Iran-Contra Affair: Biographical Profiles

This report provides biographical information on individuals who have been associated in public reports with the controversy surrounding the secret U.S. arms sales to Iran and the channeling of profits to the rebels or Contras in Nicaragua. The information has been compiled from public sources.

Report No. 87-339 F IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIR : BIOGRAPHICAL PROFILES Cheryl J. Rathbun F o r e i g n A f f a i r s Analyst and Carolyn L. Hatcher Technic a1 I n f o m a t i o n S p e c i a l i s t With t h e r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n c e o f P e t e r Kappas F o r e i g n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Defense D i v i s i o n GOlLt;RNfvlENT ;X)CUMENTS COLLECTION NORTHERN KENTUCKY UNlVERSlTY LIBRARY March 2 7 , 1987 T h e Congressional Research S e n ice works exclusively for the Congress, conducting research, analyzing legislation, and providing information at the request of committees. Members, and their staf'fi. T h e Service makes such research available. without partisan bias. in many forms including studies. reports, compilations, digests, and background briefings. Upon request, CRS assists committees in analyzing legislative proposals and issues, and in assessing the possible effects of these proposals and their alternatives. T h e Service's senior specialists and subject analysts are also at.ailab1e for personal consultations in their respective fields of expertise. AB S TRAC T T h i s r e p o r t p r o v i d e s b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l s who h a v e been a s s o c i a t e d i n p u b l i c r e p o r t s with t h e c o n t r o v e r s y surrounding t h e s e c r e t U.S. arms s a l e s t o I r a n and t h e c h a n n e l i n g of p r o f i t s t o t h e r e b e l s o r C o n t r a s i n Nicaragua. The i n f o r m a t i o n h a s b e e n compiled from p u b l i c s o u r c e s . The r e p o r t w i l l b e u p d a t e d p e r i o d i c a l l y and complements t h e CRS R e p o r t 86-190 F , Iran-Contra Affair: A Chronology. INTRODUCTION On November 3 , 1986, a Lebanese weekly m a g a z i n e , A l - S h i r a a , r e p o r t e d t h a t Robert C. McFarlane, former N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r t o t h e P r e s i d e n t , had s e c r e t l y v i s i t e d Tehran t o d i s c u s s w i t h I r a n i a n o f f i c i a l s a c e s s a t i o n o f I r a n i a n s u p p o r t f o r t e r r o r i s t g r o u p s i n exchange f o r t h e s u p p l y o f U.S. arms and s p a r e p a r t s t o I r a n . On November 3 , 1986, A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l Edwin Meese announced t h a t e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t p r o f i t s from anus s a l e s t o I r a n had b e e n d i v e r t e d t o a n t i - S a n d i n i s t a r e b e l s . The S e n a t e S e l e c t Commit t e e on I n t e l l i g e n c e Report , p u b l i s h e d on J a n u a r y 2 9 , 1987, and t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s S p e c i a l Review Board Tower, p u b l i s h e d on F e b r u a r y 27, 1987, ( r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e Tower Commission R e p o r t a f t e r t h e Chairman, S e n a t o r John Tower), showed t h a t t h e United S t a t e s had b e e n engaged i n a n a r m s - f o r - h o s t a g e p o l i c y w i t h I r a n and t h a t t h e p r o c e e d s o f t h e arms s a l e s had b e e n d i v e r t e d t o fund t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . S c o r e s o f p e o p l e were i n v o l v e d i n t h e I r a n arms i n i t i a t i v e l c o n t r a r e s u p p l y a c t i o n : U.S. o f f i c i a l s a t t h e White House, t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t , t h e Department o f D e f e n s e , and t h e C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency; f o r e i g n o f f i c i a l s from I s r a e l , I r a n , Saudi A r a b i a , and e l s e w h e r e ; and numerous p r i v a t e arms d e a l e r s , b u s i n e s s men and f i n a n c i e r s from t h i r d c o u n t r i e s . A s a d d i t i o n a l names a p p e a r and new r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e r e v e a l e d , i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o keep t h e names and a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e It p r o v i d e s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n mind. This r e p o r t i s designed t o e a s e t h a t burden. b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o n t r o v e r s y . E n t r i e s a r e i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r . Data a r e drawn from The S e n a t e S e l e c t Commit t e e o n I n t e l 1 i g e n c e ' s Report o n P r e l i m i n a r y I n q u i r y , t h e Tower Commission R e p o r t , U. S. and f o r e i g n newspapers and p e r i o d i c a l s , w i r e s e r v i c e s , and t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o r e p o r t s . T h i s r e p o r t i s b a s e d on d a t a a v a i l a b l e a s o f March 27, 1987. It w i l l b e u p d a t e d and expanded a s developments w a r r a n t . Hearings of t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l s e l e c t c o m m i t t e e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s i s s u e a r e s c h e d u l e d t o b e g i n on May 5 , 1987. The S e n a t e S e l e c t Committee on S e c r e t M i l i t a r y A s s i s t a n c e t o I r a n and t h e N i c a r a g u a n O p p o s i t i o n i s s c h e d u l e d t o c o m p l e t e i t s r e p o r t b y August 30, 1987; t h e House S e l e c t Commit t e e t o I n v e s t i g a t e Covert Arms T r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h I r a n t o c o m p l e t e i t s r e p o r t by October 3 0 , 1987; and Lawrence E. Walsh, s p e c i a l p r o s e c u t o r a p p o i n t e d b y t h e J u s t i c e Department, i s mandated w i t h i n v e s t i g a t i n g and i f n e c e s s a r y p r o s e c u t i n g , c r i m i n a l v i o l a t i o n s o f o f f i c i a l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e Iran-Contra a f f a i r . A c o n s c i e n t i o u s e f f o r t h a s b e e n made t o a s s u r e t h e f a c t u a l a c c u r a c y o f d a t a presented h e r e , but e r r o r s a r e l i k e l y t o be present i n r e p o r t s of f a s t moving e v e n t s such a s t h e s e , e s p e c i a l l y when some p a r t i c i p a n t s h a v e a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n limiting and/or d i s t o r t i n g the public record. Each b i o g r a p h i c a l e n t r y i n c l u d e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s n a t i o n a l i t y , c u r r e n t and r e l e v a n t r e c e n t o c c u p a t i o n s , d a t e s t h e person t e s t i f i e d b e f o r e v a r i o u s c o n g r e s s i o n a l committees i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e c o n t r o v e r s y , when a v a i l a b l e , and a b r i e f s t a t e m e n t r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e r e p o r t e d l y played b y e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i s a l s o i n c l u d e d . This l i s t of i n d i v i d u a l s i s n o t c o m p l e t e ; a d d i t i o n s and c o r r e c t i o n s w i l l be made a s more i n f o r m a t i o n becomes a v a i l a b l e . An a s t e r i s k ( * ) a p p e a r s b e f o r e t h e names l i s t e d i n t h e a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t i n g which have b e e n added s i n c e t h e l a s t u p d a t e . CONTENTS ALPHABETICAL L I S T I N G * * * * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hassanal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . William . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABRAMS. E l l i o t t ABSHIRE. D a v i d M ALLEN. C h a r l e s ANDERSON. T e r r y ARMITAGE. R i c h a r d L BOLKIAH. BUCKLEY. BUSH. G e o r g e ...................... * CACERES R O J A S . C e s a r A u g u s t o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * CALERO. A d o l f o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CARLUCCI. F r a n k C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CASEY. W i l l i a m J . ................... * CASTILLO. T o m a s / T h o m a s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................... *CAVE. G e o r g e * CHANNELL. C a r l R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * C I C I P P I O . Joseph J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................... CLARRIDGE. D u a n e * CLINES. T h o m a s .................... * COY. C r a i g ..................... CROWE. W i l l i a m J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *CRUZ.Arturo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * D e GARAY. E d w a r d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * DUTTON. R o b e r t C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EARL. R o b e r t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * FAHD. Ibn Abdal.Aziz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * FARINA. R o l a n d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * FIERS. Donald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * FORTIER. D o n a l d R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FRASE R. D o n a1d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *FULLERy Graham FURMARK. R o y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GADD. R i c h a r d B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * GARNEL. J o s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *GATES.RobertH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GEORGE. C l a i r GHORBANIFAR. M a n u c h e r GOMEZ. M a x ( s e e F e l i x RODRIGUEZ) PAGE 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 16 17 19 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 41 42 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * GREGG. D o n a l d GUELL. L i n d a ...................... ...................... ...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HAKIM. A l b e r t HALL. F a w n HASENFUS. E u g e n e 46 48 49 INOUYE. 50 ..................... Daniel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................... .................. ................... KELLY. John H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KHASHOGGI. A d n a n . ................... KILBURN. P e t e r . .................... KIMCHE. D m i d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KOCH. N o e l ....................... LEDEEN. M i c h a e l A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LILAC. R o b e r t H . .................... LIMAN. A r t h u r L . .................... McFARLANE. R o b e r t C . .................. McLAUGHLIN. Jane E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mc MAHON John N . .................... MEDINA. R a m o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MEESE. E d w i n 3 d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M E D J I A VICTORES. O s c a r H u m b e r t o . . . . . . . . . . . . . MESSING. A n d r e w Jr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MILLER. E r n e s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................... MILLER, R i c h a r d M U S K I E , Edmumd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NAKASONE. Y a s u h i r o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NIELDS. J o h n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................... NIMRODI. Y a a c o v NIR. Amiram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NORTH. O l i v e r L . .................... JACOBSEN. D a v i d JENCO. L a w r e n c e M a r t i n J U C H N I E W I C Z Ed w a r d . . ....................... * PARLOW. T h o m a s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * PERES. S h i m o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * 44 45 51 52 53 54 55 57 58 59 60 62 63 64 66 67 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 OWEN. R o b e r t 82 PEROT.H.Ross * P I O W A T Y . John 83 84 85 86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P O I N D E X T E R . John M POkTELL. C o l i n L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *RABIN. Y i t z h a k RAFSANJANI. A l i A k b a r H a s h e m i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REAGAN. R o n a l d REED. Frank H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REGAN. D o n a l d T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * QUINTERO. R a f a e l ( ~ h i . ~ h i ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCHWIMMER. A d o l p h ( A l l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCOWCROFT. B r e n t SECORD. R i c h a r d V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHACKLEY. T h e o d o r e C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHULTZ. G e o r g e P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * SINGLAUB. John . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * SPORKIN. S t a n l e y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * SULTAN OF BRUNEI ( s e e H a s s a n a l BOLKIAH) SUTHERLAND. T h o m a s P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * TAMBS. L e w i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * TEICHER. H o w a r d J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOWER. John G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TRACY. E d w a r d A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VERY Fabian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * WALSH. L a w r e n c e E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *WATSON.SamIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WEINBERGER. C a s p a r W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RODRIGUEZ. F e l i x ( a l i a s M a x ~ o m e z ) WEIR. B e n j a m i n * 87 89 90 91 92 93 95 96 97 98 99 100 102 103 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 ..................... 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 ZUCKER. W i l l a r d I . . PAGE PHILIPPINES VERY F a b i a n ....................... 112 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 PORTUGAL GARNEL, J o s e S A U D I ARABIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FAHD. I b n A b d a l - A z i z KHASHOGGI. A d n a n SWITZERLAND FARINA. R o l a n d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNITED STATES ..................... . ................... ..................... ..................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................... ..................... .................... . ................... ................ ..................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................... ABRAMS. E l l i o t t A B S H I R E . David M ALLEN. C h a r l e s ANDERSON. T e r r y ARMITAGE. R i c h a r d L BUCKLEY. W i l l i a m BUSH. G e o r g e C A R L U C C I . Frank C CASEY. W i l l i a m J CASTILLO. ~ o m a s / T h o m a s CAVE. G e o r g e CHANNELL. C a r l R C I C I P P I O . Joseph J CLARRIDGE. D u a n e CLINES. T h o m a s COY. C r a i g CROWE. W i l l i a m J D e GARAY Ed w a r d DUTTON. R o b e r t C EARL. R o b e r t FIERS. Donald FORTIER. D o n a l d R FULLER. G r a h a m FURMARK. R o y GADD. R i c h a r d B GATES. R o b e r t H GEORGE. C l a i r GREGG. D o n a l d GUELL. L i n d a HALL. F a w n . .. .. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................... ...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ . . .................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................. Benjamin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HASENFUS. E u g e n e INOUYE D a n i e l JACOBSEN. D a v i d JENCO. L a w r e n c e M a r t i n JUCHNIEWICZ. E d w a r d KELLY.JohnH KILBURN. P e t e r KOCH. N o e l LEDEEN. M i c h a e l A LILAC. R o b e r t H LIMAN. A r t h u r L McFARLANE. R o b e r t C McLAUGHLIN. Jane E McMAHON. John N MEESE. E d w i n 3d M E S S I N G . A n d r e w Jr MILLER. R i c h a r d MUSKIE E d m u n d N I E L D S . John NORTH. O l i v e r L OWEN. R o b e r t PEROT. H R o s s PIOWATY. John POINDEXTER. J o h n M POh'ELL. C o l i n L QUINTERO. R a f a e l ( c h i - c h i ) REAGAN. R o n a l d REED.FrankH REGAN. D o n a l d T RODRIGUEZ. F e l i x ( a l i a s M a x G o m e z ) SCmIMMER. A d o l p h ( A l l ( U S . - ~ s r a e l i d u a l citizenship) SCOWCROFT. B r e n t SECORD. R i c h a r d V SHACKLEY. Theodore C SHULTZ. G e o r g e P S I N G L A U B . John SPORKIN. S t a n l e y SUTHERLAND. T h o m a s P TAMBS. L e w i s TEICHER. H o w a r d J TOWER. John G TRACY. E d w a r d A WALSH. L a w r e n c e E WATSON. S a m WEINBERGER. C a s p a r W . WEIR. ZUCKER. Willard I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 50 51 52 53 54 57 59 60 62 63 64 66 67 70 72 74 75 77 80 82 85 86 87 89 90 93 95 96 97 98 99 100 102 103 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 113 114 115 117 118 ABRAMS, E l l i o t t Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r I n t e r - A m e r i c a n A f f a i r s , 1 9 8 5 Recent Previous Occupations A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y f o r Human R i g h t s and H u m a n i t a r i a n A f f a i r s , 1981-85; A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n A f f a i r s , Department o f S t a t e , 1981; A t t o r n e y , V e r n e r , L i p f e r t , B e r n h a r d 6 McPherson, 1979-80; S p e c i a l c o u n s e l , S e n a t o r D a n i e l P. Moynihan, 1977-78. Role A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y Abrams p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a U.S. e f f o r t t o e l i c i t s u p p o r t from f o r e i g n governments f o r humanitarian a i d t o t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . Mr. Abrams a c k n o w l e d g e d t o t h e Tower Commission t h a t h e p e r s o n a l l y s o l i c i t e d $ 1 0 m i l l i o n f r o m t h e S u l t a n o f B r u n e i i n J u l y o f 1 9 8 6 . (New York T i m e s , March 4 , 1987: A15). M r . Abrams a s k e d b o t h L t . C o l . N o r t h and t h e h e a d of t h e C I A ' S C e n t r a l A m e r i c a T a s k F o r c e , A l a n F i e r s , w h e r e t h e money s h o u l d be d e p o s i t e d a n d r e c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t bank a c c o u n t numbers f r o m e a c h o f them. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e S e n a t e S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e o n 1 n t e l l i g e n c e 1 s r e p o r t , t h e a c c o u n t number u s e d b y M r . Abyams f o r t h e $10 m i l l i o n was t h e same a c c o u n t s u s p e c t e d o f b e i n g u s e d by Mr. N o r t h a n d o t h e r s t o d e p o s i t p r o c e e d s f r o m a r m s s a l e s t o I r a n . M r . Abrams t e s t i f i e d t o t h e Tower C o m n i s s i o n t h a t h e a n d C h a r l e s H i l l , e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , d e c i d e d t o u s e Mr. N o r t h ' s b a n k a c c o u n t a t C r e d i t S u i s s e , "on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i t l o o k e d , o d d l y e n o u g h i n r e t r o s p e c t , k i n d o f c l e a n e r , " t h a n a n a c c o u n t e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e CIA. (New York T i m e s , March 4 , 1 9 8 7 : A15). Mr. Abrams worked c l o s e l y w i t h Mr. N o r t h o n C o n t r a i s s u e s d u r i n g t h e two y e a r c o n g r e s s i o n a l ban on a i d t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . Mr. Abrams r e p o r t e d i n t e s t i m o n y t o t h e S e n a t e S e l e c t Committee on I n t e l l i g e n c e t h a t h e " t a l k e d t o O l l i e e v e r y day" about t h e C o n t r a s , o f t e n i n meetings o f t h e R e s t r i c t e d I n t e r a g e n c y Group (RIG) on C e n t r a l America t h a t c o n v e n e d o n c e o r t w i c e a week a t t h e S t a t e Department. ( W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1987: A18). The Tower Commission R e p o r t i d e n t i f i e d t h e key members of t h e R I G a s Mr. N o r t h , Mr. Abrams, a n d Mr. F i e r s . ( W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1987: A18). The Tower C o m n i s s i o n q u e s t i o n e d Mr. Abrams a b o u t h i s r o l e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s e c r e t a i r s t r i p f o r u s e by t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s a t S a n t a E l e n a , i n n o r t h e r n C o s t a R i c a n e a r t h e b o r d e r w i t h N i c a r a g u a , and i n subsequent e f f o r t s t o convince Costa Rican o f f i c i a l s n o t t o r e v e a l i t s e x i s t e n c e . Mr. Abrams t o l d t h e Commission t h a t h e c o u l d n o t r e c a l l when o r how h e l e a r n e d of t h e a i r s t r i p ' s e x i s t e n c e a n d s a i d h e b e l i e v e d t h e s t r i p was Mr. N o r t h , i n a m e s s a g e on S e p t e m b e r 9 , 1 9 8 6 , t o Mr. P o i n d e x t e r , never used. s a i d t h a t h e h a d h e l d a c o n f e r e n c e c a l l w i t h Mr. Abrams and Mr. Tambs, t h e n U.S. Ambassador t o C o s t a R i c a , and t h a t a l l had a g r e e d t h a t h e s h o u l d c a l l P r e s i d e n t A r i a s o f C o s t a R i c a and t h r e a t e n him w i t h a c u t o f f of U.S. a i d u n l e s s h e a b a n d o n e d h i s p l a n s t o s h u t down an " i l l e g a l s u p p o r t o p e r a t i o n f o r Mr. N o r t h h a s s t a t e d t h a t h e s u b s e q u e n t l y d i d s o a n d t h a t Mr. t h e contras." A r i a s h a d g o t " t h e same word from E l l i o t t . " T h i s s t a t e m e n t was d e n i e d by Mr. Abrams. ( N e w York T i m e s , March 4 , 1987: A15). T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Congress S e n a t e I n t e l l i g e n c e C o m n i t t e e , November 2 5 , 1986; December 8 , 1986. T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower C o m n i s s i o n December 1 9 , 1986 ABSHIRE, David M. Nationality: United States Current Occupation Special Counsel to President Reagan Recent Previous Occupations Ambassador, US Permanent Representative, North Atlantic Council, 1983-87; President, Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Georgetown University, 1982-83; Chairman, CSIS, 1973-82; Executive Director, CSIS, 1962-70; Assistant Secretary of State for Congressional Relations, 1970-73; Director National Security Group Transition, Office of President elect Reagan, 1980-81. Role Mr. Abshire is charged with coordinating the White House's activities in all aspects of the Iran arms transfer and Contra funding operation. He was appointed December 26, 1986. Mr. Abshire stated in a Washington Post interview that he would not independently investigate the Iran controversy but would try to "break bottlenecks" and assist congressional and legal inquiries. (Washington Post, January 20, 1987). ALLEN, C h a r l e s Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation CIA, N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e O f f i c e r f o r C o u n t e r t e r r o r i s m (Washington P o s t J a n u a r y 1 2 , 1987: 1 , 2 1 ) Role On S e p t e m b e r 1 2 , 1 9 8 5 , L t . C o l . O l i v e r N o r t h a s k e d Mr. A l l e n t o i n c r e a s e i n t e l l i g e n c e e f f o r t s on I r a n a n d Lebanon. Mr. N o r t h t o l d him t o l i m i t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e i n f o r m a t i o n t o S e c r e t a r y o f D e f e n s e C a s p a r W e i n b e r g e r , CIA Deputy D i r e c t o r J o h n McMahon, f o r m e r N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r R o b e r t M c F a r l a n e a n d Mr. N o r t h h i m s e l f , S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e G e o r g e S c h u l t z was On e x p l i c i t l y excluded. (Tower Commission R e p o r t , Appendix B , IV A ) . J a n u a r y 1 3 , 1 9 8 6 , Mr. A l l e n c o n d u c t e d a f i v e - h o u r i n t e r v i e w w i t h Manucher G h o r b a n i f a r , t h e I r a n i a n arms m e r c h a n t , i n W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. The r e s u l t s of t h e i n t e r v i e w w e r e g i v e n t o f o r m e r CIA D i r e c t o r W i l l i a m C a s e y . Mr. A l l e n t e s t i f i e d t o t h e Tower Commission t h a t Mr. C a s e y had t o l d him t h a t R e v e r e n d B e n j a m i n w e i r ' s S e p t e m b e r 1 4 , 1 9 8 6 , r e l e a s e was t h e r e s u l t of (Tower Commission R e p o r t , Appendix B , V F ) . t h e arms s h i p m e n t s t o I r a n . A f t e r r e c e i v i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e i n t e r c e p t s from I r a n , h e r e p o r t e d l y became aware o f f i n a n c i a l d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t h e arms s a l e s o p e r a t i o n a s w e l l a s a p o s s i b l e d i v e r s i o n of f u n d s . He r e p o r t e d h i s s u s p i c i o n s t o Deputy D i r e c t o r R o b e r t H. G a t e s on O c t o b e r 1, 1986. T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower C o m n i s s i o n December 30, 1 9 8 6 ; F e b r u a r y 11, 1987. ANDERSON, Terry Nationality: United States Recent Previous Occupations Chief Middle East correspondent for Associated Press Role Mr. Anderson was taken hostage March 16, 1985, by the Islamic Jihad (Shi'ite extremists) loyal to Iran. (New York Times, March 23, 1985). He remained in captivity as of March 27, 1987. ARMITAGE, R i c h a r d L . Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y of Defense f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A f f a i r s , 1983- Recent Previous Occupations A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y of Defense E a s t A s i a , Department of D e f e n s e , 1981-83; T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A d v i s o r , U.S. Government, 1980-81; F o r e i g n P o l i c y A d v i s o r , Reagan f o r P r e s i d e n c y Campaign, 1980; S e l f - e m p l o y e d C o u n s e l o r , 1979-80; A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A s s i s t a n t , S e n a t o r R . Dole, 1978-79. Role Mr. A r m i t a g e was informed by L t . Col. O l i v e r N o r t h i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t of November 1 9 8 5 , t h a t some White House o f f i c i a l s had been i n c o n t a c t w i t h I r a n i a n o f f i c i a l s . Mr. A r m i t a g e t o l d t h e Tower Commission t h a t h e d i d n o t t h i n k S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e George S h u l t z was aware of t h e s e c o n t a c t s . (Tower Commission R e p o r t , Appendix B , V F, F o o t n o t e 2 7 ) . Mr. Armitage i s o n e of t h e few P e n t a g o n o f f i c i a l s who knew a b o u t t h e I r a n arms d e a l b e f o r e i t became public. (Washington P o s t , F e b r u a r y 23, 1987: B12). (Washington P o s t F e b r u a r y 2 2 , 1987: A l , 1 0 ) . Mr. A r m i t a g e r e p l a c e d Noel Koch a s t h e P e n t a g o n ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l ' s O p e r a t i o n s sub-group on c o u n t e r t e r r o r i s m i n May o f 1986. T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Congress S e n a t e I n t e l l i g e n c e Committee, November 21, 1986; S e n a t e I n t e l l i g e n c e C o m n i t t e e , December 1 1 , 1986. T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower Comnission December 18, 1986 BOLKIAH, H a s s a n a l Mudah Nationality: Brunei Current Occupation S u l t a n o f Brunei Role I n J u l y of 1986, t h e S u l t a n of Brunei c o n t r i b u t e d $10 m i l l i o n t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Tower Commission R e p o r t , A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e E l l i o t t Abrams p e r s o n a l l y s o l i c i t e d t h e f u n d s from him. The S u l t a n of B r u n e i was t o l d by Mr. Abrams t h a t t h e money was f o r h u m a n i t a r i a n a i d o n l y . The money was d e p o s i t e d i n a s e c r e t S w i s s bank a c c o u n t c o n t r o l l e d by L t . C o l . O l i v e r N o r t h . (New York Times, March 4 , 1987: A l 5 ) . BUCKLEY, W i l l i a m ( d e c e a s e d ) Nationality: United S t a t e s Recent Previous Occupations B e i r u t S t a t i o n Chief and c o u n t e r t e r r o r i s m e x p e r t , C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency ( w a s h i n g t o n P o s t , December 1 8 , 1986: C1, 3 ) Role Mr. B u c k l e y was s e i z e d March 1 8 , 1 9 8 4 , i n B e i r u t b y t h e I s l a m i c J i h a d ( ~ h i ' i t ee x t r e m i s t s ) (New York T i m e s , O c t o b e r 3 , 1 9 8 4 ) o r b y H i z b a l l a h (New Y o r k T i m e s , November 4 , 1 9 8 4 ) . The Tower Commission R e p o r t d i s c l o s e d t h a t t h e c o n f e s s i o n of Mr. B u c k l e y , who i s b e l i e v e d t o h a v e b e e n t o r t u r e d t o d e a t h i n J u n e of 1 9 8 5 , w h i l e a c a p t i v e i n L e b a n o n , was a n i s s u e i n t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e I r a n i a n s . In t h e e a r l y p h a s e s o f t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s , Mr. B u c k l e y l s r e l e a s e was o n e o f t h e p r i m a r y g o a l s o f t h e a r m s - f o r - h o s t a g e s d e a l s . A t some t i m e d u r i n g t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e I r a n i a n s i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f 1986, t h e I r a n i a n s (~ew o f f e r e d t o t u r n o v e r a 400 p a g e p u r p o r t e d c o n f e s s i o n of M r . B u c k l e y . York T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1987: A9). BUSH, George Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation V i c e P r e s i d e n t , 1980- Recent P r e v i o u s Occupations D i r e c t o r , C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency, 1976-77; C h i e f , U.S. L i a i s o n O f f i c e , B e i j i n g , P e o p l e s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a , 1974-75; Chairman, R e p u b l i c a n N a t i o n a l Committee, 1973-74; U n i t e d S t a t e s Ambassador t o U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1971-72. Kol e V i c e - p r e s i d e n t Bush h a s s a i d h e s u p p o r t e d P r e s i d e n t ~ e a g a n ' sd e c i s i o n t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t s i n I r a n and t o s e l l them American weapons a s a n i n c e n t i v e t o i m p r o v i n g r e l a t i o n s , b u t t h a t he knew n o t h i n g of a d i v e r s i o n o f f u n d s t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s and opposed i t . A s a member o f t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , Mr. Bush t o o k p a r t i n t h e d e c i s i o n t o s h i p t h e arms t o I r a n , b u t f o r t h e s o l e s t a t e d p u r p o s e of o p e n i n g a new l i n e of communication w i t h T e h r a n . (New York T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1987: A10). A c c o r d i n g t o Mr. M c F a r l a n e l s t e s t i m o n y t o t h e S e n a t e I n t e l l i g e n c e Committee, Mr. Bush s i d e d w i t h f o r m e r C h i e f o f S t a f f Donald Regan and f o r m e r C I A D i r e c t o r W i l l i a m Casey, who s u p p o r t e d I s r a e l i arms s a l e s t o I r a n i n August o f 1 9 8 5 , and a g a i n s t S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e George S h u l t z and S e c r e t a r y o f D e f e n s e C a s p a r W e i n b e r g e r , who opposed them. (Newsweek, F e b r u a r y 2 3 , 1987: p.25) ( W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , F e b r u a r y 1 3 , 1987: A34). Mr. Bush a t t e n d e d t h e J a n u a r y 7 , 1986 m e e t i n g i n which t h e p r o s and c o n s o f r e v i v i n g t h e arms d e a l were d i s c u s s e d . The Tower Commission R e p o r t c i t e d t h e J a n u a r y 7 , 1986 m e e t i n g a s a c r i t i c a l o n e b e c a u s e i t p r o d u c e d t h e d e c i s i o n t o s h i p a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e t h o u s a n d TOW a n t i - t a n k m i s s i l e s d i r e c t l y t o I r a n , and n o t t h r o u g h I s r a e l , a s p a r t of a c o v e r t p l a n t o g a i n t h e r e l e a s e of American h o s t a g e s i n Lebanon. The Commission n o t e d i t was n o t c l e a r what p o s i t i o n Mr. Bush t o o k , a l t h o u g h he a p p e a r e d t o be s i d i n g w i t h t h o s e ' i n f a v o r of t h e trade. ( ~ e wYork Times, March 5 , 1987: A21). The R e p o r t a l s o n o t e d t h a t V i c e P r e s i d e n t Bush was one o f f o u r p e o p l e p r e s e n t i n t h e Oval O f f i c e on J a n u a r y 1 7 , 1986, when P r e s i d e n t Reagan was b r i e f e d on t h e f i n a l d e t a i l s of t h e p l a n t o t r a n s f e r arms t o I r a n , b e f o r e s i g n i n g t h e f o r m a l document a l l o w i n g t h e arms t r a n s f e r s t o p r o c e e d . The R e p o r t c i t e d t h i s document a s t h e b a s i s f o r "an i m p o r t a n t change" i n p o l i c y i n which " t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s became a d i r e c t s u p p l i e r o f arms t o I r a n . " (New York T i m e s , March 5 , 1987: A21). Mr. Bush a l s o met w i t h Amiram N i r , a d v i s e r on c o u n t e r t e r r o r i s m t o t h e n - P r i m e M i n i s t e r Shimon P e r e s , a t t h e King David H o t e l i n J e r u s a l e m on J u l y 2 9 , 1986. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Tower Commission R e p o r t , Mr. Bush had a g r e e d t o t h e m e e t i n g a t t h e u r g i n g o f L t . Col. O l i v e r North. (Washington P o s t , March 6 , 1987: A23). Mr. N i r informed Mr. Bush t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e were p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e I r a n arms d e a l , n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e I r a n i a n s s h o u l d c o n t i n u e . ( S e n a t e S e l e c t Committee on I n t e l l i g e n c e : 3 3 ) . T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower Commission December 1 8 , 1986 CACERES ROJAS, C e s a r Augusto Nationality: Guatemala Current Occupation Army G e n e r a l Role G e n e r a l C a c e r e s R o j a s r e p o r t e d l y s i g n e d "end-user c e r t i f i c a t e s t 1 p u r p o r t e d l y f o r u s e by t h e Guatemalan m i l i t a r y t o a c q u i r e a r m s and ammunition from t h e Portuguese government, but i n r e a l i t y intended f o r t h e Nicaraguan rebels. The c e r t i f i c a t e s l i s t e d r e q u e s t e d t y p e s and q u a n t i t i e s o f arms a n d s t a t e d t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l was f o r t h e e x c l u s i v e u s e of t h e Guatemalan m i l i t a r y . Guatemalan o f f i c i a l s h a v e d e n i e d a l l c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e arms s h i p m e n t s . ( W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , J a n u a r y 1 7 , 1987: A19). CRS- 12 CALERO, A d o l f o Nationality: Nicaragua Current Occupation R e s i s t a n c e l e a d e r , N i c a r a g u a n Democratic F o r c e (FDN) Role Mr. C a l e r o , head o f t h e N i c a r a g u a n D e m o c r a t i c F o r c e (FDN), p r o v i d e d f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s and o t h e r documents t o f e d e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n v e s t i g a t i n g (Washington P o s t , March 4 , 1987: 1 8 ) . M r . C a l e r o t h e I r a n / ~ o n t r aa f f a i r . s a i d t h e a n t i - S a n d i n i s t a r e b e l s r e c e i v e d $200,000 i n O c t o b e r 1985 f r o m Lake R e s o u r c e s , a dummy company r e g i s t e r e d i n Panama w i t h a bank a c c o u n t i n S w i t z e r l a n d . The Tower Commission Report r e p o r t e d t h a t Lake R e s o u r c e s was u s e d by L t . C o l . O l i v e r N o r t h and r e t i r e d A i r F o r c e Maj. Gen. R i c h a r d V . S e c o r d t o h a n d l e p r o c e e d s from t h e arms s a l e s t o I r a n . The book-keeping r e c o r d s show a $25,000 d e p o s i t on O c t o b e r 23, 1985 and a $175,000 d e p o s i t on O c t o b e r 2 5 , 1985. ( w a s h i n g t o n Times, March 6 , 1987: 1 ) . Mr. C a l e r o h a s d e n i e d a n y knowledge of f u n d s b e i n g d i v e r t e d from U.S. arms s a l e s t o I r a n . (Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l , March 5 , 1987: 6 2 ) . CARLUCCI, F r a n k C . Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation National S e c u r i t y Adviser t o t h e P r e s i d e n t , National S e c u r i t y Council, 1987- Recent Previous Occupations P r e s i d e n t , S e a r s World T r a d e , I n c . , 1983-86; Deputy S e c r e t a r y , Department of D e f e n s e , 1981-82; Deputy D i r e c t o r , C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency, 1978-81. Role Mr. C a r l u c c i was a p p o i n t e d by P r e s i d e n t Reagan a s N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r on December 2 , 1986, a f t e r Vice Admiral J o h n P o i n d e x t e r r e s i g n e d . T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower Commission December 1 9 , 1986; F e b r u a r y 2 0 , 1987. CRS- 14 CASEY, W i l l i a m J . Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation W h i t e House C o u n s e l o r Recent Previous Occupations D i r e c t o r , C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency, 1981-87; Campaign M a n a g e r , Reagan-Bush, 1980; Chairman, Task F o r c e on V e n t u r e C a p i t a l , Small B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1976-80. Role The Tower Commission R e p o r t f a u l t e d s e v e r a l of Mr. C a s e y ' s a c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g h i s f a i l u r e t o i n s i s t t h a t t h e CIA t a k e o v e r c o n t r o l of t h e I r a n arms i n i t i a t i v e , t o i n v e s t i g a t e some o f t h e k e y i n t e r m e d i a r i e s i n t h e a r m s t r a n s a c t i o n s and t o t e l l Congress of t h e d e a l i n g s . ( ~ e wYork T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 8 7 : A9). M r . C a s e y s a i d h e became s u s p i c i o u s of c e r t a i n d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t h e f i n a n c i n g o f t h e arms d e a l when N e w York b u s i n e s m a n Roy Furmark t o l d him d u r i n g O c t o b e r a n d November 1 9 8 6 , t h a t c e r t a i n f u n d s f r o m t h e a r m s s a l e s w e r e m i s s i n g a n d may h a v e been g i v e n t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . The Tower C o m i s s i o n R e p o r t c o n c l u d e d t h a t Mr. C a s e y knew t h a t f u n d s f r o m t h e arms s a l e s t o I r a n might have been d i v e r t e d t o t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s It a l m o s t a month b e f o r e t h e s t o r y b r o k e , " b u t d i d n o t move p r o m p t l y t o r a i s e t h e m a t t e r w i t h t h e P r e s i d e n t , y e t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o do s o was c l e a r . " (New York T i m e s , March 3 , 1987: A10). A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Tower Commission R e p o r t , t h e CIA h e l p e d s h i p a r m s t o I r a n t h r o u g h v a r i o u s c h a n n e l s f r o m November 1985 t o l a t e O c t o b e r 1 9 8 6 , a n d t h a t Mr. C a s e y , " a p p e a r s t o h a v e been i n f o r m e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l a b o u t t h e s p e c i f i c s of t h e operations." (New York T i m e s , March 4 , 1987: A14). Mr. C a s e y was d i a g n o s e d a s s u f f e r i n g f r o m a c a n c e r o u s b r a i n t u m o r i n l a t e 1986. F o l l o w i n g s u r g e r y and subsequent h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , he remains i n precarious health. CRS- 15 Testified before Congress House Intelligence Committee, November 21; December 11, 1986; House Foreign Affairs Committee, December 10, 1986; Senate Intelligence Committee, November 21, 1986. CASTILLO, ~ o m a s / T h o m a s (pseudonym) Nationality: United S t a t e s Recent Previous Occupations CIA S t a t i o n C h i e f , C o s t a R i c a Role The Washington P o s t r e p o r t e d t h a t L t . Col. O l i v e r N o r t h c o n s i d e r e d Mr. C a s t i l l o a " p r i m a r y f o r m a l c h a n n e l of communication w i t h t h e ( C o n t r a ) operation.'' ( J a n u a r y 2 5 , 1987: A24). The Tower Commission R e p o r t s t a t e d t h a t a C I A f i e l d o f f i c e r i n C e n t r a l America (whom i t d i d n o t name b u t who h a s been i d e n t i f i e d by c o n g r e s s i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s a s C a s t i l l o ) was g i v e n a s o p h i s t i c a t e d e n c o d i n g machine by C o l o n e l N o r t h , which Mr. N o r t h o b t a i n e d from t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , t o h e l p i n a r r a n g i n g weapons d e l i v e r i e s t o t h e Mr. C a s t i l l o N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . (New York Times, F e b r u a r y 2 8 , 1987: A9). was a l s o a n i m p o r t a n t a i d e t o Duane C l a r r i d g e when he was i n v o l v e d w i t h t r a i n i n g t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . Mr. C a s t i l l o r e c e n t l y r e t i r e d a f t e r he was suspended f o r t a k i n g t o o a c t i v e a r o l e i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d when C o n g r e s s p r o h i b i t e d m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e . Mr. C a s t i l l o c l a i m s h e had t h e 11 t a c i t a p p r o v a l " of C l a i r George, C I A d e p u t y d i r e c t o r f o r c l a n d e s t i n e o p e r a t i o n s , t o a c t i v e l y support t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . CRS- 17 C A V E , George Nationality: United S t a t e s Recent P r e v i o u s Occupations C I A S t a t i o n C h i e f , I r a n (Washington P o s t December 3 1 , 1986: Al, 8) Role Mr. Cave was b r o u g h t o u t o f r e t i r e m e n t by t h e n CIA D i r e c t o r W i l l i a m Casey a s a CIA c o n t r a c t employee i n March o f 1986. He p l a y e d a m a j o r r o l e a s a n i n t e r p r e t e r and l i a s o n f o r f o r m e r N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r R o b e r t M c F a r l a n e and t h e I r a n i a n e m i s s a r i e s d u r i n g a s e r i e s of m e e t i n g s and n e g o t i a t i o n s t o d i s c u s s t h e a r m s - f o r - h o s t a g e d e a l . Mr. Cave was r e l i e d upon a f t e r f o r m e r C I A D i r e c t o r Casey e x p r e s s e d d o u b t s a b o u t A l b e r t ~ a k i m ' st r u s t w o r t h i n e s s and t h e v e r a c i t y of Manucher G h o r b a n i f a r ' s t r a n s l a t i o n . ( S e n a t e S e l e c t Committee on Intelligence: 22). Mr. Cave accompanied L t . Col. O l i v e r N o r t h and t h e C I A C h i e f o f t h e Near E a s t D i v i s i o n ( C I N E ) t o a m e e t i n g i n P a r i s w i t h Manucher G h o r b a n i f a r on March 8 , 1 9 8 6 , t o d i s c u s s I r a n i a n weapon r e q u i r e m e n t s . Mr. Cave s t a t e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e m e e t i n g Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r made i t c l e a r t h a t I r a n was w i l l i n g " t o d o s o m e t h i n g t o g e t a d d i t i o n a l h o s t a g e s r e l e a s e d " and was w i l l i n g t o c o n d u c t d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e United S t a t e s . (Tower Commission R e p o r t , Appendix B , V I I A B). Mr. Cave accompanied R o b e r t C. McFarlane, N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l a i d e Howard T e i c h e r , L t . C o l . N o r t h and Amiram Nir on an u n s u c c e s s f u l m i s s i o n t o T e h r a n i n l a t e May of 1986. (Washington P o s t , F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1987: A19). On J u l y 2 5 , 1986, Mr. N o r t h i n a computer message t o t h e n N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r John P o i n d e x t e r , s t a t e d t h a t Mr. Cave was m e e t i n g w i t h T a b a t a b a i , an I r a n i a n who was r e p o r t e d l y w e l l - c o n n e c t e d t o I r a n i a n P a r l i a m e n t S p e a k e r R a f s a n j a n i and i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e a r m s - f o r - h o s t a g e d e a l . I n t h e f a l l of 1986, Mr. Cave was i n v o l v e d i n a s e r i e s o f m e e t i n g s w i t h L t . C o l . N o r t h and r e t i r e d A i r F o r c e Maj. Gen. R i c h a r d V. S e c o r d i n t h e i r n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h " t h e R e l a t i v e , " a n I r a n i a n o f f i c i a l who became t h e s e c o n d c h a n n e l o f communication w i t h t h e U.S. On O c t o b e r 6 , 1986, d u r i n g o n e of t h e s e m e e t i n g s , " t h e R e l a t i v e " r e c e i v e d a B i b l e from t h e U.S. o f f i c i a l s , i n s c r i b e d w i t h a b i b l i c a l p a s s a g e and b e a r i n g t h e s i g n a t u r e o f Ronald Reagan. ( ~ o w e rCommission R e p o r t , Appendix B , I X C). C l a i r G e o r g e , CIA d e p u t y d i r e c t o r f o r c l a n d e s t i n e o p e r a t i o n s , t o I d t h e Tower Commission that Mr. Cave "was paid by me and on paper was working for me. But I think in the heat of battle....George was working for Oliver ~ o r t h . " (Washington Post, February 27, 1987: A19). Test if ied before Tower Comnission January 5, 1987 CHANNELL, C a r l ( S p i t z ) K u s s e l l Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation F o u n d e r , C h a n n e l l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1983-; P r e s i d e n t , Western G o a l s F o u n d a t i o n . Kecent P r e v i o u s O c c u p a t i o n s F i n a n c e D i r e c t o r , N a t i o n a l C o n s e r v a t i v e P o l i t i c a l A c t i o n Committee (NCPAC), 1979-83; Manager, E l k i n s Motor Lodge, 1973-79. Role Mr. C h a n n e l l , a h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l f u n d r a i s e r f o r c o n s e r v a t i v e c a u s e s , i s b e l i e v e d t o h a v e been h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d i n L t . C o l . ~ o r t h ' se f f o r t s t o r a i s e p r i v a t e funds f o r t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . (Washington P o s t , F e b r u a r y 21, 1987: A l , A18, A19). The o f f i c e o f t h e s p e c i a l c o u n s e l a p p o i n t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e I r a n arms It has s a l e s a n d C o n t r a a i d i s e x a m i n i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s of Mr. C h a n n e l l . i s s u e d s u b p e o n a s f o r r e c o r d s of t h e n i n e f o u n d a t i o n s , l o b b i e s , c o r p o r a t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n c o n a n i t t e e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Mr. C h a n n e l l . The Lowell (Mass.) Sun, h a s c h a r g e d t h a t some of t h e p r o f i t s o f t h e I r a n a r m s s a l e s were f u n n e l e d t o t h e N a t i o n a l Endowment f o r t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n o f Mr. C h a n n e l l h a s d e n i e d L i b e r t y , o n e of Mr. ~ h a n n e l l ' sl a r g e s t f o u n d a t i o n s . a l l charges a s "outrageous, l i b e l o u s lies." (Christian Science Monitor, Cox J a n u a r y 2 1 , 1987: 3 6 ) (New York Times, J a n u a r y 9 , 1987: A10). Newspapers r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l l y funded a g e n c y , t h e N a t i o n a l Endowment f o r Democracy, g a v e $493,773 o v e r a three-month p e r i o d t o t h e I n s t i t u t e f o r North-South I s s u e s , a n o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h t i e s t o Mr. C h a n n e l l t h r o u g h t h e Washington p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f i r m I B C , r u n by F r a n c i s Gomez and R i c h a r d M i l l e r . ( V i l l a g e V o i c e , March 1 0 , 1987: 17-20). Documents r e l e a s e d b y t h e Tower Commission R e p o r t s u g g e s t l i n k s between Mr. ~ h a n n e l l ' s p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c o r p o r a t i o n s t h a t were s e c r e t l y p r o v i d i n g a r m s t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . One document, a f l o w c h a r t f o u n d i n t h e o f f i c e of L t . Col. N o r t h , u s e s d o t t e d l i n e s and a r r o w s t o t r a c e c o r p o r a t e c o n n e c t i o n s . The f l o w c h a r t shows a p p a r e n t c o n n e c t i o n s between o r g a n i z a t i o n s r u n by Mr. C h a n n e l l and s u c h c o r p o r a t i o n s a s Lake R e s o u r c e s . A c o r p o r a t i o n r e g i s t e r e d i n Panama w i t h a bank a c c o u n t i n S w i t z e r l a n d , Lake R e s o u r c e s was c o n t r o l l e d by Mr. N o r t h and r e t i r e d Maj. Gen. R i c h a r d V . S e c o r d . I t was s e t up i n May 1 9 8 5 , two months b e f o r e t h e f i r s t shipment of weapons t o I r a n , and d i s s o l v e d o n e week a f t e r t h e White House c o n f i r m e d t h e I r a n arms s a l e s . (New York Times, J a n u a r y 1 4 , 1987, S e c t i o n 3 : 6 ) . ABC News r e p o r t e d t h a t $ 2 . 