Taiwan: Texts of the Taiwan Relations Act, the U.S. - China Communiques, and the "Six Assurances"

This report discusses the U.S. policy on Taiwan, which is governed by the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), the 3 U.S. joint communiqués with China, and the so-called "Six Assurances" on Taiwan.

96-246 F CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Taiwan: Texts of the Taiwan Relations Act, the U.S. - China Communiques, and the "Six Assurances" Updated July 13, 1998 Kerry Dumbaugh Specialist in Asian Affairs Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress ABSTRACT U.S. policy on Taiwan is governed by the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), the 3 U.S. joint communiqués with China, and the so-called "Six Assurances" on Taiwan. CRS Report 96246 provides a brief summary and the full texts of these documents. Taiwan: Texts of the Taiwan Relations Act and the U.S. - China Communiques, and the Six Assurances Summary U.S. policy on Taiwan is governed by the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), the 3 U.S. joint communiqués with China, and the so-called "Six Assurances" on Taiwan. This report provides the texts of these documents. U.S. Arms Sales to Taiwan Under the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA) of 1979. The U.S. position on its defense commitments to Taiwan is spelled out in Section 3 of the Taiwan Relations Act (P.L. 96-8). That language states: 3(a) ...the United States will make available to Taiwan such defense articles and defense services in such quantity as may be necessary to enable Taiwan to maintain a sufficient selfdefense capability; (b) The President and the Congress shall determine the nature and quantity of such defense articles and services...(c) The President is directed to inform the Congress promptly of any threat to the security or the social or economic system of the people on Taiwan... Joint U.S.-China Communiqué, Shanghai, February 27, 1972. The "Shanghai Communiqué" presented U.S.-China views "on a variety of issues." About Taiwan, China stated its firm opposition to creating "two Chinas," "one China, two governments," or "one China, one Taiwan," and stated that Taiwan was "China's internal affair in which no other country [had] the right to interfere." The United States "acknowledge[d]" that both China and Taiwan maintained there is but one China, declared it "[did] not challenge that position," and reaffirmed its interest in a peaceful settlement of the Taiwan question. Joint Communiqué on Establishing Diplomatic Relations, January 1, 1979. On December 15, 1978, the United States and China released this Joint Communiqué in which the United States recognized the PRC government as the sole legitimate government of all China and "acknowledge[d] the Chinese position that there is but one China and Taiwan is part of China." U.S.-China Joint Communiqué of August 17, 1982. Confronted with increasing Chinese objections to its arms sale policy, the United States and China signed a Joint Communiqué on arms sales to Taiwan in 1982. In it, the United States stated it had no intention of pursuing a "two-China" policy; that it appreciated China's pledges to strive for a peaceful solution to the Taiwan question; and that the United States did not plan on a long-term policy of arms sales to Taiwan. In his accompanying statement, President Ronald Reagan said the 1982 communiqué was "fully consistent with the Taiwan Relations Act." "Six Assurances". In 1982, the United States agreed to "six assurances" proposed by Taiwan to use as guidelines in conducting bilateral relations. These said that the United States would not change the TRA, not serve as mediator between Taiwan and China, not fix a date for ending arms sales to Taiwan or consult with China before selling arms to Taiwan, and not become involved in the issue of determining Taiwan's sovereignty. Contents Texts of Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Taiwan Relations Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Joint U.S.-China Communiqué, Shanghai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic RelationsBetween the United States of America and the People's Republic of China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 U.S.-PRC Joint Communiqué . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 The "Six Assurances" to Taiwan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Taiwan: Texts of the Taiwan Relations Act, the U.S. - China Communiques, and the "Six Assurances" Texts of Documents The Taiwan Relations Act1 Public Law 96-8 [H.R. 2479], 93 Stat. 14, approved April 10, 1979; as amended by Public Law 98-164 [Department of State Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1984 and 1985; H.R. 2915], 97 Stat. 1017 at 1061, approved November 22, 1983; and by Public Law 104-14 [H.R. 1421], 109 Stat. 186, approved June 3, 1995 AN ACT To help maintain peace, security, and stability in the Western Pacific and to promote the foreign policy of the United States by authorizing the continuation of commercial, cultural, and other relations between the people of the United States and the people on Taiwan, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SHORT TITLE Section 1.2 This Act may be cited as the "Taiwan Relations Act". FINDINGS AND DECLARATION OF POLICY Sec. 2.3 (a) The President having terminated governmental relations between the United States and the governing authorities on Taiwan recognized by the United States as the Republic of China prior to January 1, 1979, the Congress finds that the enactment of this Act is necessary-- 1 Taken from Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 1994, S. Print 1-4-25. Printed jointly by the Senate and the House of Representatives, July 1995. Volume II, page 1393. 2 See also sec. 1073 of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY1995, relating to visas for high-level officials of Taiwan, in Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 1994, vol. I-B, p. 390. See also sec. 221 of the Immigration and Nationality Technical Corrections Act of 1994 (P.L. 103-416; 108 Stat. 4320), relating to visas for officials of Taiwan, in Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 1994, vol. II, p. 843. 