Strategic Defense Initiative: Selected References, 1986-1988

88-184 L CRS REPORT FOR CONGRESS STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE: SELECTED REFERENCES, 1986-1988 by V a l e n t i n Leskovsek Senior Bibliographer, Foreign A f f a i r s Library Services Division F e b r u a r y 1988 i M UNlr/ERSIT\ OF TEXAS AT AlJSTiN APR 13 1988 GENERAL LIBRARlkb nronelrnov ABSTRACT The S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e h a s become o n e o f t h e most c o n t r o v e r s i a l American defense programs in both domestic and foreign policy. This b i b l i o g r a p h y o f s e l e c t e d books and a r t i c l e s a s s e s s e s t h e t e c h n i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y o f t h e SDI, i t s r o l e i n t h e U.S. the NATO alliance, considers nuclear s t r a t e g y , surveys i t s implications f o r its impact on the U.S.-Soviet relations and s t r a t e g i c s t a b i l i t y , and a n a l y z e s t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f s t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e w i t h t h e ABM T r e a t y . STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE: SELECTED REFERENCES, 1986-1988 Abrahamson , James A. The Strategic Defense Initiative and its relationship to deterrence. ~efense/87,Jan.-Feb. 1987: 20-28. LRS87-1221 Director of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization in the Defense Department discusses "the area where strategic defense can make its largest contribution, namely the control of escalation and, in the process, prevention of nuclear war." Adragna, Steven P. On guard for victory: military doctrine and ballistic missi'le defense in the USSR. Washington, Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, 1987. 93 p. LRS87-10959 Contents.--Framework for analysis.--American strategic nuclear policy: deterrence vs. defense?--So,viet military doctrine and strategy."-Pillars of military doctrine and strategy.--Ballistic missile defense: a Soviet political-military imperative.--Military doctrine, ideology, and arms control.--The Soviet ballistic missile defense program: an action-reaction phenomenon?--The Soviet campaign against the Strategic Defense Initiative.-SDI and the Soviet military.--Denials of a "soviet SDI": separating myth from r-ea1ity.-.-Into the future: Soviet policy options.--Soviet military doctrine: what does i t portend? The American strategic defence initiative: implications for West European security: report on a workshop, The Hague, 26/27 April 1985 /papers et al.. The Hague, Netherlands Institute presented by Graeme P. Auton of International Relations "~lingendael", 1986. 308 p. UG743.A44x 1986 Contents.--The strategic defense initiative, by G. C. Berkhof.--The Soviet view of the strategic defence initiative and of ballistic missile defense, by P. H. Vigor.--Ballistic missile defence and strategic stability, by Ian Bellany.--Soviet ballistic missile defense and European security, by David S. Yost.--Strategic defenses and stability, by Dean Wi1kening.--Ballistic missile defence and NATO doctrine, by Graeme P. Auton.--The strategic defense initiative and European security, by Gambiez.--The American strategic defense initiative and West European security, by G. C. Berho£.-Western European security and the strategic defense initiative, by Philip Williams.--Outer space, the strategic defense initiative and arms control, by Wolfgang Mallmann. ... Anti-missile and anti-satellite technologies and programs, SDI and ASAT. Park Ridge, N.J., U.S.A, Noyes Publications, c1986. 270 p. UG743 .A58 1986 Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies. Aspen Strategy Group. The Strategic Defense Initiative and American security; an Aspen Strategy Group report. Lanham, Md., University Press of America, 1986. 66 p. LRS86-13451 Partial contents.--The policy conttxt of the SDI program.--The SDI technology program.--SDI and ~merica's interests abroad.--SDI and arms control. B i d d l e , Wayne. S t a r Wars: t h e dream d i m i n i s h e d . D i s c o v e r , v. 8 , J u l y 1987: 26-30, 32-35, 38. LRS87-4543 R e p o r t s on t h e p l a u s i b i l i t y o f an e a r l y d e p l o y m e n t of t h e S t r a t e g i c Defense I n i t i a t i v e . S c i e n t i s t s and p o l i t i c i a n s most i n f o r m e d a b o u t SDI know t h a t " d e a t h r a y s i n s p a c e w i l l be s c i e n c e f i c t i o n f o r a l o n g , l o n g t i m e . " Blechman, B a r r y M. Utgoff, Victor A. The m a c r o e c o n o m i c s of s t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , v. 11, w i n t e r 1986-87: 33-70. LRS86-1432 7 11 I n t h e e x t e n s i v e and sometimes h e a t e d d e b a t e t h a t h a s f o l l o w e d t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s s p e e c h of March 1 9 8 3 r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n h a s been p a i d t o e i t h e r t h e c o s t of a s t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e system o r t o t h e economic i m p l i c a t i o n s of s u c h a d e c i s i o n . T h i s s t u d y i s i n t e n d e d t o i n i t i a t e a p r o c e s s o f c o n t i n u a l l y i m p r o v i n g a s s e s s m e n t s of t h e p o t e n t i a l c o s t s o f s t r a t e g i c defenses." ... Bluth, Christoph. SDI: t h e c h a l l e n g e t o West Germany. I n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s , v. 6 2 , s p r i n g 1986: 247-264. LRS86-10769 " ~ tth e December 1985 h e a r i n g o f SDI e x p e r t s b e f o r e t h e f o r e i g n a n d d e f e n c e p o l i c y c o m m i t t e e of t h e B u n d e s t a g , a l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f t h e e x p e r t s w e r e e x t r e m e l y s c e p t i c a l a b o u t SDI and German p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e s e a r c h . A l t h o u g h t h e h e a r i n g had no i n f l u e n c e on t h e s u b s e q u e n t g o v e r n m e n t d e c i s i o n , i t d o e s seem t o mark a w i d e n i n g and i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e d e b a t e i n Germany o n a l l a s p e c t s of SDI." Bowman, R o b e r t . S t a r Wars: a d e f e n s e i n s i d e r ' s c a s e a g a i n s t t h e S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e Initiative. 1st e d . Los A n g e l e s , T a r c h e r N e w York, D i s t r i b u t e d by S t . arti in's P r e s s , c 1 9 8 6 . 180 p. UG743.B69 1 9 8 6 B r o o k s , C h a r l e s D. S.D.I.: a new d i m e n s i o n f o r I s r a e l . J o u r n a l of s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c s t u d i e s , v. 1 1 , w i n t e r 1986: 341-348. LRS86-13167 I1 I n March o f 1 9 8 3 , P r e s i d e n t Reagan announced h i s p l a n f o r t h e S t r a t e g i c Defense I n i t i a t i v e . The P r e s i d e n t o f f e r e d U.S. a l l i e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e SDI e n d e a v o r . I n I s r a e l , t h e U.S. i n v i t a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n SDI was met w i t h g r e a t i n t e r e s t . " Brown, H a r o l d . I s SDI t e c h n i c a l l y f e a s i b l e ? F o r e i g n a f f a i r s , v. 6 4 , no. 3 , 1986: 435-454. LRS86-1204 11 This a r t i c l e w i l l assess the prospects f o r t h e various defensive t e c h n o l o g i e s f o r b o t h t h e n e a r term ( 1 0 t o 15 y e a r s ) and t h e l o n g e r term. I t w i l l i n c l u d e r e c o m n e n d a t i o n s on how t o p r o c e e d w i t h a r e a l i s t i c r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t program. I t w i l l a l s o make t e n t a t i v e j u d g m e n t s o n t h e t e c h n i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y o f v a r i o u s SDI o b j e c t i v e s , t h o u g h d e f i n i t i v e a n s w e r s a r e n o t y e t possible." Browne, Malcolm W. The S t a r Wars s p i n o f f . New York t i m e s m a g a z i n e , Aug. 2 4 , 1986: 19-20, 2 2 , 2 4 , 2 6 , 66-67, 6 9 , 73. LRS86-7693 S p i n o f f s from SDI may f i n d t h e i r way i n t o a v a r i e t y o f c i v i l i a n f i e l d s , b u t c r i t i c s o f SDI " p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l s i d e b e n e f i t s of S t a r Wars r e s e a r c h c o u l d be had much more c h e a p l y and e f f i c i e n t l y i f t h e y w e r e p u r s u e d d i r e c t l y r a t h e r t h a n a s t h e u n i n t e n d e d o f f s h o o t s of a n e x t r a v a g a n t m i l i t a r y s p e n d i n g program." C h a l f o n t , A r t h u r Gwynne J o n e s , Baron. SDI i n c o n t e x t . U n i t e d S t a t e s Naval I n s t i t u t e p r o c e e d i n g s , v . 