Committee Numbrs, Sizes, Assignments, and Staff-: Selected Hi orieal

96-109 GOV Committee Numbrs, Sizes, Assignments, and Staff-: Selected Hi orieal Carol Hardy Vincent Speci list in American National Government Elizabeth Rybicki Analvst in American National Government Government Division February 1, 1996 Nrm COMMITTEE NUMBERS, SIZES, ASSIGNMENTS, AND STAFF: SELECTED HISTORICAL DATA SUMMARY The long periods of gradual growth and the intervals of decline in the number and size of committees and subcommittees and their staffs can be explained primarily by the major congressional reorganization acts, periodic rules changes, party caucus reforms, and informal changes to meet emerging needs and demands. The development of today's committee system is a product of internal congressional reforms, but national forces also have played a role. This report contains data on the numbers and si subcommittees and on Members' assignments since 194 years, the number of House standing committees has number of subcommittees increased considerably from t 1970's. Total House and joint committees and subcommi 1975. Dramatic cuts, primarily in the last two Congres panels. As the number of House eommi the post-war period, so did the numb average doubled from three to six fro: Today's lower average of five assign. to stricter assignment limitations s subcommittees during the last two C As in the Ho relatively constant, least three Senate Senate and joint e( than half the high assignments per S peaked in the mid tycal Senator ser id ;uch trees increased during r Representative. The crept to seven in 1987. itive can b attributed ?er of committees and ,ber of Senate standing committees has been niitees increased dramatically by the 1970's. At ave sinereversed the upward trend in total d subcommittees Today's figure of 92 is less ed in the mid970's. The average number of nereased from the 1940's to the 1970's, and most 16 Due to periodic reforms, today the int, and joint commitees-and subcommittees. Despite the reductions in assignments and committees and subcommittees, the sizes of ,,.ending committees and subcommittees have crept upward during tho 50oyear period reviewed here. Figures for 1995 reflect the largest average size, In 19 5, IOoIse standing committees and subcommittees averaged 40 and 15 Member; with nine a. respectively; 18 was the average Senate standing committee size, the average size for each subcommittee. This reports also contains data on committee staff sizes from 1979 through 1995. By 1979, House standing committee staff was nearly three times larger than it was in l970. Staff size subsequently levelled off, until reductions in 1995 cut total House committee staff by one-third compared to the 1994 level. Senate standing committee staff nearly doubled during the 1970's. On three subsequent occasions the Senate made notable cuts to committee staffs, making the 1995 figure one-third lower than the 1979 figure. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .... ........ ........................ HOUSE AND SENATE ...... Size of Committees and Subcommittees ....... HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 1 2 ............. .............. 3 Number of Committees and Subcommittees ................... Assignments to Committees and Subcommittees 3 5 5 Staff of Committees and Subcommittees SEN ATE ........................................ 7 Number of Comnmittees and Subcommittees Assignments to Committees and Subcommittees .............. Staff of Committees and Subcommittees ...... TABLES Table 1. Table 2, Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Table 6. Table 7. Table S. Table 9. Table 10. 2 ...... Average Number of Members Serving on Senate and House Standing Committees and Their Subcommittees, 79th104th Congress .10 Number of House Committees and Thei Subcommittees, 79th-104th Congress ......... ................. House Committee Assignments, 79th-104th Congress Distribution of Representatives by Number of Committee and Subcommittee Assignments, 102nd104th Congress .. . . . . . . . ............ House Committee Staff, 1979-1995 . Comparison of House Committee Staff, 1994 and 1995 Number 0f Senate Cornmittees and Their Subcommittees, 79th-104th Congress ............. Senate Committee Assignments. 79th-104th Congress Distribution of Senators by Number of Committee and Subcommittee Assignments, 102nd-104th Congress ... Senate Committee Staff, 1979-1995 ............... APPENDIX OF SELECTED REFORM COMMITTEES .............. 7 8 9 10 i11 12 14 15 13........ 17 18 19 21 22 24 The authors wish to thank Mildred Boyle for the secretarial production of this report. COMMITTEE NUMBERS, SIZES, ASSIGNMENTS, AND STAFF: SELECTED HISTORICAL DATA INTRODUCTION in the The long periods of gradual growth and the interw reflect number and size of committees and subcommittees anc sional several influences, Facors affecting committees include thE orrlal reorganization acts, periodic rules changes, party canCus r While changes in practice and procedures to meet emerging needs development of the committee systern is a product of in sional reforms, national forces also have played a ro'e. The G' n and World War II greatly expanded the legislative agend, Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946, from which the modern congress is customarily dated. Outside forces also spurred a second bicameral reorganization act twenty-four years later. New comp lex policy areas, an increasingly dominant executive branch, and low opinion nolls were cited by supporters of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970. The periodic reforms in the last twenty-five years resulted from Members' responses to such developments as well as to their own desire to improve t he organization and operation of their institution. This report of committees a 1945. The dat The report also through March eiticall nd other information on the numbers and sizes es and on Members' assignments to them sin ce congresss are current as of the Spring of 1995. on the size of each committee's staff from 1979 discusses the size of House and Senate standing committees a nd their subcommittees. By chamber, it then addresses the number of committee s and Subcommiees, the assignment of Members to committees and subcomm ittees, and the, ize of comm it tee staffs, Following this discussion are ten tables containing figures which serve as the basis of the discussion. The final section is an appendix listing the major reform committees mentioned in the report by name, or referenced by the reform measure that resulted from the committee's vork. It also contains one or two citations to the work of each committee if further information is desired. The information in this report sometimes