African-American Participation At
The United Nations
Analyst in International Relations
With the Assistance of
Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division
October 20, 1995
AFRICAN-AMERICAN PARTICIPATION AT THE UNITED
African-Americans have been interested and involved in the United Nations
since its establishment. Indeed, a number of African-Americans were observers
at the conference establishing the United Nations, and Ralph Bunche
participated in that conference as a member of the State Department's official
delegation staff. Bunche joined the United Nations' staff in 1946 and continued
to serve there until shortly before his death in 1971 . In the late 1940s, with
extraordinary skill, persistence, and sensitivity, he was instrumental in
achieving a cease-fire and successful negotiation of an armistice in Palestine .
He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950 for his noteworthy work as a
peace negotiator and keeper of the armistice . In 1955 Bunche was appointed
Under Secretary-General of the United Nations, the highest ranking American
in the U .N. Secretariat . In that capacity he continued to address some of the
most contentious peacekeeping issues in which the United Nations was involved
including the 1956 Suez crisis, the 1960 Congo crisis, Cyprus, and the 1967
Arab-Israeli war .
Three African-Americans have headed the U .S . mission to the United
Nations as U .S. Permanent Representatives to the United Nations with the rank
of ambassador : Andrew Young, Donald McHenry, and Edward Perkins . Andrew
Young served as U.S . Ambassador to the United Nations from January 1977
until August 1979 . During his tenure at the United Nations, he is credited with
strengthening the U.S. commitment to multilateral diplomacy, and with
improving U .S . relations with many African and Third World countries . Donald
McHenry succeeded Young as U .S . Ambassador to the United Nations having
served as Young's deputy, and brought notable diplomatic skills and particular
expertise in Asian and African matters to his position . Edward Perkins, a career
Foreign Service Officer, served as U .S. Ambassador to the United Nations at the
end of President Bush's term, from May 1992 until January 1993 .
A number of African-Americans have served on the U .S. delegation with the
rank of Ambassador . James Nabrit, Jr. was Deputy permanent Representative
and U.S. Representative to the U.N. Security Council in 1965 and 1966 .
Franklin Williams, Clarence Clyde Ferguson, Jr ., and Alan Keyes, Jr . served
with the rank of Ambassador as U .S . Representatives on the U .N. Economic and
Social Council (ECOSOC), and Robert Kitchen was alternate Representative to
that body. Other African-Americans have participated on U.S . delegations to the
U .N. General Assembly.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
RALPH JOHNSON BUNCHE AND THE UNITED NATIONS 3
U.S. PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVES TO THE UNITED NATIONS . 5
U.S. REPRESENTATIVES TO THE SECURITY COUNCIL 8
U.S. REPRESENTATIVES ON THE ECONOMIC AND
SOCIAL COUNCIL (ECOSOC)
DELEGATES TO THE U .N. GENERAL ASSEMBLY 11
AFRICAN-AMERICAN PARTICIPATION AT THE UNITED
Since the inception of the United Nations, African-Americans have been
actively interested and involved in its development . Observers at the conference
establishing the United Nations in San Francisco in April 1945 included Mary
McLeod Bethune of the National Council of Negro Women, Mordecai W .
Johnson of Howard University, W .E .B. DuBois and Walter White of the NAACP .
Ralphe Bunche, acting chief of the division of dependent territories at the
Department of State attended as part of the official delegation staff. This brief
survey outlines the contributions of some African-Americans who served at the
United Nations, in its employ, or as Representatives of the United States .