1 1 2 , Apr. 1986: 7 0 , 72-76. LRS86-1790 I' The s e m i - h y s t e r i c a l , t o p s y - t u r v y r h e t o r i c t h a t h a s g r e e t e d t h e u n v e i l i n g of t h e S t r a t e g i c Defense I n i t i a t i v e cannot obscure t h e f a c t t h a t s p a c e i s a l r e a d y p a r t of o u r s t r a t e g i c t h i n k i n g - - a n d w i l l i n e v i t a b l y c o n t i n u e t o r e m a i n SO.'' C h a r l t o n , Michael. From d e t e r r e n c e t o d e f e n c e : t h e i n s i d e s t o r y of s t r a t e g i c p o l i c y . C a m b r i d g e , Mass., H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1987. 154 p. UA23.C516 1987 '8 S t a r Wars" o r p e a c e - i n - t h e - s k i e s : a s h o r t h i s t o r y of d r e a m s & n i g h t m a r e s . E n c o u n t e r , v. 6 6 , Feb. 1986: 12-29; Mar.: 13-27. LRS86- 14326 'I I s P r e s i d e n t R e a g a n ' s v i s i o n t h a t t h e b a l l i s t i c m i s s i l e m i g h t b e made ' i m p o t e n t ' and ' o b s o l e t e ' e v i d e n c e o n l y o f t h e l o n g i n g t o e s c a p e f r o m a n I n t h e 1960s t h e i n t o l e r a b l e y e t permanent m i l i t a r y d i l e m n a ? A m e r i c a n s t o o k t h e view t h a t d e f e n c e s h o u l d b e a l l b u t a b a n d o n e d My Why, purpose i n t h e s e a r t i c l e s i s t o review t h e intervening y e a r s now, do t h e A m e r i c a n s b e l i e v e t h e t i m e h a s come t o r e c o n s i d e r t h e s t a n d t h e y t o o k n e a r l y two d e c a d e s a g o , and t o p u r s u e a n a l t e r n a t i v e t o ' m u t u a l a s s u r e d destruction'?" .... .... .... C o d e v i l l a , A n g e l o M. How e m i n e n t p h y s i c i s t s have l e n t t h e i r names t o a p o l i t i c i z e d r e p o r t on s t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e . Commentary, v . 8 4 , S e p t . 1987: 21-26. LRS87-6545 I' The r e p o r t c o n s i s t s of a n e t w o r k o f a s s u m p t i o n s o v e r l a i d upon s c i e n t i f i c f i l l e r materials Because t h e s e assumptions a r e e i t h e r e r r o n e o u s o r a r b i t r a r i l y t e n d e n t i o u s , o r both, t h e r e p o r t a s a whole o f f e r s a p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e of g a r b a g e i n , g a r b a g e out." .... How SDI i s b e i n g undone f r o m w i t h i n . Commentary, v . 8 1 , May 1986: 21-29. LRS86-3658 The a u t h o r e x a m i n e s "how and why t h e U.S. g o v e r n m e n t o v e r t h e y e a r s h a s s p u r n e d t h e means a t hand t o d e v e l o p a n t i m i s s i l e d e f e n s e s i n f a v o r o f utopian arms-control i n i t i a t i v e s . " G l o b a l a f f a i r s , v. 1 , sumner 1986: 17-33. LRS86-12 1 0 1 "The S o v i e t Union now p o s s e s s e s enough i n t e r c o n t i n e n t a l b a l l i s t i c m i s s i l e s (ICBMs) and warhead y i e l d s t o e l i m i n a t e t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f o u r own f o r c e s i n a p r e e m p t i v e a t t a c k . By d o i n g s o , t h e S o v i e t Union c o u l d w e l l p r e v e n t a m i l i t a r i l y m e a n i n g f u l r e t a l i a t i o n by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s S i n c e t h e S o v i e t s h a v e t h e m i s s i l e s f o r s u c h a s t r i k e , and w i l l n o t g i v e them u p , w e h a v e no c h o i c e b u t t o p r e p a r e t o make s u r e t h a t , - - i f t h e y e v e r l a u n c h them, we w i l l be a b l e t o d e s t r o y them i n f l i g h t . " S t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e s now. ... .... Cohen, Samuel. The S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e : a s h i e l d , n o t a sword. W a s h i n g t o n , H e r i t a g e F o u n d a t i o n , 1988. 8 p. ( B a c k g r o u n d e r no. 6 2 8 ) LRS88-286 It More r e c e n t l y , t h e S o v i e t s h a v e c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f SDI i s t o b u i l d a s h i e l d b e h i n d which t h e U.S. might l a u n c h a f i r s t s t r i k e on t h e S o v i e t Union. Although t h i s i s p a r t of t h e S o v i e t p r o p a g a n d a campaign a g a i n s t SDI, some U.S. o p p o n e n t s of SDI e c h o s i m i l a r v i e w s . These arguments a r e without merit. SDI i s a d e f e n s i v e s h i e l d , n o t a n o f f e n s i v e sword." Cooper, J e f f r e y . Pena, Charles. Bue, Kara. How d e f e n s e s work and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e a r c h i t e c t u r e s . (SRS t e c h n i c a l n o t e TN-MAA r l i n g t o n , Va., SKS T e c h n o l o g i e s , 1987. 23 p. 8 7-00 1A) LRS87-11063 Contents.--Introduction.--How defenses work.--~oost/post-boost defense.-Midcourse defense.--Terminal defenses.--How d e f e n s e s work.--Mission requirement f o r defense.--Implications f o r s t r a t e g i c defense a r c h i t e c t u r e s . Cordesman, Anthony H . SDI and Europe: where d o e s t h e a t r e d e f e n s e f i t i n ? I n t e r n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e r e v i e w , v . 2 0 , no. 4 , 1987: 409-414. LRS87-2622 II P r o v i d e s a n o v e r v i e w of t h e ' t h e a t r e ' i m p l i c a t i o n s o f SDI. L o o k i n g a t b o t h t h e US and European p o i n t s o f view, h e a r g u e s t h a t SDI and t h e a t r e d e f e n s e a r e i n s e p a r a b l e and must be d e v e l o p e d on a c o - o p e r a t i v e b a s i s . " C r a w f o r d , R o b e r t J . H i l d r e t h , S t e v e n A. C o n g r e s s a n d t h e S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e : a d e t a i l e d o v e r v i e w of l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n , 1984-1987. Aug. 25, 1987. 4 3 p. W a s h i n g t o n , Congress i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e , 198.7. 87-749 F The S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e (SDI) i s a n a d v a n c e d r e s e a r c h and t e c h n o l o g y development program whose s t a t e d p u r p o s e i s t o e x a m i n e t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of d e v e l o p i n g e f f e c t i v e and s u r v i v a b l e d e f e n s e s a g a i n s t b a l l i s t i c m i s s i l e a t t a c k . SDI i s h i g h l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n C o n g r e s s a n d e l s e w h e r e b e c a u s e i t r a i s e s many f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s a b o u t n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , n u c l e a r d e t e r r e n c e , arms c o n t r o l , and U.S.-allied and U.S.-Soviet relations. T h i s r e p o r t summarizes c o n g r e s s i o n a l a c t i o n o n t h e S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e ( S D I ) s i n c e 1984, when t h e Reagan A d m i n i s t r a t i o n made i t s f i r s t r e q u e s t f o r SDI f u n d i n g . I t i s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e Members a n d Committees w i t h a c o m p r e h e n s i v e and c o m p a r a t i v e o v e r v i e w of l e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g t h e SDI program, a s w e l l a s o t h e r a c t i o n t a k e n by C o m m i t t e e s o r o n e House t h a t d i d n o t become law. Daalder, Ivo H. The SDI c h a l l e n g e t o Europe. Foreword by S t a n l e y Hoffmann. Mass., B a l l i n g e r , c1987. 185 p. Cambridge, UG743,D33 1987 Davis, William A., Jr. A s y m n e t r i e s i n U.S. and S o v i e t s t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e p r o g r a m s : i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r n e a r - t e r m American deployment o p t i o n s ; s p e c i a l r e p o r t . Washington, LRS86- 1 2 3 9 5 P e r g a m o n - B r a s s e y ' s I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e f e n s e Pub., 1986. 