The Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987: Legal Analysis of S.557

The Senate i n January 1988 passed S. 557 with amendments to “restore the...broad institution – wide application" of certain federal civil rights laws in the wake of t h e U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Grove City College v. Bell . This report discusses the background and contents of this legislation.

,- T H E CIVIL RIGHTS RESTORATION ACT OF 1987: ANALYSIS O F S. 557 Karen J. Lewis Charles V. Dale Legislative Attorneys American Law Division March 1 , 1988 LEGAL The Congressional Research Service works exclusively for the Congress, conducting research, analyzing legislation, and providing information at the request of committees, Members. and their staffs. The Service makes such research available, without partisan bias, in many forms including studies, reports, compilations, digests, and background briefings. Upon request, CRS assists committees in analyzing legislative proposals and issues, and in assessing the possible effects of these proposals and their alternatives. The Service's senior specialists and subject analysts are also available for personal consultations in their respective fields of expertise. ABSTRACT The S e n a t e i n J a n u a r y 1988 p a s s e d S. 557 w i t h amendments t o " r e s t o r e the...broad i n s t i t u t i o n - w i d e a p p l i c a t i o n " of c e r t a i n f e d e r a l c i v i l r i g h t s l a w s i n t h e wake of t h e U.S. Supreme C o u r t r u l i n g i n Grove C i t y C o l l e g e v . B e l l . T h i s r e p o r t d i s c u s s e s t h e background and c o n t e n t s of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n . THE C I V I L RIGHTS RESTORATION ACT OF 1987: ANALYSIS OF S. 557 I. LEGAL Introduction A s i n p r i o r y e a r s , t h e r e a r e b e f o r e t h e 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s two b i l l s , S. 557 and H.R. 1214, designed t o " r e s t o r e the.. .broad i n s t i t u t i o n - w i d e a p p l i c a t i o n " of c e r t a i n f e d e r a l c i v i l r i g h t s laws i n t h e wake o f t h e U.S. Supreme C o u r t r u l i n g i n Grove C i t y C o l l e g e v. ~ e 1 l . l On May 2 0 , 1987 t h e S e n a t e Committee o n Labor and Human R e s o u r c e s amended and r e p o r t e d o u t S. 557.2 28, 1988 t h e U.S. Then on J a n u a r y S e n a t e amended and p a s s e d t h e r e p o r t e d v e r s i o n o f S. 557. of t h e d a t e o f t h i s r e p o r t , H.R. As 1214 was s t i l l u n d e r c o m m i t t e e c o n s i d e r a t i o n and had y e t t o come t o t h e f l o o r o f t h e House f o r d e b a t e and a v o t e . F o r the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e f o c u s w i l l be on t h e S e n a t e a p p r o v e d v e r s i o n of the legislation. The " c i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act o f 1987" ( o r " b i l l " h e r e i n a f t e r ) was i n t r o d u c e d by S e n a t o r Kennedy 3 a l . on F e b r u a r y 1 9 , 1987. The C o u r t i n Grove City r u l e d t h a t t h e p r o h i b i t i o n on s e x d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n T i t l e I X o f t h e E d u c a t i o n Amendments o f 1972 3 a p p l i e d o n l y t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m o r a c t i v i t y t h a t received f e d e r a l funds, not t o t h e e n t i r e i n s t i t u t i o n . While l i m i t e d t o T i t l e I X , Grove C i t y C o l l e g e h a s p o t e n t i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s a s w e l l f o r t h r e e o t h e r laws 465 U.S. -- T i t l e V I o f t h e 1964 C i v i l R i g h t s ~ c t t ,h e~ Age 555 ( 1 9 8 4 ) . S. Rep. No. 100-64, 1 0 0 t h Cong., 20 U.S.C. 1681 e t s e q . 42 U.S.C. 2000d e t s e q . 1 s t Sess. (1987). CRS-2 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Act o f 1 9 7 5 , ~and s e c t i o n 504 of t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act o f 1 9 7 3 ~ -- t h a t ban d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e b a s i s of r a c e , a g e , and h a n d i c a p i n f g d e r a l l y a s s i s t e d programs. B a s i c a l l y , t h e b i l l seeks t o overturn t h i s j u d i c i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by p r o p o s i n g an amendment t o T i t l e IX and t h e s e o t h e r l a w s d e f i n i n g t h e t e r m "program o r a c t i v i t y 1 ' t o i n c l u d e t h e e n t i r e s t a t e o r l o c a l government d e p a r t m e n t o r a g e n c y , o r o t h e r p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e e n t i t y t h r o u g h which f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s d e l i v e r e d t o i t s " u l t i m a t e beneficiaries.'' The U.S. S e n a t e approved t h e r e p o r t e d v e r s i o n o f S. 557 a f t e r a d d i n g two amendments p e r t a i n i n g t o a b o r t i o n and a c l a r i f y i n g amendment c o n c e r n i n g s e c t i o n 504 of t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act. The measure p a s s e d by a v o t e o f 75 t o 14. This r e p o r t w i l l 1 ) r e v i e w t h e Supreme Court r u l i n g i n Grove C i t y , a s w e l l a s t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c o u r t d e c i s i o n s which p r e c e d e d and f o l l o w e d i t , and 2 ) a n a l y z e t h e l e g a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f S. 557, a s amended and p a s s e d by t h e S e n a t e on J a n u a r y 2 8 , 1988. 11. J u d i c i a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s D e f i n i n g t h e Scope of F e d e r a l C i v i l R i g h t s Act Coverage E a r l y o n , t h e f e d e r a l government by r e g u l a t i o n had a s s e r t e d b r o a d a u t h o r i t y t o e n f o r c e T i t l e V I and IX a g a i n s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e o p e r a t i o n of a n a i d e d i n s t i t u t i o n o r e n t i t y when f e d e r a l f u n d s were p r o v i d e d t o a n y of i t s a c t i v i t i e s . I n adopting t h i s "institution-wide" a p p r o a c h , t h e r e g u l a t i o n s t o o k a broad view of t h e p r o g r a m - s p e c i f i c 42 U.S.C. 5101 e t s e q . 29 U.S.C. 794. S e e , 45 C.F.R. 106.31 ( 1 9 8 4 ) ( T i t l e IX r e g u l a t i o n s ) ; 45 C.F.R. (1984)(Title V I regulations). ban of 80.1 T i t l e s VI and IX, and t h e r e l a t e d fund t e r m i n a t i o n s a n c t i o n i n t h o s e l a w s w h i c h i s l i m i t e d t o " t h e p a r t i c u l a r program, o r p a r t t h e r e o f " a f f e c t e d b y discrimination.' I n 1982, however, t h e U.S. Supreme C o u r t seemed t o undermine t h i s a p p r o a c h when i t f o u n d , i n North Haven Board of E d u c a t i o n v. Be11 ,' both t h e that r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t y t o p r o h i b i t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by f e d e r a l a i d r e c i p i e n t s , and t h e power t o remedy d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by t h e t e r m i n a t i o n of f u n d s , t o be program s p e c i f i c u n d e r T i t l e IX. C i t y C o l l e g e v. Then, i n Grove ell , l o t h e C o u r t a p p e a r e d t o c l o s e t h e d o o r on i n s t i t u t i o n - wide c o v e r a g e of T i t l e I X , and by i m p l i c a t i o n i n o t h e r s i m i l a r l a w s , when i t r e j e c t e d t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between earmarked and non-earmarked f u n d s and a d o p t e d a " p u r p o s e and e f f e c t " t e s t of what c o n s t i t u t e s a "program." I n Grove C i t y C o l l e g e , t h e Supreme C o u r t a l i g n e d i t s e l f w i t h t h e a p p a r e n t m a j o r i t y o f l o w e r c o u r t s t h a t had n a r r o w l y c o n s t r u e d program s p e c i f i c i t y u n d e r T i t l e IX. l1 Grove C i t y C o l l e g e , a p r i v a t e , c o e d u c a t i o n a l , l i b e r a l a r t s 20 U.S.C. 456 U.S. l1 1682 ( T i t l e I X ) ; 42 U.S.C. 2000d-1 ( T i t l e V I ) . 512 ( 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e s e pre-Grove C i t y C o l l e g e d e c i s i o n s found C o n g r e s s i n t e n d e d f o r T i t l e I X t o a p p l y t o t h e d i s c r e t e p a r t s of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s r e c e i v i n g a i d , s u c h a s " a t h l e t i c p r o g r a m s , " "work-study programs," o r "math d e p a r t m e n t s , " r a t h e r t h a n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a s a whole. S e e , e . g . , Othen v. Ann A r b o r S c h o o l Board, 507 F. Supp. 1376 ( E . D . ~ i c h . 1 9 8 1 ) , a f f ' d , 699 F.2d 309 ( 6 t h C i r . 1 9 8 3 ) ( D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n may n o t p r o h i b i t s e x d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n a t h l e t i c s u n l e s s t h e a t h l e t i c s department received d i r e c t , earmarked, f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e ) ; U n i v e r s i t y of Richmond v. B e l l , 543 F. Supp. 321 ( E . D . v ~ . 1 9 8 2 ) ( " t h e q u e s t i o n i n e v e r y c a s e s h o u l d be w h e t h e r t h e program o r a c t i v i t y , " a t h l e t i c s i n t h a t c a s e , " r e c e i v e d d i r e c t f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . " ) ; Rice v. P r e s i d e n t and F e l l o w s o f Harvard C o l l e g e , 6 6 3 F.2d 336 ( 1 s t C i r . 19811, c e r t . d e n i e d , 456 U.S. 928 ( 1 9 8 2 ) ( r e c e i p t of work-study f u n d s d i d n o t b r i n g t h e e n t i r e i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h i n T i t l e IX c o v e r a g e ) ; H i l l s d a l e C o l l e g e v. HEW, 696 F. 2d 418 ( 6 t h C i r . 1 9 8 2 ) ( s t u d e n t s 1 r e c e i p t o f BEOG g r a n t s d o e s n o t p l a c e a n e n t i r e i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h i n T i t l e I X o r s u p p o r t a p p l i c a t i o n of r e g u l a t i o n r e q u i r i n g a s s u r a n c e of c o m p l i a n c e ) . A t t h e a p p e l l a t e l e v e l , o n l y t h e T h i r d and F i f t h C i r c u i t s seemed t o a d o p t i n s t i t u t i o n a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n Church, had c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f u s e d a l l f o r m s of g o v e r n m e n t a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . Because 140 o f i t s 2 , 0 0 0 s t u d e n t s were e l i g i b l e f o r B a s i c E d u c a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t y G r a n t s ( B E O G S ) , however, and 342 had r e c e i v e d Guaranteed S t u d e n t Loans ( G S L S ) , t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n i n 1977 r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e c o l l e g e e x e c u t e an a s s u r a n c e o f compliance w i t h T i t l e I X . Grove C i t y C o l l e g e r e f u s e d on t h e ground t h a t a n y a i d i t s students received constituted federal financial assistance only t o t h e s t u d e n t s and n o t t o t h e c o l l e g e . The Department i n i t i a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e e d i n g s t o t e r m i n a t e t h e g r a n t s and l o a n s t o Grove C i t y C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . C o n c l u d i n g t h a t t h e c o l l e g e was a r e c i p i e n t of f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and was t h u s s u b j e c t t o r e g u l a t i o n under T i t l e IX, t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law J u d g e ( A L J ) o r d e r e d t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e s t u d e n t s ' BEOGs and GSLs. I n a s u i t f i l e d by Grove C i t y C o l l e g e and f o u r of i t s s t u d e n t s , a f e d e r a l d i s t r i c t j u d g e a g r e e d t h a t t h e c o l l e g e was a r e c i p i e n t o f f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e w i t h i n t h e meaning of T i t l e 1x.12 On a p p e a l , t h e U.S. Court of Appeals f o r t h e T h i r d C i r c u i t a f f i r m e d , r e a s o n i n g t h a t s i n c e BEOGs u l t i m a t e l y become p a r t of t h e s c h o o l ' s g e n e r a l o p e r a t i n g b u d g e t , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f must be deemed a a n i n s t i t u t i o n - w i d e a p p r o a c h t o T i t l e I X c o v e r a g e p r i o r t o Grove C i t y C o l l e g e . S e e , I r o n Arrow Honor S o c i e t y v. S c h w e i k e r , 652 F.2d 445 ( 5 t h C i r . 19811, v a c a t e d and remanded, 458 U.S. 1102 ( 1 9 8 2 ) ( s t a t e u n i v e r s i t y s u p p o r t of a l l - m a l e h o n o r s o c i e t y t a i n t e d a l l s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s f o r T i t l e IX p u r p o s e s ) ; H a f f e r v.' Temple U n i v e r s i t y of t h e Commonwealth System o f Higher E d u c a t i o n , 524 F. Supp. 531 (E.D.Pa. 1 9 8 1 ) , a f f ' d p e r c u r i a m , 688 F.2d 14 (3d C i r . 1 9 8 2 ) ( u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c d e p a r t m e n t b e n e f i t t e d from f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and was s u b-j e c t t o T i t l e IX by v i r t u e of t h e u n i v e r s i t y ' s r e c e i p t of any f e d e r a l f u n d s , i n c l u d i n g a i d t o s t u d e n t s ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , however, a f t e r Grove C i t y C o l l e g e , t h e d i s t r i c t c o u r t i n H a f f e r i n e f f e c t r e v e r s e d i t s e l f , and d i s m i s s e d a l l T i t l e IX c l a i m s e x c e p t one r e l a t i n g t o t h e a l l o c a t i o n of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s . H a f f e r v. Temple U n i v e r s i t y , No. 80-1362, ( u n r e p o r t e d o r d e r ) ( E . D . P a . 1 9 8 5 ) . l 2 Grove C i t y C o l l e g e v. H a r r i s , 500 F . Supp. 253 (W.D,Pa. 1980). CRS-5 f e d e r a l a i d r e c i p i e n t . 13 On r e v i e w , t h e Supreme Court a g r e e d t h a t by a d m i t t i n g BEOG e l i g i b l e s t u d e n t s , t h e C o l l e g e was " r e c e i v i n g f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l assistance" f o r p u r p o s e s of T i t l e I X . However, a 6 t o 3 m a j o r i t y r u l e d t h a t b e c a u s e t h e y "augment t h e resources t h a t t h e College i t s e l f devotes t o f i n a n c i a l aid," t h e c o l l e g e ' s s t u d e n t f i n a n c i a l a i d program a l o n e was t h e "program o r a c t i v i t y t ' a s s i s t e d f r o m BEOG f u n d s , and t h e r e f o r e o n l y t h a t program c o u l d be r e g u l a t e d u n d e r T i t l e 1x.14 I t r e j e c t e d t h e argument t h a t BEOGs r e c e i v e d by s t u d e n t s " f r e e up" t h e c o l l e g e ' s own r e s o u r c e s f o r u s e e l s e w h e r e and t h e r e b y c o n s t i t u t e a i d t o t h e entire institution. T h e r e was no e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s i n t h e r e c o r d , and i n a n y e v e n t , t h e m a j o r i t y f e l t t h a t such a n "economic r i p p l e e f f e c t s " t h e o r y was i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e program-specific l a n g u a g e of t h e s t a t u t e . Moreover, e v e n c o n c e d i n g t h a t " s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n s of t h e BEOGs r e c e i v e d by Grove c i t y ' s s t u d e n t s u l t i m a t e l y f i n d t h e i r way i n t o t h e c o l l e g e ' s g e n e r a l o p e r a t i n g budget," t h e " p u r p o s e and e f f e c t ' ' o f BEOGs was t o e n a b l e t h e i r s t i t u t i o n t o e n r o l l s t u d e n t s who o t h e r w i s e would n o t have been a b l e t o a f f o r d h i g h e r education. Because t h e p r i m a r y e f f e c t o f BEOGs i s t h u s t o i n c r e a s e t h e f u n d s a v a i l a b l e f o r f i n a n c i a l a i d , t h e C o u r t h e l d t h a t Grove C i t y C o l l e g e ' s f i n a n c i a l a i d program was t h e "program o r a c t i v i t y r e c e i v i n g f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e " w i t h i n t h e meaning o f T i t l e IX. A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e c o l l e g e c o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o e x e c u t e an a s s u r a n c e o f c o m p l i a n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s f i n a n c i a l a i d program, and i t s f a i l u r e t o do s o would w a r r a n t t e r m i n a t i o n of f e d e r a l assistance t o i t s students. By n a r r o w l y c o n s t r u i n g "program o r a c t i v i t y ' ' a s u s e d i n T i t l e I X , - l3 - Grove C i t y C o l l e g e v. B e l l , 687 F.2d 6 8 4 (3d C i r . l 4 465 U.S. 555 ( 1 9 8 4 ) . 