Animal Use in Research: Bibliography-in-Brief, 1985-87

This bibliography deals with ethical and practical aspects of the use of animals in research and testing. It touches on animal right and some cases of practical alternatives to animal use.

CRS REPORT FOR CONGRESS ANIMAL USE I N RESEARCH: BIBLIOGRAPHY-IN-BRIEF, 1985-87 Adrienne C. Grenfell Senior Bibliographer, Environment and Natural Resources Library Services Division January 1988 T h e Congressional Research Service wvrks exclusively fbr the Congress. conducting research. analyzing legislation. a n d pro\iding information at the request of committees. >fernbers, and their- staffs. The Set-vice makes such research available, \vithout partisan bias, in many forrns including studies. reports, compilations. digests, and background briefings. Upon request, CRS assists committees in a n a l y ~ i n glegislative proposals a n d issues, and in assessing the possible effects of these proposals and their alternatives. T h e Service's senior specialists and s~ibjectanalysts are also available for personal consultations in their respective fields of'expertise. ABSTRACT This bibliography deals with ethical and practical aspects of the use of animals in research and testing. It touches on animal rights and some cases of practical alternatives to animal use. ANIMAL USE I N RESEARCH: BIBLIOGRAPHY-IN-BRIEF, 1985-87 A l t e r n a t i v e s t o a n i m a l u s e i n r e s e a r c h , t e s t i n g , and e d u c a t i o n . Washington, U.S. O f f i c e o f Technology A s s e s s m e n t , f o r s a l e by t h e S u p t . o f Docs., G.P.O., 1986. 441 p. LRS86-130 "OTA-BA-2 7 3" "Analyzes t h e s c i e n t i f i c , r e g u l a t o r y , economic, l e g a l , and e t h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s involved i n a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n o l o g i e s i n biomedical and b e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h , t o x i c i t y t e s t i n g , and e d u c a t i o n . Included i s a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of F e d e r a l , S t a t e , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n o f a n i m a l u s e , and a r e v i e w of re'cent d e v e l o p m e n t s i n 10 o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . " A l t e r n a t i v e s t o animal t e s t i n g . Chemical times & t r e n d s , v. 1 0 , J u l y 1987: LRS87-6527 7-25, 38-40, 57, 59. C o n t e n t s . - - B a l a n c i n g a n i m a l r i g h t s and consumer s a f e t y : p r o g r e s s t o d a t e , testing by H e r b e r t N. P r i n c e , D a n i e l .,I P r i n c e , and R i c h a r d N. Prince.--EPA aim: r e d u c i n g u s e o f a n i m a l s , by Theodore Farber.--The low volume e y e i r r i t a t i o n test: a c a s e s t u d y i n p r o g r e s s t o w a r d v a l i d a t i o n , by J o h n F. Griffith.--Toward z e r o - b a s e d u s e o f a n i m a l s , by Henry S p i r a . Bateson, P a t r i c k . When t o e x p e r i m e n t on a n i m a l s . New s c i e n t i s t , v. 1 0 9 , Feb. 2 0 , 1986: 30-32. LRS86-2100 Urges t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of b o t h s c i e n t i f i c and a n i m a l - w e l f a r e o r g a n i s a t i o n s work t o g e t h e r t o a c h i e v e r e g u l a t i o n t h a t w i l l t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t b o t h t h e n e e d s of s c i e n c e and t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e a n i m a l s u s e d i n research. Baum, Edward. I n d u s t r y p u r s u i n g s p e c i f i c s o l u ~ i o n st o a n i m a l t e s t i n g . women's wear d a i l y , v . 1 4 9 , Feb. 2 2 , 1985: 8-9. The c o s m e t i c i n d u s t r y members a r e f u n d i n g r e s e a r c h a t J o h n s Hopkins C e n t e r f o r A l t e r n a t i v e s t o Animal T e s t i n g . A v a l i d r e p l a c e m e n t f o r t h e D r a i z e t e s t i s c a l l e d t h e number o n e problem. Lutes, Christopher. Boyce, John R . Animal r i g h t s : how much p a i n i s a c u r e w o r t h ? C h r i s t i a n i t y t o d a y , v. 2 9 , S e p t . 