Since 1945, the extent of African-American involvement with the United
Nations and international affairs has depended on the following factors : (1) the
degree of American involvement in multilateral diplomacy ; (2) the intensity of
African-American political activism at home ; (3) African-American identification
with democracy and independence movements abroad, particularly those in
Africa ; and (4) the growing cadre of educated, politically active AfricanAmericans who advocated the inter-relationship between domestic and global
issues of justice, equality, and freedom . The most intense interest appeared
when all these factors converged on the national political agenda : immediately
after World War II and during the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s and
In 1946, Ralph Bunche went to work for the United Nations with the
Trusteeship Council, formed "to safeguard the interests and welfare of non-selfgoverning peoples in territories held either under League of Nations mandates
or detached from enemy countries after World War 11.,,2 Bunche was
instrumental in several major initiatives to resolve conflicts, notably during the
first Arab-Israeli War in 1948 . In the late 1970s, Ambassadors Andrew Young
and Donald McHenry headed the U .S. Mission to the United Nations, and in the
early 1990s Ambassador Edward Perkins served in that capacity . James M .
Nabrit Jr . had earlier served with the rank of Ambassador as Deputy Permanent
Representative and Representative to the U .N. Security Council . Three AfricanAmericans have served with the rank of Ambassador as U .S. Representatives on
the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) : Franklin Williams, Clarence Clyde
'The brief selected bibliography at the end of this report lists some of the major
sources for the information presented .
2 Franklin, John Hope . From Slavery to Freedom, A History of Negro Americans,
Fifth Edition, Alfred A . Knopf, New York : 1980 . p. 447.
Ferguson, Jr ., and Alan L . Keyes, Jr . Other African-Americans have served on
U.S. delegations to the U .N . General Assembly .
RALPH JOHNSON BUNCHE AND THE UNITED NATIONS
"I have a number of very strong biases . . . . I have a deep-seated
bias against hate and intolerance . I have a bias against
racial and religious bigotry . I have a bias against war,
a bias for peace . I have a bias which leads me to believe
in the essential goodness of my fellow man, which leads me to
believe that no problem in human relations is ever insoluble .
And I have a strong bias in favor of the United Nations and
its ability to maintain a peaceful world ." Ralph J . Bunche 3
Ralph J . Bunche (August 7, 1904 - December 9, 1971), political scientist,
educator, U .S . State Department official, and U .N. official, focused his attention
at the United Nations on race relations, trusteeship, and colonial policies .
Bunche's work at the United Nations began in May, 1946, when SecretaryGeneral Trygvie Lie "borrowed" him from the U .S . State Department to work as
director of the Trusteeship Division, which Bunche had helped to organize . He
continued to serve there until October 1971, two months before he died .
Bunche, son of Olive Agnes and Fred Bunche, was born
Michigan . His father was a barber, and his mother a musician . After his
parents deaths in 1916, young Bunche and his sister went to live in Los Angeles,
California with his maternal grandmother Lucy Johnson. He attended the
University of California at Los Angeles, where he majored in international
He graduated summa cum laude in 1927, and earned membership
in Phi Beta Kappa .
The following year, he received a M .A . degree in
government from Harvard University, and joined the faculty at Howard
University in Washington, D .C ., becoming full professor in 1937 . Meanwhile,
he returned to Harvard to complete his doctoral dissertation, comparing the rule
of a mandated area, French Togoland, with that of a colony, Dahomey, in
French West Africa . He was awarded a PhD . in 1934 . Post-doctoral fellowships
awarded by the Social Science Research Council in anthropology and colonial
policy followed, at Northwestern University, the London School of Economics,
and the Union of South Africa's Capetown University .
In 1938, Bunche embarked on an extraordinary project under the auspices
of the Carnegie Corporation of New York . Working as chief of staff to Gunnar
Myrdal, the Swedish economist, he traveled through the southern United States
for two years investigating the condition of African-Americans in America . The
result of that work was a monumental two-volume study of race relations in the
United States, An American Dilemma, completed in 1940 . His studies and his
concern about race and class would continue in his future work with the State
Department and the United Nations .
In 1941, after the outbreak of World War II, Bunche went to work as senior
social science analyst for the Office of the Coordinator of Information (later the
Office of Strategic Services) in the Africa and Far East sections . He later
3 Quoted in The New York Times editorial, December 12, 1971 .
became area specialist on Africa and dependent areas in the Division of
Territorial Studies at the State Department, then acting associate chief of the
Division of Dependent Area Affairs (Office of Special Political Affairs ) .