1982). the CRS-6 C o u r t r e j e c t e d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n - w i d e a p p r o a c h where c a t e g o r i c a l o r e a r m a r k e d f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e i s involved. institution-wide I t l e f t u n r e s o l v e d , however, t h e s t a t u s o f c i v i l r i g h t s c o v e r a g e where g e n e r a l u n r e s t r i c t e d f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o a g r a n t r e c i p i e n t i s involved. Nor d i d Grove C i t y C o l l e g e p r o v i d e much p r a c t i c a l g u i d a n c e a s t o how t h e "purpose and e f f e c t " s t a n d a r d s h o u l d b e a p p l i e d t o d e t e r m i n e which programs and a c t i v i t i e s a r e r e c e i v i n g f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and a r e t h u s s u b j e c t t o r e g u l a t i o n u n d e r T i t l e IX and t h e o t h e r p r o g r a m - s p e c i f i c c i v i l r i g h t s s t a t u t e s . The p r i n c i p l e of program s p e c i f i c i t y was once a g a i n a t i s s u e when t h e Supreme C o u r t reviewed t h e D . C . C i r c u i t Court of Appeals r u l i n g i n U.S. of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n v. P a r a l y z e d v e t e r a n s . l5 Dep't The a p p e l l a t e c o u r t t h e r e had h e l d t h a t s e c t i o n 504 of t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act b a r r e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e onb o a r d t r e a t m e n t of h a n d i c a p p e d i n d i v i d u a l s by commercial a i r l i n e s even t h o u g h t h e c a r r i e r s r e c e i v e d no d i r e c t f e d e r a l s u b s i d i e s . The law c o v e r e d t h e c a r r i e r s , s a i d t h e a p p e a l s c o u r t p a n e l , because they b e n e f i t s o "pervasively" from f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e a i r p o r t s and i n t h e form of f e d e r a l a i d t r a f f i c control centers. The c o u r t r e a s o n e d f u r t h e r t h a t i t s d e c i s i o n was n o t i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Grove C i t y C o l l e g e b e c a u s e a l l commercial a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e a i r c r a f t themselves, a r e a f e d e r a l l y a s s i s t e d I1 program o r a c t i v i t y t ' f o r p u r p o s e s of t h e f e d e r a l c i v i l r i g h t s l a w s . By a v o t e o f 6 t o 3 , t h e Supreme Court r e v e r s e d . I t held t h a t while t h e a i r l i n e s b e n e f i t from f e d e r a l g r a n t s t o t h e a i r p o r t s t h e y u s e , and from t h e f e d e r a l l y o p e r a t e d a i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s y s t e m , t h e y a r e n o t c o v e r e d by s e c t i o n 504 u n l e s s t h e y a c t u a l l y " r e c e i v e t t f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . Justice P o w e l l , w r i t i n g f o r t h e C o u r t , n o t e d t h a t under t h e 1970 A i r p o r t and Airway Development Act and i t s s u c c e s s o r s t a t u t e , f e d e r a l f u n d s f o r a i r p o r t development go d i r e c t l y t o a i r p o r t o p e r a t o r s . " ~ h u s , the recipient f o r p u r p o s e s o f 5 504 i s t h e o p e r a t o r of t h e a i r p o r t and n o t i t s u s e r s . " C o n g r e s s , he c o n t i n u e d , " l i m i t e d t h e s c o p e of § 504 t o t h o s e who a c t u a l l y ' r e c e i v e ' f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e b e c a u s e i t s o u g h t t o impose 5 504 c o v e r a g e a s a form o f c o n t r a c t u a l c o s t o f t h e r e c i p i e n t ' s a g r e e m e n t t o a c c e p t f e d e r a l f u n d s . "I6 Nor d i d t h e f e d e r a l l y o p e r a t e d a i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s y s t e m c o n s t i t u t e " f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e " u n d e r s e c t i o n 504; r a t h e r , i t i s a f e d e r a l l y c o n d u c t e d program " t h a t h a s many b e n e f i c i a r i e s b u t no r e c i p i e n t s . 1t17 J u s t i c e M a r s h a l l , j o i n e d i n d i s s e n t by J u s t i c e s Brennan and Blackmun, f e l t t h e p r o p e r i n q u i r y was n o t w h e t h e r commercial a i r l i n e s " r e c e i v e " f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e , but whether they a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o "exclude handicapped p e r s o n s from t h e b e n e f i t o f , o r . . . s u b j e c t them t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n u n d e r a n y program o r a c t i v i t y receiving Federal assistance." I n t h e d i s s e n t e r s ' view, t h e y a r e and s h o u l d be s u b j e c t t o t h e A c t . A s might be e x p e c t e d , t h e l o w e r f e d e r a l c o u r t s s i n c e Grove C i t y C o l l e g e h a v e f o r t h e most p a r t c o n t i n u e d t h i s j u d i c i a l t r e n d o f s t r i c t a d h e r e n c e t o program s p e c i f i c i t y u n d e r T i t l e I X and r e l a t e d l a w s . One p r o m i n e n t a p p r o a c h a p p l i e s t h e "program o r a c t i v i t y " s t a n d a r d from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e of t h e a i d e d institution. Thus, t h e r e l e v a n t "program" i s most o f t e n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l d e p a r t m e n t i n which t h e p l a i n t i f f t e a c h e s o r i s a s t u d e n t , and t h e i n q u i r y i s whether t h a t department r e c e i v e s any f e d e r a l funds. For e x a m p l e , i n Z a g r i l l o v. F a s h i o n I n s t i t u t e o f ~ e c h n o l o ~ ~ t ,h 'e~ d i s t r i c t c o u r t r e q u i r e d t h a t a - . l6 Id . a t 2711. l7 Id. a t l8 6 0 1 F. Supp. 1346 (S.D.N.Y. 2715. 1985). d i r e c t "nexus" be shown between t h e c o m p l a i n i n g f a c u l t y member's d e p a r t m e n t and f e d e r a l money b e c a u s e " [ u l n d e r [Grove C i t y C o l l e g e ] , T i t l e I X c o v e r s o n l y t h o s e programs t h a t r e c e i v e f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . " S i m i l a r l y , i n Moire v. Temple U n i v e r s i t y School of ~ e d i c i n e , " a m e d i c a l s t u d e n t had h e r s e x u a l harassment claim a g a i n s t t h e physician supervising h e r p s y c h i a t r i c c l e r k s h i p d i s m i s s e d b e c a u s e n e i t h e r he n o r t h e c l i n i c f o r which he worked r e c e i v e d federal assistance. The c o u r t d i d c o n c e d e , however, t h a t Temple U n i v e r s i t y , which i s f e d e r a l l y a i d e d , "might be l i a b l e under T i t l e I X t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t condoned o r r a t i f i e d a n y i n v i d i o u s l y d i s c r i m i n a t o r y c o n d u c t . 1120 B e n n e t t v. West Texas S t a t e u n i v e r s i t y 2 1 was a c l a s s a c t i o n a l l e g i n g s e x d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e e n t i r e - a ~ h l e t i cprogram of t h e u n i v e r s i t y , i n c l u d i n g a t h l e t i c scholarships. The u n i v e r s i t y r e c e i v e d f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e form of BEOGs o r " p e l 1 G r a n t s , " some of which went t o s t u d e n t a t h l e t e s , c o l l e g e work-study, f e d e r a l s u b s i d i e s f o r p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , and u n r e s t r i c t e d r e v e n u e s h a r i n g funds. F o l l o w i n g Grove C i t y C o l l e g e , however, t h e F i f t h C i r c u i t found t h a t t h e f e d e r a l g r a n t s t o s t u d e n t s were a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e f i n a n c i a l a i d o f f i c e , and t h a t t h e b e n e f i t t o t h e a t h l e t i c d e p a r t m e n t of t h e o t h e r f e d e r a l f u n d s r e c e i v e d by t h e u n i v e r s i t y was "merely i n c i d e n t a l . " 'trickledown' " T h i s t y p e of b e n e f i t i s j u s t t h e t y p e t h a t Grove C i t y e x p l i c i t l y r u l e d d i d n o t t r i g g e r T i t l e I X coverage." The c o u r t o f a p p e a l s d i s t i n g u i s h e d " i n d i r e c t 613 F. Supp. 1360 (E.D.Pa. 1985). 20 S e e , a l s o , P r a t o l v. Londa, No. CV-87-2041 ( s l i p opinion)(E.D.N.Y. O c t o b e r 1 4 , 1 9 8 7 ) where t h e d i s t r i c t c o u r t i n d i s m i s s i n g t h e s e x u a l h a r r a s s m e n t s u i t by a f e d e r a l l y a i d e d s t u d e n t a g a i n s t t h e d e f e n d a n t S t e n o t y p e Academy h e l d t h a t "even a s s u m i n g t h a t p l a i n t i f f used h e r f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e t o pay f o r h e r e d u c a t i o n a t d e f e n d a n t Academy, s h e s t i l l f a i l s t o s t a t e a c a u s e o f a c t i o n u n d e r T i t l e I X , b e c a u s e p l a i n t i f f d o e s n o t a l l e g e t h a t s h e was d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h d e f e n d a n t Academy's f i n a n c i a l a i d program." 21 799 F.2d 155 ( 5 t h C i r . 1986). r e c i p i e n t s " of f e d e r a l a i d , which a r e c o v e r e d by T i t l e I X , f r o m " i n d i r e c t b e n e f i c i a r i e s , " which a r e n o t , i n t e r m s of t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l p u r p o s e b e h i n d t h e program and r e j e c t e d a n y a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e " i n f e c t i o n t h e o r y f f o f T i t l e IX liability. Under some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , t h e r e i s even a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t o n l y t h e narrowest o r l e a s t i n c l u s i v e s u b d i v i s i o n w i t h i n a department o r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n may be a f o r T i t l e I X p u r p o s e s , and t h a t programs may n o t o v e r l a p o r b e p a r t s of l a r g e r programs. Dictum i n t h e c o u r t ' s o p i n i o n i n would S t o r e y v . Board of ~ e ~ e n t fso r, example, ~ ~ opined whether t h e be t h e Department o f P o u l t r y S c i e n c e s o r t h e C o l l e g e o f A g r i c u l t u r e and L i f e Sciences b e f o r e d e c i d i n g , f o r o t h e r reasons, t h a t T i t l e I X c r e a t e d no p r i v a t e r i g h t of a c t i o n f o r employment d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . A s i m i l a r i m p l i c a t i o n may be f o u n d i n Mabry v , S t a t e Board f o r Community C o l l e g e and O c c u p a t i o n a l ducat ion,^^ where t h e c o u r t denied t h e T i t l e I X c l a i m of a female i n s t r u c t o r who c l a i m e d s h e was d i s c r i m i n a t o r i l y f i r e d from h e r t e a c h i n g p o ~ i t i o ni n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , p u b l i c s p e a k i n g , and f i r s t a i d a t a s t a t e j u n i o r c o l l e g e . The p l a i n t i f f had a r g u e d t h a t b e c a u s e t h o s e c o u r s e s a r e " c o r e r e q u i r e m e n t s " f o r d e g r e e s i n programs t h a t r e c e i v e f e d e r a l f u n d s , T i t l e I X a p p l i e s . But t h e d i s t r i c t c o u r t d i s a g r e e d , b a s e d on e v i d e n c e t h a t : ... no u n r e s t r i c t e d f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was r e c e i v e d by t h e c o l l e g e o r t h r o u g h t h e b o a r d ; t h a t n o f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was r e c e i v e d by t h e c o l l e g e o r t h r o u g h t h e b o a r d t h a t was s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n a t e d f o r , o r a l l o c a t e d t o t h e p h y s i c a l education o r language i n s t r u c t i o n a l program a r e a s o r t h e S t a n d a r d Red C r o s s F i r s t Aid and P e r s o n a l S a f e t y c o u r s e a t T r i n i d a d ; t h a t t h e college did receive federal financial assistance i n other e d u c a t i o n program a r e a s , b u t t h a t t h e a s s i s t a n c e r e c e i v e d 22 23 604 F . Supp. 1200 (W.D.Wisc. 597 F. Supp. 1235 (D.Colo. 1985). 1984). was n o t t o pay t h e s a l a r i e s of i n s t r u c t o r employed w i t h i n t h e program a r e a s i n which Mabry t a u g h t . 2 2 A somewhat b r o a d e r a p p r o a c h may be e v i d e n t i n O'Connor v. P e r u S t a t e o r a c t i v i t y " i n terms which d e f i n e d t h e r e l e v a n t T i t l e I X of t h e p u r p o s e o f Congress i n making t h e p a r t i c u l a r f u n d s a v a i l a b l e and t h e p a r t s of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n f o r which t h e y c o u l d have been u s e d . In O ' c o n n o r a f o r m e r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r and women's b a s k e t b a l l c o a c h c l a i m e d t h a t h e r f i r i n g was a v i o l a t i o n of T i t l e I X . The c o l l e g e w a s ' a r e c i p i e n t of a " T i t l e I11 g r a n t " f o r s t u d e n t and f a c u l t y r e s e a r c h by w h i c h , t h e c o u r t f o u n d , C o n g r e s s i n t e n d e d t o a i d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ' s e n t i r e "academic" program, i n c l u d i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Because t h e p l a i n t i f f ' s d i s m i s s a l , however, was t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f h e r c o a c h i n g , n o t h e r t e a c h i n g d u t i e s , and was t h u s n o t r e l a t e d t o "academics,'' i t was o u t s i d e of T i t l e I X . "Even t h o u g h a t Peru S t a t e a t h l e t i c s i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y a p a r t of t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n d i v i s i o n , we do n o t b e l i e v e t h a t i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e s p o r t s , w h i l e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e higher e d u c a t i o n experience, c o n s t i t u t e s 'academics' w i t h i n t h e contemplation of T i t l e 111." Thus, a l t h o u g h d e f e a t i n g p l a i n t i f f ' s c l a i m , t h e O'Connor c o u r t seemed t o s h i f t t h e f o c u s away from a n i n q u i r y i n t o a c t u a l f u n d i n g s t a t u s t o w h e t h e r t h e program o r a c t i v i t y complained o f was e l i g i b l e f o r f e d e r a l f u n d i n g r e c e i v e d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . One T i t l e I X c o u r t h a s h e l d s i n c e Grove C i t y C o l l e g e t h a t i t i s n o t enough t h a t t h e d e f e n d a n t i s an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n b u t t h a t t h e c l a i m a s s e r t e d must r e l a t e t o a n e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . 24 Id . a t 1239. 25 781 F.2d 632 ( 8 t h C i r . 1986). I n Walters v. CRS- 1 1 P r e s i d e n t and F e l l o w s of Harvard a n employee o f t h e B u i l d i n g a n d Grounds Department of Harvard sued under T i t l e IX a l l e g i n g t h a t d u r i n g h e r employment s h e was h a r a s s e d and i n t i m i d a t e d and e v e n t u a l l y f o r c e d t o q u i t h e r j o b b e c a u s e of s e x . S p e c i f i c a l l y , she argued t h a t t h e r e f e r e n c e t o "education program o r a c t i v i t y 8 ' i n T i t l e I X s h o u l d be r e a d t o i n c l u d e " t h a t a r e a o f a c t i v i t y which i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s of p r o v i d i n g a c e n t e r f o r l e a r n i n g and t r a i n i n g " and t h a t b u i l d i n g s and g r o u n d s m a i n t e n a n c e i s s u c h a n a c t i v i t y . The c o u r t , however, r e j e c t e d t h i s c o n t e n t i o n : A l t h o u g h t h e Supreme C o u r t l e f t open t h e q u e s t i o n of what c o n s t i t u t e s a n " e d u c a t i o n a l program" w i t h i n t h e meaning of t h e s t a t u t e , N o r t h Haven, s u p r a , a t 540, t h e p h r a s e i s c l e a r l y i n t e n d e d t o convey s o m e t h i n g more d i r e c t l y related- t o the delivery of- educational services t h a n t h e p u r e l y c u s t o d i a l s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e B u i l d i n g a n d Grounds Department h e r e . T h e r e i s n o need t o p u t a s t r a i n e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on t h e s t a t u t o r y l a n g u a g e o f T i t l e I X when C o n g r e s s h a s e n a c t e d a n a d e q u a t e remedy f o r t h e w o r k e r s u n d e r T i t l e VII [ o f t h e 1964 C i v i l R i g h t s A c t ] . If D e s p i t e o b v i o u s s i m i l a r i t i e s i n l a n g u a g e and s t r u c t u r e o f t h e two A c t s , some c o u r t s p r i o r t o Grove C i t y C o l l e g e d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e r e a c h o f T i t l e I X f r o m t h e r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r o h i b i t i o n o f T i t l e V I o f t h e 1964 C i v i l R i g h t s Act, n o t i n g i n j u s t i f i c a t i o n t h a t r a c e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s under t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a r e t o b e more s t r i c t l y s c r u t i n i z e d t h a n s e x c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . 28 Another r e a s o n may be t h a t much e a r l y T i t l e V I l i t i g a t i o n c o n c e r n e d s t a t e s a n c t i o n e d r a c - i a l s e g r e g a t i o n w i t h i n e d u c a t i o n a l o r o t h e r f e d e r a l l y funded i n s t i t u t i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n more n a r r o w l y c o n f i n e d v i o l a t i o n s . As s u c h , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a p p r o a c h may h a v e been more common i n t h e T i t l e VI c o n t e x t b e c a u s e t h e d e c i s i o n t o d e n y 26 6 0 1 F . Supp. 867 ( D . ~ a r s . 1 9 8 5 ) . 27 Id . a t 869. 28 E.g., Othen v . Ann Arbor School Board, 507 F. Supp. 1 3 7 6 , 1387 19811, a f f ' d , 609 F.2d 309 ( 6 t h C i r . 1 9 8 3 ) . (E.D.Mich. - b l a c k s a d m i s s i o n n e c e s s a r i l y meant t h a t no component program c o u l d be c o n d u c t e d f r e e of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 29 S i n c e Grove C i t y C o l l e g e a t l e a s t one f e d e r a l c o u r t h a s a f f i r m e d t h a t " T i t l e V I i s b r o a d e r i n s c o p e t h a n T i t l e IX." I n U n i t e d S t a t e s v. p l a i n t i f f s s o u g h t t o e n j o i n t h e S t a t e ' s u s e of a P r e - P r o f e s s i o n a l ex as^' the S k i l l s Test (PPST) t o s c r e e n s t u d e n t s f o r a d m i s s i o n t o t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s b e c a u s e o f t h e t e s t ' s a d v e r s e impact on b l a c k and H i s p a n i c c a n d i d a t e s . The d i s t r i c t c o u r t g r a n t e d t h e motion f o r p r e l i m i n a r y i n j u n c t i o n f i n d i n g a l i k e l i h o o d o f s u c c e s s on t h e m e r i t s . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t "no f e d e r a l f u n d s have been c h a n n e l l e d t o PPST a c t i v i t y , " t h e c o u r t concluded t h a t T i t l e V I i s b r o a d e r t h a n T i t l e I X a s i n t e r p r e t e d by Grove C i t y C o l l e g e , and t h a t " t h e PPST i s c l e a r l y p a r t of t h e program of t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i n Texas, and t h e t e a c h e r program r e c e i v e s f e d e r a l funds." As t o t h e argument t h a t T i t l e V I d o e s n o t a p p l y t o t h e d e f e n d a n t s ' u s e of t h e PPST b e c a u s e no f e d e r a l f u n d s a r e used t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e PPST, d e f e n d a n t s ' c i t a t i o n t o [Grove Defendants, City College] i s particularly inapposite by t h e i r own c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e PPST i s used t o improve t h e q u a l i t y of s t u d e n t s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs, l i n k .... 29 Bob J o n e s U n i v e r s i t y v. J o h n s o n , 396 F. Supp. 597 (D.S.C. 19741, a f f ' d m s . , 529 F.2d 514 ( 4 t h C i r . 1975)(VA s t u d e n t a i d was a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y and a l l i t s programs were s u b j e c t t o T i t l e V I ) ; F l a n a g a n v. P r e s i d e n t & D i r e c t o r o f Georgetown C o l l e g e , 417 F. Supp. 377 (D.D.C. 1 9 7 6 ) ( f e d e r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n g- r a n t s and l o a n s and i n t e r e s t s u b s i d i e s o b l i g e d t h e c o l l e g e " t o r e f r a i n from d i s c r i m i n a t i n g on t h e b a s i s of r a c e i n p r o v i d i n g a n y s e r v i c e , f i n a n c i a l a i d , o r o t h e r b e n e f i t t o i t s Law C e n t e r s t u d e n t s . " ) ; B o s s i e r P a r i s h S c h o o l Board v. Lemon, 370 F.2d 847 ( 5 t h C i r . ) , c e r t . d e n i e d , 388 U.S. 911 ( 1 9 6 7 ) ( r e c e i p t of f e d e r a l a i d f o r m a i n t e n a n c e of s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h d e n y i n g a d m i s s i o n t o b l a c k s and a v i o l a t i o n of T i t l e VI); U n i t e d S t a t e s v. J e f f e r s o n County Board of E d u c a t i o n , 372 F.2d 836 ( 5 t h C i r . 19661, c e r t . d e n i e d , 389 U.S. 840 ( 1 9 6 7 ) ( ~ i t l eV I a u t h o r i z e d HEW t o i n s u r e t h a t no r a c e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o c c u r s i n a n y s c h o o l t h a t r e c e i v e s f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l assistance). B u t , cA., S t e w a r t v. New York U n i v e r s i t y , 430 F. Supp. 1305 1 9 7 6 ) ( f e d e r a l g r a n t s and l o a n s f o r d o r m i t o r y c o n s t r u c t i o n d o e s n o t (S.D.N.Y. t r i g g e r T i t l e V I c o v e r a g e of law s c h o o l a d m i s s i o n s p o l i c y ) . 30 628 F. Supp. 304 (E.D.Tex. 1985). t h e PPST i n e x t r i c a b l y t o t h e t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n program i t s e l f . Grove C i t y v. B e l l d o e s n o t s u p p o r t a c o n t e n t i o n t h a t f e d e r a l money would h a v e t o be s p e n t on e v e r y s p e c i f i c i t e m i n a program i n o r d e r f o r t h a t i t e m t o be c o v e r e d by A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e d e f e n d a n t s ' argument t h a t , Title IX. b e c a u s e no f e d e r a l money i s s p e n t on t h e PPST, t h e r e i s no T i t l e V I coverage t r e d r e s s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h e PPST, h a s no m e r i t . 1 3 More r e c e n t l y , however, t h e E l e v e n t h C i r c u i t i n U.S. v. S t a t e o f Alabama 32 s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l i e d on Grove C i t y C o l l e g e and t h e P a r a l y z e d V e t e r a n s c a s e t o r e j e c t a b r o a d " s y s t e m i c M c h a l l e n g e by t h e f e d e r a l government t o r a c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n i n ~ l a b a m a ' sp u b l i c c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . The U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e r e c l a i m e d t h a t t h e s t a t e had s i n c e 1953 p u r s u e d r a c i a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t o r y s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t and f a c u l t y h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s which, c o u p l e d w i t h c o n t i n u e d u n d e r f u n d i n g o f i t s h i s t o r i c a l l y b l a c k u n i v e r s i t i e s , had u n l a w f u l l y p e r p e t u a t e d a r a c i a l l y d u a l system of higher education. The c o m p l a i n t d i d n o t s p e c i f y which programs o r a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v e d f e d e r a l f u n d s o r i n what manner t h e s e programs o r a c t i v i t i e s w e r e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . I n s t e a d t h e government s i m p l y a r g u e d t h a t b e c a u s e t h e e n t i r e t y o f ~ l a b a m a ' sh i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m was 11 permeated w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , " the ten public i n s t i t u t i o n s within the state and t h e i r g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s c o n s t i t u t e d a "program o r a c t i v i t y r e c e i v i n g f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l assistance.'' I n r e j e c t i n g t h i s approach, t h e a p p e a l s c o u r t s t a t e d : T i t l e V I m a n d a t e s a more r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s o f t h e f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e r e c e i v e d by d e f e n d a n t s t h a n was u n d e r t a k e n below. Under t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ' t h e o r y o f t h e c a s e , i t was s u f f i c i e n t t h a t some d e f e n d a n t s r e c e i v e d some f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e . The U n i t e d S t a t e s p r e s e n t e d n o e v i d e n c e , and t h e t r i a l c o u r t made no f i n d i n g s , d e t a i l i n g which programs and a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e s e d e f e n d a n t i n s t i t u t i o n s r e c e i v e d f e d e r a l funding. Because of t h i s f a i l u r e t o i d e n t i f y t h e p a r t i c u l a r f e d e r a l l y a s s i s t e d programs b e i n g a f f e c t e d , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c o u l d n o t show how t h e a c t i o n s o f d e f e n d a n t s Id. 32 at 828 F.2d 1532 ( 1 1 t h C i r . 1987). r e n d e r e d t h e s e programs d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . Such d e t a i l e d showings a r e n e c e s s a r y t o s a t i s f y t h e program s p e c i f i c i t y r e q u i r e m e n t of T i t l e V I . The c o u r t t h u s h e l d t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s c o m p l a i n t c o u l d n o t s t a n d b u t would h a v e t o be redrawn 'I t o make t h e r e q u i s i t e showing of which p a r t i c u l a r programs o r a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i ved f e d e r a l f u n d i n g and how t h e s e programs were d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . 1133 F i n a l l y , n o t e t h a t t h e program s p e c i f i c i t y r e q u i r e m e n t of s e c t i o n 504 o f t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act h a s l i k e w i s e produced a w e l t e r of d e c i s i o n s w h i c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e Grove C i t y C o l l e g e , have l a r g e l y embraced a more r e s t r i c t i v e approach.34 I' I n t h e one post-Grove C i t y College case t o c o n s i d e r t h e scope of program o r a c t i v i t y u u n d e r t h e 1975 Age D i s c r i m i n a t i o n A c t , S t e p h a n d i s v. Y a l e t h e d i s t r i c t c o u r t a l s o adhered t o a r e l a t i v e l y s t r i c t r e q u i r e m e n t o f program s p e c i f i c i t y . The p l a i n t i f f t h e r e j o i n e d a g e and h a n d i c a p d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c l a i m s a g a i n s t Yale f o r d e n y i n g him a d m i s s i o n a s a 34 s, See, Brown v. S i b l e y , 650 F.2d 760, 769-70 ( 5 t h C i r . 1 9 8 l ) ( f e d e r a l f u n d i n g of o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s c o u n s e l i n g s e r v i c e and warehouse c o n s t r u c t i o n d i d n o t s u b j e c t broom c o n s t r u c t i o n shop t o s e c t i o n 5 0 4 ) ; Doyle v. U n i v e r s i t y o f Alabama i n Birmingham, 680 F.2d 1323 ( 1 1 t h C i r . 1 9 8 2 ) ( f e d e r a l f u n d i n g of some u n i v e r s i t y programs d o e s n o t s u b j e c t program employing p l a i n t i f f t o s e c t i o n 5 0 4 ) ; J a c o b s o n v. D e l t a A i r l i n e s , I n c . , 742 F.2d 1202 ( 9 t h C i r . 1 9 8 4 ) , c e r t . d i s m i s s e d , 471 U.S. 1062 ( 1 9 8 5 ) ( f e d e r a l f u n d i n g of a i r l i n e ' s s m a l l conununity s e r v i c e s d i d n o t s u b j e c t c a r r i e r t o s e c t i o n 5 0 4 ) ; F o s s v. C i t y o f C h i c a g o , 640 F. Supp. 1088 (N.D.111. 19861, a f f ' d , 817 F.2d 34 ( 7 t h C i r . 1 9 8 7 ) ( f e d e r a l f u n d i n g of Chicago F i r e ~ e p a r t m e n t ' s f i r s t a i d t r a i n i n g f o r r e s i d e n t s , emergency p r e p a r e d n e s s and d i s a s t e r s e r v i c e s and advanced e d u c a t i o n program d i d n o t t r i g g e r a p p l i c a t i o n of s e c t i o n 504 t o e n t i r e d e p a r t m e n t ) ; C h a p l i n v. C o n s o l i d a t e d Edison Co., 628 F. Supp. 143 (S.D.N.Y. 1986)(federal f u n d i n g of company's s p e c i a l t r a i n e e employees s u b j e c t s o n l y S p e c i a l i z e d T r a i n i n g Department t o s e c t i o n 504, n o t e n t i r e company); Bachman v. American S O C ' ~ o f C l i n i c a l P a t h o l o g i s t s , 577 F. Supp. 1257 (D.N.J. 1 9 8 3 ) ( f e d e r a l f u n d i n g of o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s a l c o h o l a b u s e a c t i v i t i e s d o e s n o t s u b j e c t o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s c e r t i f i c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t o f e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n under s e c t i o n 5 0 4 ) . 35 652 F. Supp. 110 (D.Conn. 1986). s t u d e n t on t h r e e d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s t o t h e G r a d u a t e E n g l i s h D e p a r t m e n t . A Y a l e g r a n t o f f i c e r t e s t i f i e d t h a t based on h e r r e c o r d s t h e E n g l i s h D e p a r t m e n t had r e c e i v e d no f e d e r a l f u n d s b u t t h a t s e v e r a l E n g l i s h f a c u l t y members had r e c e i v e d g r a n t s from t h e N a t i o n a l Endowment f o r t h e H u m a n i t i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e Y a l e Summer Program. The Summer Program was u n r e l a t e d t o t h e E n g l i s h Department and d i d n o t i n v o l v e Y a l e s t u d e n t s , c o u r t concluded t h a t " p l a i n t i f f Based o n t h i s e v i d e n c e , t h e c o u l d n o t meet h i s t h r e s h o l d b u r d e n t h a t t h e s p e c i f i c program which a l l e g e d l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t him r e c e i v e d f e d e r a l financial assistance." Coverage u n d e r t h e n o n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s i s t h e ' c o n t r a c t u a l c o s t ' a g r e e d t o by a r e c i p i e n t i n r e t u r n f o r r e c e i v i n g and u s i n g f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . [ c i t a t i o n o m i t t e d ] . However, t o t r i g g e r t h a t c o v e r a g e u n d e r a c t s c o n t a i n i n g program-specific funding language, t h e t e a c h i n g o f Grove C i t y and i t s p r o g e n y r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e program a c c u s e d of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n must b e a r e c i p i e n t of f e d e r a l f i n a n c i 1 a s s i s t a n c e a t t h e time of t h e a l l e g e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 36 Accordingly, t h e court dismissed t h e s u i t . 