Survey of the Fifty States and the District of Columbia Statutes Generally Concerning the Quarantine and Isolation of Persons Having A Contagious or Infectious Disease

CRS REPORT FOR CONGRESS SURVEY OF THE FIFTY STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA STATUTES GENERALLY CONCERNING THE QUARANTINE AND ISOLATION OF PERSONS HAVING A CONTAGIOUS OR INFECTIOUS DISEASE by M. Ann Wolfe Paralegal Specialist American Law Division September 8, 1987 The Congressional Research Service works exclusively for the Congress, conducting research, analyzing legislation, and providing information at the request of committees, Members, and their staffs. The Service makes such research available, without partisan bias, in many forms including studies, reports, compilations, digests, and background briefings. Upon request, CRS assists committees in analyzing legislative proposals and issues, and in assessing the possible effects of these proposals and their alternatives. The Service's senior specialists and subject analysts are also available for personal consultations in their respective fields of expertise. ABSTRACT This report surveys the statutes of the fifty states and the District of Columbia generally concerning the quarantine and isolation of persons having a contagious or infectious disease. SURVEY OF THE FIFTY STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA STATUTES GENERALLY CONCERNING THE QUARANTINE AND ISOLATION OF PERSONS HAVING A CONTAGIOUS OR INFECTIOUS DISEASE This report is a survey of the statutes of the fifty states and the District of Columbia which generally concern the quarantine and isolation of persons having a contagious or infectious disease. In this survey only those statutes were included which concern the quarantine and isolation of persons with contagious or infectious diseases generally. Except for those statutes which concern the quarantine and isolation of persons with venereal disease or specifically AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), as is the case with the newly enacted statute in Colorado, statutes which discuss the quarantine and isolation for tuberculosis or any other specific disease were not included. It should be noted that statutes which are being enacted in the 1987 legislative year have not been thoroughly searched for this report since not all states have completed their 1987 sessions. Some 1987 legislation has been included, however, i.e., Colorado, Indiana, and Minnesota. Many states, such as Alabama, Arkansas, Kansas, Tennessee, Louisiana, and Ohio among others, do not distinguish between the words "quarantine" and "isolation." Instead these states use these words interchangeably within their statutes. A few states such as Iowa, New Hampshire and Pennsylvania define these words separately. For purposes of this s u r v e y t h e words q u a r a n t i n e and i s o l a t i o n have been used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . However, f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s i t might be u s e f u l t o d e s c r i b e t h e s t r i c t d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e two t e r m s . " I n modern u s a g e q u a r a n t i n e i s t h e r e s t r i c t i o n of freedom of movement f o r h e a l t h y p e r s o n s who may have been exposed t o a communicable d i s e a s e i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t c o n t a c t w i t h unexposed p e r s o n s ; t h e p e r i o d of t i m e t h e q u a r a n t i n e l a s t s e q u a l s the longest usual incubation period f o r the disease. Isolation i s the s e p a r a t i o n of i n f e c t e d p e r s o n s from o t h e r s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of communi-1/ c a b i l i t y s o a s t o p r e v e n t t r a n s m i s s i o n of t h e i n f e c t i o u s agent." S t a t e s g e n e r a l l y f a l l i n t o one of two c a t e g o r i e s when d e a l i n g w i t h t h e q u a r a n t i n e and i s o l a t i o n of p e r s o n s d i a g n o s e d a s h a v i n g a n i n f e c t i o u s o r contagious d i s e a s e . A l a r g e number of s t a t e l e g i s l a - t u r e s have empowered t h e i r s t a t e and l o c a l b o a r d s of h e a l t h t o c r e a t e and e n f o r c e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g q u a r a n t i n e and i s o l a t i o n o f p e r s o n s w i t h c o n t a g i o u s and i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e s . Some of t h e s e s t a t e s a r e Alabama, A r i z o n a , A r k a n s a s , Delaware, F l o r i d a , G e o r g i a , I d a h o , I n d i a n a , 'Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, L o u i s i a n a , M i s s i s s i p p i , Montana, North C a r o l i n a , North Dakota, Ohio, South C a r o l i n a , South