76 p. Study a n overview of t h e c o n t e n t i o n between v a r i o u s a p p r o a c h e s t o d e t e r r e n c e , and e x a m i n e s t h e emergence o f t h e a s s u r e d d e s t r u c t i o n c o n c e p t a s t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g o f U.S. n u c l e a r t h o u g h t . The a u t h o r t h e n e x p l o r e s t h e i m p a c t o f t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t on U.S. a r m s c o n t r o l p o l i c i e s a n d o n He cond o m e s t i c BMD B a l l i s t i c M i s s i l e D e f e n s e r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p m e n t . c l u d e s by a r g u i n g t h a t t h e c u r r e n t f o c u s o f SDI r e s e a r c h must b e m o d i f i e d , s o as t o p l a c e g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n e a r - t e r m , r a p i d l y d e p l o y a b l e o p t i o n s f o r t h e d e f e n s e of American s t r a t e g i c a s s e t s . " Davydov, V . 1I S t a r wars'' a g a i n s t a n u c l e a r - f r e e w o r l d . C u r r e n t news, no. 1 5 4 8 , Feb. 2 4 , LRS87-11060 1 9 8 7 : 1-4; no. 1 5 7 1 , Apr. 21: 37-41. The a u t h o r , a S o v i e t m i l i t a r y a n a l y s t l a y s down a w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d and l o g i c a l a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t SDI. T r a n s l a t i o n from t h e R u s s i a n . ~ e s c h a m p s ,L o u i s . Paris, Atlantic Institute for The SDI and E u r o p e a n s e c u r i t y i n t e r e s t s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , 1 9 8 6 , i . e . 1987. 64 p. ( A t l a n t i c p a p e r no. 6 2 ) LRS86-11083 Contents.--Defense i n t h e n u c l e a r age.--Defense o r d e t e r r e n c e : t h e l i m i t s o f W e s t e r n c o n s e n s u s . - - T h e Euro-American d e b a t e on t h e SD1.--European c o n c e r n s and American re,sponses.--The p o l i t i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e d e b a t e . D i a z , Tom. S t r a t e g i c Defense I n i t i a t i v e . Washington t i m e s , Feb. 10, 1986: l A , 5A; Feb. 11: l A , 6A; Feb. 12: l A , 8A; Feb. 1 3 , l A , 16A; Feb. 1 4 : l A , 16A. LRS86-602 Contents.--Soviets l e a d i n l a s e r beam weapons f o r s p a c e s h i e l d . - - S o v i e t accidental launch: s p a c e a g e weaponry i s c e n t r a l t o U.S. r e s e a r c h . - - T h e atomic a g e nightmare.--Building o f a ' s t a r w a r s ' s y s t e m p o s e s h i g h drama f o r scientists.--If n o t h i n g e l s e , ' s t a r w a r s ' g o t S o v i e t s t o resume t a l k s . DiMaggio, Cosmo. P o t e n t i a l o f f e n s i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s of SDI s p a c e weapons. O c t . 7 , 1987. W a s h i n g t o n , C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e , 1987. 14 p. 87-807 SPR The S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e ( S D I ) i s d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f d e f e n d i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and i t s a l l i e s a g a i n s t n u c l e a r The r e s e a r c h program i n c l u d e s weapon c o n c e p t s t o b a l l i s t i c missiles. d e s t r o y a t t a c k i n g b a l l i s t i c m i s s i l e s and n u c l e a r warheads from space. Q u e s t i o n s h a v e been r a i s e d o v e r t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r o f f e n s i v e u s e o f SDI s p a c e weapon t e c h n o l o g i e s t h a t p r o v e f e a s i b l e . D i n , A l l a n H. The s t r a t e g i c i m p l i c a t i o n s of d i r e c t e d - e n e r g y t e c h n o l o g i e s . Defense LRS87-3136 a n a l y s i s , v. 3, Mar. 1987: 35-50. A d d r e s s e s t h e p r o b l e m r a i s e d by SDI a n d i t s f u t u r e s t r a t e g i c a n d p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , a r g u i n g t h a t s u c h p r o j e c t i o n s c a n n o t b e a d e q u a t e l y made w i t h o u t a c l e a r and c a r e f u l s t u d y o f t e c h n o l o g i e s i n v o l v e d . Empty p r o m i s e : t h e g r o w i n g c a s e a g a i n s t S t a r Wars. The Union o f C o n c e r n e d 238 p. Scientists. E d i t e d by John Tirman. B o s t o n , Beacon P r e s s , c1986. UG743 .E46 1 9 8 6 E n n a l s , J. R. S t a r wars: a q u e s t i o n of i n i t i a t i v e . W i l e y , c1986. 236 p. C h i c h e s t e r [West S u s s e x ] New York, J . UG743.E56 1986b Fenske, John. F r a n c e and t h e S t r a t e g i c Defence I n i t i a t i v e : s p e e d i n g up o r p u t t i n g on t h e b r a k e s ? I n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s ondo don), v. 6 2 , s p r i n g 1986: 231-246. LRS86-11813 I' The o f f i c i a l F r e n c h answer h a s been 'No' t o t h e r e q u e s t f o r p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t a s w e l l a s t o t h e o f f e r o f c o o p e r a t i o n . But t h e r e a r e a l s o p o l i t i c a l and i n d u s t r i a l v o i c e s i n F r a n c e s a y i n g ' y e s ' . Moreover, a l l F r a n c e i s a g r e e d t h a t t h e SDI i s a c h a l l e n g e t o F r e n c h and European c l a i m s t o be a b l e t o r u n i n t h e same t e c h n o l o g i c a l r a c e a s t h e s u p o r p o w e r s i n t h e coming d e c a d e s . " F i e l d , George. S p e r g e l , David. C o s t of s p a c e - b a s e d l a s e r b a l l i s t i c m i s s i l e d e f e n s e . S c i e n c e , v. 2 3 1 , LRS86-1667 Mar. 2 1 , 1986: 1387-1393. The a u t h o r s " e s t i m a t e t h e c o s t of m a i n t a i n i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a BMD system r e l a t i v e t o t h a t of p r o l i f e r a t i n g t h e a d d i t i o n a l missiles n e c e s s a r y t o overcome i t . " F i t z G e r a l d , Mary C . The S o v i e t m i l i t a r y on SDI. S t u d i e s i n c o m p a r a t i v e communism, v. 1 9 , a u t u m n - w i n t e r 1986: 177-191. LRS86-13110 'I S o v i e t w r i t i n g s s i n c e R e a g a n ' s s o - c a l l e d ' S t a r Wars' s p e e c h h a s y i e l d e d b o t h o b j e c t i v e S o v i e t c o n c e r n s and r e g r e s s i o n s t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l w a r f a r e . I n g e n e r a l , t h e S o v i e t r e s p o n s e t o SDI i s t h a t i t s o f f e n s i v e a s p e c t s o u r w e i g h i t s p r o c l a i m e d f u n c t i o n a s a d e f e n s i v e system." ... Froman, M i c h a e l B. F r a n c e and SDI. G a r d n e r , Anthony L. M i x e r , S c o t t R. Naval War C o l l e g e r e v i e w , v. 30, s p r i n g 1987: 37-43. LRS87-9192 I' C r i t i c s who a r g u e t h a t t h e S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e ( S D I ) w i l l d i v i d e t h e A t l a n t i c a l l i a n c e , f r e q u e n t l y c i t e t h e French Government's o p p o s i t i o n a s e v i d e n c e . The F r e n c h view of SDI, however, i s n e i t h e r s i m p l e n o r monol i t h i c . While P r e s i d e n t F r a n c o i s M i t t e r r a n d h a s been c o n s i s t e n t l y c r i t i c a l o f SDI, P r i m e M i n i s t e r J a c q u e s C h i r a c i s f a r more s u p p o r t i v e , a t l e a s t rhetorically. Key members of t h e d e f e n s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , b o t h i n g o v e r n m e n t and i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r , moreover, f a v o r a n a t i o n a l a n t i m i s s i l e system t o defend France's m i l i t a r y installations." G a r t h o f f , Raymond L. R e f o c u s i n g t h e SDI d e b a t e . B u l l e t i n of t h e 1987: 44-50. The a u t h o r p r e s e n t s a n a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e t o b o t h t h e U.S. and t h e S o v i e t Union w h i l e n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y dilemma and d e c i d e on t h e d e f e n s e ( BMD) . a t o m i c s c i e n t i s t s , v. 43, S e p t . LRS87-1072 7 o f a c t i o n t h a t m i g h t be a c c e p t e d both countries resolve t h e f u t u r e r o l e o f b a l l i s t i c missile Garwin, R i c h a r d L. An SDI d e f e n s e : a Maginot l i n e i n s p a c e . C e n t e r m a g a z i n e , v. 2 0 , Nov.-Dec. 1987: 45-53. LRS87-9882 I n t h i s a r t i c l e and t h e d i a l o g which f o l l o w s , f o r m e r P r e s i d e n t i a l a d v i s o r e x a m i n e s t h e SDI s y s t e m and i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . G e l l n e r , C h a r l e s R. The new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e ABM T r e a t y - - s a l i e n t i s s u e s . Feb. 1 0 , 1987. W a s h i n g t o n , C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e , 1987. 