111. The I n s t i t u t i o n - w i d e Approach of S. 557 The f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e program- s p e c i f i c e m p h a s i s i n t h e s e s t a t u t e s , t h e f e d e r a l government b e f o r e Grove C i t y had a s s e r t e d b r o a d a u t h o r i t y t o b a r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a n a i d e d i n s t i t u t i o n o r e n t i t y when f e d e r a l f u n d s s u p p o r t e d a n y o f its activities. However, a s n o t e d , t h e l o w e r f e d e r a l c o u r t s w e r e l a r g e l y d i v i d e d on t h e i s s u e o f program s p e c i f i c i t y v e r s u s i n s t i t u t i o n - w i d e c o v e r a g e . I n Grove C i t y , t h e Supreme C o u r t a l i g n e d i t s e l f w i t h t h e a p p a r e n t m a j o r i t y o f l o w e r c o u r t d e c i s i o n s t h a t had o p t e d f o r a n a r r o w c o n s t r u c t i o n o f program- 36 Id. - a t 113. s p e c i f i c i t y under T i t l e I X . S. 557 a s p a s s e d by t h e S e n a t e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , s t a t e s a p o l i c y i n f a v o r of " b r o a d , i n s t i t u t i o n - w i d e a p p l i c a t i o n " of t h e law and would e f f e c t u a t e t h i s p o l i c y by a d d i n g a new s t a t u t o r y d e f i n i t i o n of 'Iprogram o r a c t i v i t y 1 ' t o e a c h o f t h e f o u r laws d i s c u s s e d above. A c c o r d i n g l y , e a c h of t h o s e l a w s would be amended t o i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n : F o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s t i t l e , t h e term Iprogram o r a c t i v i t y t and ' p r o g r a m ' mean a l l o f t h e o p e r a t i o n s of-( l ) ( A ) a department, agency, s p e c i a l purpose d i s t r i c t , o r o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y of a S t a t e o r of a l o c a l government; o r (B) t h e e n t i t y of s u c h S t a t e o r l o c a l government t h a t d i s t r i b u t e s s u c h a s s i s t a n c e and e a c h such d e p a r t m e n t o r agency (and e a c h o t h e r S t a t e o r l o c a l government e n t i t y ) t o which t h e a s s i s t a n c e i s e x t e n d e d , i n t h e c a s e of a s s i s t a n c e t o a S t a t e o r l o c a l government; ( 2 ) ( A ) a c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y , o r o t h e r post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n , o r a p u b l i c system of higher education; o r ( B ) a l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l agency ( a s d e f i n e d i n s e c t i o n 1 9 8 ( a ) ( 1 0 ) of t h e E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary E d u c a t i o n Act of 19651, s y s t e m o f v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , o r o t h e r school system; ( 3 ) ( A ) an e n t i r e c o r p o r a t i o n , p a r t n e r s h i p , o r o t h e r p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r an e n t i r e s o l e p r o p r i e t o r s h i p - ( i ) i f a s s i s t a n c e i s e x t e n d e d t o such c o r p o r a t i o n , p a r t n e r s h i p , p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r s o l e p r o p r i e t o r s h i p a s a whole; o r ( i i ) which i s p r i n c i p a l l y engaged i n t h e b u s i n e s s of p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h c a r e , h o u s i n g , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , o r p a r k s and recreation; o r (B) t h e e n t i r e p l a n t o r o t h e r c o m p a r a b l e , g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s e p a r a t e f a c i l i t y t o which F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s e x t e n d e d , i n t h e c a s e of a n y o t h e r c o r p o r a t i o n , p a r t n e r s h i p , p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r sole proprietorship; or ( 4 ) a n y o t h e r e n t i t y which i s e s t a b l i s h e d by two o r more of t h e e n t i t i e s d e s c r i b e d i n p a r a g r a p h ( I ) , ( 2 ) , o r ( 3 ) ; any p a r t of which i s extended Federal f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , except t h a t such term does n o t i n c l u d e any o p e r a t i o n o f an e n t i t y which i s c o n t r o l l e d by a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n i f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s e c t i o n 901 t o s u c h o p e r a t i o n would n o t be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e l i g i o u s t e n e t s o f s u c h organization. The S e n a t e approved t h e r e p o r t e d v e r s i o n of S. 557 w i t h t h r e e amendments-two c o n c e r n a b o r t i o n and t h e t h i r d i s a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of c o v e r a g e f o r t h e h a n d i c a p p e d ( w i t h c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e s ) i n t h e employment c o n t e x t . The Weicker Amendment p r o v i d e s t h a t no p r o v i s i o n o f S. 557 o r amendment made by i t s h a l l be CRS-17 c o n s t r u e d t o f o r c e o r r e q u i r e any i n d i v i d u a l o r h o s p i t a l o r a n y o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n , program, o r a c t i v i t y r e c e i v i n g F e d e r a l f u n d s t o p e r f o r m o r p a y f o r a n a b o r t i o n . 37 The D a n f o r t h Amendment s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o v i d e s t h a t T i t l e I X o f t h e 1972 E d u c a t i o n Act Amendments s h a l l n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d " t o r e q u i r e o r p r o h i b i t a n y p e r s o n , o r p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e e n t i t y , t o p r o v i d e o r pay f o r a n y b e n e f i t o r s e r v i c e , i n c l u d i n g t h e u s e of f a c i l i t i e s , r e l a t e d t o a n a b o r t i o n . " I t a l s o p r o h i b i t s t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a p e n a l t y on a n y p e r s o n who i s " s e e k i n g o r has received any b e n e f i t o r s e r v i c e r e l a t e d t o a l e g a l abortion. Humphrey-Harkin 1138 The Amendment c l a r i f i e d t h a t f o r p u r p o s e s of s e c t i o n s 503 and 504 of t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act r e l a t i n g t o employment, c o v e r a g e d o e s n o t e x t e n d t o a n i n d i v i d u a l "who h a s a c u r r e n t l y c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e o r i n f e c t i o n and who, by r e a s o n o f s u c h d i s e a s e o r i n f e c t i o n , would c o n s t i t u t e a d i r e c t t h r e a t t o t h e h e a l t h o r s a f e t y o f o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s o r who, by r e a s o n of t h e c u r r e n t l y c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e o r i n f e c t i o n , i s u n a b l e t o p e r f o r m t h e d u t i e s o f t h e j o b . (139 T h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e d e b a t e c o n c e r n i n g t h i s amendment t o t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act. A c o l l o q u y between S e n a t o r s Humphrey and H a r k i n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e amendment i s i n t e n d e d t o a d d r e s s a n i s s u e comparable t o t h e o n e f a c e d by C o n g r e s s i n 1978 w i t h r e g a r d t o c o v e r a g e o f a l c o h o l and d r u g a b u s e r s u n d e r s e c t i o n 5 0 4 o f t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act. T h i s d i s c u s s i o n between t h e two s e n a t o r s a l s o e m p h a s i z e s t h a t t h i s amendment d o e s n o t h i n g t o c h a n g e t h e c u r r e n t laws c o n c e r n i n g r e a s o n a b l e accommodation a s i t a p p l i e s t o i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h h a n d i c a p s who c a n n o t p e r f o r m t h e i r j o b s , 4 0 37 134 Cong. Rec. S 211 ( d a i l y e d . J a n u a r y 2 8 , 1 9 8 8 ) . 38 Id. a t S 225. 39 Id. - a t S 256. 40 Id. As r e p o r t e d and p a s s e d by t h e S e n a t e , t h i s b i l l c o n t a i n s two p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h s h o u l d be n o t e d b e c a u s e t h e y b e a r on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s m e a s u r e s h o u l d i t become l a w . F i r s t , S e c t i o n 4 , which would amend t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A c t , p r o v i d e s t h a t " s m a l l p r o v i d e r s , " a s t h a t t e r m i s d e f i n e d by r e g u l a t i o n , 4 1 a r e r e l i e v e d o f a n y o b l i g a t i o n u n d e r t h e b i l l " t o make s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r a t i o n s t o t h e i r e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e of a s s u r i n g program a c c e s s i b i l i t y , i f a l t e r n a t i v e means of p r o v i d i n g t h e s e r v i c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e . 1142 T h e n , S e c t i o n 7 of t h e b i l l would c o d i f y a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r e s e n t l y found i n agency r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t nondiscrimination requirements apply o n l y t o r e c i p i e n t s t h a t a d m i n i s t e r f e d e r a l f u n d s f o r t h e b e n e f i t of o t h e r s , n o t t h e " u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r i e s of F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e " t h e m s e l v e s . 4 3 The S e n a t e R e p o r t f o r S. 557 o f f e r s a n e x p l a n a t i o n f o r b o t h t h e " s m a l l p r o v i d e r " and " u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r i e s " e x c e p t i o n s . providers," With r e s p e c t t o " s m a l l t h e Senate Report s t a t e s : ... The r e g u l a t i o n s a l l o w f o r a f l e x i b l e a p p r o a c h by r e c i p i e n t s i n making programs a c c e s s i b l e t o h a n d i c a p p e d p e r s o n s i n t h e most i n t e g r a t e d s e t t i n g . R e c i p i e n t s may, f o r e x a m p l e , r e d e s i g n e q u i p m e n t , reassign classes or services to accessible f a c i l i t i e s , or assign a i d e s t o handicapped persons.... Where o t h e r methods of a c h i e v i n g c o m p l i a n c e a r e i n e f f e c t i v e t o r e n d e r programs a c c e s s i b l e , a r e c i p i e n t i s r e q u i r e d t o make s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e s i n i t s f a c i l i t i e s . However, i n t h e c a s e of a s m a l l h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , o r o t h e r s o c i a l s e r v i c e p r o v i d e r , a s p e c i a l l a s t r e s o r t "small provider" e x c e p t i o n i s I t i s a limited exception a v a i l a b l e under c u r r e n t r e g u l a t i o n s . a v a i l a b l e o n l y t o s m a l l p r o v i d e r , d e f i n e d a s one w i t h f e w e r t h a n f i f t e e n employees. I f such small p r o v i d e r s cannot r e n d e r t h e i r p r o g r a m s a c c e s s i b l e by a n y means o t h e r t h a n making s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n s t o t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s , t h e y may, a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e h a n d i c a p p e d p e r s o n s e e k i n g i t s s e r v i c e s , and w i t h no r e s u l t i n g a d d i t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s t o t h e handicapped person, r e f e r t h e p e r s o n t o a n o t h e r p r o v i d e r whose f a c i l i t i e s a r e a c c e s s i b l e . Before a small 41 2 9 C.F.R. 42 S e c t i o n 4 of S . 5 5 7 , a s r e p o r t e d and p a s s e d . 43 S e c t i o n 7 o f S. 5 5 7 , a s r e p o r t e d and p a s s e d . 32.3'(1984) (Department of Labor r e g u l a t i o n s ) . p r o v i d e r makes s u c h a r e f e r r a l , i t must d e t e r m i n e t h a t t h e o t h e r p r o v i d e r ' s program i s , i n f a c t , a c c e s s i b l e and t h a t t h e o t h e r p r o v i d e r i s w i l l i n g t o p r o v i d e t h e s e r v i c e s . S e e 4 5 C.F.R. 84.22 ( c ) . The d r a f t e r s of t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s b e l i e v e d t h i s " l a s t r e s o r t " r e f e r r a l p r o v i s i o n was a p p r o p r i a t e " . . . t o a v o i d i m p o s i t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s i n t h e h e a l t h c a r e a r e a , t o encourage p r o v i d e r s t o r e m a i n i n t h e Medicaid program, and t o a v o i d imposing s i g n i f i c a n t c o s t s on s m a l l , low-budget p r o v i d e r s s u c h a s d a y - c a r e c e n t e r s o r f o s t e r home " S e e 45 C.F.R., P t . 8 4 , App. A , A n a l y s i s o f F i n a l R e g u l a t i o n . 84 I n e x p l a i n i n g t h e meaning o f " u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r i e s " i n t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e Senate Report s t a t e s : N o t h i n g i n S. 557 would p r o h i b i t r e c i p i e n t s o f new f o r m s of f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c r e a t e d a f t e r e n a c t m e n t of t h e b i l l from b e i n g exempted from c o v e r a g e a s " u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r i e s , " where t h e t y p e o f a i d and t h e n a t u r e of t h e r e c i p i e n t i s n a l o g o u s t o t h e e x i s t i n g c a t e g o r i e s of " u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r i e s . t1z5 Examples o f " u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r i e s " i n c l u d e p e r s o n s who r e c e i v e s o c i a l s e c u r i t y b e n e f i t s , M e d i c a r e and Medicaid b e n e f i t s , and f o o d s t a m p s . 46 1n a d d i t i o n , t h e S e n a t e R e p o r t makes i t c l e a r t h a t f a r m e r s who r e c e i v e c r o p s u b s i d i e s a r e " u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r i e s " and a r e n o t s u b j e c t t o T i t l e V I , T i t l e I X , t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A c t , o r t h e Age D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Act. 4 7 D a n i e l Marcus, f o r m e r HEW Deputy G e n e r a l Counsel and f o r m e r G e n e r a l C o u n s e l f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t of A g r i c u l t u r e , t e s t i f i e d i n t h e 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s : .. .The b a s i c l a n g uage o f T i t l e V I and t h e o t h e r a n t i - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s t a t u t e s , b a r r i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n programs o r a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v i n g f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , h a s n e v e r been i n t e r p r e t e d t o r e a c h t h e a c t i v i t i e s o r a c t i o n s of u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r i e s of f e d e r a l l y f i n a n c e d programs, such a s f a r m e r s , s o c i a l s e c u r i t y b e n e f i c i a r i e s o r w e l f a r e recipients. T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , which i s embodied i n a number o f agency r e g u l a t i o n s r e f l e c t s t h e b a s i c purpose of t h o s e l a w s . In e n a c t i n g t h e s e l a w s , Congress was n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e g u l a t i n g t h e ... 47 Id . a t 24-25. a c t i v i t i e s of t h e t e n s of m i l l i o n s of Americans who a r e t h e u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f t h e f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , b u t who i n no s e n s e o p e r a t e a f e d e r a l l y - f i n a n c e d program o r a c t i v i t y . R a t h e r , C o n g r e s s was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s t a t e a g e n c i e s , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and o t h e r s who o p e r a t e programs o r c o n d u c t a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o o t h e r s and who a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o i n j u r e u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r i e s through discrimination. I n o t h e r words, u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r i e s a r e t o a l a r g e e x t e n t t h e people intended t o b e p r o t e c t e d by T i t l e V I and t h e o t h e r a n t i - i s c r i m i n a t i o n s t a t u t e s , not t h e people subjected t o those s t a t u t e s . 4 8 T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between " r e c i p i e n t H and " u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r y ," however, would n o t seem t o a f f e c t t h e Grove C i t y h o l d i n g t h a t f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e r e c e i v e d d i r e c t l y by a " b e n e f i c i a r y , " the "recipient" l i k e t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h a t c a s e , may y e t s u b j e c t i n s t i t u t i o n t o f e d e r a l c i v i l r i g h t s coverage. The p r i n c i p a l e f f e c t of t h e r e m a i n i n g p r o v i s i o n s of S . 