differentiates between standing and non-standing committees, The term standing committees refers to the permanent panels idenLifled in chamber rules, which also list the jurisdiction of each. In their areas, standing committees consider bills and issues and 1 Data on the size of each committee's staff is readily available only since 1979. CRS-2 recommend measures for consideration by the respective chambers, as well as Most standing conduct oversight of agencies, programs, and activities. committees recommend authorized levels of funds for government operations and for new and existing programs within their jurisdiction. The term non-standing committee is used in this report to describe the joint, select, special. and other panels of Congress. The joint committees usually are permanent panels that conduct studies or perform housekeeping tasks rather than consider measures. Members of' both chambers serve on them. Conference committees, temporaryjoint committees formed to resolve differences in House- and Senate-pass ed version s of a part cular measure, arc not addressed by this report. Some of Congress's select, special, and oth, while others have been temporary. Often one ha; standing committee system does not address an particular event sparks interest in an investigate conduct investigations and studies, sometimes I House and Senate Intelligence Committees are with legislative jurisdiction; they consider east action by the chambers. While some non-stan are mostly a phenomenon specific tasks, such es oN measures, in particulars committees. ,es these panels e~asures. The Iet committees amend them for subcommittees, subcommittees ?es. These subunits are assigned tial consideration of issues and nes established by their parent HOUSE AND Size of COMB urittees (Table 1) Today as i the past, the average size of a House standing committee is roughly twice -s large as the average Senate standing committee. House subcommittees f standing committees currently are about two-thirds larger .e counterparts. The larger size of the House committees and s primarily due to the larger size of the chamber; the House is times the size of the Senate. The average sizes of House and Senate standing committees have increased overall since 1947. After the 1946 Reorganization Act established the modern committee system, the average size of a House standing committees was twentyfive. At the start of the 104th Congress (1995-1996), standing committees were larger than ever, averaging forty Members. Also, the size of their subcommittees grew somewhat steadily during the last fifty years, doubling between the 80th and 104th Congresses (1947-1995). The increase in both House committee and subcommittee size can be attributed to a variety of factors including increasing demands on them, CRS-3 Members' calls for more assignments, and the need of party leaders' for more assignments to distribute. The recent decline in the number of panels may have contributed to the increase in the number of Members on remaining committees and subcommittees. The average membership for a Senate standing committee has increased since 1947 from about 13 to 18 Senators. The average size of their subcommittees also has increased, reaching its highest level of nine Senators in the 104th Congress (1995-1996). While still small, the typical subcommittee grew by 74 percent from 1947 to 1995, Senate committee and subcommittee sizes have been affected by changes in the structure of the committee system. For example when the Senate cut three committees in 1977, the size of the average committee increased by two members. The 104th Congress (1995-1996) reduced the number of standing subcommittees bv 18. but increased their average size slightly. Table 1 depicts the average size of and subcommittees from 1945 to the p uomii see HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Number of Committees and Sub 2 The House has used committees since the first Congress, when it created standing Committee s on Elections ad Enrolled Bills as well as numerous temporary committeees The House steadily increased its reliance on standing committees during tIhe nineteenth century. and following the Civil War the committee system ex handed rapidly. The number of House standing committees peaked ar 6i in 19L 3, Despite reforms to reduce this figure during the early decades of the twentyieth century, by midcentury the House committee system had -town too larpe and disorganized to facilitate effective policvmaking. Congress responded )y enacting the Le gislative Reorganization Act of 1946, one goal of whi was to systematize and reorganize the committee systems of the House and Senate, Often regarded as the blueprint of the contemporary Congress, the 1946 Act dramatically reduced the number of IIouse standing committees from 48 n the 79Lh Congress (1945-46) to 19 in the 80th Congress (1947-48k Since then the number of standing committees has remained fairly constant, increasing gradually to a high of 22 in the 93rd Congress (1973-1974). For the next two decades the House operated with 22 standing committees. The drop to 19 in the 104th Congress (1995-1996) is the largest change i the number of standing committees since 1946. The new majority party in the 104tb Congress (1995-1996) advanced a plan which the House adopted, that returned the number of standing committees to 19 by eliminating the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries and by combining three others to form the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. CRS-4 Over the past 50 years the House has always used far fewer non-standing committees than standing ones, but the number of select, special, joint, and other committees has changed over time. For the first decade of this period, the House relied on a handful of select and special committees in each Congress. but by the 84th Congress ft955-1956) only one such panel remained. In the 91st Congress (1969-1970). the House created a second, and in subsequent Congresses through the 102nd (1991-1992) the House had between three and seven select and special committees. Since the 103rd Congress ,i993-1994), when four select panels were not renewed, the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence has been the House's only non-standing committee. (Table 5 identifies the House's 19 standing committees and one select committee.) Representatives served on between five and ell years from 1945 through 1978, with Congress aver; to handle matters affecting both chambers. Sinc 1980), only four permanent joint committees have b 103rd Congress the creation of a temporary joint co last two Congresses the joint committees have opera although in the contemporary Congress they baN