3 22 U.S.C. 3301. CRS-2 (1) to help maintain peace, security, and stability in the Western Pacific; and (2) to promote the foreign policy of the United States by authorizing the continuation of commercial, cultural, and other relations between the people of the United States and the people on Taiwan. (b) It is the policy of the United States-(1) to preserve and promote extensive, close, and friendly commercial, cultural, and other relations between the people of the United States and the people on Taiwan, as well as the people on the China mainland and all other peoples of the Western Pacific area; (2) to declare that peace and stability in the area are in the political, security, and economic interests of the United States, and are matters of international concern; (3) to make clear that the United States decision to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China rests upon the expectation that the future of Taiwan will be determined by peaceful means; (4) to consider any effort to determine the future of Taiwan by other than peaceful means, including by boycotts or embargoes, a threat to the peace and security of the Western Pacific area and of grave concern to the United States; (5) to provide Taiwan with arms of a defensive character; and (6) to maintain the capacity of the United States to resist any resort to force or other forms of coercion that would jeopardize the security, or the social or economical system, of the people on Taiwan. (c) Nothing contained in this Act shall contravene the interest of the United States in human rights, especially with respect to the human rights of all the approximately eighteen million inhabitants of Taiwan. The preservation and enhancement of the human rights of all the people on Taiwan are hereby reaffirmed as objectives of the United States. IMPLEMENTATION OF UNITED STATES POLICY WITH REGARD TO TAIWAN Sec. 3.4 (a) In furtherance of the policy set forth in section 2 of this Act, the United States will make available to Taiwan such defense articles and defense services in such quantity as may be necessary to enable Taiwan to maintain a sufficient self-defense capability.5 (b) The President and the Congress shall determine the nature and quantity of such defense articles and services based solely upon their judgment of the needs of Taiwan, in accordance with procedures established by law. Such determination of Taiwan's defense needs shall include review by United States military authorities in connection with recommendations to the President and the Congress. (c) The President is directed to inform the Congress promptly of any threat to the security or the social or economic system of the people on Taiwan and any danger 4 5 22 U.S.C. 3302. Sec. 23 of the International Security Assistance Act of 1979 (P.L. 96-92; 93 Stat. 710) provided authorization for the President to transfer to Taiwan war reserve material and other property during calendar years 1980 and 1981. For text of sec. 23, see Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 1994, vol. I-A, page 504. CRS-3 to the interests of the United States arising therefrom. The President and the Congress shall determine, in accordance with constitutional processes, appropriate action by the United States in response to any such danger. APPLICATION OF LAWS; INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS Sec. 4.6 (a) The absence of diplomatic relations or recognition shall not affect the application of the laws of the United States with respect to Taiwan, and the law of the United States shall apply with respect to Taiwan in the manner that the laws of the United States applied with respect to Taiwan prior to January 1, 1979. (b) The application of subsection (a) of this section shall include, but shall not be limited to, the following: (1) Whenever the laws of the United States refer or relate to foreign countries, nations, states, governments, or similar entities, such terms shall include and such laws shall apply with respect to Taiwan. (2) Whenever authorized by or pursuant to the laws of the United States to conduct or carry out programs, transactions, or other relations with respect to foreign countries, nations, states, governments, or similar entities, the President or any agency of the United States Government is authorized to conduct and carry out, in accordance with section 6 of this Act, such programs, transactions, and other relations with respect to Taiwan (including, but not limited to, the performance of services for the United States through contracts with commercial entities on Taiwan), in accordance with the applicable laws of the United States. (3)(A) The absence of diplomatic relations and recognition with respect to Taiwan shall not abrogate, infringe, modify, deny, or otherwise affect in any way any rights or obligations (including but not limited to those involving contracts, debts, or property interests of any kind) under the laws of the United States heretofore or hereafter acquired by or with respect to Taiwan. (B) For all purposes under the laws of the United States, including actions in any court in the United States, recognition of the People's Republic of China shall not affect in any way the ownership of or other rights or interests in properties, tangible and intangible, and other things of value, owned or held on or prior to December 31, 1978, or thereafter acquired or earned by the governing authorities on Taiwan. (4) Whenever the application of the laws of the United States depends upon the law that is or was applicable on Taiwan or compliance therewith, the law applied by the people on Taiwan shall be considered the applicable law for that purpose. (5) Nothing in this Act, nor the facts of the President's action in extending diplomatic recognition to the People's Republic of China, the absence of diplomatic relations between the people on Taiwan and the United States, or the lack of recognition by the United States, and attendant circumstances thereto, shall be construed in any administrative or judicial proceeding as a basis for any United States Government agency, commission, or department to make a finding of fact or determination of law, under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, to deny an export license 6 22 U.S.C. 3303. CRS-4 application or to revoke an existing export license for nuclear exports to Taiwan. (6) For purposes of the Immigration and Nationality Act, Taiwan may be treated in the manner specified in the first sentence of