Smokeless Tobacco: Snuff and Chewing Tobacco; Bibliography-in-Brief, 1983-1987

88-115 L -- CRS REPORT FOR CONGRESS SMOKELESS TOBACCO: SNUFF AND CHEWING TOBACCO; BIBLIOGRAPHY-IN-BRIEF, 1983-1987 by Edith S u t t e r l i n S e n i o r B i b l i o g r a p h e r , E d u c a t i o n and P u b l i c W e l f a r e Library S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n January 1 9 8 8 it+€ UNIVERSIT'~ nf 7 - - APR 1 3 1988 T h e Congressional Research Service works exclusively for the Congress, conducting research, analyzing legislation, and providinq information at the request of committees, Members. andtheir staffs. T h e Service makes such research available, without partisan bias, in many forms including studies, reports, compilations, digests, and background briefings. C'pon request, CRS assists committees in analyzing legslative proposals and issues, and in assessing the possible effects of these proposals and their alternatives. 'The Service's senior specialists and subject analysts are also a\.ailable for personal consultations in (heir respective fields of expertise. ABSTRACT Consumption p a t t e r n s , h e a l t h consequences of u s e , and F e d e r a l law r e q u i r i n g l a b e l i n g of smokeless tobacco products a r e a s s e s s e d i n t h e s e references. M a r t y , P h i l l i p J . McDermott, R o b e r t J . W i l l i a m s , Tom. P a t t e r n s of smokeless tobacco use i n a p o p u l a t i o n of h i g h school s t u d e n t s . A m e r i c a n j o u r n a l of p u b l i c h e a l t h , v. 7 6 , Feb. 1986: 190-192. LRS86-1104 II A s s e s s e d t h e p r e v a l e n c e of s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o u s e by 9 0 1 h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n two A r k a n s a s c o m m u n i t i e s , and i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n i t i a t i o n and maintenance. R e s u l t s showed t h a t 36.7 p e r c e n t o f m a l e s a n d 2 . 2 p e r c e n t of f e m a l e s c u r r e n t l y u s e d s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o . " M i n t z , Morton. The a r t f u l Dodgers. Washingto11 m o n t h l y , v. 1 8 , O c t . 1986: 9-16. LRS86-10135 Asks, "did t o b a c c o e x e c u t i v e s t e l l t h e t r u t h , t h e whole t r u t h , and n o t h i n g b u t t h e t r u t h ? " P r e s e n t s t h e e v i d e n c e of t h e p l a n t i f f and t h e d e f e n s e i n t h e s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o p r o d u c t l i a b i l i t y c a s e Marsee v s . U n i t e d S t a t e s T o b a c c o Company. M u l o c k , B r u c e K. Smokeless t o b a c c o : h e a l t h c o n c e r n s s p a r k a d v e r t i s i n g and l a b e l i n g c o n t r o versy. J a n . 21, 1986. Washington, C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e , 1986. 1 5 p. 86-519 E II Prompted by g r o w i n g c o n c e r n s a b o u t t h e h e a l t h e f f e c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h smokeless t o b a c c o products--both chewing t o b a c c o and s n u f f - - s e v e r a l b i l l s a r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d by t h e 9 9 t h Congress which a r e d e s i g n e d t o warn consumers about t h e dangerous h e a l t h consequences of such p r o d u c t s and d i s c o u r a g e t h e i r consumption. 'I'his r e p o r t p r o v i d e s b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s e p r o d u c t s , i n c l u d i n g usage, t h e i r a d v e r t i s i n g and promotion, and h e a l t h concerns." Myers, H o r t e n s e . G e t t i n g t o u g h o n s n u f f . S a t u r d a y e v e n i n g p o s t , v . 2 5 7 , S e p t . 1985: 62-65, 110. LRS85-668 1 D e s c r i b e s how t h e d e a t h o f Sean M a r s e e , a 1 9 - y e a r - o l d a t h l e t e , " f r o m o r a l c a n c e r c a u s e d by s n u f f h a s l e d t o a new l a w i n Oklahoma f o r b i d d i n g s a l e s t o m i n o r s a n d a $37 m i l l i o n s u i t a g a i n s t t h e U.S. T o b a c c o Company." N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s of H e a l t h C o n s e n s u s Development C o n f e r e n c e o n S m o k e l e s s T o b a c c o ( B e t h e s d a , Md.? : 1 9 8 6 ) H e a l t h i m p l i c a t i o n s of smokeless tobacco use. Public h e a l t h reports, v . 