subcommittees in a single Congress. In contrast to the fairly fifty years, the number of gradually in response to thi policy areas and the corresp( from Members for nels to 50) 81st Congress To counter (1973-1974), establishing subcommittees subcommittees for most star. opportunities for Members result the number ofsubcoi next few Conaresses ueakir igresq (197 9n, and in the ire, For the mcm6ittees, many" as 16 tabe number of standing committees in the last committees of standing committees increased -overnment's expansion into new, more complex ing need for specialization, as well as to demands id. From a low of 62 such subcommittees in the ? figure had doubled (125) by the 93rd Congress e resistance of some full committee chairs to n 1975 the House set a minimum number of nig committees (four). This change provided more obtain leadership of a subcommittee. Partly as a Littees of standing committees increased over the ii the 96th Congress (1979-1980) at 150. Tn the pasi, fifteen years the Housc has reduced the number of subcommittees of standing committees. The number declined slightly in 1981 when scheduling difficulties and disputes over subcommittee jurisdiction led the Democratic Caucus to limit the number of subcommittees per committee (except Appropriations) to between six and eight. Further reductions were made in the 103rd Congress (1993-1994), when a Democratic Caucus rule capped most "exclusive" and "major" committees at six subcommittees, while "non-major" committees were restricted to five. 2 A change in House rules at the start of the 104th Congress further restricted the number of subcommittees to no more than five for most committees, leaving 84 subcommittees of standing committees. 2 The House Democratic Caucus classifies committees into three categories (exclusive, major, and non-major) to assign members to committees. The list of committees currently in each category is contained in Rule 18 of the Preamble and Rules of the Democratic Caucus, One Hundred and Fourth Congress, February 27, 1995. CRS-5 The 104th Congress (1995-1996) total of 110 House and joint committees and subcommittees on which Representatives serve is the lowest figure in the last four decades (for which totals are available). Noteworthy are the dramatic decreases of the last two Congresses. The 103rd Congress (1993-1994) changes, among them the subcommittee limitations and the elimination of most select panels, led to a 19 percent reduction over the previous Congress (185 to 149). The 1994 election of a Republican majority for the first time in 40 years spurred a reduction in 1995 in the total number of House panels by another 26 percent (from 149 to Il0). Specific data on the number of committees and their subcom 1945 to the present are displayed in Table 2. Assiglments to Committees and Subeommie As the number and size of committees a: the post-war period, so did the average nu: From the 80th to the 94th Congress (19 committee and subcommittee assignments p: Members' demands for service on additional goal of the legislative reforms in the 1970 panels and the number of committee and positions for rank and file Members. The increased scheduling and in Democratic Caucus though exemptions Member crept to sei the 103rd Congress and subcommittees assignments. The 11 more than five subc( subcommittee assi assignments to belo D& provide subeom number most rf Represe ittees from Tbles 3 and 4 sed during - Member. lumber of ,on t arse to six. iecr- One ease th e number of dlote leadership er of assignments eventually led to difficulties in ing quorums at meetings. In the late 1970's, the d its Mlembers to five subcommittee assignments, granted. The average number of assignments per he 100th Congr~ess (1987-1988); it returned to six in 4994) due to a one-fifth reduction in all committees 1, half of the House Members 'had more than six congress (1995-19964 restricted most committees to no :ees, and set a general maximum of six committee and per Member. decreasing the average number of total for the first time since 1966. information concerning committee assignments in the House is able 3 and 4. Table 3 covers the total number of committee and assignments from 1945 to the present, as well as the mean ;ignments per Member. Table 4 contains data only from the three Congresses, but provides a specific tabulation of how many had tes a certain number of assignments. Staff of Committees and Subcommittees, Tables 5 and 6 Although committees were authorized staff as early as the middle of the nineteenth century, it was not until the passage of the 1946 Act that modern staffing arrangements began. The Act allowed most standing committees to hire ten permanent employees. In the years following the 1946 Act the House CRS-6 authorized additional staff for most committees by laws such as the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970 and by resolutions such as H.Res. 988 (1974. arising out of the work of the Select Committee on Committees ("Bolling Committee"), The staff of House committees has increased considerably since 1946, with the most dramatic growth occurring in the 1970's. By 1979, House standing committee staff was nearly three times larger than in 1970, increasing from approximately 700 to 1900. A number of reasons have been cited for this increase. First, the internal reform movement increased minority stag and took the exclusive power to hire committee staff away from the committee chairmen. Second, the number of subcommittees increased, and hence the need for more people to staff them. Third. committees were confronting larger egiiative workloads to deal with new and increasingly complex issues such as energy and the environment. Larger staffs allowed committees to inve! tigate more issues. hold more hearings, and write more legislation. Fourt.l tet Congress wanted to avoid excessive dependency upon the executive branch for information, The number of total House comm to save money and partly because the From 1980 to 1994, staff ranged from (in 1991), a difference of twenty per-Republican majority's campaign prom: third. The resolution providing for overwhelming bipartisan support. T 1994 to 1,317 in 1995. ed off around 1980, partly tress were being satisfied. n 1981) to a high of 2,285 accordance with the new staff were reduced by oneUse funding passed with staff went from 2,001 in ts the number of staff for each committee from 1979 to e staff of committees eliminated before the 104th Congress, s-trueture. Where name changes but the table is b; ,d on the 199.5 rntitte was ma~de to the corresponding committee (e.g., National occurred, eompari The staff of the Security is coma ed to the former Armed Services). Committees on P( Office and Civil Service