President Harry Truman selected Bunche, an expert on trusteeships, as
adviser and U .S . delegate to a number of U . N . conferences, where he worked to
draw up what later became the non-self-governing territories and trusteeship
sections of the U .N . Charter and developed plans for governance for the former
Italian colonies . In May 1946, Bunche officially joined the U .N. Secretariat as
director of the Trusteeship Division, which he had helped organize .
Palestine was a critical post-war problem . Britain wished to give up its
mandate . Jewish survivors of the Nazi holocaust wanted to leave Europe,
immigrate to Palestine and join other Jews already in Palestine in creating a
Jewish State . The Arabs, who formed a majority of the population in Palestine,
opposed the influx . In 1947, Bunche studied the situation and recommended
partition of the country into Jewish and Arab states, and a majority in the U .N .
General Assembly voted for partition in November 1947 ; Arab leaders rejected
the partition plan . Bunche was appointed principal secretary of the United
Nations Palestine Commission in December 1947 . After fighting broke out
between Jews and Arabs, the U .N. Commission requested that the U .N . Security
Council create an international armed force to implement the partition of
Palestine, and study the conditions of a truce . In May 1948, following the
withdrawal of British forces, Jewish leaders proclaimed the state of Israel, which
was immediately recognized by the United States, the Soviet Union, and various
other countries . Neighboring Arab states attacked the nascent Israeli state and
major fighting continued for several months . When Count Folke Bernadotte,
the main U .N . negotiator was assassinated on September 17, 1948 by Jewish
extremists, Bunche succeeded him as acting mediator . According to Seymour
Maxwell Finger, the achievement of a cease-fire, followed by the successful
negotiation of an armistice was "in substantial measure due to the astuteness,
extraordinary skill, sensitivity, patience, and dogged persistence of Ralph
Bunche ."4 In 1950, Bunche was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition
for his work as peace negotiator and keeper of the armistice .
Bunche was appointed U .N. Under Secretary-General for Special Political
Affairs in 1955, and continued to be involved in many important U .N .
operations : following the Suez crisis, during the 1960 Congo conflict, the 1963
intervention of the U .N . forces at the time of the Tshombe-Katanga secession,
the Arab-Israeli war in 1967, and in Cyprus . Bunche, the highest ranking
American in the U .N . Secretariat, was a strong supporter of the United Nations
and in promoting racial and ethnic equality .
4 Finger, Seymour Maxwell . American Ambassadors at the U .N ., People, Politics, and
Bureaucracy in Making Foreign Policy, Holmes & Meier, New York : 1988, p . 56 . Finger
was senior advisor on Economic and Social Affairs (1956-1964), then Ambassador and
senior advisor to the Permanent Representative (1967-1971) .
U.S. PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVES TO THE UNITED NATIONS
Andrew Jackson Young (March 12, 1932 - )
Andrew Young was nominated U .S . Ambassador to the United Nations by
President-elect Jimmy Carter in December 1976 . Both men were from Georgia,
Carter was sympathetic to the cause of civil rights, and Young supported
Governor Carter's bid for the Democratic Presidency in 1976 . Young was the
first African-American, first ordained minister, and youngest person to lead the
American delegation at the United Nations . Young assumed office on January
30, 1977 .
Andrew J . Young was born in New Orleans, Louisiana . His father was a
dentist and his mother a school teacher . After receiving his Bachelor's degree
at Howard University in 1951, he received a B .D. degree in 1955 from the
Hartford Theological Seminary, where he was inspired by Gandhi's philosophy
of nonviolent resistance and economic action . After serving as pastor in several
southern towns, Young moved to New York City, where he worked for the
National Council of Churches . In 1961, he moved to Atlanta, Georgia to work
with Martin Luther King, Jr . and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
in the non-violent civil rights movement . In 1968, after King was murdered,
Young decided that politics was the path toward progress in race relations . He
ran for Congress in 1970, lost, then won in his subsequent bids in 1972 and
1974, becoming the first African-American Congressman from Georgia since
It was during Young's second term in Congress, that Jimmy Carter won the
Presidency and offered Young the Ambassadorship to the United Nations .