27 p. 87-164 S The Reagan A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s c u r r e n t l y c o n s i d e r i n g w h e t h e r t o a d o p t a new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e A n t i - B a l l i s t i c M i s s i l e (ABM) T r e a t y c o n c l u d e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e S o v i e t Union i n 1972. The new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would l e g a l l y permit t h e Administration, according t o i t s contention, t o c a r r y out t e s t i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t o f c e r t a i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t s v i t a l t o t h e S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e ( S D I ) , a program t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a n a t i o n w i d e d e f e n s e s y s t e m f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c a n b e d e v e l o p e d and deployed. G e n t l e s , R . G. K e e p i n g a n open mind on t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of s t r a t e g i c d e f e n c e . C a n a d i a n d e f e n c e q u a r t e r l y , v. 1 6 , autumn 1986: 8 , 11-14, 16. LRS86-10413 11 The u n c e r t a i n i m p l i c a t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e outcome o f t h e SDI r e s e a r c h programme h a s made i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r a l l i e d Governments The d i f f i c u l t y i s t o d e c i d e t h e b a s i s on which a d e c i s i o n s h o u l d be t a k e n : S h o u l d i t be b a s e d on a n a s s e s s m e n t o f l i k e l y t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s ? From a m o r a l p o i n t of view?" The a u t h o r p r e s e n t s q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e a s s e s s m e n t s from which some g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s c a n b e drawn. .... . G e r a s i m o v , Gennadi i SDI ( S t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e i n i t i a t i v e ) , s t e l l a r d e l u s i o n s : t h e U.S. t h r e a t o f s p a c e m i l i t a r i z a t i o n . -Moskva, N o v o s t i P r e s s Agency Pub. House, 1986. 70 p. UG743.G47 1 9 8 6 G l a s e r , Bonne S. G a r r e t t , Banning N . C h i n e s e p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e . Problems of communism, v. 35, Mar./Apr. 1986: 28-44. LRS86-3586 I1 The C h i n e s e l e a d e r s h i p began t o f o c u s on t h e S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s sometime i n l a t e 1 9 8 4 o r e a r l y 1985. Beijing i n s t r u c t e d v a r i o u s m i n i s t r i e s and r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o e x a m i n e SDI a n d i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r China. L e a d i n g a n a l y s t s a t f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n s t i t u t e s a n d d e f e n s e , s c i e n c e , and t e c h n o l o g y o r g a n i z a t i o n s h e l d c o n f e r e n c e s a n d w r o t e p o s i t i o n p a p e r s on t h i s i m p o r t a n t t o p i c . What h a s emerged f r o m t h e s e e f f o r t s i s a p i c t u r e of i n f o r m e d and d i v e r s e o p i n i o n w i t h a s w i d e a r a n g e o f v i e w s on SDI a s i s found i n t h e West." Godson, Dean. SDI: h a s America t o l d h e r s t o r y t o t h e w o r l d ? W a s h i n g t o n , I n s t i t u t e f o r F o r e i g n P o l i c y A n a l y s i s , 1987. 7 3 p. LRS87-10958 Contents.--Overview o f European o p i n i o n on SD1.--U.S. p u b l i c diplomacy, a t home a n d abroad.--A p r o s p e c t i v e p u b l i c d i p l o m a c y s t r a t e g y f o r SDI i n E u r o p e . Goldman, Andrew. The ABM-SDI d e b a t e : t h e White House w i n s a l l draws. National i n t e r e s t , no. 3 , s p r i n g 1986: 66-75. LRS86-5514 E x p l o r e s t h e p r o b l e m s , l e g a l o r t h e o r e t i c a l , t h a t t h e SDI would seem t o p o s e t o t h e ABM T r e a t y , and i f t h e t r e a t y , a s i t s t a n d s t o d a y , p e r m i t s d e v e l o p m e n t t e s t i n g and deployment of c e r t a i n ABM s y s t e m s . Goldrnan, Nathan C. The Strategic Defense Initiative: Star Wars and star laws. Houston journal of international law, v. 9, autumn 1986: 111-131. LRS86-12849 II This paper analyzes the legal implications of the multilayered defense against nuclear weapons proposed by SDI. The analysis suggests that present SDI endeavors are mostly compatible with treaty obligations, although ultimate deployment of the system would violate many provisions." Graham, Daniel 0. Space: high frontier of security and free enterprise. spring 1986: 9-24. Blacks and SDI, an introduction by Roy Innis. Lincoln review, v. 6 , LRS86-862 1 Graham, Thomas W. Kramer, Bernard M. The polls: ABM and Star Wars: attitudes toward nuclear defense, 1945-1985. Public opinion quarterly, v. 50, 1986: 125-134. LRS86-3185 1I Despite changes in the US-Soviet nuclear balance, several attitudes toward active defenses against nuclear weapons have been remarkably stable." Gromoll, Robert H. SDI and the dynamics of strategic uncertainty. Political science quarterly, v. 102, fall 1987: 481-500. LRS87-8355 The author "considers the likely impact of enhanced strategic uncertainty under ballistic missile defenses contemplated in SDI. He contends such defenses would multiply conceivable U.S.-Soviet strategic relationships, creating some possibilities for greater stability, but even more possibilities for instability." Guide to the Strategic Defense Initiative. Edited by Richard H. Buenneke, Jr. Arlington, Va., Pasha Pub., c1986. 380, 60 p. LRS86- 13081 Contents.--SDI in 1986: technology versus policy--an analysis.--Launching the SDI program.--Surveillance, acquisition, and tracking.--Directed energy weapons.--Kinetic energy weapons.--Systems analyses and battle management.--Survivability, lethality, and key technologies.--Related programs. Hadley, Stephen J. Thinking about SDI. Washington, Foreign Policy Institute, School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 1986. 30 p. (FPT policy briefs) LRS86-14322 Contents.--The nature of SD1.--Guidance for near-term decisions.--SDI and arms control. H a m , Manfred R. Strategic defense and the West German social democrats. Strategic review, v. 14, spring 1986: 16-26. LRS86-3584 "~lthough the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative has gained formal approval from the Bonn Government, the SDI issue continues to be enmeshed in the politics of the coalition under Chancellor Kohl. It has also become a prime target-of-opportunity for the opposition Social Democratic Party, which has sought to rally the other European socialist parties against the Initiative." Ham, Manfred R. Weinrod, W . Bruce. The t r a n s a t l a n t i c p o l i t i c s of s t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e . O r b i s , v. 2 9 , w i n t e r 1986: 709-734. LRS86-3522 S u r v e y s E u r o p e a n a t t i t u d e s toward SDI and t h e i m p a c t o f t h i s new s t r a t e g y o n t h e NATO a l l i a n c e . C o n c l u d e s t h a t "by p r o v i d i n g a more s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n f o r a l l i e d s e c u r i t y , SDI c a n s t r e n g t h e n NATO w h i l e i t c o u l d a l s o h a v e a h i g h l y d i v i s i v e e f f e c t on a l l i e d r e l a t i o n s Whether t h e A l l i a n c e w i l l s u r v i v e t h e s e c h a l l e n g e s may depend l e s s o n S D I ' s o b j e c t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a n o n t h e way t h e a l l i e s c o p e w i t h i t s m u l t i p l e r a m i f i c a t i o n s . " .... H e r r e s , R o b e r t T. The m i l i t a r y u s e of s p a c e : t h e S o v i e t s p a c e program. V i t a l s p e e c h e s o f t h e d a y , v. 5 3 , Nov. 1 5 , 1986: 74-77. LRS86-14369 'I Taken t o g e t h e r , a l r e a d y o p e r a t i o n a l and f u t u r e S o v i e t s p a c e c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e a cause f o r genuine concern I f , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , w e c o n t i n u e t o c o m p e t e , w e must a c c e p t t h a t m i l i t a r y c a p a b i l i t i e s must be m e t w i t h m i l i t a r y c a p a b i l i t i e s . N o t h i n g would b e more d a n g e r o u s o r d e - s t a b i l i z i n g t h a n a s i t u a t i o n i n which t h e S o v i e t s p e r c e i v e d a c l e a r m i l i t a r y a d v a n t a g e We must s t r u g g l e n o t f o r o v e r u s i n any regime--land, s e a , a i r o r space. s u p e r i o r i t y , b u t t o r e t a i n a b a l a n c e " , a r g u e s Commander i n C h i e f , U.S. S p a c e Command and N o r t h American A e r o s p a c e D e f e n s e Comnand. .... Holmes, K i m R . The c a s e f o r d e p l o y i n g SDI i n t h e 1 9 9 0 s . W a s h i n g t o n , H e r i t a g e F o u n d a t i o n , 1987. 