and the District of Columbia were added to the Corn tee on Government Operations in the years 1979-1994 for new Government Reform and Oversight Committee. The comparison with Committee on chan Marine and Fisheries, eliminated in 1995 (with jurisdiction transf red to multiple committees) and other committees eliminated before 1995 are r( cted in the second half of the table as "other committees. Table 5 pros 199VJ It includes 1994 of' st; 6 provides a direct omparison between the staff of committees in ie staff of committees in 1995, reflecting the number and percentage uetions on each committee. Data on the size of each committee's staff is readily available only since 1979. CRS-7 SENATE Number of Committees and Subcommittees, Table 7 Like the House, the Senate also has used committees since its first meetings. The Senate's early reliance on ad hoc committees soon gave way to the establishment of perman ent standing committees, 12 of which v ere created in 1816. Throughout the nineteenth century the Senate committee system grew steadily, its growth mirroring the growth of the Nation. Iithe peak year. 1913, the Senate had 74 standing committees- this unwieldy arrangement prompted a 1921 reform to eliminate 40 minor, superfluous, or moribund panels. But the struggle to coordinate war policy during World War II indicated a need for further reform, and in 1946 Congress responded with the Legislative Reorganization Act. Among its changes, the 1946 Act r committees in the Senate from 33 to 15. Site The number crept up, peaking at 18 in the shifted committee jurisdictions and chin (District of Columbia, Post Office and Civil S, Sciences), based on a reform proposal by the to Study the Senate Committee System 1,"Ste 97th Congress (1981-4982) the Select Co elevated to a standing commitee; 16 stand, (Table 10 identifies the Senate's 16 standing non-standing committees.) I the number ol standing Sthe change has been slight. _970's In 1977, the Senate three standing committees and Aeronautical and Space temporary Select Committee .Brock Committee". In the e or, Small Business was nmittees have existed since. inittees, as well as the four The Senate, like the House, hs used moe standing committees than any other type of cor mitte over the past 50 years. During this time. between one and seven select special, or other committees have handled particular issues for the Senate, with four such panels listingg since 1989. Senators, too, met with House counterpairts to deal wih business affecting both bodies on between five and eleven joint committees from 1945 through 1978. During those years, on average Conress had nine joint committees, Each Congress since the 96th (197s9-1980) has used four permanent joint committees, and a temporary joint committee also as created in the 103rd Congress (1993-1994), making five. During the last t wo Congresses joint committees did not create subcommittees whereas in the ea r ier vears there were as many as 16 joint subcommittees. Subcommittees, primarily a phenomenon of standing committee, increased in number as well as importance in the Senate from the 1940's to the 1970's. The figure of 61 in the 80th Congress (1947-1948l more than doubled to 127 in the 93rd Congress (1973-1974). The growth in the number of subcommittees reflects the Federal Government's expansion into new policy areas. efforts to disperse committee leadership authority, and attempts to foster specialization. " The Committee on Indian Affairs is a non-standing committee, although the Senate dropped the term "select' from its title in 1993 CRS-8 Since the mid-1970's, periodic reforms have reversed the earlier trend of increasing subcommittees. In 1977, the recommendations of the StevensonBrock Committee led to a reduction of about one-fifth in the number of subcommittees from 122 to 96). The figure rose somewhat in 1981, partly because the Select Committee on Small Business was elevated to a standing committee. The Senate's number of committees and subcommittees an were examined in 1984 by the second Temporary Select Committ( Senate Committee System ("Quayle Committee"). Largely as a Committee's work, in 1985 the numbers of assignments per subcommittees were reduced, Fourteen subcommittees of stand' were eliminated, leaving 88, This figure varied little until the I (1995-1996), which cut 18 subcommittees of standing committees. brought the number of subcommittees to its lowest level since 19, in committee budgets, and concerns about the number a assignments, prompted committees to cut back on their subunit; The 104th Congress (1995-1996 and subcommittees is the lowest fign available. The upward trend in the n been met with cuts over the past two ' and subcommittees resulted from the The average increased from th 1970's. In 1977 number of eommi the typical Senat( I: numb Senate slots. ittees and their subcommittees 7 committees, Tables 8 and 9 Assignme erne ci Congress reduCt ion eduetions ns and senatee ana join, committee ir decades for which totals are Less panel- into the 1970's has table reductions in committees e Stevenson-Brock and Quayle rn and budget savings. Committees and contemporary presst Specific information the numrn from 1945 to the present is provided ignments 'tudy the it of this )-"and of remitters of committee assignments per Senator gradually to the 1970', peaking at almost 16 during the midhe Stevenson-Brock Committee reforms, the total rubcommittee seats was cut by about one-third, and on !0 or 11 committees and subcommittees. 98th Congress (1983-1984), however, the average rose to 12 because ,tee and several subcommittees had been added, and a significant ciemptions to the assignment limitations were granted, In 1983, 43 re author zed committee assignments, and 16 received subcommittee .d the limitations that took effect in 1977. In 1985. in response to the Quayle Committee recommendations, the limitations on assignments were more strictly enforced; t-he average dropped to around 11 per Senator, where it stayed for a decade. Following the change in party control for the 104th Congress, the average number of assignment ts per Senator dropped to 10. At the same time the number of Senators with more than 10 assignments went from roughly two-thirds to one-third (from 62 to 35). CRS-9 Fewer subcommittees and stricter enforcement of assignment limitations contributed to the decrease. Tables 8 and 9 present information on committee assignments. Table 8 provides the number of committee and subcommittee assignments from 1945 to the present, as well as the mean number of assignments per Senator. Table 9 contains data only from the last three Congresses, but provides a specific count of how many Senators had a certain number of