1 0 1 , July-Aug. 1986: 349-354. LRS86-6828 Looks a t t h e c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n t h e u s e of s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o , w h e t h e r s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o i n c r e a s e s t h e r i s k of o r a l o r o t h e r c a n c e r s , a n d what b e h a v i o r a l consequences might be r e l a t e d t o smokeless tobacco u s e . II Adapted from t h e s t a t e m e n t i s s u e d a t t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s o f H e a l t h C o n s e n s u s Development C d n f e r e n c e on S m o k e l e s s T o b a c c o , J a n u a r y 13-15, 1986." P e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s o f smokeless tobacco u s e r s and n o n u s e r s : a comparison. I n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l of t h e a d d i c t i o n s , v. 2 2 , J u l y 1987: 671-683. LRS87-5 767 T r i e d t o " d e t e r m i n e dny d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b e t w e e n u s e r s a n d n o n u s e r s of s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o , and t o e x a m i n e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c L e r l s t i c s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e amount o f s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o used." 'I'he Reemergence of smokel ~ S tSo b a c c o . New Engl and j o u r n a l of medi c i n e , v . 3 1 4 , Apr. 1 7 , 1986: 1020-1027. LRS86-3337 P r e s e n t s d a t a on t h e "upswing" i n t h e u s e o f s m o k e l e s s ~ o b a c c o( s n u f f a n d c h e w i n g t o b a c c o ) s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 f s , e s p e c i a l l y among y o u t h a n d c h i l d r e n ; t h e r e l a t i o r \ s h i p between s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o and o r a l c a n c e r , p e r i o d o n t a l d i s e a s e , and o t h e r h e a l t h c o n c e r n s ; and d i s c u s s e s a d d i c t i o n a n d d r u g d e p e n d e n c e . A d v o c a t e s a c o m p l e t e ban on o r t a x on t h e c o s t o f a d v e r t i s i n g smokeless t obacco. S c h l i f e , C. Smokeless tobacco use i n r u r a l Alaska. J A M A [ J o u r n a l of t h e American M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ] , v . 2 5 7 , Apr. 1 0 , 1987: 1 8 6 1 , 1865. LRS87-11042 A l t h o u g h among t h e g e n e r a l U.S. p o p u l a t i o n , o n l y 2% o f f e m a l e s o f a l l a g e s a r e e s t i m a t e d t o have u s e d s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o i n t h e p a s t y e a r , among A l a s k a n N a t i v e s , 34% of g i r l s and 43% o f boys r e p o r t weekly u s e , and among a l l A l a s k a n y o u t h , g r a d e s K-12 p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a v o l u n t a r y s u r v e y , 27.5% o f g i r l s and 33.7% o f boys u s e s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s . Smokeless tobacco. [ W a s h i n g t o n ] N a t i o n a l C a n c e r I n s t i t u t e , 1985. 9 p. LRS85-12475 Announces t h a t " t h e u s e o f s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s - - c h e w i n g t o b a c c o a n d s n u f f - - h a s b e e n l i n k e d t o c a n c e r s of t h e mouth and t h r o a t a n d t o o t h e r h e a l t h p r o b l e m s , l i k e gum d i s e a s e , t o o t h l o s s , i n c r e a s e d b l o o d p r e s s u r e , a n d C u r r e n t l y about 9,000 Americans o r a l leukoplakia, a precancerous condition. p e r y e a r d i e from o r a l c a n c e r . ' ' Also i n c l u d e s a b i b l i o g r a p h y . Smokeless tobacco use i n t h e United S t a t e s - - b e h a v i o r a l r i s k f a c t o r s u r v e i l l a n c e s y s t e m [BRFSS], 1986. JAMA [ J o u r n a l of t h e American M e d i c a l A s s o c i LRS87-11043 a t i o n ] , v. 2 5 8 , J u l y 3 , 1987: 24-25. R e p o r t s o n u s e of t h i s BRFSS s u r v e y t o i n c l u d e q u e s t i o n s on S t a t e - s p e c i f i c p r e v a l e n c e s of smokeless tobacco use. Smoking a n d s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o u s e among a d o l e s c e n t s : t r e n d s and i n t e r v e n t i o n results. P u b l i c h e a l t h r e p o r t s , v . 1 0 1 , July-Aug. 1986: 373-378. LRS86-6830 II Data from a 2-year s t u d y d e s c r i b e tobacco u s e t r e n d s , p e r c e p t i o n s , and p r e v e n t i o n e f f e c t s f o r 1 , 2 8 1 5Lh and 6 t h g r a d e r s e n r o l l e d i n 12 r a n d o m l y T h r e e - q u a r t e r s of a l l s e l e c t e d Washington S t a l e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s s m o k e r s and n o n u s e r s and ha 1 t u l a1 1 smokel e s s t o b a c c o u s e r s m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r s t a t u s e s . Only 10 p e r c e n t o t a l l s m o k e r s and 3 p e r c e n t o f a l l s m o k e l e s s u s e r s q u i t t h e i r h a b i t s . One i n s i x r e p o r t e d new t o b a c c o u s e , o n e - t h i r d o f s m o k e r s began u s ~ n gs m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o , and t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l s m o k e l e s s u s e r s began smoking d u r i n g t h e s t u d y . " .... Smoking a n d t o b a c c o i s s u e s : i n t o pack. Updated a s n e e d e d . Washington, IP0356S Congressional Research Srrvi ct,. T o b a c c o u s e and p r o d u c ~ i o n i s s u e s a r e e x a m i n e d , i n c l u d i n g t h e h e a l t h e f f e c t s o f smoking and s m o k e l e s s Lobacco, c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , w a r n i n g l a b e l s , and t o b a c c o p r l c e s u p p o r l s . Tobacco p r o d u c t s . Tobacco s i ~ u a r i o nand o u t l o o k , n o . TS-196, S e p t . 