section 202(b) of that Act.7 (7) The capacity of Taiwan to sue and be sued in courts in the United States, in accordance with the laws of the United States, shall not be abrogated, infringed, modified, denied, or otherwise affected in any way by the absence of diplomatic relations or recognition. (8) No requirement, whether expressed or implied, under the laws of the United States with respect to maintenance of diplomatic relations or recognition shall be applicable with respect to Taiwan. (c) For all purposes, including actions in any court in the United States, the Congress approves the continuation in force of all treaties and other international agreements, including multilateral conventions, entered into by the United States and the governing authorities on Taiwan recognized by the United States as the Republic of China prior to January 1, 1979, and in force between them on December 31, 1978, unless and until terminated in accordance with law. (d) Nothing in this Act may be construed as a basis for supporting the exclusion or expulsion of Taiwan from continued membership in any international financial institution or any other international organization. OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Sec. 5.8 (a) During the three-year period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act, the $1,000 per capita income restriction in clause (2) of the second undesignated paragraph of section 231 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 shall not restrict the activities of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation in determining whether to provide any insurance, reinsurance, loans, or guaranties with respect to investment projects on Taiwan. (b) Except as provided in subsection (a) of this section, in issuing insurance, reinsurance, loans, or guaranties with respect to investment projects on Taiwan, the 7.Sec. 714 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981 (Public Law 97113; 95 Stat. 1548) provided the following: "Sec. 714. The approval referred to in the first sentence of section 202(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act shall be considered to have been granted with respect to Taiwan (China).". The first sentence of such sec. 202(b) stated: "Each independent country, self-governing dominion, mandated territory, and territory under the international trusteeship system of the United Nations, other than the United States and its outlying possessions shall be treated as a separate foreign state for the purposes of the numerical limitation set forth in the proviso to subsection (a) of this section when approved by the Secretary of State.". On April 30, 1979, the Department of State made a final ruling whereby 22 CFR Part 42 was amended effective April 23, 1979, to provide that aliens in Taiwan applying for immigrant visas shall be required to appear personally before a designated officer of the American Institute in Taiwan in connection with the execution of his immigrant visa application. This ruling, which was made pursuant to the authority contained in section 104 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, can be found at 44 F.R. 28659, May 16, 1979. 8 22 U.S.C. 3304. CRS-5 Overseas Private Insurance Corporation shall apply the same criteria as those applicable in other parts of the world. THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF TAIWAN Sec. 6.9 (a) Programs, transactions, and other relations conducted or carried out by the President or any agency of the United States Government with respect to Taiwan shall, in the manner and to the extent directed by the President, be conducted and carried out by or through-(1) The American Institute in Taiwan, a nonprofit corporation incorporated under the laws of the District of Columbia, or (2) such comparable successor nongovernmental entity as the President may designate, (hereafter in this Act referred to as the "Institute"). (b) Whenever the President or any agency of the United States Government is authorized or required by or pursuant to the laws of the United States to enter into, perform, enforce, or have in force an agreement or transaction relative to Taiwan, such agreement or transaction shall be entered into, performed, and enforced, in the manner and to the extent directed by the President, by or through the Institute. (c) To the extent that any law, rule, regulation, or ordinance of the District of Columbia, or of any State or political subdivision thereof in which the Institute is incorporated or doing business, impedes or otherwise interferes with the performance of the functions of the Institute pursuant to this Act, such law, rule, regulation, or ordinance shall be deemed to be preempted by this Act. SERVICES BY THE INSTITUTE TO UNITED STATES CITIZENS ON TAIWAN Sec. 7.10 (a) The Institute may authorize any of its employees on Taiwan-(1) to administer to or take from any person on oath, affirmation, affidavit, or deposition, and to perform any notarial act which any notary public is required or authorized by law to perform within the United States; (2) to act as provisional conservator of the personal estates of deceased United States citizens; and (3) to assist and protect the interests of United States persons by performing other acts such as are authorized to be performed outside the United States for consular purposes by such laws of the United States as the President may specify. (b) Acts performed by authorized employees of the Institute under this section shall be valid, and of like force and effect within the United States, as if performed by any other person authorized under the laws of the United States to perform such acts. TAX EXEMPT STATUS OF THE INSTITUTE 9 22 U.S.C. 3305. 