Membership of the 104th Congress: A Profile

95-205GOV Membership of the 104th Congress: A Profile Mildred L. Amer Specialist in American National Government Government Division Updated March 21, 1995 Membership of the 104th Congress: A Profile SUMMARY For Members of the 104th Congress, this report provides data on party, age, occupations, education, length of service, religion, sex, race, national origin, military service, and marital status. The current party breakdown in the 104th Congress is: 230 Republicans, 204 Democrats, and 1 Independent in the House; and 53 Republicans and 47 Democrats in the Senate. The average age in the House (as of November 8,1994) is 50.9; the Senate, 58.4; for both chambers combined, 52.2. The dominant self-ascribed profession of Members continues to be the law (224: 42%), followed by business or banking (187, 35%), and public service (114, 26%). However, Members frequently list more than one occupation. Protestants collectively constitute the majority religious affiliation of Members (325, 61%)! but Roman Catholics account for the dominant single religious denomination (145,27%). Other affiliations (Greek Orthodox, Jewish, Mormon; Christian Scientist: or unspecified) make up the balance (61, 11%). An overwhelming majority of Members have had a college education. The average length of service in the House is 7.5 years; in the Senate, 10.1. There are a record number of blacks and women serving in the 104th Congress. There 56 women Members: 48 in the House, and a record 8 in the Senate. There are 41 black Members: a record 40 in the House and 1,a woman, in the Senate. Two of the black Members are Delegates, one from the District of Columbia, the other from the Virgin Islands. There are 19 Hispanic Members, all in the House and including 2 Delegates, 1 from Guam and the other from Puerto Rico. There are 8 Members of Asianpacific Island ethnicity, including a Senator who is one of the two Native Americans in the Senate. The Delegate from Guam is also Hispanic. The number of Members with some form of military service is 140 Representatives and 49 Senators. CONTENTS PARTYBREAKDOWN AGE .........................................1 ....................................................... OCCUPATIONS EDUCATION ............................................. 2 ................................................ 4 ................................... 4 ............................................... 4 CONGRESSIONAL SERVICE RELIGION 1 WOMENAND MINORITYMEMBERS FOREIGNBORN ............................ 6 ............................................. 6 MILITARYSERVICE .......................................... 6 MARITAL AND FAMILY STATUS ................................ 7 Membership of the 104th Congress: A Profile The Congress is composed of 540 individuals from our 50 States, as well as the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico; Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa, including any vacancies.' The following is a profile of the 104th Congress, which commenced on January 3: 1995.' PARTY BREAKDOWN The current party breakdown in the 104th Congress is 230 Republicans, 204 Democrats, and 1 Independent in the House; and 53 Republicans and 47 Democrats in the Senate. AGE The combined average age of Senate and House Members in the 104th Congress is 52.2 years, slightly younger than the previous Congress. The average age of Senators is 58.4, up one year from the 103rd Congress. The average age of Representatives is 50.9. TABLE 1. Average Age, 104th Congress (Ages as of November 10, 1994) II AU members Rot h P a r t ~ t i 52.2 House Senate 58.4 1 50.9 Source: Congressional Quarterly, Inc. The Freshmen-Elect,Nov. 12, 1994. p. 12. Note: The average age of all Republicans in the 104th Congress as well as House Republicans is two years younger than their counterparts in the 103rd Congress. ' Note that since 1789, 11,455 individuals have served in Congress, not including Delegates: 9,631 only in the House, 1,213 only in the Senate, and 611 in both Houses. Information on the five Delegates is included only where indicated. Representatives must be at least 25 when they take office. The youngest Representative and Member of Congress is Patrick Kennedy, (D-RI), who is 27 and the son of Senator Edward Kennedy (D-MA). The oldest Representative is Sidney Yates, (D-IL), who is 85. Senators must be at least 30 when they take office. The youngest Senator is Rick Santorum (R-PA), who is 36. The oldest Senator and Member of Congress is Strom Thurmond (R-SC), who is 92. OCCUPATIONS As has been true in previous Congresses, law is the dominant profession in the 104th Congress. However, there are 14 fewer Members in this Congress in the legal profession than in the last Congress. Some 224 Members (42%) who have listed law as their profession. The distribution of other occupations, compiled by Congressional Quarterly, is shown in table 2. A closer look at the prior occupations of Members of the 104th Congress shows 18 Governors, 70 congressional staffers (including 7 pages and 2 Senate Watergate Committee staffers), 11White House staffers, two ambassadors, a CIA analyst, a CIA agent, a president of the National Conference on State Legislatures, 4 funeral directors, a florist, a winemaker, 5 Members who were in the Peace Corps and one who was director of the Peace Corps, 2 sheriffs, an FBI agent, 2 probation officers, 2 auctioneers, a Federal judge, a Chief Justice of a State Supreme Court, a State Supreme Court Justice, a volunteer fireman, 2 automobile assembly line workers, a psychiatrist, 3 dentists. 