or 104th Congresses.) IS The court was statutorily established on November 18, 1988, upon President Ronald Reagan's signing of S. 11, the Veterans' Administration Adjudication Procedure and Judicial Review Act (102 Stat. 4105, 38 U.S.C. 4051). During the lOlst Congress (1989-901, President George Bush nominated seven persons to the court, all of whom received Senate confirmation. The court continues to be filled entirely by appointees of President Bush. The Act, a t 102 Stat. 4114, provides that 'Not more than the number equal to the next whole number greater than one-half of the number of judges of the court may be members of the same political party." Hence, on a seven or six-member court, no more than four judges may be of the same political party; on a five or four-member court, no more than three judges may be of the same political party; etc. Nolninations to the Superior Court of the District of Columbia The Superior Court of the District of Columbia is the trial court of local civil and criminal jurisdiction in the District of Columbia. The court consists of a chief judge and 58 associate judges. The President selects nominees to the court from a list compiled by the District of Columbia Judicial Nomination Commission. Each judge is appointed to a term of 15 years, subject to mandatory retirement a t age 74. (The chief judge is designated by the Judicial Nomination Commission.) During his first four years in office, President Clinton transmitted to the Senate eleven Superior Court nominations. Nine of these nominations were confirmed (five during the 103rd Congress, and four during the 104th Congress), while the two others were returned to the President at the end of the 104th Congress. Beside those nominated by the President, five Superior Court associate judges, whose terms had expired during Mr. Clinton's Presidency, were subsequently reappointed by the District of Columbia Commission on Judicial Disabilities and Tenure.'' There currently are two Superior Court vacancies. Upon being transmitted by the President to the Senate, nominations to this court have been referred to the Committee on Governmental Affairs. l9 Those reappointments occurred pursuant to a federal statute, which provides that a judge on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia or on the District of Columbia Court of Appeals who, not less than three months prior to the expiration of his term of office, files a "declaration of candidacy for reappointment," will automatically be reappointed for another term if the Commission determines that the judge is either "exceptionally well qualified or well qualified" for reappointment. 87 Stat. 796 (19731, 11 App. D.C. Code Section 433 (Supp. 1995). TABLE 8. Presidential Nominations to the Superior Court of the District of Columbia During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96 Nominee Nominated Hearings Reported Confirmed 103rd Congress Russell F. Canan Rafael Diaz Judith Bartnoff Zoe Bush Rhonda Reid Winston 104th Congress Ronna Lee Beck Linda Kay Davis Eric T. Washington Robert E. Morin Mary Ann Gooden Terrell Patricia A. Broderick 05/25/95 05/25/95 05/25/95 07/26/96 Returned 10i04196 Returned 10/04/96 Nominations to the District of Columbia Court of Appeals The District of Columbia Court of Appeals reviews cases filed on appeal of decisions of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia. It consists of a chief judge and eight associate judges. The President selects nominees to the court from a list compiled by the District of Columbia Judicial Nomination Commission. Each judge is appointed to a term of 15 years, subject to mandatory retirement a t age 74. During his first four years in offie, President Clinton submitted two Court of Appeals nominations to the Senate, one each during the 103rd and 104th Congresses respectively. Both nominees received Senate confirmation and presently sit on the court. There currently are no vacancies on the court. Upon being transmitted by the President to the Senate, nominations to this court have been referred to the Committee on Governmental Affairs. TABLE 9. Presidential Nominations to the District of Columbia Court of Appeals During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96 Nominee Nominated Hearings Reported Confirmed 10104194 10/05/94 10107194 05/22/95 05/25/95 05125195 103rd Congress Vanessa Ruiz 07/12/94 104th Congress Inez Smith Reid 02/22/95 Nodnations to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces Subject only to certiorari review by the Supreme Court of the United States, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces serves as the final appellate tribunal to review court martial convictions of all the armed services?' It is exclusively an appellate criminal court, consisting of five civilian judges, appointed to 15-year terms. No more than three of the judges of the court may be affiliated with the same political party. Only one vacancy has been created on this court during President Clinton's tenure in office?' A nomination to fill that vacancy was sent to and confirmed by the Senate during the second session of the 104th Congress. Before being confirmed, the nomination had been referred to and then reported favorably by the Committee on Armed Services. TABLE 10. Presidential Nominations to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces During the 103rd and 104th Congresses, 1993-96 Nominee Residence Nominated Hearings Reported Confirmed 103rd Congress (There were no nominations to this court during the 103rd Congress.) 104th Congress Andrew S. Effron VA 06/21/96 07/09/96 07/10/96 20 Until almost the end of the 103rd Congress, the court had been called the U.S. Court of Militaly Appeals. The change to the court's present name was put into effect in October 1994 by Section 924(af(l) of Public Law 103-337 (National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995). The court vacancy was created by the death of Judge Robert E. Wiss on October 23, 1995. crsphpgw 07/12/96