Young, encouraged by the progress made through non-violent actions on the
domestic front and inspired by the work of Ralph Bunche at the United Nations,
eagerly accepted the appointment, believing that he could apply the principles
of the civil rights movement in the international arena . Because of his close
working relationship with President Carter and Secretary of State Cyrus Vance
and his stress on non-violence, negotiation, and economic pressure, Young
worked toward moving the United Nations and African combatants toward
negotiated peaceful settlements and ultimately independence under majority rule
in Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) and Namibia .
With the support of Carter and Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, Young
succeeded in drawing in Britain, Canada, France and the Federal Republic of
Germany to form a contact group on Namibia . At the United Nations and
within African and European capitals, talks continued, until acceptable terms
were worked out in 1978 : in Namibia there would be U .N. controlled and
supervised elections by secret ballot after the elimination of discriminatory laws,
the release of political prisoners, the withdrawal of South African troops and a
Rhodesia presented another problem . The U .N. Security Council had
im osed mandatory economic sanctions on Rhodesia in 1966, strengthened the
sanctions in 1968, and expanded them again in 1977 . Ultimately, in December
1979, an agreement was worked out that led to a cease-fire, the establishment
of a new government based on majority rule elections, and an end to
international economic sanctions . Young, with the aid of Donald McHenry, was
instrumental in pushing for these negotiated settlements through patient
networking and organized pressure .
In August 1979, it was revealed that Young had a private meeting with the
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) representative at the United Nations
with the purpose of furthering Middle East peace negotiations . Whether the
meeting(s) had been officially authorized or not remains unclear . The United
States had promised Israel that it would not deal with the PLO while it
supported the violent overthrow of the Jewish State and terrorist tactics .
Jewish organizations were alarmed and some Members of Congress drew up a
request for his resignation, Young took full responsibility for his actions and
submitted his resignation on August 15, 1979 .
After resigning from his U .N. post, Young remained a popular leader having
established a reputation in the international community for improving relations
with newly developing countries in Africa and Asia . Young continues to
participate in public life, writing, speaking and serving as mayor of Atlanta for
several terms . He is currently Co-Chairman of the Atlanta Committee for the
Olympic Games .
Donald F . McHenry (October 13, 1936 - )
Donald McHenry replaced Andrew Young as Ambassador . He had worked
as Young's Deputy at the Security Council since early 1977 . In fact, McHenry
had been instrumental in working out the 1978 proposals for peace and
independence for Namibia . McHenry was a highly respected diplomat with State
Department experience, familiarity with the workings of the Federal
bureaucracy as well as U .N. experience . Furthermore, while he shared Young's
views and enjoyed the confidence of Secretary Vance, he was considered to be
publicly more "discreet" . McHenry served as Ambassador to the United Nations
through the end of President Carter's term in office .
McHenry was born in St . Louis, Missouri . His mother, Dora Lee raised her
family of three children alone . In 1957, McHenry received his B .S. degree from
the Illinois State University . He continued his studies in public speaking and
international affairs at Southern Illinois University, receiving an M .S. degree in
1959. He then moved to Washington, D .C. where he taught English at Howard
University and pursued graduate work in international relations at Georgetown
University . In 1963, McHenry joined the State Department . He served as
foreign affairs officer in the Dependent Areas Section of the Office of U .N.
Political Affairs, then as assistant to the Secretary of State . He also served as
alternate representative to the U .N. Trusteeship Council, and participated in
U .N . conferences on apartheid and racial discrimination, and human rights .
McHenry resigned from the State Department in 1973 . He taught at
Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service and at American University .
In addition, he worked at Brookings Institution, and served as director of
humanitarian policy studies at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace .
After Jimmy Carter won the Presidential election, he named McHenry Deputy
Permanent Representative to the U .N. Security Council . McHenry's ability to
attend to details complemented Young's flair for projecting bold, general
concepts . McHenry's visit to Angola helped diffuse conflict there . He helped
develop plans for the U .N .-supported withdrawal of South Africa from Namibia,
and worked to establish cooperation with African nations such as Angola,
Botswana, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia .
When Andrew Young submitted his resignation, Carter demonstrated his
continued support for the Young-McHenry team, respect for McHenry's
expertise on Asian and African affairs, and the Administration's commitment to
ending racism and apartheid in Southern Africa . He asked McHenry to assume
the leadership of the U .S . Mission to the United Nations . McHenry stepped into
the position in September 1979 .
McHenry won the U .N . Security Council's unanimous support for demands
for immediate release of American hostages taken in Iran in November 1979 .
Attempts to mobilize an international economic boycott of Iran failed when the
Soviet Union vetoed the measure .
The Soviet Union's incursion into
Afghanistan in December provoked reaction in the Security Council, which was
quashed by a Soviet veto . In the General Assembly, however, McHenry won
approval for a resolution demanding the immediate, unconditional and total
withdrawal of the foreign troops from Afghanistan .
A major foreign policy uproar occurred when McHenry joined in the
unanimous condemnation of Israel for its establishment of settlements on the
occupied West Bank and in the Gaza Strip . The United States had previously
been careful to abstain on such votes in the Security Council . However, Carter's
preoccupation with Iran, Afghanistan, hostages in Colombia, and the election
campaign apparently led to delayed response and confusing instructions to
modify the text of the resolution . The Carter team was trying to implement the
Camp David accords, including the Israeli recognition of the legitimate rights of
the Palestinians and the promised suspension of settlements in the West Bank,
but did not wish to engender hostilities by participating in a general
condemnation . Two days after the vote, President Carter disavowed it, and
Secretary of State Vance assumed responsibility for the mix-up .
When Carter lost his bid for re-election in 1980, McHenry finished out the
year at the United Nations and returned to writing and teaching at Georgetown
University . He also serves as consultant on foreign relations and on the
editorial board of Foreign Policy magazine . He is currently also serving as the
State Department's Special Envoy for Nigeria .
Edward Joseph Perkins (June 8, 1928 - )
Edward Perkins was appointed by President George Bush as U .S.
Permanent Representative to the United Nations . He served in that role from
May 7, 1992 to January 31, 1993 .
Perkins received a B .A. from the University of Marland in 1968, and
graduate degrees (MPA in 1972 and PhD. in 1978) from- the University of
Southern California . A foreign service officer with extensive experience in
personnel and management matters as well as in Asian and African affairs,
Perkins directed the Office of West African Affairs at the Department of State
1983-85) . He served as U .S . Ambassador to Liberia (1985-86) and to South
Africa (1986-89) . Perkins was Director General of the Foreign Service from
1989 until his appointment as U .S. Ambassador to the United Nations . He is
currently U .S . Ambassador to Australia .
U.S. REPRESENTATIVES TO THE SECURITY COUNCIL
James Madison Nabrit, Jr. (September 4, 1900- )
In 1965, while president of Howard University, James M . Nabrit, Jr. was
appointed Deputy U .S. Representative in the Security Council with the rank of
Ambassador by President Lyndon B . Johnson. In 1966 he was appointed Deputy
U.S. Representative to the United Nations while continuing as Deputy
Representative in the Security Council . Nabrit had been one of NAACP's top
lawyers in the civil rights struggle . While representing the United States at the
U.N. Security Council in 1965 and 1966, he continued to serve as president of
Howard University, retiring in 1969 .