557 seems t o b e t o o v e r r i d e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s on c i v i l r i g h t s c o v e r a g e i d e n t i f i e d by Grove C i t y . F i r s t , i t a p p e a r s t o e f f e c t i v e l y c o u n t e r Grove C i t y i n t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s where f e d e r a l a i d flows, d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , t o a s i n g l e u n i t o r department w i t h i n a r e c i p i e n t , l i k e t h e c o l l e g e i n t h a t c a s e , but does not immediately a s s i s t o t h e r p a r t s of t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . institution--not, I n such i n s t a n c e s , t h e e n t i r e f o r example, s i m p l y t h e s t u d e n t a i d program--would t o c o v e r a g e by t h e f o u r s t a t u t e s . be s u b j e c t I n e x p l a i n i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e new d e f i n i t i o n o f "program o r a c t i v i t y 1 ' i n S. 557, t h e S e n a t e Report s t a t e s : When f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s e x t e n d e d t o any p a r t o f a l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c y (LEA), a s y s t e m of v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , o r o t h e r e l e m e n t a r y o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s y s t e m , a l l of t h e o p e r a t i o n s of t h e e n t i r e LEA o r s c h o o l s y s t e m a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e f o u r c i v i l r i g h t s laws. An i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t a r y o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l which i s e x t e n d e d f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and which i s n e i t h e r p a r t of a n LEA n o r p a r t o f a s c h o o l s y s t e m w i l l b e c o v e r e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y a s a n e n t i t y which i s p r i n c i p a l l y engaged i n t h e b u s i n e s s of p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n p u r s u a n t t o p a r t ( 3 ) ( A ) of t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f 1' program o r a c t i v i t y 1 ' i n t h e b i l l . For two o r more s c h o o l s t o be 48 I d . a t 25 ( q u o t i n g from t e s t i m o n y of D a n i e l Marcus, f o r m e r Deputy G e n e r a l c o u n s e l , HEW and f o r m e r G e n e r a l C o u n s e l , Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , 99th Congress). c o n s i d e r e d a " s c h o o l system", t h e r e must be some s i g n i f i c a n t l i n k a g e between them. T h u s , f o r example, a n y g r o u p o f s c h o o l s whose o n l y c o n n e c t i o n t o one a n o t h e r i s t h a t t h e y b e l o n g t o some u m b r e l l a a d v o c a c y o r membership g r o u p , o r t h a t t h e y a r e a c c r e d i t e d b y o n e c e n t r a l a c c r e d i t i n g a g e n c y , would n o t c o n s t i t u t e a s c h o o l s y s t e m . The l a n g u a g e " a l l of t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f " an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n o r s y s t e m would i n c l u d e , b u t i s n o t l i m i t e d t o , t h e f o l l o w i n g - t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n s , f a c u l t y and s t u d e n t h o u s i n g , campus s h u t t l e bus s e r v i c e , campus r e s t a u r a n t s , t h e b o o k s t o r e , and o t h e r commercial a c t i v i t i e s . Examples: I f t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f computer s c i e n c e s a t a c o l l e g e r e c e i v e s a f e d e r a l g r a n t , t h e e n t i r e c o l l e g e i s p r o h i b i t e d from d i s c r i m i n a t i o n under t h e f o u r c i v i l r i g h t s laws. I f f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s extended t o one of t h r e e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s which c o m p r i s e a s y s t e m o p e r a t e d by a C a t h o l i c D i o c e s e , a l l of t h e p e r a t i o n s of a l l t h r e e o f t h e s c h o o l s i n t h e system a r e covered. 4 8 T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n a l s o p r o v i d e s t h a t whenever a n y p a r t o f a s t a t e o r l o c a l government d e p a r t m e n t o r a g e n c y i s g i v e n f e d e r a l f u n d s , t h e n t h e e n t i r e e n t i t y i s covered. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e b i l l c o v e r s s i t u a t i o n s when a u n i t o f a s t a t e o r l o c a l government i s e x t e n d e d f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and s u b s e q u e n t l y d i s t r i b u t e s t h e s e funds t o a n o t h e r governmental e n t i t y . I n s u c h c a s e s , a l l of t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e e n t i t y which d i s t r i b u t e s t h e money a s w e l l a s a l l of t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t o r agency r e c e i v i n g t h e f u n d s a r e c o v e r e d . The S e n a t e R e p o r t e x p l a i n s w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g examples: I f f e d e r a l h e a l t h a s s i s t a n c e i s extended t o a p a r t of a s t a t e h e a l t h d e p a r t m e n t , t h e e n t i r e h e a l t h d e p a r t m e n t would b e c o v e r e d i n a l l of i t s o p e r a t i o n s . I f t h e o f f i c e of a mayor r e c e i v e s f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and d i s t r i b u t e s i t t o l o c a l d e p a r t m e n t s o r a g e n c i e s , a l l o f t h e o p e r a t i o n s of t h e m a y o r ' s o f f i c e a r e c o v e r e d a l o n g w i t h t h e d e p a r t m e n t s o r a g e n c i e s which a c t u a l l y g e t t h e a i d . 5 0 S. 557 c o v e r s c o r p o r a t i o n s and o t h e r p r i v a t e e n t i t i e s i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y i f t h e y r e c e i v e f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e which i s e x t e n d e d t o them " a s a whole" o r i f t h e y a r e p r i n c i p a l l y engaged i n c e r t a i n k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s . 49 S . Rep. No. 50 Id. - a t 16. 100-64, supra, a t 17. In a l l o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s , c o v e r a g e w i l l be l i m i t e d t o t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s e p a r a t e f a c i l i t y which r e c e i v e s t h e f e d e r a l money. The S e n a t e R e p o r t o f f e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h i s e n t i t y - w i d e c o v e r a g e of c o r p o r a t i o n s , p a r t n e r s h i p s , p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and s o l e p r o p r i e t o r s h i p s : F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e extended t o a c o r p o r a t i o n o r o t h e r e n t i t y ''as a whole" r e f e r s t o s i t u a t i o n s where t h e c o r p o r a t i o n receives general a s s i s t a n c e t h a t is not designated f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e . F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e C h r y s l e r Company f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r e v e n t i n g t h e company from g o i n g b a n k r u p t would be an example o f a s s i s t a n c e t o a c o r p o r a t i o n "as a whole." Federal a i d which i s l i m i t e d i n p u r p o s e , e . g . , J o b T r a i n i n g P a r t n e r s h i p Act (JPTA) f u n d s , i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d a i d t o t h e c o r p o r a t i o n a s a w h o l e , e v e n i f i t i s u s e d a t s e v e r a l f a c i l i t i e s and t h e c o r p o r a t i o n h a s t h e d i s c r e t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e which of i t s f a c i l i t i e s p a r t i c p a t e i n t h e program. A g r a n t t o a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n t o e n a b l e i t t o e x t e n d a s s i s t a n c e t o r e f u g e e s would n o t be a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n a s a whole i f t h a t i s o n l y one among a number of a c t i v i t i e s of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Further, federal financial a s s i s t a n c e t h a t i s earmarked f o r one o r more f a c i l i t i e s o f a p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n o r o t h e r p r i v a t e e n t i t y when i t i s e x t e n d e d i s n o t a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e e n t i t y " a s a whole.'' Nor d o e s S, 557 embody a n o t i o n of " f r e e i n g up." Federal financial assistance t o a c o r p o r a t i o n f o r p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e s d o e s n o t become a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e c o r p o r a t i o n a s a whole s i m p l y b e c a u s e r e c e i t o f t h e money may f r e e u p f u n d s f o r u s e e l s e w h e r e i n t h e company. 5 9 S. 557 s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o v i d e s t h a t c o v e r a g e can be l i m i t e d t o an e n t i r e plant a s a geographically separate f a c i l i t y . T h i s p r o v i s i o n p e r t a i n s t o when f a c i l i t i e s a r e located i n d i f f e r e n t regions. The S e n a t e R e p o r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t 11 Two f a c i l i t i e s t h a t a r e p a r t of a complex o r t h a t a r e p r o x i m a t e t o e a c h o t h e r i n t h e same c i t y would n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s e p a r a t e . "52 The R e p o r t makes c l e a r t h a t i f s u c h an e n t i t y r e c e i v e s f e d e r a l money " a s a whole," a l l of i t s o p e r a t i o n s a t e a c h of i t s l o c a t i o n s h a v e t o comply w i t h t h e s e l a w s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e b i l l , c e r t a i n t y p e s of p r i v a t e s e c t o r e n t i t i e s , t h o s e ''p r i n c i p a l l y - - engaged i n t h e b u s i n e s s o f p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h c a r e , - 51 Id. 52 ~-d a. t l a . -- a t 17-18. h o u s i n g , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , o r p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n " a r e a l w a y s c o v e r e d i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y i f f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e g o e s t o "any p a r t " of t h e e n t i t y . The S e n a t e R e p o r t c l a r i f i e s , however, t h a t , Because t h e y a r e p r i n c i p a l l y r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n s t i t u t i o n s s u c h a s c h u r c h e s , d i o c e s e s and s y n a g o g u e s would n o t be c o n s i d e r e d t o b e ' ' p r i n c i p a l l y engaged i n t h e b u s i n e s s of providing e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h c a r e , housing, s o c i a l s e r v i c e s o r p a r k s o r r e c r e a t i o n , " e v e n t h ugh t h e y may c o n d u c t a number o f programs i n t h e s e a r e a s . 83 The S e n a t e R e p o r t e m p h a s i z e s t h a t i f a c o r p o r a t i o n , p a r t n e r s h i p , o t h e r p r i v a t e e n t i t y , o r s o l e p r o p r i e t o r s h i p i s n o t m a i n l y engaged i n o n e of t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d a c t i v i t i e s , and r e c e i v e s f e d e r a l money which i s n o t e x t e n d e d t o i t " a s a whole,'' t h e n i n s u c h c a s e o n l y t h e f u l l o p e r a t i o n s of t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s e p a r a t e f a c i l i t y w i l l be c o v e r e d by t h e s e c i v i l r i g h t s l a w s . The S e n a t e R e p o r t p r o v i d e s examples t o i l l u s t r a t e how t h e new law would be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o r p o r a t i o n s and o t h e r p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s : I f a p r i v a t e h o s p i t a l c o r p o r a t i o n i s extended f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r i t s emergency room, a l l t h e o p e r a t i o n s of t h e h o s p i t a l , i n c l u d i n g f o r example, t h e o p e r a t i n g rooms, t h e p e d i a t r i c s department, admissions, discharge o f f i c e s , e t c . , a r e c o v e r e d u n d e r T i t l e V I , s e c t i o n 504, and t h e Age D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Act. S i n c e T i t l e IX i s l i m i t e d t o e d u c a t i o n programs o r a c t i v i t i e s , i t would a p p l y o n l y t o t h e s t u d e n t s and employees of e d u c a t i o n a l programs o p e r a t e d b y t h e h o s p i t a l , i f any. I f c o r p o r a t i o n X i s a c h a i n o f f i v e n u r s i n g homes, f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o one of t h e n u r s i n g homes w i l l r e q u i r e c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e c i v i l r i g h t s laws i n a l l of t h e o p e r a t i o n s of a l l f i v e of t h e n u r s i n g homes, s u b j e c t t o t h e education limitation i n T i t l e IX.... I f t h e D e a r b o r n , Michigan p l a n t of G e n e r a l Motors i s e x t e n d e d f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r f i r s t a i d t r a i n i n g through t h e s t a t e d e p a r t m e n t o f h e a l t h , a l l of t h e o p e r a t i o n s of (The s t a t e h e a l t h t h e Dearborn p l a n t a r e c o v e r e d . d e p a r t m e n t i s a l s o c o v e r e d a s a s t a t e a g e n c y t o which f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s e x t e n d e d . ) 54 S. 557 p r o v i d e s f o r a " c a t c h - a l l " c a t e g o r y of c o v e r a g e : any o t h e r e n t i t y which i s e s t a b l i s h e d by two o r more of t h e e n t i t i e s d e s c r i b e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o e d u c a t i o n , government, and c o r p o r a t i o n s and o t h e r p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . E n t i t i e s e s t a b l i s h e d a s s u c h w i l l be c o v e r e d i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . The S e n a t e R e p o r t s e t s f o r t h examples t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e meaning o f t h i s p r o v i s i o n i n t h e bill: A s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and a c o r p o r a t i o n e s t a b l i s h t h e PPP company--a p u b l i c - p r i v a t e p a r t n e r s h i p whose p u r p o s e i s t o p r o v i d e r e m e d i a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and employment f o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s who a r e a t r i s k of s c h o o l f a i l u r e . The PPP company a p p l i e s f o r and i s e x t e n d e d f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . A l l o f t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e PPP company would be c o v e r e d e v e n i f t h e f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was o n l y t o o n e d i v i s i o n o r component of t h e company. T h i s i s a p p r o p r i a t e b e c a u s e an e n t i t y which i s e s t a b l i s h e d by two o r more of t h e e n t i t i e s d e s c r i b e d i n (11, ( 2 ) , o r ( 3 ) i s i n e v i t a b l y a p u b l i c v e n t u r e o f some k i n d . . . . I t cannot be a w h o l l y p r i v a t e v e n t u r e u n d e r which l i m i t e d c o v e r a g e i s t h e g e n e r a l r u l e . The g o v e r n m e n t a l o r p u b l i c c h a r a c t e r h e l p s t o determine i n s t i t u t i o n - w i d e coverage. For example, i n a C a t h o l i c d i o c e s e where 3 p a r i s h e s r e c e i v e f e d e r a l a i d , t h e p a r i s h e s a r e g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s e p a r a t e f a c i l i t i e s which r e c e i v e f e d e r a l a i d , and t h e d i o c e s e i s a c o r p o r a t i o n o r p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n of which t h e p a r i s h e s a r e a p a r t . Only t h e t h r e e p a r i s h e s which r e c e i v e f e d e r a l a i d a r e c o v e r e d by t h e a n t i d i s c r i m i n a t i o n laws. Both t h e p a r i s h e s and t h e d i o c e s e a r e e n t i t i e s d e s c r i b e d i n p a r a g r a p h ( 3 1 , t h e r e f o r e p a r a g r a p h ( 4 ) would n o t a p p l y . The g o v e r n m e n t a l o r p u b l i c c h a r a c t e r o f e n t i t i e s c o v e r e d by paragraph ( 4 ) h e l p s t o determine i n s t i t u t i o n - w i d e coverage. Even p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e c o v e r e d i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y u n d e r ( 3 ) i f t h e y p e r f o r m governmental f u n c t i o n s , i . e . , a r e It p r i n c i p a l l y engaged i n t h e b u s i n e s s of p r o x i d i n g education, h e a l t h c a r e , housing, s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , o r parks and r e c r e a t i o n . 1155 The " c a t c h a l l " p r o v i s i o n i n p a r t ( 4 ) o f t h e ' d e f i n i t i o n a l s e c t i o n o f t h e 54 Id. - a t 18-19. Id . a t 19-20. b i l l d e s c r i b i n g what c o n s t i t u t e s a "program o r a c t i v i t y 1 ' d o e s n o t a p p l y t o e n t i t i e s which a r e d e s c r i b e d s e p a r a t e l y i n p a r t s ( I ) , ( 2 ) and ( 3 ) . I t does a p p l y , however, t o e n t i t i e s which a r e e s t a b l i s h e d by two o r more e n t i t i e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h o s e r e s p e c t i v e p a r t s of t h e program o r a c t i v i t y d e f i n i t i o n . To i l l u s t r a t e t h e way t h i s p r o v i s i o n i s t o be i n t e r p r e t e d , t h e S e n a t e R e p o r t states: I t s h o u l d b e added t h a t no c o v e r a g e o f t h e s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s which f o u n d e d t h e PPP company i s o b t a i n e d u n d e r ( 4 ) . They would be c o v e r e d o n l y by v i r t u e of a n y f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e e x t e n d e d t o them a s e n t i t i e s . So, i f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h a s u b g r a n t f o r t h e PPP company ( o r t h r o u g h t h e s t a t e o r a n y o t h e r Likewise, i f t h e c o r p o r a t i o n e n t i t y ) , i t would b e c o v e r e d u n d e r ( 2 ) . r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h PPP o r some o t h e r e n t i t y , i t would be c o v e r e d by v i r t u e o f ( 3 ) and t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s made i n ( 3 ) would d e t e r m i n e how much of t h e c o r p o r a t i o n was c o v e r e d . 