6 , 1985: 35-38. LRS85-8594 It Some a n i m a l r i g h t s a d v o c a t e s h a v e become c a l l o u s t o r e a l human s u f f e r i n g , suggesting t h a t diseases a r e only t h e r e s u l t of f o o l i s h l i f e s t y l e choices. But t h a t , o f c o u r s e , i s n o t t h e c a s e i n many s i t u a t i o n s - - s u c h a s t h a t of a c h i l d w i t h c y s t i c f i b r o s i s , b a c t e r i a l m e n i n g i t i s , o r l e u k e m i a . While a l t e r n a t i v e s s u c h a s c o m p u t e r s i m u l a t i o n s and c e l l c u l t u r e s s h o u l d be used whenever p o s s i b l e , a n i m a l s s i m p l y must b e u s e d i n many c a s e s s o t h a t c u r e s may be found." C h e r f a s , Jeremy. Chimps i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y : a n e n d a n g e r e d s p e c i e s . N e w s c i e n t i s t , v. 1 0 9 , Mar. 2 7 , 1 9 8 6 : 37-41. LRS86-2162 Claims t h a t chimpanzees a r e v a l u a b l e i n medical r e s e a r c h because t h e y a r e But c h i m p s a r e becoming more s c a r c e b e c a u s e t h e i r s o much l i k e humans. n a t u r a l h a b i t a t i s b e i n g d e s t r o y e d and t h e y do n o t b r e e d w e l l i n c a p t i v i t y . Cohen, H e n r y . C o n g r e s s i o n a l power t o c o n f e r s t a n d i n g : p r o p o s e d amendment t o t h e A n i m a l Welfare Act. Dec. 2 8 , 1 9 8 7 . 29 p . 87-987 A H . R . 1 7 7 0 , 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s , would a u t h o r i z e a n y p e r s o n t o s u e on h i s own b e h a l f o r o n b e h a l f o f a n a n i m a l p r o t e c t e d by t h e A n i m a l W e l f a r e A c t t o c o m p e l F e d e r a l e n f o r c e m e n t of t h e A c t . T h i s g r a n t o f s t a n d i n g t o s u e r a i s e s t h e i s s u e o f t h e l i m i t s o f A r t i c l e I11 o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , w h i c h r e q u i r e s t h a t s u i t s i n F e d e r a l c o u r t i n v o l v e "cases" o r " c o n t r o ~ e r s i e s . ~ ~ D r e s s e r , Rebecca. R e s e a r c h on a n i m a l s : v a l u e s , p o l i t i c s , a n d r e g u l a t o r y r e f o r m . Southern LRS85-12236 C a l i f o r n i a l a w r e v i e w , v. 5 8 , J u l y 1985: 1147-1201. " T h i s A r t i c l e i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e problem of r e g u l a t i n g r e s e a r c h o n a n i m a l s a n d p r o p o s e s a model f o r l e g a l r e f o r m t h a t r e a l i s t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e s t h e competing e t h i c a l claims: t h e i n t e r e s t s of l a b o r a t o r y a n i m a l s and t h e i n t e r e s t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s who b e n e f i t f r o m r e s e a r c h on t h o s e a n i m a l s . " Fox, Michael W., L a b o r a t o r y animal husbandry: e t h o l o g y , w e l f a r e , and e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s . A l b a n y , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York P r e s s , 1 9 8 6 . 267 p. SF406.F69 1 9 8 6 B i b l i o g r a p h y : p. 229-260. Fulford, Robert. Monkey b u s i n e s s . S a t u r d a y n i g h t , v. 1 0 1 , J a n . 1 9 8 6 : 5-7. LRS86-3609 It How a n A u s t r a l i a n p h i l o s o p h e r ' s [ B e r n a r d ~ o l f e ' s ] i d e a s i n s p i r e d a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l movement t o l i b e r a t e a n i m a l s f r o m l a b o r a t o r i e s a n d d i n n e r tables." Holden, Constance. A p i v o t a l y e a r f o r l a b animal w e l f a r e . S c i e n c e , v. 2 3 2 , Apr. 1 1 , 1 9 8 6 : 147-150. LRS86-2679 I1 T h e r e i s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a c t h e c o m b i n a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e , f i n a n c i a l s t r i n g e n c y , a n d new a n d i m p r o v e d m e t h o d o l o g i e s w i l l r e s u l t i n t h e c o n t i n u e d r e d u c t i o n of animal use a t l e a s t i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . There i s a l s o l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t c o n f r o n t a t i o n between t h e s c i e n t i f i c community and t h e r a d i c a l f r i n g e of t h e a n i m a l w e l f a r e movement w i l l c o n t i n u e . " H o w a r d - J o n e s , Norman. A CIOMS e t h i c a l c o d e f o r a n i m a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . WHO c h r o n i c l e , v . 3 9 , LRS85-9927 n o . 