1986: 4-10. LRS86-8919 Reviews t r e n d s i n U.S. production, c o n s u m p t i o n , and p r i c e s of c i g a r e t t e s , c i g a r s , and c h e w i n g t o b a c c o and s n u f f . U.S. A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e on t h e H e a l t h C o n s e q u e n c e s o f U s i n g S m o k e l e s s T o b a c c o . The h e a l t h c o n s e q u e n c e s o f u s i n g s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o : a r e p o r t of t h e A d v i s o r y Committee t o t h e Surgeon G e n e r a l . B e t h e s d a , Md., U.S. D e p t . o f H e a l t h a n d Human S e r v i c e s , 1 9 8 6 . 1 9 5 p. (NIH p u b l i c a t i o n n o . 8 6 - 2 8 7 4 ) LRS86-6 115 II A f t e r a c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e r e l e v a n t e p i d e m i o l o g i c , e x p e r i m e n t a l , a n d c l i n i c a l d a t a , t h e committee c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e o r a l u s e of s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o r e p r e s e n t s a s ~ g n i f i c a n th e a l t h r i s k . It i s not a safe s u b s t i t u t e I t c a n c a u s e c a n c e r a n d a number o f n o n c a n c e r o u s f o r smoking c i g a r e t t e s . o r a l c o n d i t i o n s and can l e a d t o n i c o t i n e a d d i c t i o n and dependence." P a r t i a l c o n t e n t s . - - P r e v a l e n c e a n d t r e n d s of s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o u s e i n t h e United States.--Carcinogenesis a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o use.-Noncancerous and p r e c a n c e r o u s o r a l h e a l t h e f f e c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s m o k e l e s s tobacco use.--Nicotine exposure: p h a r m a c o k i n e t i c s , a d d i c t i o n , and o t h e r physiologic effects. U.S. Congress. House. C o m m i t t e e on E n e r g y a n d Commerce. Subcommittee on H e a l t h and t h e Environment. Tobacco i s s u e s . H e a r i n g s , 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t s e s s i o n . W a s h i n g t o n , G.P.O., 1 9 8 5 . 6 1 0 p. LRS85-12849 I n c l u d e s t h e " H e a l t h e f f e c t s of s m o k e l e s s tobacco--H.K. 760, H.R. 2950, a n d H . R . 3 0 7 8 , J u l y 2 6 , 1985." I n c l u d e s t e s t i m o n y by M i c h a e l J . K e r r i g a n , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e S m o k e l e s s Tobacco Council. 1I S e r i a l n o . 99-41" U.S. Congress. House. C o m m i t ~ e e on E n e r g y a n d Commerce. Subcommittee on T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , Tourism, and Hazardous M a t e r i a l s . H e a l t h P r o t e c t i o n Act o f 1 9 8 7 . H e a r i n g , 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t s e s s i o n on H.R. 1987. 3 6 4 p. 1 2 7 2 a n d H.R. 1 5 3 2 . Apr. 3 , 1 9 8 7 . W a s h i n g t o n , G.P.O., LRS87-10750 II S e r i a l n o . 100-40" U.S. Congress. S e n a t e . C o m m i t t e e on F i n a n c e . S u b c o m m i t t e e on T a x a t i o n a n d D e b t Management. Expiring c i g a r e t t e e x c i s e t a x provisions--11. H e a r i n g , 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s , 1st session. S e p t . 1 6 , 1 9 8 5 . W a s h i n g t o n , G.P.O., 1 9 8 6 . 5 1 p. (Hearing, S e n a t e , 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t s e s s i o n , S. Hrg. 99-354, p a r t 2 ) LRS86-2890 U.S. Congress. Senate. C o m m i t t e e on L a b o r a n d Human R e s o u r c e s . C o m p r e h e n s i v e S m o k e l e s s T o b a c c o a n d H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n Act o f 1 9 8 5 ; r e p o r t t o 1 9 8 5 . 20 p . (Report, Senate, 99th a c c o m p a n y S . 1 5 7 4 . W a s h i n g t o n , G.P.O., C o n g r e s s , 1 s t s e s s i o n , no. 9 9 - 2 0 9 ) LRS85-11578 Why s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o ' s comeback may b u r n o u t . 1986: 8-9. LRS86-14323 E x p l a i n s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between chewing t o b a c c o and s n u f f . Despite r e c e n t renewed p o p u l a r i t y , t h e USI)A'S t o b a c c o a n a l y s t , Verner G r i s e , p r e d i c t s t h e r e c o u l d be a d e c l i n e i n t h e u s e of t h e s e s m o k e l e s s t o b a c c o f o r m s , b a s e d on h e a l t h c o n c e r n s , w a r n i n g l a b e l s , a n d e x c i s e t a x e s . Wolfe, Rachel. Smokeless tobacco: t h e t a t a l pinch. v . 8 , July-Aug. 1987: b-22. F a r m l i n e , v. I n l'obacco. 7 , Aug. Multinational monitor, LRS87-7544