assignments. Staff of Committees and Subcommittees, Table 10 The Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 firscommittees to hire a permanent complement of establishing the modern staffing arrangement. The committees has since grown notably, especially in t Senate had approximately 600 standing committee doubled to around 1,100 by 1979. The growth reflects for larger staffs to conduct more investigations and -, well as the desire to avoid excessive reliance on tl information and to establish an independent basis b growth, however, was not stead during the 197( committee staff fell fourteen percent due partly to a of subcommittees and a shift of certain committee personal payrolls Senate commi following year, a n committee budget Committee staff si employed a minimi be largely attribute, investigative nee4 afrf, the figure nearly e committees' requests fle niore legislation'. ;.s executive branch for decisionmaking. The In 1977. standing auction in the number iployees to Members' with a tota of 1 212 employees, In the s funding committees along with in staff of 11 percent (to 1,074)X ron 1981 to 1993, Senate committees Ia maxii .um of1 124 staff, The constancy can strain ,i and the fact that the le-islative and tees we re adequately met. just to signifcanL cuts in their 1993 budgets, Senate committees rimmed -,heir staff y 15 percent to 961 employees. In 1995, the Senate achievedd .goal of he new Republican majority by accomplishing sizeable cuts tee budgets and staffs. The result was an 18 percent staff cut to 791 1the lowest Figure in the 15 years covered by Table 10. These recent nions, supported widely by both parties, reflect the movement to cut nt spending. gol To Tab presents 10 portrays the number of staff for each committee from 1979 to the 'The 1975 adoption of S Res 60 allowed each Senator to hire a nuain-u o2 three asistants to handle conoitter work related to the Meber's ' assigned comraitees While orig-naly counted as committee employees, in 1977 these staff were shifted to personal office Payrolls. 6 Data on -the size of each committee's staff is readily available only since 1979, CRS-10 Table 1. Average Number of Members Sering on Senate and House Standing Committees and Their Subcommittees, 79th-104th Congress' Senate Cotessig Committees 1945-46- 79 sJubomniettee of Senate Sianding Committees Mo Standing Comittee Subcommittees of Hous Stading Committes 149 7.7 200, 7.8 25.4 73 80 C947 48 18.4 5.3 8I (:949-60, 13.5 . 82 1951-527 135 83 e1953-549 14.1 7 277 8 84 196-156) 14 1 159 286 M 85 (1957-58) 140 28-7 88 19g59-60) 15.6 Ao02_7 97 2E. 2F 1!642 5,0 7.2 10.0 7 I o 4 622 9. E 0 29 4 a0 88 ,196o-64) 89 k! 965-66) 90 t 96 7-68 i 5U 7.7 29510.2 9! ,196c9-70i 15 71 BO0. 92 11971-72) 14"I 7 91 1197 V74) 14 75 32 4 94 1 79 352 11.5 16 0 977 78, H)2 6,9 35.2 i!.8 96 97 t1979-80 16.5 7A 842 84.6 11 B 12 98 93 18 4 768 4.7 12.3 17A4 7 ,g 35.5 1. 18 5 8 1 06.7 130 .05 372 13.0 Q98- 86 go 1{0 t5 f"IO S 80.; 5672 1 19759I199921 11 101 1,)If 848.3387 85 1987185 I6,4 8 19, -96 18g4 9240,5 8.4 ,1 Data in rhis -abl, are denied from figures in acompanyIng tables on numbers of, and aosig in rnis I subeouneittes st one 1945, Data are current as of One Sprin,' of 995 0.8 1 12 993-94) 9L2 10,2 22 148 2. :Inrrni In t I,; i CRS-11 Table 2. Number of House Committees and Their Subcommittees, 79th- 104th Congress IISelect tmmittem C- rNumbr,umber, , Full su1Fb 79 0945-46 48 97 80 t7-48 1 19 i.2 81 x14 -O 19 62 82 (951-52)1 19 73 13 1953-54) 19 81 84 1955-56 19 8 i195-7-) end special Stading Cammiteea Sub 9 6 NA NA 6 NA 8 NA qN NA NA 7 NA NA 32 2 NA 10 NA 3! 85 ! 5 10 1 19 1-4 i 6 2G 12 1 7 1t9431-621 20 12F) I 7 88 '1963-64) 20 121 1 4 1.) 11" 89 1965-6) 20 125 1 7 11 1, 90 (1967-6b) 29 135 1 91 M69-70) 21 10 2 92 1971-721 21 123 3 98 1973-741 2 125 6 94 1i97B-76 2- 14942 95 (1977-78) 22 146 6 6 5 96 11979-80, 22 15 ;f 8 4 5 97 (1981-82' 22 110 7 4 6 98 {1983-84I 12 4 99 19-86 100 fw98-g) 7 23s 2:2 ;'af 6 -5 12 4191i-92 22 135 5 103 (1993-941 22 118 1 1041 01996- 9 g4 1 Data Cogrs~oa Sa~iecoy:Cng~aina Co, U.S. Code Congressioa andAd ci ins-ative Nes.ad -d l]t NA, NA NA NA NA KA 1(1 '[1 S 46 176 31 i)8 169 2 146 178 1.11 22 156 88 9 15 -2 5I 1 68 15 32 143 175 37 148 18o 167 133 157 1(1 163 Ic 194 29 153 182 6 31 157 188 9 11 34 4 6 31 59 5 4 f, 32 '62 '.94 9 4 S 3) 1,5 156 8 31 154 165 5 0 28 121 149 4 0 24 86 110 Libra-v of .ongres Comgressona Research SeIce, WorhloadondActi it, ori No. 93-707CGOV, b 1%bert MonM and Caro! oid, VA R uatrlCongrsoai@ ntte 14 2 un vss otb6rwic notrA. som.- ir~tde thn Covon panel 0 91, 11 )2nd Congress are taken from U xr - -4 11950 Soi re 6 g 8 Report: "U.S HS i o C.o iwittee NA 3 Toa Full 87 ] 8uhtmi Full Sub-om LS Number, F 2 oint (ommit Numbr of-mitl ~. -inxnl lancad(oessional p I-niWa~h}3ingn, 1993, p. 22. For allCongrees, h I5 elr ,e ie Hx v w ,ate5 Wee-O Report: West Pubhshing Monitor Publishing Co., Congreoral Yellow Boh NA inieptos that th, information k' On rpndy availabl-e I Data are current aa of tle Spring of 1995 2 As of the 9,th Congress. this figure includes Budget Committee Task Foares. Task Forces of other standing committees are 3 A, of the 49th C ingreoa, this figure icludxs tak foreee, not included, CRS-12 Table 3. House Committee Assiments, 79th-l4 Total Number of -... Comgreas . : . v,:_ . .. Standing mittoesi 11 omMIALtt e Asigsmot Suleoumittem of Standing Committees ign e]; Sel eeo', & goig CmIAitte 3 Tota" 79 t 1945-46) 941 752 f 2 $ 22 ec 1947 4,q) 482 742 56 1,230 11 M (HI496 0 481 535 66 l LI 82 915 491 101 ] 1 84 1Ohs 54 526 670 , 26 542 71,423 84 (1955-56 66 Select., Stmnding AnE ties & Joint Ciiieas Total 4,2 L2 0.2 2.5 I _ 02 2.7 12 1.5 0.2 2A) 13 18 113 131 2 5.49 975 12,5 1,669 19 86 1 M9,-60 575 LgrI 144 Ih14 ,,, 87 161% 6 6S4 1,128 161 1,c721 1,3 88 119V-6) 694 163-j 1,942 89 11965-66) 6M 171 90 1196768) 6f 91 i1969-70) 67 92 11971-72) 67,1 93 1197,L74b 94 ( 1976!16) 95 11977-7,S) 96 3,8 0,3 42 26 04 43 1.4 2'A f).3 45 2,047 L4 2,9 OA 4.7 187 21,178 1.4 186 2,226 1,5 284I) 1.5 1,A50 13.2 3 2 5 1 04 h3 M3 627 0,5 G9 6.2 6 261 20 L 77 1 719 211) 2a99 18 776 1,716 259 2,75 1.8 39 0 11979060 1 U2 242 208 17 3.9 06 97 1-2 564 235 2,556 17 3.6 05 08 )196-475 277 2752 I7 9 0 35 5,n 0A 1 1, nto-1i fpeoifll 2,9 1957-68) ,4 thooSUme~mittoes 0.1 ?IG 1,274 C 0-6 621 CRS-13 Table 3. House Committee Assignments, 79thTotal Number of Commtee,'¢ Standing Comlttee* cngrous 99 k1985 86) Subcommitt of Standing Committe t~iaental ee A special, & -J jut committee 781 1,734 807 1,8228 8990! 