Dakota, and Vermont. However, a number of s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s have imposed s t a t u t o r y l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e i r a p p o i n t e d s t a t e o f f i c i a l s by s t i p u l a t i n g v a r i o u s l e g a l p r o c e d u r e s which a l l o w p e r s o n s t o a p p e a l t h e d e c i s i o n s of s t a t e 11 L a r r y G o s t i n and W i l l i a m J. C u r r a n , The L i m i t s of Compulsion i n ~ o z t r o l l i nAIDS, ~ H a s t i n g s C e n t e r R e p o r t , December, 1986, p. 26. and local health officers through the court systems within certain time frames, with some states specifying that an attorney must be provided for indigent persons. Some of these states are Connecticut, Colorado, Indiana, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York, Tennessee and Texas. The following list of states with statutory citations indicate the part of the statutory code which mentions the words quarantine or isolation with regard to persons. Alaska is the only state which does not use this type of terminology or which does not describe the actions authorized by these terms. Alaska does authorize the administrator of the Department of Health and Social Services to adopt and administer regulations relating to the control of communicable disease (see Alaska Statutes 5518.05.010, 18.05.040). 522-11-1 e t s e q . and 622-12-1 e t seq. No p r o v i s i o n s were f o u n d . 536-621 e t s e q 5582-109, . 82-110, 82-201, 82-204, 82-209, H e a l t h & S. 553050, 3051, 3110 e t s e q . , 53195 ( v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e ) . 82-220 3123 ( g e n e r a l ) ; 5425-1-506, 25-1-602, 25-1-623, 25-1-629, 25-1-631 t h r u 25-1-650 ( g e n e r a l ) ; 5525-4-404, 25-4-406 ( v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e ) ; 5525-4-1407(2), 25-4-1408 added by H. B i l l 1177 app. 6 / 8 / 8 7 ( s p e c i f i c a l l y AIDS). 5519a-207, 19a-221 16 66128, 303, 313, 315 D.C. 66-117 e t s e q . 55381.031, 381.061, 381-241, 381.351 531-12-4 54321-1, 539-415 3453571, 325-8, ( g e n e r a l ) ; 5539-603, 39-605 (venereal disease) 111 1 / 2 522 5512-1-14-10, 5516-1-9.5-4 e f f . 9/1/87. 5136.3, 325-9 16-1-9-3, 16-1-9-5, 16-1-9-6, 16-1-9-18; t h r u 16-1-9.5-6 added by House E n r o l l e d Act 1010, 5139.1 e t s e q . 5565-119, 65-126, 65-128 1214.020 40:5, 40:6, 40:18 22 9454, 22 51020, 518-211 22 51021, 22 51022 22 91026 111 592, 111 595 t h r u 111 598 55333.5211, 333.5217 t h r u 333.5236 55144.4172 t h r u 5144.4185 a s added by c h a p t e r 209, 1987 Minn. Sess. Law S e r v i c e . 5541-3-15, 41-23-5 ( g e n e r a l ) ; 541-23-27 ( v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e ) . 5550-2-116, 7-1-4123, 7-4-4306 ( g e n e r a l ) ; 550-18-107 ( v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e ) . 141-C:2, 141-C:4, 141-C:5, 141-C:6, 141-C:ll, 141-C:12, 141-C:13, 141-C:14, 141-C:15, 141-C:16 ( g e n e r a l ) ; 141-C:18 ( v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e ) . 26:4-2 ( g e n e r a l ) ; 26:4-35, 26:4-36, 26:4-37, 26:4-48, 26:4-48.1 ( v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e ) . Pub.H. 552100, 2120 t h r u 2125 5523-07-06, 23-07-13 ( g e n e r a l ) ; 523-07-07 ( v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e ) . 11 522-120, 21 $1195, 6 3 51-106, 6 3 01-204, 6 3 51-502, 6 3 51-1701, 6 3 51-505 ( g e n e r a l ) ; 6 3 01-530 ( v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e ) . 433.106, 433.130, 433.135, 433.140, 433.150, 433.156, 433.220, ( g e n e r a l ) ; 434.050, 434.080, 434.090 ( v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e ) . 16 552190 t h r u 2 1 9 2 ; 35 55521.2, 521.5, 521.7, 5 2 1 . 1 1 , 521.16, 521.19 ( g e n e r a l l y and v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e ) ; 5 3 5 5 2 3 1 4 6 , 2 3 1 4 8 , 2 4 6 6 1 , 24664 t h r u 2 4 6 6 8 , 24672 t h r u 2 4 6 7 5 ; 7 1 55536 1 4 0 4 , 1407 5544-1-80, 544-29-90, 44-1-100, 44-1-110, 44-1-140 ( g e n e r a l l y ) ; 44-29-110, 44-29-130 ( v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e ) 5534-22-1 t h r u 34-22-5 ( g e n e r a l ) ; 4534-23-4, 34-23-14 ( v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e ) . 568-5-104 ( g e n e r a l ) ; 5968-10-104 34-23-5, t h r u 68-10-111 34-23-13, (venereal d i s e a s e ) . 5516-3-1, 16-3-2 ( g e n e r a l ) ; 5516-4-3, 16-4-9, 16-4-12 t h r u 16-4-17, 16-4-19, 16-4-21, 16-4-27 t h r u 16-4-30 ( v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e ) . 5559.70, 143.02, 143.05 ( g e n e r a l ) ; 55143.07 (venereal disease). 5535-1-201, 35-1-229, 35-1-240, 35-4-103, 35-4-104, 35-4-105 ( g e n e r a l ) ; 5535-4-133 ( v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e ) . M. Ann Wolfe Paralegal Specialist American Law D i v i s i o n