10 22 U.S.C. 3306. CRS-6 Sec. 8.11 (a) The Institute, its property, and its income are exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed by the United States (except to the extent that section 11(a)(3) of this Act requires the imposition of taxes imposed under chapter 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,12 relating to the Federal Insurance Contributions Act) or by any State or local taxing authority of the United States. (b) For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,13 the Institute shall be treated as an organization described in sections 170(b)(1)(A), 170(c), 2055(a), 2106(a)(2)(A), 2522(a), and 2522(b). FURNISHING PROPERTY AND SERVICES TO AND OBTAINING SERVICES FROM THE INSTITUTE Sec. 9.14 (a) Any agency of the United States Government is authorized to sell, loan, or lease property (including interests therein) to, and to perform administrative and technical support functions and services for the operations of, the Institute upon such terms and conditions as the President may direct. Reimbursements to agencies under this subsection shall be credited to the current applicable appropriation of the agency concerned. (b) Any agency of the United States Government is authorized to acquire and accept services from the Institute upon such terms and conditions as the President may direct. Whenever the President determines it to be in furtherance of the purposes of this Act, the procurement of services by such agencies from the Institute may be effected without regard to such laws of the United States normally applicable to the acquisition of services by such agencies as the President may specify by Executive order. (c) Any agency of the United States Government making funds available to the Institute in accordance with this Act shall make arrangements with the Institute for the Comptroller General of the United States to have access to the books and records of the Institute and the opportunity to audit the operations of the Institute. TAIWAN INSTRUMENTALITY Sec. 10.15 (a) Whenever the President or any agency of the United States Government is authorized or required by or pursuant to the laws of the United States to render or provide to or to receive or accept from Taiwan, any performance, communication, assurance, undertaking, or other action, such action shall, in the manner and to the extent directed by the President, be rendered or provided to, or received or accepted from, an instrumentality established by Taiwan which the President determines has the necessary authority under the laws applied by the people 11 22 U.S.C. 3307. 12 Sec. 2 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514; 100 Stat. 2095) struck out "Internal Revenue Code of 1954" and inserted in lieu thereof "Internal Revenue Code of 1986," wherever it is cited in law. 13 See note 12. 14 22 U.S.C. 3308. 15 22 U.S.C. 3309. CRS-7 on Taiwan to provide assurances and take other actions on behalf of Taiwan in accordance with this Act. (b) The President is requested to extend to the instrumentality established by Taiwan the same number of offices and complement of personnel as were previously operated in the United States by the governing authorities on Taiwan recognized as the Republic of China prior to January 1, 1979. (c) Upon the granting by Taiwan of comparable privileges and immunities with respect to the Institute and its appropriate personnel, the President is authorized to extend with respect to the Taiwan instrumentality and its appropriate personnel, such privileges and immunities (subject to appropriate conditions and obligations) as may be necessary for the effective performance of their functions. SEPARATION OF GOVERNMENT PERSONNEL FOR EMPLOYMENT WITH THE INSTITUTE Sec. 11.16 (a)(1) Under such terms and conditions as the President may direct, any agency of the United States Government may separate from Government service for a specified period any officer or employee of that agency who accepts employment with the Institute. (2) An officer or employee separated by an agency under paragraph (1) of this subsection for employment with the Institute shall be entitled upon termination of such employment to reemployment or reinstatement with such agency (or a successor agency) in an appropriate position with the attendant rights, privileges, and benefits which the officer or employee would have had or acquired had he or she not been so separated, subject to such time period and other conditions as the President may prescribe. (3) An officer or employee entitled to reemployment or reinstatement rights under paragraph (2) of this subsection shall, while continuously employed by the Institute with no break in continuity of service, continue to participate in any benefit program in which such officer or employee was participating prior to employment by the Institute, including programs for compensation for job-related deaths, injury, or illness; programs for health and life insurance; programs for annual, sick, and other statutory leave; and programs for retirement under any system established by the laws of the United States; except that employment with the Institute shall be the basis for participation in such programs only to the extent that employee deductions and employer contributions, as required in payment for such participation for the period of employment with the Institute, are currently deposited in the program's or system's fund or depository. Death or retirement of any such officer or employee during approved service with the Institute and prior to reemployment or reinstatement shall be considered a death in or retirement from Government service for purposes of any employee or survivor benefits acquired by reason of service with any agency of the United States Government. (4) Any officer or employee of an agency of the United States Government who entered into service with the Institute on approved leave of absence without pay prior to the enactment of this Act shall receive the benefits of this section for the period of such service. 16 22 U.S.C. 3310. CRS-8 (b) Any agency of the United States Government employing alien personnel on Taiwan may transfer such personnel, with accrued allowances, benefits, and rights, to the Institute without a break in service for purposes of retirement and other benefits, including continued participation in any system established by the laws of the United States for the retirement of employees in which the alien was participating prior to the transfer to the Institute, except that employment with the Institute shall be creditable for retirement purposes only to the extent that employee deductions and employer contributions, as required, in payment for such participation for the period of employment with the Institute, are currently deposited in the system's fund or depository. (c) Employees of the Institute shall not be employees of the United States and, in representing the Institute, shall be exempt from section 207 of title 18, United States Code. (1) For purposes of sections 