818 1,711 -176 12 01991-921 851 1,818 42o 101 (1990-94) 86q 1,71 Inc 0,1987-h8) it m 1041 1779 T96 323 Mean Numaber, of Com mittee mnsignmentR2 Ling nit hqs Tot 2,&18 2,988 rI 2, I II are urret am of th Si4 o ! RQ5 0 70 4 1 09 6.8 1.9 4,097 U 1,0 7.0 -essma| 2.9 W,.Iork'load and Ac d e ,i 0 1 18 or : U.S. 1oun. of Rpor-"+ norea . w-milti- on the Orgu-nixation of Congrcss, I'aaring, 79th C oug lt Soqs, March 1;3-Jno 29, 1945 Washita on. y the "C;rkof the louse of ReFesentatis ., lrLwn sao. u, 'ngres'i hing Co, U Od.C' ongres orta and Adi.oi i-in t o7,nO Monitor ~ Mqiolers were pemit~e to vote in e tee. A,'rootding-yw since then thv have been , and Oe Roeident Cownsiasiter. for a t.oil of 440 Meralem mr'As h y t5 nuerr of Members, which was 436 fom the 7911 Congre-s to the 91st C froan the 98th CogrcEs to lte$04th Conll res tr is, ta 8TO U) Lb FORst4*' Committee a-soiolneents p. 1 Qzzaetr~y Week],v Rfporg; Wo.A Po 4 TOGA Ih Data for tho 791h Congres- are compiled from U- Conpres 1 9, 1, 1345 p. 1064 Foe ai Other e ; StaffI.rpelor,; C ngrusgonal Qnute ty Almo 1ong Pujblishing Co, Congn w Yelo'w lBo 3 congresss , 430 from the 92,rd loSnfTes to the 971,h C, -! ql 3 Figuiree rhilve tden House h@4member 4f selccL r~ia and St-ltoA, Sppe1ah &.1aint Coxaited 0 Z1.2 :a_' of Congs. Cc Delegates and Nubcomri~ttc fatnuding Commntteaff 1,8 Source" Dar through the t02nd Congress are takeui h wr Report No. 493-07 GOV, by Ikuheot Mon and CaroI Hlardy V 1 Itg-nning with the 92nd Con.gce, -S 1 1298 In the 104th Cnnhgeoss there were 135 Rsf,p entmfives, 'Clu 2 .fhin li-sre i,- derived by h iding the nu rbor ofconuil C iheir subomnite .va frit nuted it thoe figu res ,136 i 4nu the 92nd CRS-14 Table 4. Distribution of Representatives by Number of Committee and Subcommittee Assignments, 102nd-104th Conressl .. .... Nu Cer of ents Number of Rlepresentatives 102nd Cogress 103rd Congress 3 3 10, Conigress2 6 23 2 9 3 39 67 68 4 46 45 87 5 35 37 85 6 51 57 '07 7 94 119 32 8 674, 9 49 32 8 10 26 11 1 19 0 114 4 12 40 13 0 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 6.0 4,5 17 Average Nu 6 Aasi4MentS Den IPuibli-ing Co., Waahingon, D C- 1991 and 1992ads. for !02nd- Fall ed., 1914 for )r l4th. the 102ndLCngrts was als ore v-ia Leader and Minori louse standing, select, andjoint committees and their subomm itees Teby d' mir re~lct hrIoe hi ppostio-s, :reas, task 'area. boar s, or commissiors fmriiy Loadr do not sore on Ftanding, seect, orjoint committees except in an ex-offi io capaor r. Thus for Prteth 1r3rd Congrera, data aic provided for 437 Members because there elt, ata are provided 'or 4cB M8 dqla rv ph-i0ed for 136 Memben because- in addition, the Majority it tis time, For the 104th G-n-rFi, Whip did -ol serve on any committees. 2 Data are varoil as CZille Spring of !99. These averages differ from tie table "House Committee A-Assigments, "9th-'4*h Con, result from using data from different sources as available for the respetive time periods uirch as 0.J. The differenci CRS-15 Table 5. House CommitLee CurntCmm8owr 1981 17 A~ !r71 7fl 198 1921084 2T Staff 1979- 6 62 62 6.5 571 Appropria .Aius 11 12 137 133 147 170 too l 917 Barikh!,6 mid Finai-M Services 14f 945 87 95 87 91 9 90 94 (, 94 97 95 0.1 100 108 A l 101 1011 idgret1 81 84 Cummk im, 154 146 1I 140 1 01 Econumc arid Erhu+..ional -isr di 120 136 HI Ing "15 I11 120 il 191 192 188 IDA 212 zoo lb misc Ovq-gigbtl 266 250 2611 25F 256 2661 A5 9 8 +-Hv+:rw min f,.R (v 8rnl 3 Nafla S eriirty Nai6-1a ;.ur'e Science AG 82 8C, 8 447 5o 9 AD r., 7' +)] 70 + 71 7 12, u 4 d Ards of Offia(31 , Rtdu. Trr.pridation i89and 14m, It uO EA rv I ;j 42 4V, 1 5 43 87 90 1 in 76 76 A9 8 205 200 6 69 200 215 8 68 T 2 -,18 212 148 1 6 4 14 139 12 144 Ir2 144 140 Mb 70 110 116 121 109 li1 117 115 104 104 69 2,1 195 195 19J 0 01 208 206 195 182 81 269 254 273 277 293 2,5 314 32D 31$ 161 86 95 95 I. 1n 101 106 102 93 02 $82 72 7 C1 9 781 nOr62 Brt 3)i 6 67 68 72 69 69 67 71 46 46 75 79 74 71 Z3 51 ,8 0 10 9 1n0 81 86 81 82 A '71 8 73 7 67 81 82 8 75 65 i 71 82 21 7 72 45 4 76 79 76 85 n1 A4 .0 53 54 62 151 49 54 51 43 1:; 28 1 10 8 11 11 12 10 9 oF 81 83 84 97 88 87 81 75 29 5 8+ AC,1 32 g8i 3 81 33 00 12 34 32 41 4 2 41 42 46 60 41 0 91 91 91 91 92 88 94 9 96 98 138 138 ll 103 :W 2-9 22 19 17 22 18 21 22 25 25 27 24 24 1,86 1,924 M1 Permanut Se.lect (OPFTMt.PP ,iN D 1,7fl, 1,86! 46 48 92 1 63 1 '.o 91 21 60 16 . Wsys ard We0 Su1,t, I 2, 1 141 88 818y) Smill l a Vetel.n w s 7 s 199d And k+-rm Rda l St 19__ __99? O 1,918 1940 , 29110 I7 2,1 In '0in ,39 ,97 24 1.21 CRS-16 Table 5. House Committee Ltf_ Othr Conuvittoi ''l~i b 1I0 199 ~ 4 lid 198 11179 3 37 7 Children Youth, and Families 1' 17 4 i it~I 4 77 44 8 36 22 22 20 23 20 2h 1 15 i' 15 15: 1 14 11 nger 1 I'l, 1 , tis i Covert Amsa TratiUriltatio w'tb Iran 91 70 81. 72 60 Nareoics Abuse and 'uutrol 24 2(0 6 16 1 Outer Contineotn Shelf 12 'IYrAL 2XO77 7 'onreu Data through 1994 were taketn frm S. Lif 1994. CRS Repurt No 93-445 111 erraim Tr, 6d,& as of September )0, -xcept,Itat1 19915 rigures are as 4 its table is based on 1995 committee FI rtwte. V •Axmed S ics The staff'of the Cuncil tvec; onr [eact for comparing with tmelnew Gowvrruuet Reform andC limruaite-O and other committees eliminated before 1! 3 Fion'r- for 1 19 "I 16 15 76 76 - Merchant Marine and Fieiries Thiamnmn ]ibt, the i 2 -uoe: in ingcul 1,1 ,qolj) 0 9il :Lgh Freduri-k I I P~xit 19 951, 80 77 G1 73 74 1 a2b We 41; 75 76 7 2 -I) 1,998 18 2J01 2,094 ll 71 74 36 2,29b 1271 "11 2,001! 1,217 ne it Ho e acd Senate Co immitee lnqu in Fun dirg asI NeSfeng Aite h oriatons 97 on, 1993 p 7- 1 hm I yvaTI the oripil ou ee was the feporf [fthe Clcrh o 't e Iouse i. chanis -%ocv rr4,d (tat Is Hlama was To tfo tie eorespondng committee te g.. Natinaiul Si hie tly is vten ievd to the tor er 'Civil Serviio ano Sic District of CAhmbia were added tu l C mm ilk e wi eove nmunt Upratis in the years 1979- 1994 o<mantee, Thn, Casmnitee o rluvhlt Mariie i ml Fisilw rIc. eliminated in 1995 (with jursdlion transferred to multi e -4s!etod in th . - x,,n 1 1 he table as "other committees." h~b, 4i order. I The House' only non-staading com.ini ih 1, Prrear i .eet IS,-Iv Committee oniti!hignce, In it lited last mlhNi, thamt elxted, Thus,ethe d nit shoatthe committee structure o1 patt Congesses CRS- 7 Table 6. Comparison of House Committee Staff, 1994 and 1995' 1199 1994 Iee.. Commit Agricuin re 61 Aproiatn212 C Agriculture 65 anrking Natia Fianceiankin and Urban ffair a8k Budget 98 Budget nf Columcia 38 - Fdue -ti-n and Labor 104 Eneiv and Co 138 eir-, Foreign Affairs 92 Government Operationes 74 House Administretiod 1Ltelli s tt 316 cinr 24 NClomite 46 Appropr atine Anied S- rvkes Diter Staff Red-ictions 16 14h i 4 9% andFinncia3-5 andF 40% 1 Eonomic and Educatona. Opyertunities -3 47 61 PI 3% - - 69 Commerce Interm P-Lthon- Government Reform and Over0gl Pet 6E 49% 61u i 32 al House Ovrzgbni - 261 intc tigence 17. 