10 p. ( B a c k g r o u n d e r no. 5 7 0 ) LRS87-1406 "The Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d c a p i t a l i z e on t h e r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s i n i t s S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e ( S D I ) by d e p l o y i n g t h e new d e f e n s e s y s t e m i n s t a g e s , a s t h e y become a v a i l a b l e , " c o n c l u d e s t h e a u t h o r . U.S.-Soviet-China r e l a t i o n s and s t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e . W a s h i n g t o n , H e r i t a g e F o u n d a t i o n , 1986. 1 9 p. ( H e r i t a g e l e c t u r e s , no. 7 6 ) LRS86-11868 Examines "how d e p l o y e d s t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e s by t h e w o r l d ' s s u p e r p o w e r s c o u l d a f f e c t t h e g l o b a l and r e g i o n a l s t r a t e g i c b a l a n c e s o f power." How t o p r o c e e d w i t h SDI. N a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , no. 7 , s p r i n g 1987: 68-79. LRS87-9046 "The S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e ( S D I ) h a s become o n e o f t h e m o s t c o n t r o v e r s i a l American d e f e n s e programs o f t h e p o s t w a r p e r i o d Yet t h e f u t u r e of t h e program i s v e r y u n c e r t a i n . SDI f a c e s g r o w i n g o p p o s i t i o n R e s e a r c h on t h e s t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e and h a r d budgetary c h o i c e s technologies is c l e a r l y i n our national i n t e r e s t . How, t h e n , s h o u l d w e manage t h e s e r i o u s t e n s i o n s t h a t p e r s i s t between SDI a n d o u r o t h e r p o l i c y objectives?" Contents.--Realistic p r i o r i t i e s , by W i l l i a m J. P e r r y a n d o t h e r s . - - D e p l o y now, by J a c k Kemp. .... .... H u n t e r , R o b e r t E. SDI: r e t u r n t o b a s i c s . Washington q u a r t e r l y , v. 9 , w i n t e r 1986: 155-167. LRS86-8763 '1 A s d e b a t e a b o u t SDI h a s d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e p a s t two a n d a h a l f y e a r s a n d h a s become more i n t e n s e l y p o l i t i c a l , i n b o t h d o m e s t i c a n d f o r e i g n terms, i t i s w o r t h t r y i n g t o c r e a t e a b a s i c benchmark o f s t r a t e g i c a n a l y s i s a g a i n s t which t o measure p a r t i c u l a r p r o p o s a l s S t r a t e g i c theory provides t h e c r i t i c a l test--whether Reagan's o r i g i n a l i d e a should be pursued, o r w h e t h e r SDI s h o u l d s i m p l y b e f o r e s w o r n . " ....... CRS- 10 Jastrow, Robert. F r e l k , James. E m a s c u l a t i n g A m e r i c a ' s d e t e r r e n t : o n l y SDI c a n a v e r t d i s a s t e r . Policy r e v i e w , no. 4 1 , summer 1987: 30-36. LRS87-10014 11 S m a l l , a c c u r a t e n u c l e a r weapons make i t p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y o u t a s u r g i c a l f i r s t s t r i k e - - a s u r p r i s e a t t a c k t h a t d e c a p i t a t e s t h e o p p o n e n t ' s command Space-based d e f e n s e s , s t r u c t u r e and d e s t r o y s t h e b u l k o f h i s f o r c e s even i f t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s l i m i t e d , have a t o x i c e f f e c t on f i r s t - s t r i k e planning." .... J o h n s o n , Thomas H. T e c h n o l o g i e s of b a l l i s t i c m i s s i l e d e f e n c e . I n The ABM T r e a t y : t o Defend o r n o t Defend. E d i t e d by W a l t h e r S t u t z l e , Bhyzendra J a s a m i and R e g i n a Cowen. LRS87-11423 O x f o r d , New York, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1987. p. 91-102. 11 The f i r s t t h r e e s e c t i o n s o f t h i s p a p e r w i l l d i s c u s s c e r t a i n US weapon systems and t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r performing b a l l i s t i c m i s s i l e d e f e n c e (BMD) f u n c t i o n s . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p a p e r d i s c u s s e s r e l e v a n t p o r t i o n s o f t h e programme o f t h e US S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e (sDI)." K a s s e l , Simon. S o v i e t r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p m e n t o f d i r e c t e d - e n e r g y weapons. I n The ABM T r e a t y : t o Defend o r n o t Defend. E d i t e d by W a l t h e r S t u t z l e , B h y z e n d r a J a s a m i and R e g i n a Cowen. O x f o r d , New York, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 7 . p. 75-90. LRS87-11422 Contents.--Introduction.--The c o n t e x t of S o v i e t d i r e c t e d - e n e r g y development.--Pulsed-power t e c h n o l o g y . - - E l e c t r o n beams.--The electromagnetic e n e r g y beams.--Conclusions. Kober, S t a n l e y . S t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e , d e t e r r e n c e , and arms c o n t r o l . W a s h i n g t o n q u a r t e r l y , v. 1 0 , w i n t e r 1987: 123-135. LRS87-174 D i s c u s s e s s t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e i n t h e c o n t e x t of d e t e r r e n c e and a r m s c o n t r o l , a n d i t s d e s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t s on arms c o n t r o l a n d s t r a t e g i c s t a b i l i t y . Lawrence, Robert M. S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e : b i b l i o g r a p h y and r e s e a r c h g u i d e . B o u l d e r , UG743.L38 1 9 8 7 C o l o . , Westview P r e s s ; London, M a n s e l l , 1987. 352 p. 11 P u b l i s h e d i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e C e n t e r f o r S p a c e Law and P o l i c y , U n i v e r s i t y of C o l o r a d o a t Boulder." Loebs, Grant. S t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e : how much w i l l i t r e a l l y c o s t ? W a s h i n g t o n , H e r i t a g e F o u n d a t i o n , 1987. 9 p. ( B a c k g r o u n d e r no. 6 0 7 ) LRS87-11020 "While i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t SDI w i l l b e as c h e a p a s t h e $40 b i l l i o n c l a i m e d by some SDI b a c k e r s , t h e p r i c e t a g p r o b a b l y w i l l be i n t h e r a n g e o f $ 1 1 5 b i l l i o n t o $120 b i l l i o n s p r e a d o u t o v e r t e n y e a r s . l* Lowenhard, P e r c y . S t a r Wars: s c i e n c e o r f i c t i o n ? I n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o n w o r l d p e a c e , v . 3, J u l y-Sept 1986 : 9-29. LRS86-11746 11 The hope i s t o make n u c l e a r weapons o b s o l e t e , t h u s p r o m o t i n g a n u c l e a r disarmament The SDI programs means a c h a n g e i n i n v e s t m e n t s f r o m m a t e r i a l - i n t e n s i v e t o knowledge-intensive production I t may e n f o r c e t h e c o n d i t i o n s of t h e o p e n s o c i e t y by t e c h n i c a l means, w h e r e n e g o t i a t i o n s The a r t i c l e i s f o l l o w e d by f a l l s h o r t , due t o i d e o l o g i c a l prejudices." comments by Gordon L. A n d e r s o n , J o h n T. Blackmore and r e j o i n d e r s by t h e author . .... . .... Lucas, Michael. SDI and Europe. World p o l i c y j o u r n a l , v. 3 , s p r i n g 1986: 219-249. LRS86-2 720 The p r o s p e c t t h a t Europe c a n g r a d u a l l y b e p u l l e d i n t o SDI r a i s e s c r i t i c a l b u t g e n e r a l l y o v e r l o o k e d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e f u t u r e o f Europe i t s e l f SDI c o u l d i n t h e y e a r s a h e a d push Europe o n t o t h e p a t h of i n c r e a s i n g m i l i t a r i z a t i o n a t t h e e x p e n s e n o t o n l y of East-West s e c u r i t y b u t of t r a n s a t l a n t i c r e l a t i o n s a s well." 11 . ... McNamara, R o b e r t S. R e d u c i n g t h e r i s k of n u c l e a r war: i s S t a r Wars t h e a n s w e r ? M i l l e n n i u m , v . 