911 and 913 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,17 amounts paid by the Institute to its employees shall not be treated as earned income. Amounts received by employees of the Institute shall not be included in gross income, and shall be exempt from taxation, to the extent that they are equivalent to amounts received by civilian officers and employees of the Government of the United States as allowances and benefits which are exempt from taxation under section 912 of such Code. (2) Except to the extent required by subsection (a)(3) of this section, service performed in the employ of the Institute shall not constitute employment for purposes of chapter 21 of such Code and title II of the Social Security Act. REPORTING REQUIREMENT Sec. 12.18 (a) The Secretary of State shall transmit to the Congress the text of any agreement to which the Institute is a party. However, any such agreement the immediate public disclosure of which would, in the opinion of the President, be prejudicial to the national security of the United States shall not be so transmitted to the Congress but shall be transmitted to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives under an appropriate injunction of secrecy to be removed only upon due notice from the President. (b) For purposes of subsection (a), the term "agreement" includes-(1) any agreement entered into between the Institute and the governing authorities on Taiwan or the instrumentality established by Taiwan; and (2) any agreement entered into between the Institute and an agency of the United States Government. (c) Agreements and transactions made or to be made by or through the Institute shall be subject to the same congressional notification, review, and approval requirements and procedures as if such agreements and transactions were made by or through the agency of the United States Government on behalf of which the Institute is acting. 17 See note 12. 18 22 U.S.C. 3311. CRS-9 (d)19 * * * [Repealed--1983] RULES AND REGULATIONS Sec. 13.20 The President is authorized to prescribe such rules and regulations as he may deem appropriate to carry out the purposes of this Act. During the three-year period beginning on the effective date of this Act, such rules and regulations shall be transmitted promptly to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate. Such action shall not, however, relieve the Institute of the responsibilities placed upon it by this Act. CONGRESSIONAL OVERSIGHT Sec. 14.21 (a) The Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives,22 the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, and other appropriate committees of the Congress shall monitor-(1) the implementation of the provisions of this Act; (2) the operation and procedures of the Institute; (3) the legal and technical aspects of the continuing relationship between the United States and Taiwan; and (4) the implementation of the policies of the United States concerning security and cooperation in East Asia. (b) Such committees shall report, as appropriate, to their respective Houses on the results of their monitoring. DEFINITIONS Sec. 15.23 For purposes of this Act-(1) the term "laws of the United States" includes any statute, rule, regulation, ordinance, order, or judicial rule of decision of the United States or any political subdivision thereof; and (2) the term "Taiwan" includes, as the context may require, the islands of Taiwan and the Pescadores, the people on those islands, corporation and other entities and associations created or organized under the laws applied on those islands, and the governing authorities on Taiwan recognized by the United States as the Republic of China prior to January 1, 1979, and any successor 19 Sec. 1011(a)(3) of the Department of State Authorization Act, fiscal years 1984 and 1985 (P.L. 98-164; 97 Stat. 1061) repealed subsec. (d). Subsec. (D) had required a report from the Secretary of State to the Congress every 6 months until April 1981 regarding the economic relations between the United States and Taiwan. 20 22 U.S.C. 3312. 21 22 U.S.C. 3313. 22 Sec. 1(a)(5) of P.L. 104-14 (109 Stat. 186) stated that any reference to the "Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives shall be treated as referring to the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives." 23 22 U.S.C. 3314. CRS-10 governing authorities (including political subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities thereof). AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS Sec. 16.24 In addition to funds otherwise available to carry out the provisions of this Act, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of State for the fiscal year 1980 such funds as may be necessary to carry out such provisions.25 Such funds are authorized to remain available until expended. SEVERABILITY OF PROVISIONS Sec. 17.26 If any provision of this Act or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the Act and the application of such provision to any other person or circumstance shall not be affected thereby. EFFECTIVE DATE Sec. 18. This Act shall be effective as of January 1, 1979. 24 22 U.S.C. 3315. 25 The Department of State Appropriations Act, 1986 (title III of P.L. 99-180; 99 Stat. 1150), provided $9,800,000 for necessary expenses to carry out this Act during FY1986. The Department of State Appropriations Act, 1987 (title III of P.L. 99-591; 100 Stat. 3341), provided $9,379,000 for FY1987. The Department of State Appropriations Act, 1988 (title III of P.L. 100-202; 101 Stat. 1329), provided $11,000,000 for FY1988. The Department of State Appropriations Act, 1989 (title III of P.L. 100-459; 102 Stat. 2205), provided $10,890,000 for FY1989. The Department of State Appropriations Act, 1990 (title III of P.L. 101-162; 103 Stat. 1007), provided $11,300,000 for FY1990. The Department of State Appropriations Act, 1991 (title III of P.L. 101-515; 104 Stat. 2126), provided $11,752,000 for FY1991. The Department of State and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1992 (title V of P.L. 102-140; 105 Stat. 818), provided $13,784,000 for FY1992. The Department of State and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1993 (title V of P.L. 102-395; 106 Stat. 1866), provided $15,543,000 for FY1993. The Department of State and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1994 (title V of P.L. 103-121; 107 Stat. 1186), provided $15,165,000 for FY1994. The Department of State and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1995 (title V of P.L. 103-317; 108 Stat. 1762), provided $15,465,000 for FY1995. The Department of State ** , 1996 (P.L. ***) provided $15,145,000 for FY1996. The Department of State ** , 1997 (P.L. ***) provided $14,490,000 for FY1997. The Department of State ** , 1998 (P.L. ***) provided $14,000,000 for FY1998. The request for FY1999 is $16,426,000. 