24 0 ,h1 0 17 2% 74 100% 2 70 347 7 4 Offie and Civil Se2 Public Works & Tranepari- 1 Judiciary Merhant Marine and Fisheie,4 a Natural Resources 25% 1%60 1 .... Transportadin and Infrastructure 75 6 7% Rules 150 Rules 35 15 30% Scianca, Space and Techno]i• 8D Science 5 27 34% 28 15 35% f_nd_ Sm', Foashqs Stadar Vniorn-wi 43 Qf Oflal AiTa _____ Sta, dhrfk of O-ficial Conduct 41 Veterans' Affars 29 12 297 -Ways am Mens 61 42 4 Is eand Jsleals . Se ni.; Rd-,, 1 to te .. Sma-I Buerne a wl 9 -, 1071 f 14 the C erh, .fnkp House, Septemrer 80, 1994 and March 31, 19-6 This tabk refleacts:he AiangzsM committee structure between 194 and 199, WIhre name changes a rred, cmparieon if made crespondung conmhtv -e.g. Armed Seees is compared to the new Na ional Security CoMmi-te 2 The merger of the Cuunit-e (n Pcst Ofi:c and CM' Servie, Dtrict of Colum ia, ard government Operazions into one comait-, Gornrmint Ffform and (versight resulted in a staff reduction of 101 or 5r' of the previous total for the three committees. Tbir O-gore is reflected ite zel staff reduction of 684. .3 Ttal includes staffaflIcuoe Infmatin Systef6 o r 228 Ahik, the ot-er sff N994 .- werr HIS, aniffane 67 were nr.t in 199; - 1 S, -taffwas reduced declined to 53 4 The Committee on Merchant Marina and Fisheries was eliminated in 19, CR S18 Table 7. Number uf Senate Committees and Their Subcommittees, 79th-1O4th Congress ISelect and String Special Committees Committees Number, Full Number Sb I Suutotal iA Committees d er, N umber Sub Full a u m mittees Number, Full Numbrr Sub 7 10 6 NA 46 NA NA NA 6 NA 24 NA NA ll Commi 79 1 45 46 13 57 8 (1947-481 15 61 8i 1949-50i 15 E3 2 N1A 0 NA 27 NA NA 82 1951-52) 15 66 8 NA 9 NA 27 NA NA 83 19-4) 15 I NA 10 2C NA NA 84 1955-56; 15 81 5 NA 10 "%C A N. 113 85 4 3 Q5 127 85 '!7, 9L_____18 86 !959-60 16 87 5 0 87 (1961-62 16 88 2 6 88 193 -64) 1 885 i89 195-66f 16 92 90 (1967-68, 16 98 9 92 1969-0) (71 72) 16 101 93 1P73-74) -8 94 097.5-16) 18 95'977-8) !1 1 p 27 107 134 i C3 Mi 104 133 5 7 122 12 1 32 125 157 12 1 15 .0 30 128 148 158 173 15 9 16 34 156 190 M 7 14 81 149 180 26 113 1,39 96____5 151 1 142 i12 6 9 4 5 24 105 129 4 6 24 111 135 25 11-2 1I7 24 9.1 118 93 118 21 95 119 8 24 95 119 5 0 25 85 111 4 0 24 E8 92 96 9,9 15 97 k191- tL 10) 98 k 9K-4 16 102 5 1198-6 16 8 4 0 4 6 !30 1 ]-9 7-8,. 1c 55 5 G 4 8 131 41 99-90 16 86 4 1 4 8 102 9 19-2S b 8rL 4 0 4 103 11998-,4) 16 85 4 0 104'7 11995-90 8 4 4 , 0 Source- Data thrOigb tbe 102n Congrler I taken from US. Library of Congress, Confessional Research Service Workload and s Snate, 1946-1992. Repor No 443'78 GOV. by Robert Muo and Carol IlardyVincera. Washington 1992. A irn Report: Untd Stcrt Record. hots f committee assignmen-s published by otherwise noted, sources include the CrrcsIma alesr p, 31 For all Congresses, u ni7 and Congre; fonal Quarivri A7a' Senc tary of rbI Seoiatp, Brown os, Congr0assona7Staf-DirecoD. Congressional Quartery and Monitor Publishing e atbe.Vews. Cowgreoonn cdAdrmin o P W: PUsh1 4xo Co'. T C r-psrlWe(9719 7 (ongressyco7a,714n b ellow Book ogreo ,nu Co-, Co t1. NA indicates thai the information is not readiCy available, I I741705 oue thre-member Ad Hoe Working Group of the Selct Committee on Intelligence. 2 Does not inbde one'as] 1. fe- e7 a S Data are current as of clip spring cr 47A1dAJg Committee. 995- CRS19 Table 8. Senate Committee Assignments, 79th-lO To1 Num... o..mm1i. alg i89dect, Standing jjome Sub committees 84 of Standing ISpeia, ~vm I n .... eignmocipi 1 bmeitt, ! f Seleo on- 79 191.5 46 489 J17 98 NA NA 80 0194-48) 201 326 62 NA NA 11449-0) 208 13 62 NA NA 82 41951-62 293 332 87 NA NA 83 1983-54) 211 372 63 NA NA 2.2 212 b14 IOU 48 874 21 9&7 F& 228 630 99 6 86 09 611 251 631 1, W; 87 1961 6b2) 2I 8 94 85 5 ( 1139 i 119o.310 41F6.]I 89 (1965461 2511 72, I11 90 f19I-681: 252 752 91 I 1969-70) 241970 92 11 71-72) 247 n5 911 19734- 258 946 94 19240 96 2.1 1. 2 Ui 3.9 10 NA NA (),7 NA NA 1.0 015 91 04 9.3 13 7 10 6 0 I 1 10 1111 1t9 154 t,2q2 2.5 7.11 ,1 15 120 165 1-Rd 25 7.6 12 L7 11 184 1 416 2.5 8.0 1.1 L8 124 197 1-46 2.5 9 0 1.2 2,0 14.6 217 1,53;9 2,6 9.6 1.5 22 15.7 228 1,857 2.4 9.7 1.2 2;3 15-9 1.01 2) 96 0.8 0,7 106 68 0.8 10,7 658 9U 2,5 69 7 64 1,119 41 6.9 80 49 1,19 8 0 77 29 NA 1I 1,074 (190-841 NA 66 76 96 0 2. 78 202 NA 1G' 6 11981-21 A N1[A A 52 1 97 22I0fl 1,1 18 w 12 24977U :=im 46 ,4 89) 95 F, of S'milast 87 0.8 128 I2 13A 11.2 05 120 CRS-20 Table 8. Senate Committec Assignments, 79th-1 04 Total Ninbcr of Committee Ainmna StanqIng Congress 99 100 i Com tls Sol act, Subcorawi~ of Standing Committees Special, & joint2 of Select, Spival , Joint ormfttes 2.8 G72 74 47 1 176 187-88 29d 688 84 30 8 7]13 76 33 l02 1(99192) 294 738 83 198 11998-94) 294 744 1(K 6Ig9-96) 294 628 66296 Data for sabcoumnitt e i oftitanding (.onii.ilii s for !fi 79h C I Fhi3 figure is &-rived by dividing the 8umrbr Of conniltee 2 Figires rAcH ila Xi'r a fv of i nor eranding c-rnmit 3 Date ar. curiont As Of tio, Fpringof 1995 tt 8upecapitattees Speial, & goin of Select Specia joint 0.7 TotI 05 10,6 g68 19"q 7 1 03 0.3 112 29 74 08 0.8 11.5 1,1P1 29 74 tf 1 Oo 2,9 -2 08 I 0 C01 Select, 9 7 Source Datahrough th sarclaitrUm fO2rong U COV y Rby erit Moon and Carol Hardy Vinvent, WashingtJ Svs-- Marah I'-Jne 29, 1945 Winbgton, L-& (- I'D., 194F) states Telephone Direettij-, May 1984. S na,, Pcato , 93l Uotgreq.,'nal Raeord; lists of committee asngnm--nt igh Congrcssonaf Quareerly Weekiy Rclpo t; W,.,t Pi dh,-ii Co., NA indicate ghUt the irornhrntiot ri atiadly ovailav | s g Totld 282 6-90) ofni mnites k196h861 ( 104 I uvr Sublcvasmleec 1u(1 - -trice W compiled froam1r IL, D~ata for oad d Actw aRao I U 1 o 11.4 i) tatcs Scote 10.0 aReport 93-789 m te on the 7tho of Cono ss. tarings, 79th Cong., 1st tho 98th Cgress werederived from U S Cuigreipi S-oatc United tt U P 1 p. 77-12 in nurced the 0 Fur all Other Conrsos, OeretarWy Of tike 9WIaU BrowaN any fi/ ir[" fir rr Cor soop i Quarterly Atootsw atnd Adrnvr.nsire, New e and Monitor Publishring (in, Congressi na Yeliw Book, ~awfg cammait by la a J 96 rm Iin 791 Coi poin is soict-t cpeiaL and joint c(srnittees and their io f i5tb ubcotmmittoes Congress and It0 since t1rhei CRS-21 Table 9. Distribution of Senators by Number of Committee. and Subcommittee Assignments, 102nd-104th CongressI Number of Senators 102nd Congress I 0-%h d Congress 104th Congress2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 0 2 2 1 2 Number of Assignments ....................... 