1 5 , s u n e r 1986: 133-141. LRS86-13973 11 Each s i d e must r e c o g n i s e t h a t n e i t h e r w i l l p e r m i t t h e o t h e r t o a c h i e v e a meaningful s u p e r i o r i t y - - a t t e m p t s t o g a i n such an advantage a r e dangerous a s w e l l as futile. The f o r c e s p u s h i n g b o t h s i d e s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f f i r s t s t r i k e p o s t u r e s , a t l e a s t from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e a d v e r s a r y , must be reversed", argues the author. Mikheev, D m i t r i i . The S o v i e t p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e . W a s h i n g t o n , P e r g a m o n - B r a s s e y ' s I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e f e n s e P u b l i s h e r s , 1987. 9 5 p. (Foreign policy report) UG743.M55 1 9 8 7 M i n e r , Deborah N u t t e r . R u t a n , Alan H. What r o l e f o r l i m i t e d BMD? S u r v i v a l , v. 2 9 , Mar.-Apr. 1987: 118-136. LRS87-1635 1I Examines t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of BMD, and o u t l i n e s t h e t h r e a t s ... posed by t h e S o v i e t Union t o t h e a s s u r e d d e s t r u c t i o n c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t t h e n a n a l y s e s l i m i t e d BMD of i n t e r - c o n t i n e n t a l b a l l i s t i c m i s s i l e s (ICBM), S t r a t e g i c A i r Conmand (SAC) a i r f i e l d s , t h e N a t i o n a l Comnand A u t h o r i t y (NCA), and c o n a n d , c o n t r o l , c o m n u n i c a t i o n s and i n t e l l i g e n c e (1231) facilities." The t e r m i n a l BMD i s t h e f o c u s o f t h i s a r t i c l e . M o r r i s o n , David C. S h o o t i n g down S t a r Wars. N a t i o n a l j o u r n a l , v. 18, O c t . 2 5 , 1986: 2544-2549. LRS86-9647 11 Few f r i e n d s o r o p p o n e n t s o f P r e s i d e n t R e a g a n ' s S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e expect i t t o survive h i s presidency, a t l e a s t not without s i g n i f i c a n t changes." Moseley, J o n a t h o n . Kwapisz, John. S p o t t i s w o o d , John. A s s e s s i n g t h e t r u e c o s t o f SDI. Washington, C e n t e r f o r P e a c e a n d Freedom, 1987. 2 1 p. LRS87-3609 It A r e p o r t on t h e myth o f a ' t r i l l i o n d o l l a r ' c o s t f o r SDI w i t h a r e v i e w o f a l t e r n a t i v e c o s t e s t i m a t e s f o r d e f e n d i n g America from n u c l e a r missiles." Myers, Ware. The S t a r Wars s o f t w a r e d e b a t e . B u l l e t i n of t h e a t o m i c s c i e n t i s t s , v. 4 2 , Feb. 1986: 31-36. LRS86-97 1 11 I n r e c e n t months, d e b a t e o v e r t h e t e c h n i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y o f t h e S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e , o r S t a r Wars, h a s f o c u s e d on i t s s o f t w a r e . The s o f t w a r e d i s p u t e became p u b l i c l a s t J u n e 28 when a member of t h e SDI O r g a n i z a t i o n ' s P a n e l on Computing i n S u p p o r t o f B a t t l e Management r e s i g n e d o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e software p o r t i o n of t h e system could not be s u c c e s s f u l b u i l t . " Nimroody, Rosy. Star Wars: the economic fallout. Cambridge, Mass., Ballinger Pub. Co., c1988. 234 p. LRS88-174 Contents.--The Reagan SDI vision.--Space-based missile defenses.--What price strategic defense?--The race for contracts.--The top ten SDI contractors.--Targeting academia.--The pork barrell: who pays?--Technological rennaissance or brain drain?--Soviet strategic defense programs: a decade behind the United States.--Soviet SDI response: a nuclear buildup.--The future of Star Wars. Patel, C. Kumar N. Bloembergen, Nicolaas. Strategic defense and directed-energy weapons. Scientific American, v. 257, Sept. 1987: 39-45. LRS87-10730 A summary of the findings of an American Physical Society panel which met in November 1983 "concerning the developmental gap that stands between the laboratory and a decision to displayf1directed-energy weapons. "The evaluation focuses on the potential of lasers and particle beams in strategic defense." Perspectives on strategic defense. Edited by Steven W. Guerrier and Wayne L. Thompson. Boulder, Westview Press, 1987. 358 p. (Westview special studies in national security and defense policy) UG743.P47 1987 Pressler, Larry. Star Wars: the Strategic Defense Initiative debates in Congress. New York, Praeger, 1986. 179 p. UG743.P75 1986 It Praeger special studies. Praeger scientific."' Contents.--The search for a perfect defense.--Congress reviews the antisatellite program.--Congressional antisatellite hearings and reports.--The House debates antisatellite systems.--The Senate continues the antisatellite weapons debate.--The President speaks.--Congressional actions on the Strategic Defense Initiative.--Treaty limitations on military space operations. --Strategic implications.--Technology.--Strategic Defense Initiative and the European allies.--The role of Congress in assessing a new strategic program. Promise or peril, the Strategic Defense Initiative: thirty-five essays by statesmen, scholars, and strategic analysts. Edited by Zbigniew Brzezinski, with Richard Sincere, Marin Strmecki, and Peter Wehner. Washington, Ethics and Public Policy Center, c1986. 479 p. UG743.P77 1986 Reed, Fred. The Star Wars swindle. Harper's magazine, v. 272, May 1986: 39-44, 46-48. LRS86-2953 11 The key to a strong national defense being to get enough people on payrolls before Congress starts to think, the Pentagon and its contractors will make sure that Star wars spends money in as many states as possible, creating lots of jobs and, therefore, a grass-roots constituency for continuing the project; this process is the equivalent of a national attention span." Rhinelander, John B. US and Soviet ballistic missile defence programs: implications for the 1972 ABM Treaty. Space policy, v. 2, May 1986: 138-152. LRS86-5270 11 This article reviews the key provisions of the ABM Treaty, US and Soviet ballistic missile defence programnes are summarized and the major US and Soviet compliance issues, including the Krasnoyarsk radar, are reviewed." ... CRS- 13 Rivkin, David B., Jr. SDI: strategic reality or never-never land? Strategic review, v. 15, summer 1987: 43-54. LRS87-6494 1I The Reagan Administration's Strategic Defense Initiative faces increasingly rough political waters. The initial 'SDI coalition' has splintered, and opponents of the program have rallied around a 'narrow' interpretation of the ABM Treaty of 1972." Robinson, Clarence A., Jr. Is strategic defense criticism obsolete? Policy review, no. 37, summer 1986: 16-23. LRS86-6900 It Rapid technological advances have changed the entire debate." Schroeer, Diet rich. Directed-energy weapons and strategic defence: a primer. London, International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1987. 69 p. (Adelphi papers 221) LRS87-6730 Contents.--Directed-energy beam weapons.--Directed-energy weapons systems.--Other issues in DEW strategic defences.--Conclusions. The Search for security in space: a congressional seminar, March 19, 1986. Washington, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1987. ca. LRS86-13692 100 p. in various pagings. Contents.--Overview: the military use of outer space.--Treaty restrictions on the military use of outer space.--Evaluating space weapon technology.--Impact of space weapons on U.S. national security.--Resources. SDI. Japan quarterly, v. 33, July-Sept. 1986: 234-251. LRS86-7506 Contents.--The militarization of basic research, by Husimi Kodi.--What technology does the U.S. want? by Emura Yoshiro.--The politics of participating, by Takase Sho ji . The SDI and American research and development: tonic or toxin? International security, v. 11, fall 1986: 176-192. LRS86-8620 Contents.--The Strategic Defense Initiative as science policy, by Harvey Brooks.