Nabrit was born in Atlanta, Georgia . He graduated from Morehouse
College in 1923 with honors, then attended Northwestern University where he
earned the J .D. degree with honors in 1927. After teaching at Leland College
in Baker, Louisiana for several years, he served as dean of the Agricultural,
Mechanical and Normal College in Pine Bluff, Arkansas . After leaving academic
life, from 1930 to 1936, Nabrit practiced law in Houston, Texas . He then
returned to education as an associate professor at Howard University's Law
School. Nabrit successfully argued the case of Bolling v . Sharpe in 1954 before
the Supreme Court . The case involved public school segregation in the District
of Columbia .
U.S. REPRESENTATIVES ON THE ECONOMIC AND
SOCIAL COUNCIL (ECOSOC)
Franklin H. Williams (October 22, 1917 - May 20, 1990)
In 1964, Franklin H . Williams was appointed by President Lyndon Johnson
as U.S. Representative to the U .N. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) . He
served there as Ambassador for two years, representing the United States during
the U.N. International Year for Human Rights in 1964 . After he left the United
Nations, he was appointed U.S. Ambassador to Ghana from 1965 to 1968 .
Williams was born in New York City, received a B .A. from Lincoln
University in Pennsylvania, then completed law school at Fordham University,
in New York . He was accepted to the New York and California bar and
practiced law . From 1959 to 1961, he served as assistant attorney general in
New York State . In 1961, Williams was named regional director for Africa in
the U.S . Peace Corps . He sought the creation at the United Nations of an
international voluntary service .' Such a program was not created at that time,
but in January 1971 a U .N. Volunteer Program began operation .
Upon retiring from government service, he headed a new Urban Affairs
Center at Columbia University,served as president and trustee of the Phelps
Stokes Fund, and a commentator for Westinghouse Broadcasting Company.
Clarence Clyde Ferguson, Jr. (November 4, 1924 - December 21, 1983)
Ferguson was appointed by President Richard Nixon to be U .S.
Representative to the Economic and Social Council of the U .N. He served in
that capacity from 1973 to 1975 .
He received his education at Ohio State University and was awarded a J .D.
from Harvard Law School in 1951 . He practiced law in Massachusetts and New
York, specializing in corporate and bankruptcy matters . In 1952, Ferguson
participated in a UNESCO Conference in Havana . In the 1960s he served as
alternate and subsequently as U.S. expert on the U .N. Sub-Commission on the
Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities . He also helped draft
the UNESCO Statement on Race in 1967 . At the same time, from 1963 to 1969,
he was dean and professor at Howard University law school . In 1969, Ferguson
coordinated the relief program for civilians during the Nigerian Civil War. In
1970, he was appointed Ambassador to Uganda and in 1973 he was named
Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs . He began teaching at
Harvard Law School in 1975 .
5 Fasulo, Linda M . Representing America, Experiences of U .S. Diplomats at the UN,
Praeger Publishers, New York: 1984 . p . 92 .
Ferguson is considered one of the originators of the concept of affirmative
action . He was active in civil rights, served on the board of directors of the
NAACP and acted as general counsel for the Civil Rights Commission .
Alan Leo Keyes, Jr . (August 7, 1950 - )
In August 1983, President Ronald Reagan nominated Alan L . Keyes to be
U .S . Representative on the Economic and Social Council . Keyes served in that
capacity until November 1985, when he was sworn in as Assistant Secretary of
State for International Organization Affairs .
While attending Cornell University in the late 1960s, Keyes was a supporter
of the Vietnam War . After completing his undergraduate studies at Harvard
University with a B .A . in 1972, he earned several teaching fellowships from 1974
to 1978 and successfully completed his doctoral studies in 1979 . He joined the
Foreign Service in 19 . From 1980 to 1981, he was posted in Zimbabwe, and
afterward worked on the policy planning staff in the State Department in
While at the United Nations, Keyes antagonized some Americans, black and
white, by leading Reagan Administration opposition to economic sanctions
against South Africa . Keyes reflected a changed attitude toward the United
Nations . In September 1987, Keyes, the highest-ranking African-American in
the State Department, submitted his resignation after a disagreement with
Deputy Secretary John C . Whitehead over the distribution of U .S . funding to
U .N . agencies . According to a Washington Post report (9/17/87), Keyes charged
that he was treated "in a racist manner", and as a "token black" .