2 veterinarians, a nurse, 2 pharmacists, an astronaut, a river boat captain, a jewelry maker, and a taxi driver. TABLE 2. Members' Occupations* I 1 11 ~ c c u ~ a t i o n Agriculture - -1 House I Senate I Total 0 1 1 2 5 9 Total D R 0 1 1 1 5 14 19 4 1 - Total R D X ~ o n a e s J l p 1 28 11 Homemaking 1 1 1 I I 0 1 1 1 1 Labor Officials 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 o l o I 0 1 2 11 1 1 0 1 O O Law Enforcement 7 4 11 0 0 0 11 Medicine 2 8 10 0 1 1 11 Military 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 Professional Sports 0 2 2 1 0 1 3 53 49 102 12 114 Public Service RPRI Estate I 6 22 28 I 7 I 5 I 1 I I 2 3 ' * Because some Members list more than one occupation, totals are higher than total membewhip. Includes one Independent Member. Source: Conmessional Quarterly, Inc. The Freshmen-Elect, Nov. 12, 1994. p. 11. 31 1 EDUCATION As has been true in previous Congresses, the Members of the 104th Congress are well educated. There are a t least 387 Representatives and 90 Senators with bachelor degrees, 101 Representatives and 16 Senators with master degrees, 175 Representatives and 55 Senators with law degrees, 16 Representatives and 3 Senators with doctorate degrees, and 9 Representatives and one Senator with medical degree^.^ In addition, there are 5 Rhodes Scholars in the Senate, 1in the House, and 1 Marshall Scholar in the House. CONGRESSIONAL SERVICE The average length of service of Representatives of the 104th Congress is 7.75 years, slightly less than four terms. Representatives are elected for twoyear terms. Representative John Dingell (D-MI) has the longest consecutive service of any Representative in the 104th Congress (39 years). He is currently the Dean of the House, and his service began on December 13, 1955. The average length of service of Senators in the 104th Congress is 10.2 years, less than two terms and a year lower than Senators' average service in the previous Congress. Senators are elected for six-year terms. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) has served longer (39 years) in the Senate than any other Member of the 104th Congress, and he is the Senate President Pro Tempone. His current service began on November 7; 1956. Previously he had served in the Senate from December 24, 1954, to April 4, 1956.4 RELIGION Most Members of the 104th Congress cite a specific religious affiliation. Protestants collectively constitute the majority religious affiliation of Members (325: 6161, but Roman Catholics account for the dominant single religious denomination (145,27%). Other affiliations (Greek Orthodox, Jewish, Mormon, Christian Scientist, or unspecified) make u p the balance (61, 11%). Table 3 presents information compiled by Congressional Quarterly and supplemented by CRS on the religious affiliations of Members of the 104th Congress. Two of the Representatives with medical degrees have D.V.M. (doctor of veterinary medicine) degrees. Senator Robert Byrd (D-W,is the Senate Democrat with the longest Senate service. His service began on Jan. 3, 1959. TABLE 3. Members' Religious Affiliations 1 I, Senate House Religion D Congress R Total D R Total 0 4 0 0 0 27 57 3 7 10 Total I African Methodist Episcopal 30 Bapbt I Christian Church Christian Rc:formed Church I 1 0 I I 0 I I 1 1 I 0 1 0 I 0 67 I 1 11 I I 0 0 0 1 United Church of )I + Includes one Independent Member. Source: Congressional Quarterly, Inc. The Freshmen-Elect, Nov. 12, 1994. p. 11. I/ WOMEN AND MINORITY MEMBERS There are a record number (56) women Members of the 104th Congress: 48 in the House, and 8 in the Senate. This is the largest number of women ever to have served a t one time in the Senate. Of the 48 women in the House, 1 7 are Republican and 31 are Democrats. In the Senate, 5 women are Democrats and 3 are Republican. The number of black Members in the 104th Congress is the largest in history. There are a record 40 in the House, including 2 Delegates. Ten, including a Delegate, are women. One black woman serves in the Senate. With the exception of 2 Members of the House, all of the black Members of Congress are Democrats. There are 19 Hispanic Members of Congress, the same number as in the 103rd Congress. All are Members of the House, and all are Democrats. There are 8 Members ofAsianiT'acific Island ethnicity, the same number as in the previous Congress. All are Democrats and 2 are Senators. The Delegate from Guam is also Hispanic. Finally, there are 2 Senators who are Native Americans. One is an American Indian, and the other is Hawaiian. One is a Republican, and the other is a Democrat. FOREIGN BORN Currently: there are 7 Members of the House, excluding Delegates, who were born outside the United States. The places of birth include Cuba, Germany; Hungary, South Korea, Kenya, and the Netherlands. No current Senators were born outside the United States, although a number of previous ones were. MILITARY SERVICE The number of Members with some form of military service is 158 in the House and 55 in the Senate. This includes service in World War 11;the Korean War? Vietnam, the Persian Gulf, and during times of peace as well as membership in the Reserves and the National Guard.' "ongressional Quarterly, Inc. Minorities in Congress. The Freshmen-Elect, Report, Nov. 12, 1994. p.10, supplemented by CRS. American Legion. Veterans and Legion Status of the Members of the 104th Congress, First Session. Washington, D.C., March 9, 1995. 82 p. MARITAL AND FAMILY STATUS According to USA Today, 83% (361) of the Members of the House are married, and 87% (378) have children; 87% (87) of Senators are married and 93% (93) have ~ h i l d r e n . ~Several Members of Congress are divorced or widowed. crsphpgw 'Ward, Sam. The Congressional Class of '95: the Voters' Choices. USA Today, Nov. 10, 1994. p. 8A.