5 6 Apart from coverage, t h e r e remains t h e q u e s t i o n a s t o t h e b i l l ' s a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e fund t e r m i n a t i o n s a n c t i o n o r remedy a u t h o r i z e d by t h e c u r r e n t law. Note t h a t t h e b i l l would n o t e x p l i c i t l y m o d i f y t h e remedy p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e a f f e c t e d l a w s , w i t h t h e i r emphasis on " p i n p o i n t i n g 8 ' t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t e r m i n a t i o n o f f e d e r a l f u n d i n g t o t h e " p a r t i c u l a r program or...part t h e r e o f " where d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s f o u n d . Significantly, the Senate Report provides: S. 557 w i l l l e a v e i n e f f e c t t h e e n f o r c e m e n t s t r u c t u r e common t o e a c h o f t h e s e s t a t u t e s . The s e c t i o n i n e a c h s t a t u t e s t a t e s t h a t t h e t e r m i n a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e " s h a l l b e l i m i t e d . . . t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r program, o r p a r t t h e r e o f , i n which s u c h noncompliance h a s been s o found." The b i l l d e f i n e s "program" i n t h e same manner a s "program o r a c t i v i t y w , and l e a v e s i n t a c t t h e " o r p a r t t h e r e o f " p i n p o i n t i n g l a n g u a g e . The s e m i n a l c a s e d e a l i n g w i t h fund t e r m i n a t i o n i s Board of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n of T a y l o r County v . F i n c h , 414 F.2d 1068 ( 5 t h C i r . 1969). Under t h e T a y l o r r u l i n g , F e d e r a l f u n d s e a r m a r k e d f o r a s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e would n o t be t e r m i n a t e d u n l e s s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was f o u n d i n t h e u s e o f t h o s e f u n d s o r t h e u s e o f t h e f u n d s was i n f e c t e d w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n elsewhere i n t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e r e c i p i e n t . In the ... c a s e of Grove C i t y C o l l e g e , f o r example, i f t h e r e i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e math d e p a r t m e n t , a f u n d t e r m i n a t i o n remedy would b e a v a i l a b l e b e c a u s e t h e f u n d s from BEOG1 f l o w t h r o u g h o u t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and s u p p o r t a l l o f i t s programs. 7 ! I n Board of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n v. F i n c h , 414 F.2d 1068 ( 5 t h C i r . 1 9 6 9 ) , t h e F i f t h C i r c u i t spoke p r e c i s e l y on t h e i s s u e o f t h e p r o g r a m - s p e c i f i c limitation i n Title VI. I n Finch, t h e c o u r t refused "to assume...that i n o n e p a r t of a s c h o o l s y s t e m a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n f e c t t h e whole." defects Id. a t 1074. I t a l s o s t a t e d t h a t " t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e T i t l e V I c u t o f f i s b e s t - e f f e c t u a t e d by s e p a r a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e u s e o r i n t e n d e d u s e of f u n d s u n d e r e a c h g r a n t statute." Id. a t 1078. However, t h e c o u r t d i d go on t o s a y , i n what may b e considered dictum, t h a t although " t h e r e will,..be c a s e s from time t o t i m e where a p a r t i c u l a r program, w i t h i n a s t a t e , w i t h i n a c o u n t y , w i t h i n a d i s t r i c t , e v e n w i t h i n a school..., i s e f f e c t i v e l y i n s u l a t e d from o t h e r w i s e u n l a w f u l a c t i v i t i e s , " t e r m i n a t i o n of f e d e r a l funds i s proper i f t h e y a r e "administered i n a d i s c r i m i n a t o r y manner, o r i f t h e y s u p p o r t a program which i s i n f e c t e d by a d i s c r i m i n a t o r y environment." II infection" theory. Id. T h i s s u b s e q u e n t l y became known a s t h e Thus, what t h e F i f t h C i r c u i t seemed t o be s a y i n g i n F i n c h was t h a t a broad-based t e r m i n a t i o n of f e d e r a l a i d i s p e r m i s s i b l e under T i t l e V I i f t h e f u n d e d programs w e r e a f f e c t e d by t h e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s . 5 8 IV. L e g a l A n a l y s i s of t h e Weicker and D a n f o r t h Amendments R e g a r d i n g A b o r t i o n The a b o r t i o n i s s u e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act a r o s e 58 I n terms of a c t u a l d i s p o s i t i o n , t h e U.S. C o u r t of A p p e a l s f o r t h e F i f t h C i r c u i t v a c a t e d a Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e (HEW) o r d e r t e r m i n a t i n g a l l f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e board, r e q u i r i n g i n s t e a d t h a t t h e a g e n c y l o o k t o e a c h board program r e c e i v i n g f e d e r a l f u n d s t o s e e i f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r program was i n v i o l a t i o n of T i t l e V I . Board o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n v. F i n c h , 414 F.2d 1068 ( 5 t h Cir. 1969). CRS-2 7 b e c a u s e of a p r o v i s i o n i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n s f o r T i t l e I X o f t h e E d u c a t i o n T i t l e IX b r o a d l y ~ r o h i b i t sd i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e b a s i s of Amendments o f 1972. s e x i n a n y " e d u c a t i o n program o r a c t i v i t y u t h a t r e c e i v e s f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l assistance. This absolute bar i s subject t o several exceptions r e l a t i n g t o a d m i s s i o n s , b u t o n c e a s t u d e n t i s a d m i t t e d , t h e r e c a n be no sex-based discrimination. A l s o , a s o b s e r v e d , T i t l e I X c o n t a i n s an e n f o r c e m e n t mechanism i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t i n T i t l e V I of t h e 1964 C i v i l R i g h t s A c t , which d e l e g a t e s rulemaking a u t h o r i t y t o grantmaking a g e n c i e s of t h e f e d e r a l government, and p r o v i d e s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e e d i n g s and s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t f u n d i n g r e c i p i e n t s t h a t r e f u s e t o v o l u n t a r i l y comply w i t h n o n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . 59 N o t a b l y , t h e s t a t u t e makes no m e n t i o n o f a b o r t i o n and t h e s u b j e c t a r i s e s i n t h i s c o n t e x t o n l y b e c a u s e o f r e g u l a t i o n s p r o m u l g a t e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Education under t h e T i t l e . Those r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s r e c e i v i n g f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t r e a t p r e g n a n c i e s and t e r m i n a t i o n of p r e g n a n c i e s t h e same a s o t h e r t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t i e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of s t u d e n t and employee l e a v e p o l i c i e s and h e a l t h benefit^.^' Thus, f o r example, i n o r d e r t o comply w i t h t h e r e g u l a t i o n s , i f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n p r e s e n t l y o f f e r s h e a l t h s e r v i c e s o r i n s u r a n c e t o i t s employees o r s t u d e n t s , i t must p r o v i d e c o v e r a g e f o r a b o r t i o n s i n t h e same manner a s a n y o t h e r d i s a b l i n g i n j u r y o r illness. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e g u l a t i o n s more g e n e r a l l y p r o h i b i t a f e d e r a l l y a i d e d i n s t i t u t i o n from d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a g a i n s t a n y s t u d e n t b e c a u s e s h e i s p r e g n a n t o r h a s had an a b o r t i o n . 6 1 59 S e e 20 U.S.C. 60 3 4 C.F.R. 106.40(b)(4), 61 34 C.F.R. 106.40(b)(l). 1681 e t s e q . (5). The S e n a t e Labor and Human R e s o u r c e s Committee r e j e c t e d a n a n t i - a b o r t i o n amendment t h a t would h a v e added a new s e c t i o n t o T i t l e 1X. The S e n a t e R e p o r t explains: The amendment would h a v e made a s u b s t a n t i v e change i n t h e l a w , and h a s no p l a c e i n a b i l l which s e e k s t o r e s t o r e t h e e f f e c t of T i t l e I X and o t h e r c i v i l r i g h t s s t a t u t e s t o t h e i r pre-Grove C i t y I t r e l a t e s t o t h e i s s u e of what c o n s t i t u t e s interpretation. d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , n o t t h e s c o p e of c o v e r a g e of t h e c i v i l r i g h t s l a w s . I t i s n o t a b o r t i o n - n e u t r a l , a s i t s s p o n s o r c l a i m e d . The amendment would r e p e a l l o n g - s t a n d i n g T i t l e I X r e g u l a t i o n s which p r o t e c t s t u d e n t s and employees from a b o r t i o n - r e l a t e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n I t would p u t a b o r t i o n language i n t h e t e x t o f e d u c a t i o n programs. T i t l e I X f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . The T i t l e I X r e g u l a t i o n s a r e n o t a t i s s u e i n t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n . They have been i n p l a c e f o r t w e l v e y e a r s , and t h e r e h a v e been n e i t h e r a n y l e g a l c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s by a n t i - c h o i c e g r o u p s , n o r a n y e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o w i t h d r a w o r modify t h e . r e g u l a t i o n s . S. 557 n e i t h e r r a t i f i e s nor r e j e c t s t h e T i t l e I X regulations r e l a t e d t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n based on pregnancy o r t e r m i n a t i o n of p r e g n a n c y . T i t l e I X d o e s n o t now r e q u i r e a n y i n s t i t u t i o n t o p e r f o r m a b o r t i o n s and no a b o r t i o n s would be mandated i f S . 557 were e n a c t e d . T h i s b i l l d o e s n o t expand a b o r t i o n r i g h t s , R e l i g i o u s l y - c o n t r o l l e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be a b l e t o a p p l y f o r , and r e c e i v e , a n e x e m p t i o n f r o m T i t l e I X r e q u i r e m e n t s where c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h o s e r e q u i r e m e n t s would v i o l a t e t h e i r r e l i g i o u s t e n e t s . For e x a m p l e , a r e l i g i o u s l y c o n t r o l l e d u n i v e r s i t y t h a t wished t o e x c l u d e i n s u r a n c e c o v e r a g e of a b o r t i o n s f r o m an o t h e r w i s e comprehensive s t u d e n t h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e p o l i c y , c o u l d s e e k a r e l i g i o u s exemption. A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e U.S. C a t h o l i c C o n f e r e n c e ' s f o r m e r g e n e r a l c o u n s e l . , . s t a t e d i n a l e g a l a n a l y s i s i n 1985 t h a t n e i t h e r t h e House n o r S e n a t e b i l l "would c r e a t e a n y new a b o r t i o n r i g h t s . " ( A l t h o u g h t h e a n a l y s i s was o f a p r e v i o u s v e r s i o n of t h e b i l l , i t d i d n o t d i f f e r on t h i s p o i n t . ) T i t l e I X c o v e r s o n l y s t u d e n t s and employees and d o e s n o t r e a c h t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e . T h e r e f o r e , c l a i m s t h a t t h e b i l l would r e q u i r e are hospit 1s t o provide abortion services t o t h e general f a1se. 2 % The a b o r t i o n i s s u e , however, d i d n o t d i s a p p e a r when S. 557 came u p f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n on t h e S e n a t e f l o o r . passed by t h e Senate. Two amendments r e l a t i n g t o a b o r t i o n were The Weicker Amendment p r o v i d e s t h a t : No p r o v i s i o n of t h i s Act o r a n y amendment made by t h i s Act s h a l l be c o n s t r u e d t o f o r c e o r r e q u i r e any i n d i v i d u a l o r h o s p i t a l o r a n y o t h e r i n s t i t u : i z n , program, o r a c t i v i t y r e c e i v i n g F e d e r a l Funds t o p e r f o r m 62 S . R e p . No. 100-64, s u p r a , a t 26-27. o r pay f o r a n a b o r t i o n . 63 S e n a t o r Weicker e x p l a i n e d t h a t h e was o f f e r i n g t h i s amendment t o c l a r i f y t h a t t h e C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act ( S . 5 5 7 ) was n e u t r a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o a b o r t i o n . He p o i n t e d t o a s t a t e m e n t from t h e S e n a t e Report i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n d o e s n o t mandate a b o r t i o n s .64 S e n a t o r Weicker went on t o e x p l a i n t h a t h i s amendment was r e a l l y u n n e c e s s a r y : B u t , t o r e a s s u r e t h o s e who a r e c o n c e r n e d t h a t o u r b i l l w i l l r e q u i r e i n s t i t u t i o n s o r h o s p i t a l s t o p e r f o r m o r pay f o r a b o r t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e i r h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e p l a n s , w e o f f e r t h i s amendment. T h i s amendment d o e s n o t change t h e s u b s t a n t i v e l a n g u a g e of t i t l e IX--in f a c t i t d o e s n o t amend t i t l e I X . T i t l e I X does not mention a b o r t i o n now, and we do n o t a l t e r t h a t . For t h o s e r e l i g i o u s l y c o n t r o l l e d i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g h o s p i t a l s which o p e r a t e e d u c a t i o n a l programs r e c e i v i n g F e d e r a l a i d , t h e e x e m p t i o n i n t i t l e I X w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be a v a i l a b l e . A s e v e r y o n e i s a w a r e a f t e r t h e d e b a t e t h i s morning, t h a t e x e m p t i o n a l l o w s s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s t o b e exempt from t h o s e p o r t i o n s o f t h e t i t l e I X r e g u l a t i o n s which a r e o f f e n s i v e t o t h e i r r e l i g i o u s No i n s t i t u t i o n h a s e v e r been d e n i e d s u c h a n exemption. kfneLs* I n t h e f l o o r d e b a t e c o n c e r n i n g t h e meaning of t h e Weicker Amendment, S e n a t o r Danforth argued t h a t i t does n o t h i n g t o t h e C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act t o r e s o l v e t h e c o n c e r n s of many t h a t t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n c o u l d r e q u i r e i n s t i t u t i o n s t o pay f o r and p e r f o r m a b o r t i o n s . He q u o t e d from a l e g a l o p i n i o n h e had w h i c h s a i d of t h e Weicker p r o p o s a l : The p r o p o s e d amendment d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act i t s e l f d o e s n o t r e q u i r e t h e f u n d i n g o r p e r f o r m a n c e of a b o r t i o n s . It i s s i l e n t , however, on t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t T i t l e I X and r e g u l a t i o n s promulgated under i t s a u t h o r i t y could r e q u i r e t h e f u n d i n g o r p e r f o r m a n c e of a b o r t i o n s . Moreover, s i n c e t h e C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n A C ~would o v e r t u r n t h e Supreme C o u r t ' s d e c i s i o n i n t h e Grove C i t y c a s e and t h u s e x t e n d t h e r e a c h o f T i t l e I X , t h e d a n g e r would r e m a i n , d e s p i t e t h e p r o p o s e d amendment, t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s newly b r o u g h t u n d e r t h e a u t h o r i t y of ... 63 134 Cong. Rec. S 267 ( d a i l y ed. J a n u a r y 2 8 , 1 9 8 8 ) . 