2 m i l l i o n was c o n t r i b u t e d t o a C h a n n e l l p r o j e c t code-named "Toys", and t h a t t h e money was used f o r m i l i t a y a i d t o t h e r e b e l s a t a t i m e when t h e Boland Amendment f o r b a d e "any a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f , o r ( h a v i n g ) t h e e f f e c t of s u p p o r t i n g d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t m i l i t a r y o r p a r a m i l i t a r y a i d i n N i c a r a g u a by a n y n a t i o n , g r o u p , o r g a n i z a t i o n , movement o r individual." CICIPPIO, J o s e p h J. Nationality: United S t a t e s Recent Previous Occupations Deputy C o m p t r o l l e r , American U n i v e r s i t y of B e i r u t Kol e Mr. C i c i p p i o was t a k e n h o s t a g e on September 1 2 , 1986, on t h e campus of t h e American U n i v e r s i t y i n West B e i r u t , by a l - B a a t h C e l l s O r g a n i z a t i o n ( V o i c e o f Lebanon, September 1 3 , 19861, o r Umar al-Mukkhtar F o r c e s of t h e Arab R e v o l u t i o n a r y C e l l s ( B e i r u t R a d i o , September 1 4 , 1 9 8 6 ) , o r by t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e v o l u t i o n a r y J u s t i c e (Agency F r a n c e P r e s s , September 2 , 1 9 8 6 ) . He r e m a i n s i n c a p t i v i t y a s o f March 27, 1987. CLARRIDGE, Duane Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation C h i e f , European D i v i s i o n , CIA D i r e c t o r a t e f o r O p e r a t i o n s . Recent Previous Occupations C h i e f , CIA C o v e r t O p e r a t i o n s , Middle E a s t , 1985; C h i e f , C I A C o v e r t O p e r a t i o n s , L a t i n America, 1984; C I A S t a t i o n C h i e f , I t a l y , 1981. (New York Times J a n u a r y 2 1 , 1987: 1). Role On November 2 1 , 1985, Mr. C l a r r i d g e was a s k e d by L t . Col. O l i v e r N o r t h t o a s s i s t i n o b t a i n i n g a n o v e r f l i g h t c l e a r a n c e f o r a n E l A 1 747 f l i g h t . The f l i g h t was t o d e l i v e r arms t o I r a n . Mr. C l a r r i d g e was informed by C h a r l e s A l l e n , C I A N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e O f f i c e r , t h a t t h e f l i g h t was p a r t of a n o p e r a t i o n t o l i b e r a t e t h e American h o s t a g e s i n Lebanon, The c l e a r a n c e was d e n i e d . Mr. C l a r r i d g e t h e n h e l p e d p r o v i d e a CIA p r o p r i e t a r y p l a n e and p e r s o n n e l t o L t . Col. N o r t h t o g e t a shipment o f Hawk m i s s i l e s from I s r a e l t o I r a n on November 25, 1985. T h i s a c t i o n was a u t h o r i z e d by Edward J u c h n i e w i c z , (Tower Commission R e p o r t , Appendix B , V a c t i n g Deputy D i r e c t o r of O p e r a t i o n s . B). Mr. C l a r r i d g e c l a i m s h e t h o u g h t t h e shipment c o n t a i n e d o i l d r i l l i n g e q u i p m e n t . Mr. C l a r r i d g e r e p o r t e d l y worked w i t h L t . Col. North and t h e FBI i n a p l a n t o f r e e h o s t a g e P e t e r K i l b u r n and a p p r e h e n d h i s k i d n a p p e r s . (Time 1). F e b r u a r y 2 , 1987: 221, (New York Times J a n u a r y 2 1 , 1987: T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower Comnission December 1 8 , 1986 C L I N E S , Thomas Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation I n v e s t o r and c o n s u l t a n t Recent Previous Occupations C I A o f f i c i a l , 1949-1978 Role Mr. C l i n e s i s r e p o r t e d l y l i n k e d t o s h i p m e n t s o f arms and ammunition t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . These arms were r e p o r t e d l y o b t a i n e d by u s i n g bogus documents o f U.S. and Canadian companies. O r i g i n a t i n g i n P o r t u g a l , t h e a r m s w e r e p u r p o r t e d l y t o be s e n t t o Guatemala b u t i n f a c t were d e s t i n e d f o r t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s , a f t e r t h e U.S. C o n g r e s s banned t h e U.S. government f r o m giving military assistance to the rebels. Documentation j u s t i f y i n g t h e b u l k of t h e arms s h i p m e n t s was s u b m i t t e d t o t h e P o r t u g u e s e government by Energy R e s o u r c e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l . The Washington P o s t r e p o r t e d t h a t documents f i l e d w i t h P o r t u g a l ' s N a t i o n a l Armaments D i r e c t o r a t e g i v e t h e a d d r e s s of Energy R e s o u r c e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l a s 440 Maple Avenue, i n V i e n n a , V i r g i n i a , t h e same a d d r e s s a t t h a t t i m e by a company p a r t l y owned by r e t i r e d A i r F o r c e Maj. Gen. R i c h a r d V . S e c o r d . Mr. C l i n e s i s s a i d t o h a v e worked w i t h Mr. Secord and Mr. A l b e r t Hakim, Mr. S e c o r d ' s b u s i n e s s p a r t n e r . Mr. C l i n e s worked w i t h Mr. Secord i n Laos from 1967 t o 1969. ( W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , J a n u a r y 18, 1987: A16). Energy R e s o u r c e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l g a v e t h e Guatemalan c e r t i f i c a t e s t o L i s b o n arms d e a l e r , D e f e x - P o r t u g a l , which p l a y e d a r o l e i n N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l arms s h i p m e n t s . One o f t h r e e Defex p a r t n e r s , J o s e G a r n e l , h a s acknowledged t h a t (Washington P o s t , J a n u a r y 1 7 , h i s company h a s done b u s i n e s s w i t h Mr. C l i n e s . 1987: A l , A9). Mr. C l i n e s was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n a c q u i r i n g a s h i p u s e d i n May of 1986 i n a n a t t e m p t t o exchange American h o s t a g e s f o r a $ 2 m i l l i o n ransom p u t up by H . Ross P e r o t . (Washington P o s t , J a n u a r y 1 6 , 1987: 4 6 ) . COY, C r a i g Nationality: United S t a t e s Recent Previous Occupations S t a f f Member, N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y Council Role Comnander Coy r e p o r t e d t o L t . Col. R o b e r t E a r l , a N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l member, on O c t o b e r 2 0 , 1986, t h a t a q u a n t i t y of TOW m i s s i l e s were r e a d y t o be t r a n s p o r t e d t o I r a n . ( ~ o w e rCommission R e p o r t , Appendex B , IX D). Comnander C r a i g Coy a s s i s t e d i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of a c h r o n o l o g y of t h e I r a n arms i n i t i a t i v e w i t h L t . Col. N o r t h , R o b e r t C. McFarlane, Vice-Admiral P o i n d e x t e r , and L t . Col. Robert E a r l . (Tower Commission R e p o r t , Appendix D , Aftermath). T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower Comnission J a n u a r y 2 , 1987 CROWE, W i l l i a m J . Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation Chairman, J o i n t C h i e f s o f S t a f f Recent P r e v i o u s Occupations Commander-in-Chief, Commander-in-Chief P a c i f i c , 1983-85; A l l i e d F o r c e s S o u t h Europe, 1980-83; Department c h i e f o f Naval O p e r a t i o n s , Department o f t h e Navy, 1977-80; C o m a n d e r Middle E a s t F o r c e , B a h r a i n , 1976-77; D i r e c t o r E a s t A s i a and P a c i f i c R e g i o n , O f f i c e of S e c r e t a r y o f D e f e n s e . Role Admiral Crowe r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e J o i n t C h i e f s o f S t a f f were n o t c o n s u l t e d r e g a r d i n g t h e t r a n s f e r of arms t o I r a n b u t t h a t , based on i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by S e c r e t a r y W e i n b e r g e r , t h e y had d e t e r m i n e d t h e " g e n e r a l o u t l i n e " of t h e o p e r a t i o n . (New York Times, J a n u a r y 1 9 , 1 9 8 7 ) . T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Congress House Armed S e r v i c e s , November 2 4 , 1986 CRUZ, A r t u r o Nationality: Nicaragua Recent Previous Occupations R e s i s t a n c e l e a d e r , U n i t e d Nicaraguan O p p o s i t i o n ; Ambassador ( S a n d i n i s t a g o v e r n m e n t ) ; Banker. Role Mr. Cruz r e c e i v e d p r i v a t e f u n d s from L t . Col. O l i v e r North. Mr. N o r t h a r r a n g e d f o r Mr. Cruz t o r e c e i v e a $7,000 monthly s t i p e n d from J a n u a r y o f 1986, t o November of 1986. Mr. Cruz t o l d FBI o f f i c i a l s t h a t Mr. N o r t h t o l d him t h a t he would a r r a n g e f o r him t o r e c e i v e money from a " p r i v a t e f o r e i g n Mr. Cruz s t a t e d t h a t he d i d n o t know who p a i d t h e money. source." ( w a s h i n g t o n P o s t , F e b r u a r y 21, 1987: A l , A20). D e GARAY, Edward Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation P r e s i d e n t and Chairman, C o r p o r a t e A i r S e r v i c e s , I n c . As c h a i r m a n of a P e n n s y l v a n i a a i r t r a n s p o r t company, C o r p o r a t e A i r S e r v i c e s , I n c . , Mr. De G a r a y was i n v o l v e d i n s h i p p i n g s u p p l i e s t o t h e Nicaraguan rebels. (New York T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 2 8 , 1987: A6). Mr. De G a r a y was g r a n t e d l i m i t e d i m m u n i t y on F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1987 b y i n v e s t i g a t o r y C o m m i t t e s o f t h e House a n d t h e S e n a t e i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e I r a n arms i n i t i a t i v e / ~ o n t r ar e f u n d i n g i s s u e . ( ~ e w s w e e k , March 9 , 1 9 8 7 : 3 4 ) . E u g e n e H a s e n f u s , a n A m e r i c a n who was on a n a i r c r a f t s h o t down i n O c t o b e r 1 9 8 6 by t h e N i c a r a g u a n g o v e r n m e n t w h i l e i t was d r o p p i n g s u p p l i e s t o t h e r e b e l s , h a s s a i d h e was h i r e d b y Mr. D e ~ a r a ~ company. ' s (wall S t r e e t Journal, February 27, 1987: 6 ) . DUTTON, R o b e r t C. Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation A s s i s t a n t t o r e t i r e d A i r F o r c e Maj. Gen. R i c h a r d V . Secord; Employee, S t a n f o r d T e c h n o l o g i e s , I n c . Recent Previous Occupations Pentagon S p e c i a l Operations D i v i s i o n ; A i r F o r c e M i l i t a r y A s s i s t a n c e Advisory Group, I r a n . Role Along w i t h r e t i r e d A i r F o r c e Maj. Gen. R i c h a r d V . Secord and L t . C o l . R i c h a r d Gadd, Mr. D u t t o n r e p o r t e d l y h a n d l e d t h e l o g i s t i c a l and f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e d e l i v e r y of s u p p l i e s t o t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s u s i n g C o r p o r a t e A i r S e r v i c e s , a P e n n s y l v a n i a a i r t r a n s p o r t company r u n by Edward De G a r a y . He i s s a i d t o h a v e s u p e r v i s e d t h e c o n t r a s u p p l y o p e r a t i o n i n E l S a l v a d o r by r a d i o from h i s Vienna, V i r g i n i a o f f i c e . According t o t h e S e n a t e I n t e l l i g e n c e Committee R e p o r t , Mr. Dutton was i n Tel Aviv, I s r a e l i n t h e f a l l o f 1985, s u p e r v i s i n g t h e l o a d i n g of a p l a n e c a r r y i n g TOW a n t i - t a n k m i s s i l e s t o Iran. (Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l , F e b r u a r y 27, 1987: A6) (Washington P o s t , J a n u a r y 1 8 , 1987: ~ 1 6 )( ~ e wYork Times November 3 0 , 1986). Mr. D u t t o n was g r a n t e d l i m i t e d immunity on F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1987, by t h e S e n a t e and t h e House i n v e s t i g a t i v e C o m i t t e e s . T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Congress S e n a t e I n t e l l i g e n c e Committee, December 1 0 , 1986; t o o k F i f t h Amendment. EARL, Robert Nationality: United States Recent Previous Occupations Staff Member, National Security Council Role Colonel Earl was told by Commander Craig Coy, a National Security Council staffer, that a quantity of TOW missiles was ready to be transported to Iran. (Tower Commission Report, Appendix B, IX Dl. Colonel Earl was assigned to the National Security Council's "Operations sub-~roup" (OSG), co-chaired by Lt. Col. Oliver North. The OSG was a small group that coordinated the government's counterterrorism efforts. (Washington Post, February 17, 1987: A10). Testified before Congress Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, December 12, 1986; took Sixth Amendment. FAHD, I b n Abdal-Aziz Nationality: Saudi Arabia Current Occupation King o f Saudi Arabia Recent Previous Occupations Prime M i n i s t e r , 1982-; F i r s t Deputy Prime M i n i s t e r , 1975-82. Role King Fahd i s b e l i e v e d t o h a v e o f f e r e d t o p r o v i d e f u n d s t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n rebels. The Tower Commission R e p o r t c o n t a i n s a w r i t t e n s t a t e m e n t f r o m f o r m e r N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r R o b e r t McFarlane s t a t i n g t h a t "a f o r e i g n o f f i c i a l " o f f e r e d i n May o r J u n e of 1984 t o p r o v i d e $ 1 m i l l i o n a month i n " p e r s o n a l f u n d s " t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . The Washington P o s t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l f u n d s came f r o m King Fahd. ( F e b r u a r y 28, 1987: A13). A c c o r d i n g t o t e s t i m o n y g i v e n by Mr. McFarlane, t h e amount was s u b s e q u e n t l y i n c r e a s e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y $2 m i l l i o n a month, and amounted t o $25 m i l l i o n d u r i n g 1985. D u r i n g t h i s t i m e o f f i c i a l U.S. a i d was c u t o f f . The S a u d i Embassy i s s u e d a s t a t e m e n t on O c t o b e r 2 1 , 1986, which s a i d , S a u d i A r a b i a i s n o t , and h a s n o t been, i n v o l v e d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y i n a n y m i l i t a r y o r o t h e r s u p p o r t a c t i v i t y of any k i n d f o r , o r i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h , a n y g r o u p , o r g r o u p s , c o n c e r n e d w i t h Nicaragua." 