--Research and the Strategic Defense Initiative, by Gerold Yonas.-The SDI and American RbD, by Bernard J. 0'~eefe. ... et. al. Westview Press/ SDI and U.S. foreign policy. Robert W. Tucker Foreign Policy Institute ed. Boulder, Westview Press; Washington, Foreign Policy Institute, School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 1987. 126 p. (SAIS papers in international aEf83rB;SbbS3¶5~987 Slater, Jerome. Goldfischer, David. Can SDI provide a defense? Political science quarterly, v. 101, no. 5 , 1986: 839-856. LRS86-12780 The authors "assess the various arguments that have been made for the Strategic Defense Initiative against hostile ballistic missiles. They contend that only one argument is not flawed--the SDI'S capacity to provide limited population defense within the context of a new and major arms control regime." CRS- 14 S t a r Wars. Boston m a g a z i n e , v. 78, O c t . 1986: 169-171, 231-238. LRS86-8940 Contents.--The g o l d m i n e , by Leu Guman.--Science and c o n s c i e n c e , by Karen K l inger 11Money i s p o u r i n g i n t o t h e s t a t e ' s s c h o o l s , l a b s , and c o m p a n i e s a s s c i e n c e . and b u s i n e s s c h a s e t h e S t a r Wars d o l l a r . " S t a r Wars. B u l l e t i n of t h e a t o m i c s c i e n t i s t s , v. 4 2 , J a n . 1986: 20-30. LRS86-28 7 C o n t e n t s . - - S t a r Wars p o r k b a r r e l , by W. Hartung.--SDI funds c o s t l y f o r s c i e n t i s t s , by P. Gol1en.--Taking t h e p l e d g e a g a i n s t S t a r Wars, by J. Kogut and M. Weissman. S t a r Wars. I n Beyond Reagan: t h e p o l i t i c s of u p h e a v a l . E d i t e d by P a u l Duke. N e w York, Warner Books, 1986. p. 194-234. LRS86-13982 The a r t i c l e i s f o l l o w e d by a r o u n d t a b l e d i s c u s s i o n , p. 220-234. The S t a r Wars c o n t r o v e r s y : a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y r e a d e r . E d i t e d by S t e v e n P r i n c e t o n , N.J., P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y E. Miller and S t e p h e n Van E v e r a . P r e s s , c1986. 327 p. UG743.S7 1 9 8 6 The S t a r Wars d e b a t e . E d i t e d by S t e v e n Anzovin. N e w York, H.W. W i l s o n , 1986. 223 p. ( R e f e r e n c e s h e l f , v. 5 8 , no. 1 ) LRS86-5011 Contents.--The challenge.--Can i t b e done?--Should i t b e done?--World opinion. S t a r Wars q u o t e s . Compiled by The Arms C o n t r o l A s s o c i a t i o n . W a s h i n g t o n , The A s s o c i a t i o n , c1986. 119 p. LRS86-6403 11 Ever s i n c e t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s s p e e c h , t h e A r m s C o n t r o l A s s o c i a t i o n h a s b e e n T h i s work d o c u m e n t s k e e p i n g t r a c k o f key s t a t e m e n t s on S t a r Wars t h e p o s i t i o n s o f Reagan A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c i a l s and i d e n t i f i e s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n on S t a r Wars w i t h i n t h e e x e c u t i v e I t a l s o i n c l u d e s v i e w s on S t a r Wars among Members o f C o n g r e s s , branch. f o r m e r o f f i c i a l s , s c i e n t i s t s , a l l i e d l e a d e r s and S o v i e t o f f i c i a l s . " .... S t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e and t h e W e s t e r n A l l i a n c e . E d i t e d by S a n f o r d L a k o f f , and Randy W i l l o u g h b y . L e x i n g t o n , Mass., L e x i n g t o n Books, c1987. 218 p. UG743 .S75 1 9 8 7 The S t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e d e b a t e : c a n " S t a r wars" make u s s a f e ? E d i t e d by C r a i g Snyder. P h i l a d e l p h i a , U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1986. 247 p. UG743.S76 1 9 8 6 S t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e i n t h e 2 1 s t c e n t u r y . E d i t e d by Hans B i n n e n d i j k . W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Dept. of S t a t e , F o r e i g n S e r v i c e I n s t i t u t e , f o r s a l e by t h e S u p t . o f Docs., 1986. 1 5 1 p. LRS86- 1432 1 U.S. r e s e a r c h Contents.--Overview--the new s t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e debate.--The program.--The S o v i e t r e s e a r c h program.--Arms c o n t r o l implications.--The SDI and s t r a t e g i c d o c t r i n e . - - S t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e and t h e European Allies. S t r a t e g i c Defense I n i t i a t i v e . C u r r e n t news ( s p e c i a l e d . ) , 1987: whole i s s u e ( 6 8 p . ) News, c o m m e n t a r i e s , f e a t u r e s . no. 1 6 2 3 , Aug. 2 8 , LRS87-9031 The Strategic Defense Initiative. Fletcher forum, v. 10, winter 1986: 1-91. LRS86-1549 Contents.--Ethics and public policy: the case of SDI, by C. Weinberger.-The technolgoy of strategic defense--where we stand and how far we can go: an interview with H. Bethe.--The Strategic Defense Initiative and international law, by M. Feinrider.--The SDI debate: a critic's perspective, by P. C1ausen.--Summitry, SDI, and arms control, by R. Pfaltzgraff, Jr.--French and European security in a defense-oriented environment: an interview with General Pierre Gallois.--Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative: the U.S. presentation and the European response, by T. Hiebert.--Strategic defense in perspective: nuclear weapons and American globalism, by J. Springer. The Strategic Defense Initiative: an international perspective. Edited by C. James Haug. Boulder, Social Science Monographs; New York, Distributed by Columbia University Press, 1987. 178 p. (Strategic studies series) (Center for International Security and Strategic Studies, Mississippi State University; v. 1) UG743.S768 1987 The Strategic Defense Initiative: shield or snare? Edited by Harold Brown. UG743.S775 1987 Boulder, Westview Press, 1987. 297 p. The nature of SDI, by Stephen J. Had1ey.--The American ethos and nationalsecurity traditions, by Michael V1ahos.--SDI and U.S. foreign policy, by Robert W. Tucker.--The challenge of SDI, by George Liska.--Is SDI technically feasible?, by Harold Brown.--The macroeconomics of strategic defenses, by Barry M. Blechman and Victor A . Utgoff.--Is SDI politically durable?, by Dave McCurdy.--Soviet policy toward BMD and SDI, by Bruce Parrott.--Heavenly gains or earthly losses?, by Richard K. Betts.--The implications of SDI for U.S.-European relations, by Robert E. Osgood. Strategic defenses and Soviet-American relations. Edited by Samuel F. Wells, Jr. and Robert S. Litwak. Cambridge, Mass., Ballinger Pub. Co., ~1987. 216 p. LRS87-11387 Contents.--U.S. strategic concepts and programs: the historical context, by Desmond Ball.--Soviet perspectives on the SDI, by Benjamin S. Lambeth.-Implications for strategic offensive force modernization, by Kevin N. Lewis.--The SDI and arms control, by William H. Kincade.--Technical feasibility of the SDI, by Michael May.--Managing the transition, by Charles L. G1aser.--Panel comnentary on chapter 6. Sweet, William. Science wars over Star Wars. Washington, Congressional Quarterly, 1986. p. 687-708. (Editorial research reports, 1986, v. 2, no. 11) LRS86-7986 Contents.--Scientists divided over Star Wars.--Nuclear age heralds weaponry debate.--Technology choices behind Star Wars. Taylor, Trevor. ~ritain's response to the Strategic Defence Initiative. International LRS86-11812 affairs (London), v. 62, spring 1986: 217-230. "British policy towards SDI has had a hesitant and even disjointed look, slow to emerge and not particularly well coordinated when i t did appear. Up to the end of 1985, British policy in this area was marked by four features, two of style and two of content, to be discussed." The Technology, strategy, and politics of SDI. Edited by Stephen J. Cimbala. Boulder, Colo., Westview Press, c1987. 252 p. (Westview special studies in national security and defense policy) LRS87-11389 Teller, Edward. Better a shield than a sword: perspectives on defense and technology. New York, Free Press; London, Collier Macmillan, c1987. 