26 22 U.S.C. 3316. CRS-11 The Joint U.S.-China Communiqué, Shanghai February 27, 1972 President Richard Nixon of the United States of America visited the People's Republic of China at the invitation of Premier Chou En-lai of the People's Republic of China from February 21 to February 28, 1972. Accompanying the President were Mrs. Nixon, U.S. Secretary of State William Rogers, Assistant to the President Dr. Henry Kissinger, and other American officials. President Nixon met with Chairman Mao Tse-tung of the Communist Party of China on February 21. The two leaders had a serious and frank exchange of views on Sino-U.S. relations and world affairs. During the visit, extensive, earnest and frank discussions were held between President Nixon and Premier Chou En-lai on the normalization of relations between the United States of America and the People's Republic of China, as well as on other matters of interest to both sides. In addition, Secretary of State William Rogers and Foreign Minister Chi Peng-fei held talks in the same spirit. President Nixon and his party visited Peking and viewed cultural, industrial and agricultural sites, and they also toured Hangchow and Shanghai where, continuing discussions with Chinese leaders, they viewed similar places of interest. The leaders of the People's Republic of China and the United States of America found it beneficial to have this opportunity, after so many years without contact, to present candidly to one another their views on a variety of issues. They reviewed the international situation in which important changes and great upheavals are taking place and expounded their respective positions and attitudes. The U.S. side stated: Peace in Asia and peace in the world requires efforts both to reduce immediate tensions and to eliminate the basic causes of conflict. The United States will work for a just and secure peace: just, because it fulfills the aspirations of peoples and nations for freedom and progress; secure, because it removes the danger of foreign aggression. The United States supports individual freedom and social progress for all the peoples of the world, free of outside pressure or intervention. The United States believes that the effort to reduce tensions is served by improving communication between countries that through accident, miscalculation or misunderstanding. Countries should treat each other with mutual respect and be willing to compete peacefully, letting performance be the ultimate judge. No country should claim infallibility and each country should be prepared to reexamine its own attitudes for the common good. The United States stressed that the peoples of Indochina should be allowed to determine their destiny without outside intervention; its constant primary objective has been a negotiated solution; the eight-point proposal put forward by the Republic of Vietnam and the United States on January 27, 1972 represents a basis for the attainment of that objective; in the absence of a negotiated settlement the United States envisages the ultimate withdrawal of all U.S. forces from the region consistent with the aim of selfdetermination for each country of Indochina. The United States will maintain its close ties with and support for the Republic of Korea; the United States will support efforts of the Republic of Korea to seek a relaxation of tension and increased CRS-12 communication in the Korean peninsula. The United States places the highest value on its friendly relations with Japan; it will continue to develop the existing close bonds. Consistent with the United Nations Security Council Resolution of December 21, 1971, the United States favors the continuation of the cease-fire between India and Pakistan and the withdrawal of all military forces to within their own territories and to their own sides of the cease-fire line in Jammu and Kashmir; the United States supports the right of the peoples of South Asia to shape their own future in peace, free of military threat, and without having the area become the subject of great power rivalry. The Chinese side stated: Wherever there is oppression, there is resistance. Countries want independence, nations want liberation and the people want revolution--this has become the irresistible trend of history. All nations, big or small, should be equal; big nations should not bully the small and strong nations should not bully the weak. China will never be a superpower and it opposes hegemony and power politics of any kind. The Chinese side stated that it firmly supports the struggles of all the oppressed people and nations for freedom and liberation and that the people of all countries have the right to choose their social systems according to their own wishes and the right to safeguard the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of their own countries and oppose foreign aggression, interference, control and subversion. All foreign troops should be withdrawn to their own countries. The Chinese side expressed its firm support to the peoples of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia in their efforts for the attainment of their goal and its firm support to the seven-point proposal of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam and the elaboration of February this year on the two key problems in the proposal, and to the Joint Declaration of the Summit Conference of the Indochinese Peoples. It firmly supports the eight-point program for the peaceful unification of Korea put forward by the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea on April 12, 1971, and the stand for the abolition of the "U.N. Commission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea." It firmly opposes the revival and outward expansion of Japanese militarism and firmly supports the Japanese people's desire to build an independent, democratic, peaceful and neutral Japan. It firmly maintains that