Since then Keyes has taught, moderated a radio talk show, and run
unsuccessfully for the Senate in 1988 and 1992 . He recently announced his
candidacy for the Presidency .
Robert Wilson Kitchen, Jr . (July 19, 1921 Robert W. Kitchen served as alternate representative to ECOSOC from
1971 through 1977 . Kitchen graduated from Morehouse College in 1942 and
received a Master's degree in business administration from Columbia University
in 1946 . He pursued studies in industrial management and engineering,
receiving an LL .D . from Chapman College in 1965 . He served for many years
in the Agency for International Development (AID) and the State Department .
He was responsible for the administration of the first major AID program in
Africa, the U .S . Mission to the Sudan, from 1958 to 1960 .
DELEGATES TO THE U .N. GENERAL ASSEMBLY
Charles C . Diggs, Jr . served as a congressional delegate to the General
Assembly in 1971 . Diggs resigned from the U .S. delegation abruptly on
December 18, 1971 to protest the Nixon Administration's African policies . He
favored increasing pressure on Rhodesia and South Africa to change their
official apartheid policies and to develop systems of majority rule .
Generally, public delegates to the U .N. General Assembly are appointed for
a short term . The following list includes some of the African-Americans who
have served on the U .S. delegations to the U .N. General Assembly:
Edith Sampson served as alternate delegate to the United Nations
General Assembly in 1950 and 1952 .
Archibald J . Carey served as alternate delegate to the General Assembly
in 1953 .
Charles H. Mahoney served as delegate to the General Assembly in 1954 .
Robert L. Brokenburr served as alternate delegate to the General
Assembly in 1955 .
Zelma George was alternate delegate to the General Assembly in 1960 .
Carl T. Rowan served as alternate delegate to the General Assembly in
Patricia Roberts Harris served as alternate delegate to the General
Assembly from 1966 to 1967 .
Pearl Bailey was special representative on the U .S . delegation to the
United Nations from 1987 to 1989 .
Brelin, Christa, ed . Who's Who Among Black American, 1992/1993 .
Detroit, Gale Research, Inc ., 1992 .
Current Biography, various editions . New York, H .W. Wilson Co .
Fasulo, Linda M . Representing America, Experiences of U .S. Diplomats at the
U.N. New York, Praeger Pub ., 1984 .
Finger, Seymour Maxwell . American Ambassadors at the UN : People, Politics,
and Bureaucracy in Making Foreign Policy . New York, Holmes & Meier
Publishers, Inc . 1988.
Franklin, John Hope . From Slavery to Freedom, A History of Negro Americans,
Fifth Edition . New York, Borzoi Book, Alfred A . Knopf, Inc., 1980 .
Hawkins, Walter L . African American Biographies, Profiles of 558 Current Men
and Women. Jefferson, North Carolina, McFarland & Co ., Inc . Pub ., 1992 .
Hornsby, Alton, Jr . Chronology of African-American History, Significant Events
and People from 1619 to the Present . Detroit, Gale Research Inc ., 1991 .
Logan, Rayford W . and Winston, Michael R . Dictionary of American Negro
Biography. New York, W.W. Norton & Co ., Pub., 1982 .
Ploski, Harry A . and Williams, James . The Negro Almanac, a Reference Work
on the African American, Fifth Edition . Detroit, Gale Research Inc ., 1989 .
Black First, 2,000 Years of Extraordinary
Smith, Jessie Carnie, ed .
Research Inc ., 1994 .
Smith, Jessie Carnie, ed . Notable Black American Women .
Research Inc., 1992 .
TransAfrica Forum . Blacks in U .S. Foreign Policy : a Retrospective .
Washington, D.C ., TransAfrica, 1987 .
Various periodical articles and newspaper clippings .