1I FARINA, Roland Nat i o n a l i t y : Switzer land Current Occupation A c c o u n t a n t , Companie d e S e r v i c e s F i d u c i a r i e s Kol e Mr. F a r i n a i s l i s t e d a s a p r i n c i p a l o f f i c e r i n Albon V a l u e s C o r p o r a t i o n , a Panamanian c o r p o r a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n September 1985 and r e p o r t e d l y u s e d i n t h e t r a n s f e r o f f u n d s from t h e I r a n arms i n i t i a t i v e t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . ~ , 1987: 5 0 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e money was The Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l ( ~ a n u a r3 0 p a i d by w i r e t r a n s f e r t o a second c o r p o r a t i o n c o n t r o l l e d by S o u t h e r n A i r T r a n s p o r t , which was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n buying and m a i n t a i n i n g p l a n e s used i n t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l r e s u p p l y e f f o r t . Mr. F a r i n a ' s name h a s a p p e a r e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o t h e r c o r p o r a t i o n s i n Bermuda, S w i t z e r l a n d and Panama t h a t a r e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h W i l l a r d I . Z u c k e r , a manager of Compagnie d e S e r v i c e s F i d u c i a r i e s . T h e s e c o r p o r a t i o n s and Mr. Zucker p e r s o n a l l y have been l i n k e d i n t h e p r i v a t e funding e f f o r t f o r t h e Contras. (Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l , J a n u a r y 3 0 , 1987: 5 0 ) . FIERS, Alan Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation C I A , C e n t r a l America t a s k f o r c e c h i e f Role Mr. F i e r s informed C I A s t a t i o n c h i e f s i n t h e f a l l of 1985, t h a t r e s t r i c t i o n s had been e a s e d a l l o w i n g " i n t e l l i g e n c e s h a r i n g " between t h e CIA and t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . T h i s message was p u r p o r t e d l y i n t e n d e d t o a l l o w CIA o p e r a t i v e s t o a i d L t . Col. N o r t h and h i s p r i v a t e s u p p l y n e t w o r k t o t h e anti-Sandinista rebels. (Newsweek, March 2 , 1987: 2 6 ) . Mr. F i e r s was a key member o f t h e R e s t r i c t e d I n t e r a g e n c y Group (RIG) on C e n t r a l America, which convened o n c e o r t w i c e a week a t t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t . The o t h e r p r i n c i p a l members o f t h e R I G were Mr. N o r t h and A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e E l l i o t t Abrams. (Washington P o s t , F e b r u a r y 27, 1987: A18). FORTIER , Donald R. Nationality: (deceased) United S t a t e s Recent Previous Occupations Deputy t o f o r m e r N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r John M. Poindexter; Special Assistant to the President; Senior Director f o r P o l i t i c a l Military Affairs. Role I n May o f 1985, Mr. F o r t i e r a c t i n g on i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m t h e n - N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y Advisor Robert McFarlane, asked t h e C I A t o p r e p a r e a n i n t e l l i g e n c e a s s e s s m e n t on I r a n . T h i s r e q u e s t , f o l l o w i n g on Michael L e d e e n ' s t r i p t o I s r a e l e a r l i e r t h a t month, r e s u l t e d i n Graham F u l l e r ' s a s s e s s m e n t a r g u i n g t h a t t h e t i m e was r i p e f o r a n o p e n i n g t o I r a n . Mr. F o r t i e r c o - a u t h o r e d , w i t h N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l a i d e Howard T e i c h e r , a J u n e 1 1 , 1985, N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y D e c i s i o n D i r e c t i v e t h a t p r o p o s e d a l l o w i n g f r i e n d l y s t a t e s t o s e l l t o I r a n arms " t h a t would n o t a f f e c t t h e s t r a t e g i c b a l a n c e a s a means of showing I r a n t h a t i t had a l t e r n a t i v e s " t o t h e S o v i e t s . The NSDD was d e l i v e r e d t o S e c r e t a r y o f D e f e n s e C a s p a r W e i n b e r g e r and S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e George S c h u l t z . (Tower Comrni~sionR e p o r t , Appendix B I1 B). Mr. F o r t i e r was f u l l y b r i e f e d of a " n o t i o n a l t i m e l i n e " f o r t h e I r a n arms s a l e s program p r e p a r e d by L t . Col. N o r t h i n J a n u a r y o f 1986. ( S e n a t e S e l e c t 19). Committee on I n t e l l i g e n c e : Mr. F o r t i e r d i e d o f c a n c e r i n 1986. FRASER, Donald Nationality: Canada Current Occupation P r e s i d e n t , T r i a d America C o r p o r a t i o n Role A c c o r d i n g t o p r e s s a c c o u n t s , Canadian b u s i n e s s p a r t n e r s Donald F r a s e r and E r n e s t M i l l e r p r o v i d e d Adnan Khashoggi between $10 and $40 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s t h r o u g h a Caymen I s l a n d s bank t o h e l p f i n a n c e a U.S. arms s h i p m e n t t o I r a n i n 1986. When Mr. Khashoggi f a i l e d t o r e i m b u r s e them i n f u l l , t h e y r e p o r t e d l y s u r m i s e d t h a t some of t h e I r a n i a n payment may h a v e been d i v e r t e d t o t h e t h e C o n t r a s . (Washington P o s t , December 2 4 , 1986: A-1, A-8). Roy Furmark, b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e of Adnan Khashoggi, informed t h e n C I A D i r e c t o r W i l l i a m Casey on O c t o b e r 7 , 1986, t h a t Mr. Khashoggi had borrowed t h e money t o f i n a n c e t h e arms t r a n s f e r s from two Canadians. F u r t h e r m o r e , Mr. Furmark t o l d M r . Casey t h a t " t h e Canadians were p u t t i n g l o t s of p r e s s u r e on Adnan ( K h a s h o g g i ) , and t h a t t h e y were g o i n g t o s u e him and he would h a v e t o b r i n g i n ( s i c ) t h e U.S. i n t o t h e t r a n s a c t i o n . " (Tower Commission R e p o r t , Appendix B, I X D). ( S e n a t e S e l e c t Committee on I n t e l l i g e n c e : 36). FULLER, Graham Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e O f f i c e r f o r t h e Middle E a s t , C I A Role Mr. F u l l e r p r e p a r e d a f i v e - p a g e memorandum f o r u s e by f o r m e r N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r R o b e r t McFarlane, a t t h e r e q u e s t o f Donald F o r t i e r , i n May o f Mr. 1 9 8 5 , t h r e e months b e f o r e I s r a e l began s h i p p i n g American weapons t o I r a n . F u l l e r ' s memorandum recommended t h e s a l e of arms t o I r a n a s o n e way t o e n h a n c e W e s t e r n i n f l u e n c e i n T e h r a n . Mr. F u l l e r a r g u e d t h a t t h e t i m e was r i p e f o r a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s t o b e p u r s u e d b e c a u s e t h e p r e s e n t I r a n i a n r e g i m e was f a l t e r i n g and t h a t a s t r u g g l e f o r s u c c e s s i o n was imminent. He s u g g e s t e d a number of p o l i c y a c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g e n c o u r a g i n g " f r i e n d l y s t a t e s " t o s e l l a r m s (New York T i m e s , March t o Iran. (Tower Commission R e p o r t , Appendix B , I1 8). 4 , 1987: A14). FURMARK, Roy Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation New York l a w y e r and b u s i n e s s m a n , e n e r g y c o n s u l t a n t , Furmark Corp. Role A s a b u s i n e s s m a n , Mr. Furrnark h a s been i n v o l v e d i n many d e a l s i n t h e M i d d l e E a s t and h a s a t t e m p t e d t o s e l l goods t o I r a n . Mr. Furmark t o o k p a r t i n a J u l y o f 1985 m e e t i n g i n I s r a e l w i t h Yaacov Nimrodi, Manucher G h o r b a n i f a r , Amiram Nir, and A 1 Schwirnmer t o d i s c u s s t h e t e c h n i c a l i t i e s of t h e I r a n arms shipments. (Tower Commission, Appendix B , 111). A c t i n g on b e h a l f o f Adnan Khashoggi, who complained t h a t h e had n o t been r e p a i d money t h a t h e s p e n t t o f a c i l i t a t e a U.S. shipment of arms t o I r a n , Mr. Furmark met t h r e e t i m e s w i t h f r i e n d and f o r m e r a s s o c i a t e W i l l i a m Casey i n O c t o b e r and November 1986, i n a n a t t e m p t t o l o c a t e t h e f u n d s . Manucher G h o r b a n i f a r , t h e I r a n i a n arms m e r c h a n t , t o l d Mr. Furmark i n a n August o f 1986 m e e t i n g i n P a r i s t h a t h e s u s p e c t e d money from t h e arms d e a l may h a v e been f u n n e l e d t o t h e Nicaraguan Contras o r t h e Afghanistan r e b e l s . On November 2 4 , a t t h e t h i r d m e e t i n g between Mr. Furmark and Mr. Casey, Mr. Furmark t o l d Mr. Casey t h a t f u n d s may have gone t o t h e C o n t r a s . ( S e n a t e S e l e c t Committee on Intelligence: 36, 51). T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Congress House I n t e l l i g e n c e Committee, December 1 8 , 1986; S e n a t e I n t e l l i g e n c e Committee, December 1 1 , 1986. T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower Commission J a n u a r y 1 5 , 1987 CADD, R i c h a r d B. Nationality: United S t a t e s Kecent P r e v i o u s Occupations Lt. Col., U n i t e d S t a t e s Air F o r c e ; P e n t a g o n , A i r F o r c e S p e c i a l P l a n s , 1980-81; A i r Commando, U n i t e d S t a t e s A i r F o r c e . Kol e Mr. Gadd r e p o r t e d l y h e l p e d manage t h e d e l i v e r y o f arms s u p p l i e s t o t h e ConLras u n t i l t h i s r o l e was assumed by R i c h a r d D u t t o n . His company, American N a t i o n a l Management C o r p o r a t i o n , had been h i r e d by t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t t o s h i p humanitarian a i d t o t h e Contras. (Washington P o s t , J a n u a r y 1 8 , 1987: The Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l r e p o r t e d though t h e f u l l s c o p e of L t . C o l . A-16). G a d d ' s r o l e r e m a i n s u n c l e a r , he o f f e r e d a p r i v a t e a i r l i f t c a p a b i l i t y t h a t t h e U.S. m i l i t a r y was t h e n u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e f o r c o v e r t U.S. o p e r a t i o n s . (Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l , F e b r u a r y 1 3 , 1987: 5 0 ) . GARNEL, Jose Nationality: Portugal Current Occupation Director and part-owner, Defex-Portugal Role Mr. Garnel reportedly played an important role in facilitating the shipment through Portugal of arms intended for the Nicaraguan rebels. Defex-Portugal, a Lisbon trading firm, reportedly facilitated many of the Nicaraguan rebel arms shipments from Europe, Expresso, a Portuguese weekly publication, estimated that Portuguese arms makers supplied more than $8 million in weapons and ammunition to the rebels in 1984 and 1985. Mr. Garnel reportedly dealt with Thomas Clines, ex-CIA official. (Washington Post, January 16, 1987: 46). GATES, R o b e r t H . Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation Deputy D i r e c t o r , C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency, 1986- Recent Previous Occupations A c t i n g D i r e c t o r , C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency, 1987; Chairman, N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e C o u n c i l , 1983; Deputy D i r e c t o r f o r I n t e l l i g e n c e , 1982; N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e O f f i c e , S o v i e t Union, 1980-?; S t a f f , N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , 1966-74. Role Along w i t h f o r m e r Deputy D i r e c t o r John McMahon, Mr. G a t e s t o o k p a r t i n a m e e t i n g on J a n u a r y 1 8 , 1986, where he was i n f o r m e d by L t . C o l . O l i v e r N o r t h and f o r m e r N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r John P o i n d e x t e r t h a t P r e s i d e n t Reagan had s i g n e d a s e c r e t f i n d i n g t h e day b e f o r e and t h a t t h e C I A was r e q u e s t e d t o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r t h e arms s h i p m e n t s . Mr. G a t e s opposed t h e t r a n s f e r o f intelligence to Iran. One of t h e c o m p u t e r messages from Mr. P o i n d e x t e r t h a t was r e l e a s e d by t h e Tower Commission R e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t Mr. G a t e s knew a b o u t t h e p r i v a t e "I d i d t e l l G a t e s n e t w o r k t h a t f i n a n c e d and s u p p l i e d t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . t h a t I t h o u g h t t h e p r i v a t e e f f o r t s h o u l d be p h a s e d o u t , " Mr. P o i n d e x t e r t o l d Mr. N o r t h i n J u l y o f 1986, a f t e r C o n g r e s s v o t e d t o resume U.S. a i d t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . Mr. G a t e s t e s t i f i e d i n December o f 1 9 8 6 , t h a t h e l e a r n e d o f t h e p o s s i b l e d i v e r s i o n o f f u n d s t