India and Pakistan should, in accordance with the United Nations resolutions on the India-Pakistan question, immediately withdraw all their forces to their respective territories and to their own sides of the cease-fire line in Jammu and Kashmir and firmly supports the Pakistan Government and people in their struggle to preserve their independence and sovereignty and the people of Jammu and Kashmir in their struggle for the right of self-determination. There are essential differences between China and the United States in their social systems and foreign policies. However, the two sides agreed that countries, regardless of their social systems, should conduct their relations on the principles of respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all states, non-aggression against other states, non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence. International disputes should be settled on this basis, without resorting to the use or threat of force. The United States and the People's Republic of China are prepared to apply these principles to their mutual relations. CRS-13 With these principles of international relations in mind the two sides stated that: ! progress toward the normalization of relations between China and the United States is in the interests of all countries; ! both wish to reduce the danger of international military conflict; ! neither should seek hegemony in the Asia-Pacific region and each is opposed to efforts by any other country or group of countries to establish such hegemony; and ! neither is prepared to negotiate on behalf of any third party or to enter into agreements or understandings with the other directed at other states. Both sides are of the view that it would be against the interests of the peoples of the world for any major country to collude with another against other countries, or for major countries to divide up the world into spheres of interest. The two sides reviewed the long-standing serious disputes between China and the United States. The Chinese reaffirmed its position: The Taiwan question is the crucial question obstructing the normalization of relations between China and the United States; the Government of the People's Republic of China is the sole legal government of China; Taiwan is a province of China which has long been returned to the motherland; the liberation of Taiwan is China's internal affair in which no other country has the right to interfere; and all U.S. forces and military installations must be withdrawn from Taiwan. The Chinese Government firmly opposes any activities which aim at the creation of "one China, one Taiwan," "one China, two governments," "two Chinas," and "independent Taiwan" or advocate that "the status of Taiwan remains to be determined." The U.S. side declared: The United States acknowledges that all Chinese on either side of the Taiwan Strait maintain there is but one China and that Taiwan is a part of China. The United States Government does not challenge that position. It reaffirms its interest in a peaceful settlement of the Taiwan question by the Chinese themselves. With this prospect in mind, it affirms the ultimate objective of the withdrawal of all U.S. forces and military installations from Taiwan. In the meantime, it will progressively reduce its forces and military installations on Taiwan as the tension in the area diminishes. The two sides agreed that it is desirable to broaden the understanding between the two peoples. To this end, they discussed specific areas in such fields as science, technology, culture, sports and journalism, in which people-to-people contacts and exchanges would be mutually beneficial. Each side undertakes to facilitate the further development of such contacts and exchanges. Both sides view bilateral trade as another area from which mutual benefit can be derived, and agreed that economic relations based on equality and mutual benefit are in the interest of the peoples of the two countries. They agree to facilitate the progressive development of trade between their two countries. The two sides agreed that they will stay in contact through various channels, including the sending of a CRS-14 senior U.S. representative to Peking from time to time for concrete consultations to further the normalization of relations between the two countries and continue to exchange views on issues of common interest. The two sides expressed the hope that the gains achieved during this visit would open up new prospects for the relations between the two countries. They believe that the normalization of relations between the two countries is not only in the interest of the Chinese and American peoples but also contributes to the relaxation of tension in Asia and the world. President Nixon, Mrs. Nixon and the American party expressed their appreciation for the gracious hospitality shown them by the Government and people of the People's Republic of China. CRS-15 Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic RelationsBetween the United States of America and the People's Republic of China January 1, 1979 (The communiqué was released on December 15, 1978, in Washington and Peking.) The United States of America and the People's Republic of China have agreed to recognize each other and to establish diplomatic relations as of January 1, 1979. The United States of America recognizes the Government of the People's Republic of China as the sole legal Government of China. Within this context, the people of the United States will maintain cultural, commercial, and other unofficial relations with the people of Taiwan. The United States of America and the People's Republic of China reaffirm the principles agreed on by the two sides in the Shanghai Communiqué and emphasize once again that: ! Both wish to reduce the danger of international military conflict. ! Neither should seek hegemony in the Asia-Pacific region or in any other region of the world and each is opposed to efforts by any other country or group of countries to establish such hegemony. ! Neither is prepared to negotiate on behalf of any third party or to enter into agreements or understandings with the other directed at other states. ! The Government of the United States of America acknowledges the Chinese position that there is but one China and Taiwan is part of China. ! Both believe that normalization of Sino-American relations is not only in the interest of the Chinese and American peoples but also contributes to the cause of peace in Asia and the world. The United States of America and the People's Republic of China will exchange Ambassadors and establish Embassies on March 1, 1979. CRS-16 U.S.