64 Id. - 65 Id. - a t S 211 ( S e n a t o r Weicker q u o t i n g f r o m S. Rep. No. 100-64 a t 2 6 ) . T i t l e I X would a l s o b e r e q u i r e d t o fund o r p e r f o r m s t u d e n t s , employees and e v e n t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . ...8k ortions for S e n a t o r D a n f o r t h a l s o o f f e r e d t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e J u s t i c e Department which was i n agreement t h a t t h e Weicker Amendment d o e s n o t h i n g t o a d d r e s s t h e abortion issue. 67 The J u s t i c e Department s t a t e d : I n o r d e r t o r e n d e r T i t l e I X a b o r t i o n n e t u r a l , T i t l e IX i t s e l f must be amended. The l a n g u a g e you a r e o f f e r i n g i s t h most a p p r o p r i a t e and e f f e c t i v e way t o a c h i e v e t h a t e s s e n t i a l g o a l . % 8 I n d e f e n s e of h i s Amendment, S e n a t o r Weicker r e s p o n d e d : T i t l e I X a p p l i e s o n l y t o s t u d e n t s and employees. I t i s i n c o r r e c t t h a t t h e r e a c h of t i t l e I X c o u l d e v e r r e a c h t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . So t h e s e n a t o r ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t i t l e I X can f o r c e h o s p i t a l s t o perform abortions f o r the general public i s false. Second, h o s p i t a l s which have a f e d e r a l l y a s s i s t e d e d u c a t i o n program d o come u n d e r t h e r e a c h o f t i t l e I X ; and t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y a r e r e l i g i o u s l y c o n t r o l l e d , t h e y c a n r e c e i v e a n exemption. So l e t u s do away w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t anybody i s g o i n g t o b e f o r c e d t o p e r f o r m a b o r t i o n s on t h e p u b l i c . T h a t i s n o t t h e c a s e . 69 S e n a t o r Weicker went on t o p o i n t o u t t h a t S e n a t o r an forth's c o n c e r n s c o u l d be a d d r e s s e d by h a v i n g t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c h a n g e t h e T i t l e IX r e g u l a t i o n s . He saw no p l a c e f o r a n a b o r t i o n amendment i n t h e C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n A c t , and t h e Weicker p r o p o s a l makes c l e a r t h a t S. 557 h a s n o t h i n g t o do w i t h a b o r t i o n . S e n a t o r Weicker s t a t e d : I f t h i s body w i s h e s , t h e y c a n p a s s t h e s e two d i f f e r e n t amendments a n d t h e y w i l l a c h i e v e two d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . The Weicker amendment, i f p a s s e d , w i l l g u a r a n t e e no c h a n g e i n t h e law vis-a-vis a b o r t i o n . The D a n f o r t h Amendment, i f p a s s e d , w i l l r a d i c a l l y change t h e l a w by r e p e a l i n g t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h ' s r e g u l a t i o n s . So t h o s e who have been a r g u i n g f o r no c h a n g e a r e t h e p e r p e t r a t o r s o f change. And maybe 66 1 3 4 Cons. Rec., s u p r a , a t S 213 ( S e n a l o r D a n f o r r h q u o t i n g f r o m e l e g a l o p i n i o n from t h e law f i r m of Dewey, B a l l a n t i n e , Bushy, Palmer & Wood). Id. ( q u o t i n g from t h e Department of J u s t i c e O p i n i o n ) . Id. - a t S 214. t h a t i s what t h e body w a n t s . I do n o t . 7 0 S e n a t o r Weicker emphasized t h a t h i s p r o p o s a l i s a mere r a f f i r r n a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g law. H i s amendment d o e s n o t a f f e c t t h e T i t l e I X s t a t u t e o r i t s regulations. The D a n f o r t h Amendment s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o v i d e s t h a t : N o t h i n g i n t h i s t i t l e s h a l l be c o n s t r u e d t o r e q u i r e o r p r o h i b i t a n y p e r s o n , o r p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e e n t i t y , t o p r o v i d e o r pay f o r a n y b e n e f i t o r s e r v i c e , including t h e use of f a c i l i t i e s , r e l a t e d t o an a b o r t i o n . N o t h i n g i n t h i s s e c t i o n s h a l l be c o n s t r u e d t o p e r m i t a p e n a l t y t o be imposed on a n y p e r s o n o r i n d i v i d u a l b e c a u s e s u c h p e r s o n o r i n d i v i d u a l i s seeking o r h s r e c e i v e d any b e n e f i t o r s e r v i c e related t o a legal abortion. 7 c1 S e n a t o r D a n f o r t h e x p l a i n e d t h a t he was o f f e r i n g t h i s p r o p o s a l t o d i r e c t l y amend T i t l e I X and i t s accompanying r e g u l a t i o n s which d e a l w i t h t h e t e r m i n a t i o n of pregnancy. I n h i s s t a t e m e n t j u s t i f y i n g t h e amendment, S e n a t o r D a n f o r t h s a i d : R e g u l a t i o n s u n d e r t i t l e I X o f t h e e d u c a t i o n amendments i d e n t i f i e d sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n with t h e r e f u s a l t o perform o r t o p r o v i d e a b o r t i o n s . The b i l l i n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m e x p r e s s l y r a t i f i e s t h o s e r e g u l a t i o n s . No l a n g u a g e i n a c o m m i t t e e r e p o r t t o t h e c o n t r a r y undoes t h e expressed language i n t h e b i l l i t s e l f . So i f w e i n t h e S e n a t e want t o r a t i f y a r e g u l a t i o n t h a t i d e n t i f i e s r e f u s a l t o p e r f o r m a b o r t i o n s w i t h s e x d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and i f we want t o e x t e n d t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n throughout u n i v e r s i t i e s , t o u n i v e r s i t y h o s p i t a l s , t o h o s p i t a l s t h a t have i n t e r n s h i p programs f l o w i n g o u t o f t h o s e u n i v e r s i t i e s , and t o o t h e r h o s p i t a l s which have a n y t e a c h i n g program a t a l l , i f we want t h a t k i n d of expanded i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e n v o t e a g a i n s t t h e D a n f o r t h amendment. I t h i n k i t would b e an a b s o l u t e o u t r a g e f o r t h e S e n a t e , t h e C o n g r e s s t o f o r c e on Georgetown o r N o t r e Dame o r t h e c i t y o f S t . L o u i s o r w h e r e v e r a p o l i c y t h a t u n d e r t h e Hyde amendment we d o n o t support ourselves. I do We d o n o t fund a b o r t i o n s . We have made t h a t d e c i s i o n . n o t u n d e r s t a n d why t h e S e n a t e a t t h i s p o i n t s h o u l d f o r c e e v e n c h u r c h r e l a t e d c o l l e g e s and h o s p i t a l s t o d o what we w i l l n o t d o o u r s e l v e s . 7 2 A r g u i n g i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e D a n f o r t h p r o p o s a l , S e n a t o r Packwood c o n t e n d e d 71 Id . a t S 225. 72 Id. - a t S 226. t h a t t h e i s s u e i n v o l v e d was n o t r e a l l y c o n c e r n f o r t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e of r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , b u t was r a t h e r f o r c u t t i n g back on a woman's r i g h t t o a n a b o r t i o n . He s t a t e d : So i f you want t o g e t o u t from u n d e r t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s you h a v e n o d i f f i c u l t y . You c a n a p p l y f o r a n exemption and i t w i l l be granted. I t h i n k t h e i s s u e h e r e i s n o t r e l i g i o u s exemption. The i s s u e r e a l l y b o i l s down a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t you r e a l l y do t h i n k a woman i s e n t i t l e d t o make a c h o i c e f o r h e r s e l f w h e t h e r s h e wants a n a b o r t i o n , w h e t h e r s h e happens t o be a s t u d e n t a t Oregon S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , o r w h e t h e r s h e happens t o be a woman who i s a h o u s e w i f e o r w h e t h e r s h e h a p p e n s t o be a woman who i s working i n t h e lumber m i l l o r a l a w y e r . Whether s h e happens t o be g o i n g t o a p u b l i c u n i v e r s i t y o r a p r i v a t e u n i v e r s i t y t h a t i s n o t r e l i g i o u s l y a f f i l i a t e d and t a k e s s u b s t a n t i a l amounts o f money from t h e Government--and most a r e happy t o t a k e money f r o m t h e Government i f t h e y c a n g e t i t i n most cases--can s h e b e d e n i e d t h e r i g h t n o t t o have t h e u n i v e r s i t y p e r f o r m t h e a b o r t i o n , but t o p r o v i d e t h e a c c e s s t o i t under a s t u d e n t h e a l t h plan? A c c o r d i n g t o Dewey, B a l l a n t i n e i f t h e C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act i s e n a c t e d , e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s c o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o f u n d a b o r t i o n s ; h o s p i t a l s t h a t e n g a g e i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be r e q u i r e d ; h o s p i t a l s could be r e q u i r e d t o perform a b o r t i o n s ; e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and h o s p i t a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n could f a i l t o q u a l i f y under t h e a c t ' s r e l i g i o u s exemption. Mr. P r e s i d e n t , t h a t h a s n e v e r happened. No i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t h a s a p p l i e d f o r a r e l i g i o u s exemption h a s e v e r f a i l e d t o g e t i t . No c o u r t h a s e v e r y e t imposed on any i n s i t u t i o n t h e f e a r s t h a t t h e S e n a t o r from Missouri h a s expressed. 7 ... 5 S e n a t o r Packwood viewed t h e D a n f o r t h p r o p o s a l a s a f i r s t s t e p i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of w h i t t l i n g away a t a woman's r i g h t t o an a b o r t i o n . S e n a t o r Heinz r o s e i n s u p p o r t o f t h e D a n f o r t h Amendment b e c a u s e o f h i s c o n c e r n t h a t w i t h o u t i t t h e C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act might expand t h e abortion right, He e x p l a i n e d : .However, a s I r e a d t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e b i l l i n t h e c o n t e x t of i t s l e g i s l a t i v e h i s t o r y and i t s implementing r e g u l a t i o n s , I am c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t how t h e c o u r t s o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g a g e n c i e s would c o n s t r u e t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n . I s h a r e t h e c o n c e r n t h a t S . 557 c o u l d expand t h e s c o p e o f t i t l e I X and i t s p r o h i b i t i o n s on d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e b a s i s of a b o r t i o n i n 73 Id. a t S 234. two ways. F i r s t , i t c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y expand t h e r e a c h o f t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h i n i n s t i t u t i o n s t o c o v e r c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e p l a n s a t any i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t r e c e i v e s F e d e r a l f u n d s , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , r e g a r d l e s s of whether t h a t h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e plan r e c e i v e s d i r e c t Federal funding. S e c o n d , and more i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e r e i s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e i t c o u l d expand t h e r e a c h beyond t h e c o n f i n e s of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o a n y h o s p i t a l which o p e r a t e s " F e d e r a l a s s i s t e d e d u c a t i o n programs o r a c t i v i t i e s . I t I t i s my u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t u n d e r S. 557, i f a h o s p i t a l p a r t i c i p a t e s i n a program o f n u r s i n g o r m e d i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h a u n i v e r s i t y o r m e d i c a l s c h o o l and t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n r e c e i v e s any F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e whatever, t h e A t a minimum, t h i s h o s p i t a l i s b r o u g h t w i t h i n t h e s c o p e of t i t l e I X . may r e s u l t i n t h e h o s p i t a l h a v i n g t o p r o v i d e a b o r t i o n i n s u r a n c e c o v e r a g e t o r e s i d e n t s , i n t e r n s , n u r s i n g s t u d e n t s , and t e a c h i n g s t a f f . More i m p o r t a n t l y , a n i n t i t u t i o n ' s r e f u s a l e i t h e r t o p r o v i d e i n s u r a n c e c o v e r a g e o r t o p e r f o r m a b o r t i o n s would e q u a l - - f o r p u r p o s e s of t i t l e IX--"sex d i s c r i m ' n a t i o n . " The i n s t i t u t i o n would s t a n d i n v i o l a t i o n of t h e s t a t u t e . 7 2 S e n a t o r Heinz and o t h e r s u p p o r t e r s of t h e D a n f o r t h Amendment e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n t h a t c e r t a i n " r e l i g i o u s " i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h l a y b o a r d s may n o t be a b l e t o g e t t h e r e l i g i o u s e x e m p t i o n and t h u s would have t o comply w i t h t h e a b o r t i o n provision i n the T i t l e I X regulations. Opponents of t h e D a n f o r t h p r o p o s a l a r g u e d t h a t r e l i g i o u s e x e m p t i o n s j u s t had t o b e a p p l i e d f o r and w e r e u s u a l l y granted. A l o n g l i s t of e x e m p t i o n s t h a t had been g r a n t e d i n t h e p a s t was s u b m i t t e d f o r t h e r e c o r d by S e n a t o r Packwood. 7 5 B o t h t h e Weicker Amendment and t h e D a n f o r t h Amendment w e r e p a s s e d by t h e Senate. The Weicker p r o p o s a l p r o v i d e s t h a t n o t h i n g i n t h e C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act a f f e c t s t h e a b o r t i o n r i g h t . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e Danforth measure d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e s t h e a b o r t i o n i s s u e w i t h r e s p e c t t o T i t l e I X and t h e s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n i n i t s r e g u l a t i o n s concerning t h e coverage f o r t h e t e r m i n a t i o n of p r e g n a n c y i n s t u d e n t and employee h e a l t h p l a n s i f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n e x t e n d s coverage t o s i m i l a r temporary d i s a b i l i t i e s . 74 Id. a t S 236. 75 Id . a t S 232-234. The D a n f o r t h Amendment r e p e a l s CRS-34 t h a t requirement i n t h e T i t l e I X regulations. Thus, i t seems t o s e t t l e t h e i s s u e i n f a v o r o f a broad s t a t u t o r y r e p e a l o f any and a l l r e g u l a t o r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f T i t l e I X a s b e a r i n g on a b o r t i o n o r a b o r t i o n - r e l a t e d services. The D a n f o r t h Amendment s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t " ~ o t h i n g i n t h i s t i t l e s h a l l be c o n s t r u e d t o r e q u i r e o r p r o h i b i t a n y p e r s o n , o r p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e e n t i t y ...I1 t o p r o v i d e f o r o r pay f o r s e r v i c e s r e l a t e d t o a b o r t i o n . I t appears t o be a w h o l e s a l e w i t h d r a w a l o f T i t l e I X a s a u t h o r i t y f o r a n y a b o r t i o n regulation. A s s u c h , n o t o n l y d o e s i t a d d r e s s t h e c o n c e r n s of t h e Amendment's b a c k e r s t h a t t h e C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act n o t e f f e c t i v e l y expand f e d e r a l r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t y over a b o r t i o n under T i t l e I X , but i t a l s o i n v a l i d a t e s t h e c u r r e n t r e g u l a t i o n s a s t h e y s p e c i f i c a l l y a p p l y t o f e d e r a l l y funded e d u c a t i o n a l programs and a c t i v i t i e s , The Amendment, however, d o e s n o t p r o h i b i t f u n d e d i n s t i t u t i o n s f r o m c o n t i n u i n g , w i t h r e s p e c t t o s t u d e n t s and e m p l o y e e s , w h a t e v e r a b o r t i o n p o l i c i e s t h e y w i s h t o p u r s u e , c o n s i s t e n t of c o u r s e w i t h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and o t h e r c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by s t a t e and f e d e r a l law. The D a n f o r t h Amendment presumably i n h i b i t s t h e c o u r t s a s w e l l a s f e d e r a l d e p a r t m e n t s and a g e n c i e s from r e l y i n g on T i t l e I X a s a s o u r c e of f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t y f o r e n f o r c e m e n t of a b o r t i o n r i g h t s and p o l i c i e s . But i t i n no way r e s t r i c t s t h e j u d i c i a r y i n t h e enforcement of f e d e r a l a b o r t i o n p o l i c i e s p r e d i c a t e d on o t h e r f e d e r a l s t a t u t e s and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l g u a r a n t e e s . The m e a s u r e a l s o p r o v i d e s t h a t n o p e n a l t y c a n be imposed on any one who i s s e e k i n g o r has r e c e i v e d any s e r v i c e r e l a t e d t o a l e g a l abortion. Presumably, t h i s p r o v i s i o n i s d i r e c t e d a t t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s s u e ; however, t h e Amendment u s e s t h e term "penalty" i n s t e a d o f a p h r a s e c l e a r l y s t a t i n g a "ban on d i s c r i m i n a t i o n " a g a i n s t women who a r e s e e k i n g o r who h a v e had a l e g a l a b o r t i o n . The i m p a c t of t h e D a n f o r t h Amendment i s n o t e a s i l y measured l a r g e l y b e c a u s e of t h e d e a r t h of i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e t y p e and e x t e n t o f p r e g n a n c y and a b o r t i o n b e n e f i t s p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e t o women i n a h i g h e r educational setting. One c o n s u l t i n g g r o u p d o i n g r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a f o u n d t h a t d e s p i t e t h e current provision i n the T i t l e I X regulations, only about 15 t o 25 p e r c e n t o f f o u r y e a r s c h o o l s i n t h e U.S. provided f o r pregnancy r e l a t e d matters, and t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p r e g n a n c y o r a b o r t i o n . T h i s group a l s o found t h a t among t h e 1 , 3 0 0 two y e a r s c h o o l s i n t h e c o u n t r y t h e r e was h a r d l y a n y c o v e r a g e o f a b o r t i o n . 