2 , 1 9 8 5 : 51-56. II E a r l y i n 1985 t h e C o u n c i l f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s of M e d i c a l S c i e n c e s (CIOMS) p u b l i s h e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l G u i d i n g P r i n c i p l e s f o r B i o m e d i c a l R e s e a r c h I n v o l v i n g Animals. T h i s was t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f a t h r e e - y e a r programme i n i t i a t e d i n 1982 w i t h t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t of t h e WHO A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e o n M e d i c a l R e s e a r c h and t h e a c t i v e c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f e x p e r t s t a f f members o f WHO." I g l e h a r t , John K . The u s e o f a n i m a l s i n r e s e a r c h . New England j o u r n a l of m e d i c i n e , v . 313, Aug. 8 , 1985: 395-400. LRS85-7453 Reviews r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e s t r u g g l e between t h e m e d i c a l - r e s e a r c h community and a n i m a l - w e l f a r e a d v o c a t e s o v e r t h e u s e o f a n i m a l s i n r e s e a r c h . N o t e s t h a t , " ~ o n g r e s s , w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e NIH, i s n o t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h community abandon i t s u s e of a n i m a l s , b u t i t i s a d o p t i n g a t o u g h e r p o l i c y t o e n s u r e t h a t a n i m a l s a r e t r e a t e d and c a r e d f o r h u m a n e l y and t o b o l s t e r t h e c o n t i n u e d e x p l o r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e models." L a b o r a t o r y a n i m a l s : a n i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r new e x p e r i m e n t e r s . T u f f e r y . New York, W i l e y , 1987. 342 p. "A W i l e y - I n t e r s c i e n c e p u b l i c a t i o n . " E d i t e d by A. A. QL55.L274 1 9 8 7 Lays, J u l i e . Do r a b b i t s h a v e r i g h t s ? S t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s , v. 1 3 , Aug. 1987: 18-21. LRS87-6541 II A s p u b l i c o u t c r y a g a i n s t t h e u s e of animals i n r e s e a r c h and t e s t i n g g r o w s , s t a t e l e g i s l a t o r s a r e b e i n g a s k e d t o t a k e a more a c t i v e r o l e i n r e g u l a t i n g animal r e s e a r c h w i t h i n t h e i r s t a t e s . " Leeper, Pepper. S e l e c t i n g models f o r b i o m e d i c a l r e s e a r c h . News r e p o r t , v . 3 5 , Apr. 1985: 10-16. LRS85-3466 R e p o r t s o n work o f a c o m m i t t e e which r e v i e w e d and e v a l u a t e d t h e r e l e v a n c e and l i m i t a t i o n s o f r e s e a r c h models o t h e r t h a n mammals. The c o m m i t t e e recommended t h a t N I H e s t a b l i s h a d a t a b a s e t o h e l p r e s e a r c h e r s s e l e c t o r g a n i s m s s u i t a b l e f o r t h e i r r e s e a r c h and c o n c l u d e d t h a t "NIH s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o s u p p o r t r e s e a r c h u s i n g t h e b e s t mammalian m o d e l s , w h e r e nonmammalian models a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e . " McCabe, K a t i e . Who w i l l l i v e , who w i l l d i e ? W a s h i n g t o n i a n , v. 2 1 , Aug. 1986: 112-118, 153-157. LRS86-6 1 6 8 It I s t h e r e a d i f f e r e n c e between t h e l i f e o f a monkey and t h a t of a c h i l d ? W i l l a n i m a l - r i g h t s a c t i v i s t s s t o p m e d i c a l r e s e a r c h a s w e know i t ? W i l l f e w e r c u r e s b e found? Will more p e o p l e d i e ? " McDonald, Karen L. C r e a t i n g a p r i v a t e c a u s e of a c t i o n a g a i n s t a b u s i v e a n i m a l r e s e a r c h . U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a law r e v i e w , v. 1 3 4 , J a n . 1986: 399-432. LRS86-904 Comment c o n c l u d e s t h a t " c o u r t a c t i o n s by a n i m a l r i g h t s g r o u p s may s e r v e t o mobilize public opinion s u f f i c i e n t l y t o motivate l e g i s l a t o r s t o enact l a w s r e c o g n i z i n g l e g a l r i g h t s f o r a n i m a l s . L e g a l a c t i o n s may a l s o e n c o u r a g e t h e s c i e n t i f i c community t o be more r e s p o n s i v e t o a n i m a l s 1 interests." Van T i e n h o v e n , Ar i . Mench, J o y A. Farm a n i m a l w e l f a r e . American s c i e n t i s t , v . 7 4 , Nov.-Dec. 1986: 598-603. LRS86-1047 1 T h i s a r t i c l e d e s c r i b e s techn i q u e s such a s confinement of farm a n i m a l s and d i s c u s s e s r e s e a r c h on a n i m a l s ' s t r e s s r e s p o n s e s and b e h a v i o r a l p r e f e r e n c e s .