257 p. UA23.T39 1987 Towell, Pat. Critical showdown over SDI under way on Capitol Hill. Congressional Quarterly weekly report, v. 45, May 16, 1987: 973-981. LRS87-3268 11 President ~eagan's efforts to accelerate his Strategic Defense Initiative, has provoked open partisan warfare on Capitol H511, with both Democrats and Republicans digging in for what may become the most significant defense policy battle of the decade." U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Strategic Defense Initiative SDI program. Hearing, 99th Congress, 1st session. June 6, 1985. Washington, G.P.O., 1986. 52 p. LRS86-3849 At head of title: H.A.S.C. no. 99-30. ----U.S. nuclear forces and arms control policy. Hearings before the Defense Policy Panel of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, 99th Congress, 2nd session. Washington, G.P.O., 1987. 116 p. LRS87-3160 At head of title: H.A.S.C. no. 99-57. Hearings held May 29, June 4, and 5 , 1986. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on Arms control, International Security and Science. The President's certification on anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons testing. Hearings, 99th Congress, 1st session. Sept. 11, 1985. Washington, G.P.O., LRS86-12717 1986. 68 p. ----Technology transfer and the Strategic Defense Initiative research agreements. Hearing before the Subcommittees on Arms Control, International Security and Science, on Europe and the Middle East, and on International Economic Policy and Trade of the Comnittee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, 99th Congress, 1st session. Dec. 10, 1985. Washington, G.P.O., 1986. 171 p. LRS86- 12718 Examines "the nature of forthcoming SDI research agreements with our allies as well as the view of how SDI research agreements will take into account compliance with ABM." ... U.S. Congress. Senate. Comnittee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Strategic and Theater Nuclear Forces. Strategic Defense Initiative. Hearings, 99th Congress, 1st session. Washington, G.P.O., 1986. 429 p. (Hearings, Senate, 99th Congress, 1st session, S. Hrg. 99-933) LRS86- 11344 Hearings held Oct. 30-Dec. 5, 1985. 11 The intent of these hearings is to create a record based on a broad spectrum of views from both inside and outside of the administration." CRS- 17 U.S. Congress. S e n a t e . Cormnittee on G o v e r n m e n t a l A f f a i r s . Subcommittee on O v e r s i g h t o f Government Management. Need f o r and o p e r a t i o n of a S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e I n s t i t u t e . Joint h e a r i n g b e f o r e t h e Subcommittee on O v e r s i g h t o f Government Management o f t h e Committee on Governmental A f f a i r s and t h e S u b c o r m i t t e e on G o v e r n m e n t a l A f f a i r s a n d t h e S u b c o m m i t t e e on S t r a t e g i c F o r c e s and N u c l e a r D e t e r r e n c e o f t h e Committee on Armed S e r v i c e s , U n i t e d S t a t e s S e n a t e , 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s , 1st s e s s i o n . May 6 , 1987. W a s h i n g t o n , G.P.O., 1987. 229 p. (Hearing, S e n a t e , 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t s e s s i o n , S. Hrg. 100-137) LRS87-6827 It A p r o p o s a l by t h e D e f e n s e Department t o e s t a b l i s h a new F e d e r a l l y - F u n d e d R e s e a r c h a n d Development C e n t e r , o r FFRDC, d e v o t e d s o l e l y t o t h e S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e I n s t i t u t e , o r SDII." U.S. General Accounting O f f i c e . S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e program: b e t t e r management d i r e c t i o n a n d c o n t r o l s n e e d e d ; r e p o r t t o t h e Chairman, Subcommittee o n D e f e n s e , C o m m i t t e e o n A p p r o p r i a t i o n s , House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Nov. 2 7 , 1987. W a s h i n g t o n , G.A.O., 1987. 25 p. LRS87-10064 "GA0/NS1~D-88-26" S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e program: c o n t r o l s n e e d e d o v e r c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d o p e r a t i o n a l s u p p o r t f u n d s ; r e p o r t t o t h e S e c r e t a r y of Defense. J u l y 1986. 1986. 45 p. LRS86-6236 W a s h i n g t o n , G.A.O., "GA0/NS1~D-86-145" GAO'S o b j e c t i v e was " t o d e t e r m i n e i f a d e q u a t e management c o n t r o l s were i n p l a c e t o i d e n t i f y , p l a n , r e v i e w , a p p r o v e , and n o t i f y t h e C o n g r e s s o f SDIfunded c o n s t r u c t i o n projects." S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e program: e x p e r t ' s v i e w s on DOD1s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p t i o n s a n d p l a n s f o r SDI t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t ; r e p o r t t o t h e C o n g r e s s . Nov. 1986. 5 0 p. LRS86-11368 1986. W a s h i n g t o n , G.A.O., " G A O / N S I A D - ~ ~3"- ~ S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e program: s t a t u s o f s p a c e s u r v e i l l a n c e a n d t r a c k i n g s y s t e m ; r e p o r t t o c o n g r e s s i o n a l r e q u e s t e r s . Nov. 1 0 , 1987. LRS87-10 734 w a s h i n g t o n , G.A.O., 1987. 5 p. " G A ~ / N S I A D - ~ ~ - ~B-223094" ~, W a l l e r , Douglas. B r u c e , J a m e s . Cook, D o u g l a s . SDI: p r o g r e s s and c h a l l e n g e s - - P a r t I , P a r t 11, W a s h i n g t o n ? , 1986-87. 64, 5 8 p. LRS86-13230 11 The r e p o r t a t t e m p t s t o p r o v i d e some p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e p r o g r e s s a c h i e v e d t o d a t e i n SDI a n d t h e c h a l l e n g e s t h a t l i e ahead." 11 S t a f f r e p o r t s u b m i t t e d t o S e n a t o r W i l l i a m P r o x i m i r e , S e n a t o r J. B e n n e t t J o h n s t o n a n d S e n a t o r Lawton C h i l e s , March 1 7 , 1986." Weaponry in space: the dilemma of security. Washington, Foreign Broadcast Information Service, 1987. 122 p. LRS87-11056 "JPRS-TAC-~~-OO~-L, 15 January 1987" At head of title: Worldwide report. Contents.--Hypothetical space-based components of a ballistic-missile defense.--Space-based battle stations.--Some technical issues of terminal defense.--Potential uses of space-based weapons against air and ground targets.--Support components.--Countermeasures.--Strategic and political aspects.--Legal aspects.--Spin-offs of SDI research efforts. White, Andrew. European perspectives on the Strategic Defense Initiative. Millennium: journal of international studies, v. 15, sumner 1986: 211-222. LRS86-7635 I1 The purpose of this article is to outline and evaluate some of the key arguments about the implications of the SDI for Europe to show how crucial issues are not being seriously addressed at all." ... Whittier, Charles H. Ethical and religious aspects of SDI: pro and con. June 22, 1987. Washington, Congressional Research Service, 1987. 4 p. 87-535 GOV This brief overview summarizes ethical, moral, and religious arguments commonly used for and against the Strategic Defense Initiative, including the relationship between feasibility and actual effect with reference to deterrence and its proposed alternatives. Finally, it notes the diversity of views that marks opponents and proponents alike in relating moral and ethical issues to public policy decisions affecting defense and security concerns. Windmiller, David E. SDI: a strategy for peace and stability or the end to deterrence? Parameters, v. 16, sumner 1986: 16-25. LRS86-3.995 The article describes "the political and philosophical genesis of the concept of SDI, presents a brief synopsis of the Soviet threat which creates the need, and then describes the system and its theoretical objectives." Zraket, C. A . Uncertainties in building a strategic defense. Science, v. 235, Mar. 27, 1987: 1600-1606,. LRS87-4586 It Building a strategic defense against nuclear ballistic missiles involves complex and uncertain functional, spatial, and temporal relations. Such a defensive system would evolve and grow over decades. It is too complex, dynamic, and interactive to be fully understood initially by design, analysis, and experiments." Zuckerman, Solly Baron. ~eagan's highest folly. New York review of books, v. 34, Apr. 9, 1987: LRS87-1469 35-41. A critique of the SDI program and of the idea "that a space shield that would make America citizens invulnerable to a nuclear onslaught is a real possibility ." Star Wars in a nuclear world. New York, Vintage Books, 1987, c1986. 303 p. UG743 .Z82 1987