o t h e r e b e l s from U.S. arms s a l e s t o I r a n According i n O c t o b e r of 1986. (Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l , F e b r u a r y 1 8 , 1987: 2 ) . t o t h e Tower Comnission R e p o r t , C h a r l e s A l l e n , CIA N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e O f f i c e r f o r C o u n t e r t e r r o r i s m , warned Mr. G a t e s a b o u t t h e d i v e r s i o n of money f r o m t h e I r a n i a n arms s a l e s . " I s a i d p e r h a p s t h e money h a s been d i v e r t e d t o t h e c o n t r a s , and I s a i d I c a n ' t p r o v e i t , " Mr. A l l e n t o l d t h e Commission. " ~ a t e swas d e e p l y d i s t u r b e d by t h a t and a s k e d me t o b r i e f t h e ~ i r e c t o r . " (Newsweek, March 9 , 1987: 3 0 ) . Mr. G a t e s h a s d e n i e d a l l s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t he i g n o r e d o r c o v e r e d up e v i d e n c e of i m p r o p r i e t i e s . Mr. G a t e s s a i d h e had " p r e s s e d " Mr. N o r t h f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e C I A ' S r o l e i n a p r i v a t e network supplying a i d t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . Mr. G a t e s s a i d he had been " a s s u r e d " by Mr. N o r t h t h a t t h e Mr. G a t e s s a i d h e e x p r e s s e d " c o n c e r n " a b o u t t h e a g e n c y ' s a g e n c y was " c l e a n . " f a i l u r e t o n o t i f y C o n g r e s s o f t h e a r m s s h i p m e n t s t o I r a n i n 1986. (New York T i m e s , March 4 , 1987: 1 4 ) . Mr. G a t e s was n o m i n a t e d F e b r u a r y 2 , 1 9 8 7 , t o b e D i r e c t o r o f C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e . On March 1 , 1 9 8 7 , he r e q u e s t e d t h a t h i s n o m i n a t i o n b e withdrawn. T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Congress S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s C o m m i t t e e , J a n u a r y 2 1 , 1987; S e n a t e I n t e l l i g e n c e Committee, December 4 , 1 9 8 6 ; House I n t e l l i g e n c e C o m m i t t e e , December 1 0 , 1986. T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower Commission J a n u a r y 1 2 , 1987 GEORGE, C l a i r Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation CIA Deputy D i r e c t o r of O p e r a t i o n s (New York T i m e s , J a n u a r y 9 , 1 9 8 7 ) Role Mr. G e o r g e was o n e o f s e v e r a l CIA o f f i c i a l s ( s e e a l s o C h a r l e s ALLEN a n d G e o r g e CAVE), who h e l p e d L t . Col. O l i v e r N o r t h c a r r y o u t t h e a r m s s h i p m e n t s t o He became I r a n a n d t h e s u p p l y o f weapons t o t h e r e b e l s i n N i c a r a g u a . p a r t i c u a r l y a c t i v e a f t e r P r e s i d e n t Reagan s i g n e d a s e c r e t i n t e l l i g e n c e f i n d i n g o n J a n u a r y 1 7 , 1986 w h i c h a u t h o r i z e d t h e arms d e a l s w i t h I r a n . (New York T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 2 8 , 1987: A9). T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower C o m n i s s i o n J a n u a r y 1 4 , 1987 GHORBANIFAR, Manucher Nationality: Iran Current Occupation Businessman (arms d e a l e r ) Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r p l a y e d a p r i n c i p a l r o l e i n i n i t i a t i n g a n d i n p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r I s r a e l i and U.S. arms s a l e s t o I r a n a s w e l l a s i n a c t i n g a s t h e middleman b e t w e e n U.S., I s r a e l i and I r a n i a n o f f i c i a l s u n t i l S e p t e m b e r o f 1986. A l t h o u g h b o t h f o r m e r N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r R o b e r t M c F a r l a n e a n d CIA o f f i c i a l s h a d s e r i o u s r e s e r v a t i n s a b o u t Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r ' s t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s , (Mr. C h o r b a n i f a r h a d f l u n k e d a C I A - a d m i n i s t e r e d l i e d e t e c t o r t e s t i n J a n u a r y o f 1 9 8 6 ) , h e c o n t i n u e d t o b e r e l i e d upon a s t h e p r i n c i p a l middleman i n t h e He t r a v e l e d b e t w e e n W a s h i n g t o n , R . C . , E u r o p e a n c a p i t a l s I r a n i a n arms d e a l s . a n d T e h r a n u n t i l S e p t e m b e r of 1986. ( S e n a t e S e l e c t Committee on I n t e l l i g e n c e : 2 2 , 2 3 ) . By l a t e A u g u s t - e a r l y Sepeember of 1 9 8 6 , Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r ' s p o s i t i o n a s t h e p r i n c i p a l middleman was s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d by t h e CIA b e c a u s e of f i n a n c i a l d i s c r e p a n c i e s . On S e p t e m b e r 1 0 , 1 9 8 6 , f o r m e r N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r J o h n P o i n d e x t e r t o l d L t . C o l . N o r t h t o c o n c e n t r a t e on d e v e l o p i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a n o t h e r c h a n n e l o f c o m u n i c a t i o n , known a s t h e s e c o n d Mr. c h a n n e l o r " t h e R e l a t i v e , " and t o abandon Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r i f p o s s i b l e . G h o r b a n i f a r was t o be " u s e d a s a l a s t r e s o r t . " ( S e n a e e S e l e c t Committee on 3 3 1 , (Tower Commission R e p o r t , Appendix B , IX A ) . A c c o r d i n g Intelligence: t o t h e Tower Commission R e p o r t , a s a r e s u l t of Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h L t . C o l . O l i v e r N o r t h , h e became a key s o u r c e of t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e (New A m e r i c a n o f f i c i a l s were r e c e i v i n g a b o u t I r a n and t h e h o s t a g e s i n B e i r u t . York T i m e s , March 1, 1987: 5 ) . The Tower Commission R e p o r t c o n f i r m e d t h a t American o f f i c i a l s , t h r o u g h Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r , d e a l t w i t h t h e t o p l e a d e r s o f t h e I r a n i a n g o v e r n m e n t . Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r d e a l t p r i m a r i l y w i t h I r a n ' s Prime M i n i s t e r , Mir H u s s e i n M u s a v i , a n d i t s O i l M i n i s t e r , Ghalam Reza Agazedeh, who p a i d f o r t h e a r m s . Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r s a i d however t h a t h e was d e a l i n g w i t h " a l l t h r e e f a c t i o n s f ? n the r e g i m e , t h o u g h h e d i d n o t i d e n t i f y them. He a l s o s a i d h e met w i t h Ahmed K h o m e i n i , s o n o f A y a t o l l a h R u h o l l a h Khomeini, t h e I r a n i a n l e a d e r , a n d w i t h Hashemi-Rafsanjani, Speaker of t h e I r a n i a n Parliament. (New York T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1987: A91. A c c o r d i n g t o c h e Tower Commission R e p o r t , I r a n p r o v i d e d Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r w i t h $86.7 m i l l i o n w h i l e h e s e r v e d a s t h e p r i n c i p a l middleman f o r U.S. arms sales t o Iran. (Wall Street Journal, March 2, reported to have established a secret business Israeli, American or Iranian governments, with consultant. ( ~ h r i s t i a nScience Monitor, March Testified before Tower Comnission January 29, 1987 1987: 2). Mr. Ghorbanifar is arrangement unknown to the Michael Ledeen, a part-time NSC 4, 1987: 1, 32). GREGG, Donald Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s o r t o V i c e P r e s i d e n t G e o r g e Bush, 1982- Recent Previous Occupations Official , CIA Role V i c e P r e s i d e n t Bush r e p o r t e d t h a t Mr. Gregg had numerous c o n t a c t s w i t h F e l i x R o d r i q u e z , a f o r m e r C I A o p e r a t i v e who c o o r d i n a t e d t h e s u p p l y o p e r a t i o n t o t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l , Mr. G r e g g a n d h i s d e p u t y , L t . C o l . Sam Watson 111, met w i t h US Ambassador Edwin C o r r , Deputy A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e William Walker, Lt. Col. Robert E a r l and Lt. Col. O l i v e r North t o d i s c u s s t h e supply o p e r a t i o n t o t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . ( W a l l S t r e e t J o u r n a l , F e b r u a r y 5 , 1987: 5 ) . CUELL, L i n d a Nationality: United S t a t e s Recent Previous Occupations D i r e c t o r , Western Goals Foundation Role Ms. G u e l l , f o r m e r d i r e c t o r o f W e s t e r n C o a l s F o u n d a t i o n , o f w h i c h C a r l R. C h a n n e l 1 i s P r e s i d e n t , i s r e p o r t e d t o have been l i n k e d t o p r i v a t e f u n d i n g e f f o r t s f o r t h e Nicaraguan rebels. I n a n A p r i l 1 8 , 1985, l e t t e r L t . C o l . O l i v e r N o r t h s k e t c h e d a d i a g r a m l i n k i n g h i m s e l f T t o R o b e r t Owen, a f o r m e r S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t c o n s u l t a n t , t o Andrew M e s s i n g , J r . , e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r o f t h e Under Mr. Owen's name i s t h e w o r d N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e C o u n c i l , a n d t o Ms. G u e l l . I' w e a p o n s , " u n d e r Mr. M e s s i n g ' s i s " f u n d s , " a n d o v e r Ms. G u e l l ' s i s "money. 11 ( W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1987: A19). HAKIM, A 1 b e r t Nationality: Iran Current Occupation Businessman Recent Previous Occupations C h a i r m a n , S t a n f o r d T e c h n o l o g y C o r p o r a t i o n , San J o s e , C A . , ( d i s s o l v e d i n 1 9 8 5 ) ( W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , December 2 1 , 1 9 8 6 ) a n d McLean, V A . Role A l b e r t Hakim h a s been named a s a k e y f i g u r e i n t h e I r a n a r m s d e a l s a s w e l l a s i n t h e m i l i t a r y s u p p l y o p e r a t i o n t o t h e C o n t r a s . He worked e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h r e t i r e d A i r F o r c e Haj. Gen. R i c h a r d V. S e c o r d , h i s b u s i n e s s p a r t n e r , and L t . Col. O l i v e r North. Mr. Hakim p l a y e d a k e y r o l e i n t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e arms s a l e s t o I r a n . He was o n e of t h e j o i n t h o l d e r s o f t h e S w i s s bank a c c o u n t u s e d by t h e t h r e e t o d e p o s i t t h e p r o c e e d s o f t h e a r m s s a l e s . Mr. Hakim a l s o a c t e d a s t r a n s l a t o r f o r L t . C o l . N o r t h a n d Mr. S e c o r d i n t h e i r m e e t i n g s w i t h I r a n i a n o f f i c i a l s u n t i l h e was r e p l a c e d by f o r m e r CIA o f f i c i a l G e o r g e Cave. ( S e n a t e S e l e c t C o m n i t t e e on I n t e l l i g e n c e : 21, 2 2 ) . Mr. Hakim was p a r t y t o t h e U.S. s e a r c h f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e c h a n n e l o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h I r a n i a n o f f i c i a l s , known a s t h e "second c h a n n e l , " i n J u l y o f 1986. He i n t r o d u c e d U.S. o f f i c i a l s t o I r a n i a n a c q u a i n t a n c e s who knew I r a n i a n government o f f i c i a l s i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e arms d e a l s ( S e n a t e S e l e c t C o m n i t t e e on I n t e l l i g e n c e : 3 3 ) . The Tower C o m n i s s i o n R e p o r t n o t e d t h a t CIA o f f i c i a l C h a r l e s A l l e n i n a memo t o CIA D i r e c t o r W i l l i a m C a s e y , s t a t e d , " O l l i e (Mr. N o r t h ) i s t o c o n t i n u e t o d e v e l o p l i n k s t o t h e I r a n i a n Government t h r o u g h A l b e r t Hakim a n d D i c k S e c o r d o f S t a n f o r d T e c h n o l o g y ( " ~ a k i m , a s you a r e a w a r e , h a s l i n k s t o ( t h e ~ e l a t i v e ) . " ( T h e Associates. Tower Commission R e p o r t r e f e r s t o t h e I r a n i a n c o n t a c t u s e d by t h e U n i t e d States as the Relative.) . Mr. Hakim p l a y e d a c e n t r a l r o l e i n t h e p u r c h a s i n g of a D a n i s h f l a g f r e i g h t e r , t h e E r r i a , i n A p r i l of 1 9 8 6 , w h i c h was u s e d t o s h i p arms t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . R e p o r t e d l y t h e s h i p was b o u g h t i n t h e name of Dolmy ( a Panamanian company s e t up by Mr. Hakim, Mr. S e c o r d , and Mr. N o r t h ) w i t h money t r a n s E e r r e d f r o m a S w i s s bank a c c o u n t . From A p r i l u n t i l O c t o b e r 1 9 8 6 , Mr. Hakim a n d Mr. S e c o r d r a n t h e E r r i a o p e r a t i o n . ( L o s A n g e l e s T i m e s , March 2 , Mr. Hakim h a s b e e n o f f e r e d L i m i t e d i m n u n i t y by t h e S e n a t e a n d t h e House I