6 74 2 8 8 44 916 10 A ii 41 16 15 14 24 12 I 10 12 12 13 12 14 8 15i 16 2 1 46 3 44 4 4 1 3 0 1 10 Average 4 2 1 0 20 0 0 0 2i 0 1 0 22 1 0 0 o ANuberr1en1s0 lAsfgl1 per Sea o3IL 17M curztU, S.t J CointCmmitteen rntfr 3g° 1991 12,CongssioniLr Dcoy 102d Congress 102ndC ong ItSae Wazhington, LB C P(), 191 p 603-517. S. Pub. - 02-4 , Summer, 1992,e. ffor 102ndCuings The Cvigroqnoai Ye7ow BookP Moniter Publishing Co. Washington, DC Fall eil- 19il For Le ffBrd; and Ow Cvgressior'ac IItou Book, Spring ed. 1995 for the 10ith. I Figures include aL Senate standing and other committee and their subcmmitteez. They dzanoz reflect leadership positicrns or aasagnments to caucuses. task forces. board, or commissionE, 2 Data are current as of fie Spring of '995 3Tlhsse averages differ from t a h, "Svn iIii Comittae. ssirmert, 9h-4104hC ongres Sy bas ruchaa 1.4 Theadifrancea rusult fin usiug data from soures oWfwruaq evaiable for !he respective ine periods. CRS-22 Table 10. Senate Committee Staff, 197E ___________ 19791 [9 [ 1980 195;2 1983 1]i 4 1985 198 7 1ii8( l Agr1ulture. Nutritioa & Furct-y 8l 11 32 31 32 31 30 26 Apprpmiatio 81 83 74 76 78 0 81 8 Aimed Sur'iciii '8 341313 38 40 45 5 Rlkiug, HUiMP, & in ffairR 37 43 38 34 34 29 a2 42 Budget 8' 85 71 70 76 69 7- 68 67 6 Tran sportation 91 F8 85 M a7 69 86 b2 7x 7,t Em rgy mid Natural Rcsourrfs 56 54 49 ft 53 .5 :9 18 48 iq - Favvirnnlni 72 60 52 5i 5 52 60 50 4 4k 'i 41 42 46 60 48 55 ,8 65 52 t and Public Works Finance 'M. iu0 rir-ienlal Afairs (I 67 168 1b 116 123 191 167 123 Iar 14"9 111 122 1A 124 Rle6s vod Adiviniatration uknv, Vetrans' Affaim S1b21 i jil i18 27 10 2i i 1. 121 4 41 1 7_ c _8 _ 7 1 4 2 2I 117 1o 1g4 117 '67 1(1 88 137 '2l 121 106 2 26 2 21 VI ,027 973 27 1 994 3 83 29 7 '3 68 59 58 4'; 1 i95 gf 66 57 78 76 75 41, 1 1 4 5 9 921 19 ' 4 9 2D { I921993 19 5l1a 1 mall ,6 t)1,1 Judiiary and H-Tumnnn Rwi u' 1,8 9 - t}( i _ 46 601 49 70 62 55 49 47 If 43 36 4A 41 39 44 35 6' 61 46 52 46 6 66 5 4 5 5 105 112 10F 12 A7 88 64 I 128 214 l87 M 7j 91 84 101 110 112 9,1 t26 107 106 82 28 26 27 28 27 28 2, 25 21 23 18 21 21) 22 2 24 2 20 25 23 24 19 Ifi25 .13 24 27 22 25 22 22 24 14 8 q2 Q79 t,004 993 667 ? 19 946 4 1,00 x 1 CRS-23 Table 10. Senate Commitiee Staff. 19711WTAND,)iNC oNmmu'lEs~ 979~ 1"0' 11~ 5 aa D8C ,- ij -19)-- 109 V 5 OTUER Agin. 10 1 Ethics 2 Indian Affhir 17 Intelligence 4? 28 23 32 Ni 1 i 2 2 9 81 19 13 19 : 8 21 21 21 23 44 41 39 40 ;'V 4 IN 38 I9 N[1 98 fl . Ixpied Conifteeg2 d 1 T OTA L Soncu ' Repir, f fthr5 , 1 certery of I rhp Conuifte on Sin]I B40ns 14~~a , 12 1,0 74 1 I t 2 1 ,2 ' 14 2 51 1 - 34 104d I10744 20 PHU IJ,0 5 11 40 . 1 14 l1 8 22 Ii:) , 21 1 20 22 49 15 26 120l 12 0 25 1 28 21 1 09,()3 29 1,1 12 ; t,12 2 12-1 1 124 . i t) l9fl 96 9 &i 7 7 91 e Senate as of Sept mib wq, a select onateifte0 itteh a 1i1 . 2 1 hh row ro.ntels rxmnittees that existed at some tim,-frna A liviti. S fie iDepa etib oofJustice. l)1984 tii MilitarY Assistance to Ifra ar he Noositio Ol, was In 19i82 there wam aeSelect Corintteo to Study Law Enforopinnt U1 hmovor T GnuniLkev SyStvm Y In 11187 and 1988 Chore w s a Select C(1m4 itl,4 r ;0m01theo o4n POW/MA Affa4rL Secret CRS-24 APPENDIX OF SELECTED REFORM COMMITTEES I. The Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress, 1945. Davidson, Roger H. The Legislative Reorganization Ac Legislative studies quarterly, v. 15, Aug. 1990: 357-373. of 194& Galloway, George B. The operation of the Legislative Reorgo of 1946, American political science review, v. 45, Mar -' Act Pauls, Frederick H. Legislative Reorganization Act o. 1946: provisions. Aug, 6, 1991. Washington, Congressional Rese 1991. 8 p. (91-593 RCO) 2. The Joint Committee on the Organization of the Congress, 19( Bibby, John F. and Roger H. Legislative Reorganization studies in the legislative Press, 1972. p. 2 51-280. Iavitz. Walter. The Legislativ studies quarterly, v. 15, Au 3. The Joint Ci U.S, Col Organ 192(l (Repo US. Con Or,2-n Inertia and change: The In their On Capitol Hill; ed. Hindsdale, Dryden on Act of 1970. Legislative 99 ittee on the Organization of Congress, 1993. s. Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress. on of the Congress; final report pursuant to H. Con. Res. I Congress), Washington, G.P.O., 1993 2 v. (108, 345 pJ mate, 103rd Congress, 1st session, no. 103-215) Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress. on of the Congress; final report pursuant to H. Con. Res. [ Congress). Washington, G.P.O, 1993. 2 v (162, 345 p.) house, 103rd Congress, Ist session, noo 103-413) 4, This appendix ists the major reform committees of t-he past 50 years that. focused exclusively, primarily, or substantially on the committee system in the House, Senate, or both. Other efforts and measures affecting the committee system have been numerous and are not covered here. From the vast literature on reform, the appendix also identifies a few citations to the work of each committee if further information is desired- CRS-25 Evans, C. Lawrence and Walter J. Oleszek. The politics of congressional reform: the Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress. In Remaking Congress; change and stability in the 1990s. Edited by James A. Thurber and Roger H. Davidson. Washington. Congressional Quarterly Press, 1995. p. 73-98. 4, The House Select Committee on Committees, 1973-1974. Davidson, Roger H, and Oleszek, Walter J. Congress against itself. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1977. 306 p Major House committee reform rejected. In 1974 CQ Almanac. Edited by Carolyn S. Mathiasen. v. 30. Washington, Congressional Quarterly Press, 1975. p. 634-641. 5. The House Select Committee on Committees. 2979-1980. U.S. Congress. House. Select Committee on Committees. Final Report of the Select Committee on Committees. Apr. 1, 1980, Washington, G.P.O.. 1980, 669 p. (Report House 96th Congres,i 2nd session, no. 96-866) Committee reorganization: Select Committee on Committees. In 1980 CQ Almanac, Edited by Mary Cohn. v. 36. Washington, Congressional Quarterly Press. 1981, p. 562-563. 6. The Temporary Select Committee to Study the Senate Committee System, 1976-1977. Davidson, Roger H. Two avenues of change: House and Senate coitee reorganization. In Congress reconsidered. Edited by Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce L Oppenheimer. 2nd ed. Washington, Congressional Quarrerly Press, 981. p. 107-133. Parris, Judith H. The Senate reorganizes its committees, 1977. Political science quarterly, v. 94, summer 1979: 319-337. 7. The Temporary Select Committee to Study the Senate Committee System, 1984 U.S. Congress. Senate. Temporary Select Committee to Study the Senate Committee System. Report together with proposed resolutions. Dec. 14 1984. Washington, G.P.O., 1984. 61 p. (Print, Senate, 98th Congress, 2nd session, no. 98-254) Calmes, Jacqueline and Diane Granat. 'Minor' panels not completed: Senate cuts committee slots; Members assigned to panels. Congressional Quarterly weekly report, v. 43, Feb. 23, 1 985: 348. 364.