76 V. L e g a l A n a l y s i s o f t h e Hatch Amendments R e g a r d i n g t h e C o v e r a g e of R e l i g i o u s Organizations B e f o r e v o t i n g on t h e b i l l ' s p a s s a g e , t h e S e n a t e r e j e c t e d two amendments p r o p o s e d by S e n a t o r H a t c h c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o v e r a g e of S. 557 w i t h r e s p e c t t o religious institutions. The b r o a d e r o f t h e s e , H a t c h Amendment No. 1 3 8 4 , would h a v e a d d e d a s e c t i o n b a r r i n g c o v e r a g e of e a c h of t h e f o u r f e d e r a l c i v i l r i g h t s l a w s " t o a n y p a r t of a c h u r c h , synagogue, o r o t h e r r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , i f s u c h p a r t d o e s n o t r e c e i v e F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . 1'77 The o t h e r , H a t c h Amendment No. 1386, was more n a r r o w l y d e s i g n e d t o c l a r i f y t h a t t h e c u r r e n t r e l i g i o u s e x e m p t i o n i n T i t l e I X was t o i n c l u d e n o t o n l y r e l i g i o u s l y c o n t r o l l e d e n t i t i e s but a l s o t h o s e " c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e t e n e t s of" a r e l i g i o u s organization.78 The l a t t e r p r o p o s a l had been o f f e r e d and r e j e c t e d by a 5 t o 11 v o t e o f t h e S e n a t e Committee which " d e t e r m i n e d t h a t i t i s u n n e c e s s a r y 76 C o n g r e s s i o n a l Q u a r t e r l y a t 255 ( F e b r u a r y 6, 1 9 8 8 ) . 77 134 Cong. Rec. S 147-48 ( d a i l y e d . J a n u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 8 8 ) . 78 Id. - a t S 206. and unwise t o change t h e s t a n d a r d f o r t h e r e l i g i o u s t e n e t e x c e p t i o n . 1179 A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e S e n a t e Committee v e r s i o n of S. 557 s i m p l y c a r r i e d f o r w a r d e x i s t i n g ~ i t l eI X law which, u n l i k e t h e o t h e r c i v i l r i g h t s laws a f f e c t e d by t h e b i l l , c o n t a i n s a n e x p l i c i t s t a t u t o r y exemption f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n s of a n y e n t i t y " c o n t r o l l e d by a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n i f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n " of T i t l e I X "would n o t be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e l i g i o u s t e n e t s of s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n . 1180 The f i r s t o f t h e s e amendments, No. 1384, was prompted by i t s p r o p o n e n t s ' s t a t e d concern t h a t churches, a s any " p a r t n e r s h i p , or other private o r g a n i z a t i o n , " would be s u b j e c t e d by t h e b i l l t o i n s t i t u t i o n - w i d e c i v i l r i g h t s c o v e r a g e i f t h e y a r e f i n a n c i a l l y a s s i s t e d by t h e f e d e r a l government i n any program o r a c t i v i t y . A c c o r d i n g l y , S e n a t o r Hatch a r g u e d t h a t w i t h o u t h i s amendment a c h u r c h o r synagogue t h a t r e c e i v e d any form o f f e d e r a l s o c i a l welfare funding, i.e. f o r homeless s h e l t e r s o r h o t m e a l s f o r t h e e l d e r l y p r o g r a m s , c o u l d be r e g u l a t e d f o r c i v i l r i g h t s c o m p l i a n c e e v e n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r m i n i s t e r i a l o r religious functions. Moreover, b e c a u s e t h e meals programs c o u l d c o n s t i t u t e F e d e r a l a i d , t h e e n t i r e c h u r c h o r synagogue, i n c l u d i n g i t s p r a y e r rooms and o t h e r p u r e l y r e l i g i o u s e l e m e n t s , would be s u b j e c t t o t h e gamut o f F e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n and i t s accompanying b u r d e n s and r e s t r i c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g : Paperwork, o n s i t e c o m p l i a n c e r e v i e w s , t h e need t o accomnodate p e r s o n s w i t h c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e s , e x p e n s i v e a c c e s s i b i l y r u l e s , a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s , and much more. if S e n a t o r H a t c h t h u s c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e " r e s u l t i n g f e a r of p o t e n t i a l l i a b i l i t y H c o u l d d e t e r r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s from p u r s u i n g u s e f u l community f u n c t i o n s . 8 2 79 S . Rep. No. 100-64, S e e 20 U.S.C. Id. 82 a t S 148. I d . a t S 149. - s u p r a , n. 2 a t p. 2 7 . 1681(a)(3). Opponents o f t h e Hatch m e a s u r e , however, c o u n t e r e d t h a t t h i s was a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e b i l l which, i n t h e i r v i e w , p r o v i d e s f o r i n s t i t u t i o n wide c o v e r a g e of r e l i g i o u s o r a n y o t h e r p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n o n l y where t h e a s s i s t a n c e i s e x t e n d e d t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n "as a whole" o r where t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s " p r i n c i p a l l y engagedt' i n c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s d e s i g n a t e d by t h e bill. T h u s , i n t h e s c e n a r i o posed by S e n a t o r H a t c h , S e n a t o r Kennedy a r g u e d t h a t c i v i l r i g h t s c o v e r a g e would a t t a c h o n l y t o t h e h o m e l e s s s h e l t e r o r m e a l s program b e i n g f u n d e d , n o t t h e e n t i r e i n s t i t u t i o n , b e c a u s e "a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n which r e c e i v e s l i m i t e d p u r p o s e a s s i s t a n c e w i l l be c o v e r e d o n l y a s t o t h e 'geographically separate1 facility--to extended.1t83 which t h e a s s i s t a n c e i s A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s view, t h e Hatch Amendment was u n n e c e s s a r y . S u f f i c e i t t o s a y t h a t w h i l e t h e o p p o n e n t s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may f i n d s t r o n g e r t e x t u a l s u p p o r t i n t h e b i l l , a m b i g u i t i e s i n t h e l e g i s l a t i v e l a n g u a g e make t h e m a t t e r f a r from c e r t a i n . I n a n y e v e n t , t h e f i r s t H a t c h Amendment was d e f e a t e d by a 3 6 t o 5 6 v o t e on t h e S e n a t e f l o o r . 8 4 The n e x t v o t e on t h e r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s u e came a d a y l a t e r when S e n a t o r H a t c h a g a i n proposed a n amendment, t h i s t i m e t o b r o a d e n t h e c u r r e n t r e l i g i o u s exemption i n T i t l e I X t o e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s " c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d with t h e t e n e t s of" a r e l i g i o u s organization but without a f f e c t i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r t h r e e l a w s c o v e r e d by t h e Grove C i t y b i l l . The main i m p e t u s b e h i n d t h e s e c o n d Hatch Amendment, No. 1386, may h a v e been t w o f o l d . F i r s t , i t may have p r o v i d e d some a d d i t i o n a l a s s u r a n c e t o r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s , m a i n l y t h e C a t h o l i c Church, on t h e a b o r t i o n i s s u e . More g e n e r a l l y , however, a s made e x p l i c i t by t h e d e b a t e , t h e amendment met t h e 83 84 Id. Id. a t S 155. o b j e c t i o n of i t s p r o p o n e n t s t o t h e c u r r e n t T i t l e I X r e l i g i o u s e x e m p t i o n w h i c h t h e y a r g u e d , b e c a u s e o f i t s r e l i a n c e on t h e " c o n t r o l " f a c t o r , was outmoded by t h e i n c r e a s i n g f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e independence o f most r e l i g i o u s educational institutions. As e x p l a i n e d by S e n a t o r Hatch: When [ T i t l e IX] was a d o p t e d , many e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s were c o n t r o l l e d by r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Today, t h i s d i r e c t nexus i s n o t q u i t e s o c l e a r . Today, many o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s , w h i l e t h e y r e t a i n t h e i r i d e n t i t y w i t h r e l i g i o u s t e n e t s , a r e c o n t r o l l e d by g o v e r n i n g b o a r d s , a m a j o r i t y o f whose members a r e l a y p e r s o n s . S i m i l a r l y , many s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s r e c e i v e l e s s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t from r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a n t h e y d i d i n t h e past. They a r t h e r e f o r e , o u t s i d e t h e s c o p e of t h e existing test. 3 8 T h u s , t h e amendment was n e c e s s a r y , p r o p o n e n t s c l a i m e d , t o " ~ a t i s f [ ~t h] e i n t e n t of C o n g r e s s when i t a d o p t e d t h e ' r e l i g i o u s t e n e t s ' exemption t o t i t l e I X i n 1972 ."86 A t t h e same t i m e , S e n a t o r Hatch made c l e a r h i s i n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e e x e m p t i o n was n a r r o w l y d e s i g n e d t o a p p l y t o T i t l e I X and would n o t i n s u l a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s f r o m t h e p r o h i b i t i o n s on r a c e , a g e , and h a n d i c a p d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e o t h e r laws a f f e c t e d by t h e b i l l . Moreover, he a s s e r t e d , " t h e amendment would n o t a l l o w an i n s t i t u t i o n t o be exempted i n i t s e n t i r e t y . I t would o n l y exempt a p o l i c y o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t i s based on i t s r e l i g i o u s t e n e t s t o t h e 8 5 I d . a t S 206 ( d a i l y e d . J a n u a r y 28, 1 9 8 8 ) . S e e , a l s o , r e m a r k s o f S e n a t o r ~ a t i fe l d : I n 1972, t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e s c h o o l s were d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l l e d by c h u r c h d e n o m i n a t i o n s , c a t h o l i c d i o c e s e s and other r e l i g i o u s organizations. .However, t h e f o r m of a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e s e r e l i g i o u s e n t i t i e s and t h e i r p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s h a s e v o l v e d o v e r t h e l a s t 16 y e a r s . Today, many of t h e s e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , , w h i l e s t i l l h o l d i n g t o t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and d o c t r i n e , a r e c o n t r o l l e d by l a y b o a r d s and have a d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s of f u n d i n g beyond Id. a t S 207. the religious organization. .. ... 86 Remarks o f S e n a t o r H a t f i e l d , 2. a t S 207. CRS-39 e x t e n t t h a t t h e p o l i c y c o n f l i c t s w i t h T i t l e 1 x . 1 ' ~ ' I n o t h e r words, t h e amendment was a p p a r e n t l y i n t e n d e d t o i n s u l a t e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f r o m s e x d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c o v e r a g e o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t a s p e c i f i c ~ r a c t i c eo r p o l i c y d i c t a t e d by r e l i g i o u s c o n s c i e n c e was i n c o n f l i c t w i t h T i t l e I X , n o t t o c o n f e r t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l immunity. T h i s narrow scope a c c o r d s w i t h t h e approach o f t h e c u r r e n t T i t l e I X exemption.88 F i n a l l y , a l s o l i k e t h e c u r r e n t law, S e n a t o r H a t c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e exemption would n o t b e a u t o m a t i c b u t would be g r a n t e d by t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n o n l y upon r e q u e s t and s u p p o r t i n g d o c u m e n t a t i o n . C r i t i c s o f t h e amendment a r g u e d t h a t T i t l e I X w a i v e r s f o r r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s were i n t e n d e d t o a p p l y i n o n l y t h e most n e e d f u l c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; t h a t t h e r e c o r d o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e c u r r e n t e x e m p t i o n i n d i c a t e d n o n e e d f o r f u r t h e r e x p a n s i o n ; and t h a t t o d o s o , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a n a r t i c u l a t e d d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e " c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d " s t a n d a r d would i n v i t e c i r c u m v e n t i o n o f t h e l a w by h u n d r e d s o f s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s . 89 With t h e i s s u e s s o j o i n e d o n t h e S e n a t e f l o o r , t h e second H a t c h Amendment on r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n c o v e r a g e by S. 557 was d e f e a t e d by a v o t e o f 39 t o 56. VI. Conclusion S. 557 w i t h amendments a s p a s s e d on t h e S e n a t e f l o o r i s p r e s e n t l y a w a i t i n g a c t i o n i n t h e House where i t r e p o r t e d l y w i l l be c a l l e d up u n d e r a s p e c i a l r u l e o n March 2 , 1 9 8 8 . ~ ' H.R. A t t h e same t i m e , t h e House companion b i l l , 1 2 1 4 , r e m a i n s l o d g e d i n t h e House E d u c a t i o n and Labor and J u d i c i a r y 88 S e e 4 5 C.F.R. 86.12 ( 1 9 8 7 ) . 89 S e e , *, Remarks of S e n a t o r s S t a f f o r d , Kennedy, L e v i n , and W e i c k e r , 134 Cong. Rec. S 208-10 ( d a i l y ed. J a n u a r y 2 8 , 1 9 8 8 ) . S e e 134 Cong. Rec. Dl52 ( d a i l y e d . F e b r u a r y 2 6 , 1 9 8 8 ) . Committees where t h e b i l l was j o i n t l y r e f e r r e d and no a c t i o n h a s been t a k e n . The House m e a s u r e and S e n a t e b i l l a s r e p o r t e d a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of "two minor t e c h n i c a l amendments" added i n S e n a t e Committee t o c l a r i f y the b i l l ' s application. I n t h e l a s t C o n g r e s s , however, l e g i s l a t i o n t o o v e r t u r n t h e Grove C i t y C o l l e g e c a s e , H.R. 700, s t a l l e d a s t h e same two House committees were unable t o r e s o l v e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s over " a b o r t i o n n e u t r a l i z i n g t t l a n g u a g e s i m i l a r t o t h e D a n f o r t h Amendment t o S. 557. A c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s u n c l e a r what f a t e a w a i t s t h e b i l l when t h e House t a k e s i t Karen M e w i s L g ' s l a t i e Atto w A& C h a r l e s Dale L e g i s l a t i v e Attorney