-PRC Joint Communiqué August 17, 1982 1. In the Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations on January 1, 1979, issued by the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People's Republic of China, the United States of America recognized the Government of the People's Republic of China as the sole legal government of China, and it acknowledged the Chinese position that there is but one China and Taiwan is part of China. Within that context, the two sides agreed that the people of the United States would continue to maintain cultural, commercial, and other unofficial relations with the people of Taiwan. On this basis, relations between the United States and China were normalized. 2. The question of United States arms sales to Taiwan was not settled in the course of negotiations between the two countries on establishing diplomatic relations. The two sides held differing positions, and the Chinese side stated that it would raise the issue again following normalization. Recognizing that this issue would seriously hamper the development of United States-China relations, they have held further discussions on it, during and since the meetings between President Ronald Reagan and Premier Zhao Ziyang and between Secretary of State Alexander M. Haig, Jr., and Vice Premier and Foreign Minister Huang Hua in October 1981. 3. Respect for each other's sovereignty and territorial integrity and non-interference each other's internal affairs constitute the fundamental principles guiding United States-China relations. These principles were confirmed in the Shanghai Communiqué of February 28, 1972 and reaffirmed in the Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations which came into effect on January 1, 1973. Both sides emphatically state that these principles continue to govern all aspects of their relations. 4. The Chinese government reiterates that the question of Taiwan is China's internal affair. The Message to the Compatriots in Taiwan issued by China on January 1, 1979, promulgated a fundamental policy of striving for Peaceful reunification of the Motherland. The Nine-Point Proposal put forward by China on September 30, 1981 represented a further major effort under this fundamental policy to strive for a peaceful solution to the Taiwan question. 5. The United States Government attaches great importance to its relations with China, and reiterates that it has no intention of infringing on Chinese sovereignty and territorial integrity, or interfering in China's internal affairs, or pursuing a policy of "two Chinas" or "one China, one Taiwan." The United States Government understands and appreciates the Chinese policy of striving for a peaceful resolution of the Taiwan question as indicated in China's Message to Compatriots in Taiwan issued on January 1, 1979 and the Nine-Point Proposal put forward by China on September 30, 1981. The new situation which has emerged with regard to the Taiwan question also provides favorable conditions for the settlement of United States-China differences over the question of United States arms sales to Taiwan. CRS-17 6. Having in mind the foregoing statements of both sides, the United States Government states that it does not seek to carry out a long-term policy of arms sales to Taiwan, that its arms sales to Taiwan will not exceed, either in qualitative or in quantitative terms, the level of those supplied in recent years since the establishment of diplomatic relations between the United States and China, and that it intends to reduce gradually its sales of arms to Taiwan, leading over a period of time to a final resolution. In so stating, the United States acknowledges China's consistent position regarding the thorough settlement of this issue. 7. In order to bring about, over a period of time, a final settlement of the question of United States arms sales to Taiwan, which is an issue rooted in history, the two governments will make every effort to adopt measures and create conditions conducive to the thorough settlement of this issue. 8. The development of United States-China relations is not only in the interest of the two peoples but also conducive to peace and stability in the world. The two sides are determined, on the principle of equality and mutual benefit, to strengthen their ties to the economic, cultural, educational, scientific, technological and other fields and make strong, joint efforts for the continued development of relations between the governments and peoples of the United States and China. 9. In order to bring about the healthy development of United States China relations, maintain world peace and oppose aggression and expansion, the two governments reaffirm the principles agreed on by the two sides in the Shanghai Communiqué and the Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations. The two sides will maintain contact and hold appropriate consultations on bilateral and international issues of common interest. CRS-18 The "Six Assurances" to Taiwan In 1982, during negotiations for the 3 U.S.-China Communique on Arms Sales to Taiwan, the Taiwan government presented the United States with six points that it proposed the United States use as guidelines in conducting U.S.-Taiwan relations. According to former Ambassador John Holdridge, the United States agreed to these points, conveyed this assent to Taiwan, and, in late July 1982, informed Congress of the agreement. The six points are: 1. The United States would not set a date for termination of arms sales to Taiwan. 2. The United States would not alter the terms of the Taiwan Relations Act. 3. The United States would not consult with China in advance before making decisions about U.S. arms sales to Taiwan. 4. The United States would not mediate between Taiwan and China. 5. The United States would not alter is position about the sovereignty of Taiwan — which was, that the question was one to be decided peacefully by the Chinese themselves — and would not pressure Taiwan to enter into negotiations with China. 6. The United States would not formally recognize Chinese sovereignty over Taiwan.