r a n / C o n t r a i n v e s t i g a t i v e Committees. HALL, Fawn Nationality: United States Current Occupation Secretary, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration, Navy, 1986Recent Previous Occupations Secretary, National Security Council, Lt. Col. Oliver L. North, 1983-1986 ; Secretary, Pentagon, 1977-1983. Role As secretary to Lt. Col. Oliver L. North, Ms. Hall told investigators for special prosecutor, Lawrence E. Walsh, that Mr. North wanted documents relating to the Iran/Contra issue destroyed and altered. Under Mr. North's direction, Ms. Hall reportedly helped destroy memoranda, computer memos and internal White House messages from Mr. ~ o r t h ' s files on November 21, 1986. (Newsweek, March 2, 1987: 20) (Wall Street Journal, February 23, 1987: 50). Ms. Hall has been granted limited immunity by the Senate and the House Iran/Contra investigative Committees. HASENFUS, Eugene Nationality: United S t a t e s Role Mr. H a s e n f u s t o o k p a r t i n an a i r s u p p l y o p e r a t i o n on b e h a l f o f t h e a n t i - S a n d i n i s t a r e b e l s i n Nicaragua. H i s p l a n e was s h o t down o n O c t o b e r 5 , 1986, o v e r Nicaragua i n a n e p i s o d e t h a t exposed t h e a i r s u p p l y o p e r a t i o n . The U.S. c r e w e d C-123 c a r g o p l a n e was r e p o r t e d t o h a v e been f i n a n c e d a n d s e r v i c e d by S o u t h e r n A i r T r a n s p o r t . ( w a s h i n g t o n P o s t , F e b r u a r y 2 5 , 1987: A l , ~ 1 6 ) . S o u t h e r n A i r T r a n s p o r t , f o r m e r l y owned by t h e C I A , h a s a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t i t h e l d a c o n t r a c t t o s e r v i c e p l a n e s u s e d by t h e o p e r a t i o n . (New York T i m e s , J a n u a r y 3 0 , 1987: A10). The o n l y member of a four-man c r e w t o s u r v i v e t h e c r a s h , Mr. H a s e n f u s was c a p t u r e d a n d r e t u r n e d t o t h e U.S. i n December o f 1 9 8 6 , a f t e r r e c e i v i n g a p a r d o n f r o m t h e N i c a r a g u a n g o v e r n m e n t . A t h i s N i c a r a g u a n t r i a l , Mr. H a s e n f u s c o n f e s s e d t h a t h e had b e e n s m u g g l i n g weapons t o t h e a n t i - g o v e r n m e n t f o r c e s i n Nicaragua. (New York T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 1 2 , 1987: A9). INOUYE, Daniel Nationality: United States Current Occupation U.S. Senator, 1962- Role Senator Daniel Inouye is Chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Secret Military Assistance to Iran and the Nicaraguan Opposition. The Committee is charged with investigating the shipment of U.S. arms to Iran and the diversion of funds to the Nicaraguan rebels. (Washington Post, February 11, 1987: Cl). JACOBSEN, David Nationality: United States Recent Previous Occupations Director, American University Hospital Role Mr. Jacobsen was kidnapped o n May 28, 1985, by Islamic Jihad and freed November 1, 1986. As of March 27, 1987, he remained in captivity. JENCO, Lawrence Mart i n Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t Recent Previous Occupations Director, Catholic Relief Services i n Beirut Role F a t h e r J e n c o was t a k e n h o s t a g e by t h e I s l a m i c J i h a d on J a n u a r y 8 , 1 9 8 5 , a n d r e l e a s e d J u l y 2 6 , 1986. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Tower Commission R e p o r t , F a t h e r J e n c o ' s r e l e a s e o c c u r e d two d a y s a f t e r t h e I r a n i a n government made a p a r t i a l payment f o r m i s s i l e p a r t s r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . ( W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 8 7 : A6). JUCHNIEWICZ , Edward Nationality: United States Current Occupation Acting Deputy Director of Operations, CIA Role Mr. Juchniewicz approved Duane Clarridge's use of a proprietary aircraft, Southern Air Transport, to transport a shipment of HAWK missiles from Israel via Portugal to Iran on November 25, 1985. Mr. Juchniewicz testified to the Tower Commission that Lt. Col. Oliver North called him at home on November 22, 1985, and asked for the use of a CIA aircraft. (Tower Comnission Report, Appendix B, V B). KELLY, John H. Nationality: United States Current Occupation Ambassador to Lebanon Role Ambassador Kelly is said to have played a role in the release of the hostages by dealing secretly through CIA "privacy" channels (secret communications lines) with the staff of the National Security Council and with retired Air Force Maj. Cen. Richard V. Secord. (U.S. News and World Report, December 22, 1986: 2 2 ) . KHASHOCCI, Adnan Nationality: Saudi Arabia Current Occupation B u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e and i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i n a n c i e r ; M a j o r s h a r e h o l d e r and f o u n d e r , T r i a d C o p o r a t i o n ; D i r e c t o r , S t . K h a t e r i n e s I n s u r a n c e Co., Ltd.; D i r e c t o r , A1 N a s r Est. f o r T r a d e and I n d u s t r y . Role I n F e b r u a r y of 1 9 8 5 , b e f o r e t h e d e a l i n g s w i t h I r a n b e g a n , Mr. K h a s h o g g i , w i t h t h e h e l p o f Manucher C h o r b a n i f a r , a n I r a n i a n a r m s d e a l e r , p r e p a r e d a p a p e r a n a l y z i n g t h e p r o s p e c t s f o r improved U.S. r e l a t i o n s w i t h I r a n . The r e p o r t was p r e s e n t e d on J u l y 1 , 1 9 8 5 , t o t h e n - N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r R o b e r t C . M c F a r l a n e , who t e s t i f i e d t h a t h e d i d n o t r e a d i t . ( W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , J a n u a r y 1 6 , 1987: A l , A20). Mr. K h a s h o g g i a c t e d a s a f i n a n c i e r f o r s h i p m e n t s o f U.S. a r m s f r o m I s r a e l t o I r a n w i t h f o u r l o a n s t o t a l i n g $30 m i l l i o n b e t w e e n August 1 9 8 5 a n d May 1 9 8 6 . Mr. K h a s h o g g i , a c c o r d i n g t o Roy Furmark a n d Manucher G h o r b a n i f a r , " p r o v i d e d t h e b r i d g e f i n a n c i n g f o r t h e August and S e p t e m b e r ( 1 9 8 5 ) s h i p m e n t s . " The I s r a e l i o f f i c i a l s would n o t make d e l i v e r i e s b e f o r e I r a n i a n p a y m e n t s f o r weapons were r e c e i v e d , a n d t h e I r a n i a n s would n o t make p a y m e n t s b e f o r e t h e weapons d e l i v e r i e s were r e c e i v e d . Mr. Khashoggi p r o v i d e d t h e f i n a n c i a l m e c h a n i s m t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p a y m e n t s a n d weapons d e l i v e r i e s . (Tower Commission R e p o r t , Appendix B , IV 0 ) . Mr. K h a s h o g g i p r o v i d e d two l o a n s o f $1 m i l l i o n a n d $ 4 m i l l i o n i n 1 9 8 5 , a t h i r d l o a n o f $10 m i l l i o n i n F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 6 , a n d a f o u r t h of $15 m i l l i o n i n May 1 9 8 6 . The two l o a n s i n 1 9 8 6 were d e p o s i t e d i n t o t h e S w i s s b a n k a c c o u n t o f L a k e R e s o u r c e s , t h e a c c o u n t c o n t r o l l e d by L t . C o l . N o r t h a n d r e t i r e d A i r F o r c e Maj. Gen. R i c h a r d V . S e c o r d . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Tower C o m n i s s i o n R e p o r t , a f t e r Mr. K h a s h o g g i a d v a n c e d $10 m i l l i o n f o r t h e F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 6 a r m s s a l e h e was p a i d back twice: $12 m i l l i o n f r o m Manucher C h o r b a n i f a r , h i s I r a n i a n p a r t n e r , a n d $12 m i l l i o n f r o m Lake R e s o u r c e s . Mr. K h a s h o g g i h a s d e n i e d t h e r e was a payment f r o m Lake R e s o u r c e s . Mr. Khashoggi b r o u g h t i n two C a n a d i a n f i n a n c i e r s , D o n a l d F r a s e r a n d E r n e s t Miller, a s w e l l a s a n A r a b i n v e s t o r ( S e n a t e S e l e c t C o m n i t t e e (Washington on I n t e l l i g e n c e : 2 7 ) t o h e l p f i n a n c e a d d i t i o n a l arms s a l e s . P o s t , December 1 4 , 1986: A-1, 24). T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower C o n m i s s i o n January 2 9 , 1987 KILBURN, P e t e r ( d e c e a s e d ) Nationality: United S t a t e s Recent Previous Occupations L i b r a r i a n , American U n i v e r s i t y , B e i r u t Role Mr. K i l b u r n v a n i s h e d December 3, 1984, and was found dead A p r i l 1 7 , 1986. He r e p o r t e d l y was murdered i n A p r i l 1986, i n r e t a l i a t i o n f o r t h e U.S. bombing o f L i b y a , a t t h e b e h e s t of Libyan l e a d e r Muammar Q a d h a f i . (Senate Select Committee on I n t e l l i g e n c e : 2 5 ) . (New York Times, December 1 4 , 1986: 4-1, 4-2 1. KIMCHE, D a v i d Nationality: Israel Current Occupation Arms dealer Recent Previous Occupations Director-General, Israeli Foreign Ministry; Israeli intelligence officer. Role Mr. Kimche was a n a d v o c a t e o f arms s a l e s t o I r a n ; he s e r v e d a s a n i n t e r m e d i a r y between I r a n and t h e United S t a t e s and between I s r a e l and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Mr. Kimche r e p o r t e d l y i s t o h a v e s u g g e s t e d t o L t . C o l . N o r t h d u r i n g a 1 9 8 5 m e e t i n g t h a t t h e U.S. o v e r c h a r g e t h e I r a n i a n s a n d u s e t h e p r o f i t s t o a i d t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . (Middle East I n t e r n a t i o n a l , J a n u a r y 9, 1987: 5 ) . R o b e r t C . M c F a r l a n e t e s t i f i e d t o t h e Tower Commission t h a t Mr. Kimche t o l d him t h a t u l t i m a t e l y t h e I r a n i a n s would n e e d s o m e t h i n g t o show f o r t h e d i a l o g u e , a n d t h i s would b e weapons. On J u l y 3 , 1 9 8 5 , Mr. Kimche came t o W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. a n d p r o p o s e d t h a t p o l i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s b e c o n d u c t e d w i t h I r a n t h r o u g h a n I r a n i a n middleman, Manucher C h o r b a n i f a r . Ten d a y s l a t e r t h e I s r a e l i s suggested t h a t t h e i r contacts i n I r a n could arrange t h e r e l e a s e o f a l l s e v e n American h o s t a g e s i n e x c h a n g e f o r 1 0 0 TOW a n t i - t a n k m i s s i l e s f r o m the Israeli arsenal. (Newsweek, March 9 , 1987: 2 6 ) . KOCH, Noel Nationality: United States Recent Previous Occupations Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs Role The Washington Post (February 22, 1987: Al, 10) reported that Mr. Koch represented the Pentagon in Lt. Col. North's "informal intergovernmental group on counterterrorism at the National Security council" until May of 1986. His primary responsibility at the Department of Defense was planning for special operations. Mr. Koch was present at a White House meeting on either February 8 or 9, 1986, with Lt. Col. North and Charles Allen, CIA National Intelligence Officer, in which the timetable of arms sales was discussed. (Tower Commission Report, Appendix B, VI 0 ) . LEDEEN, M i c h a e l A . Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation A d j u n c t F e l l o w , Georgetown C e n t e r f o r S t r a t e g i c and I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i e s Recent Previous Occupations C o n s u l t a n t on t e r r o r i s m , N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l ; Founder, Jewish I n s t i t u t e f o r National S e c u r i t y A f f a i r s ; Consultant (part-time), P e n t a g o n , 1983-; C o n s u l t a n t , I t a l i a n M i l i t a r y I n t e l l i g e n c e , 1980. Role A s a c o n s u l t a n t f o r t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , Mr. L e d e e n p l a y e d a key r o l e e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i n i t i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e I s r a e l i government and t h e I r a n i a n arms d e a l e r Manucher G h o r b a n i f a r . Mr. L e d e e n s a y s t h a t h e t a l k e d t o t h e n - N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r R o b e r t M c F a r l a n e i n A p r i l of 1 9 8 5 , d i s c u s s i n g w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t of I s r a e l t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n t a c t s w i t h I r a n . Mr. M c F a r l a n e r e p o r t e d l y a g r e e d , a n d r e q u e s t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t Mr. Ledeen a s c e r t a i n I s r a e l ' s p e r s p e c t i v e o n f i g h t i n g I r a n i a n t e r r o r i s m . ( S e n a t e S e l e c t Committee o n I n t e l l i g e n c e , p. 3 ) . Mr. Ledeen t r a v e l e d t o I s r a e l o n 415 May 1 9 8 5 . He t o l d t h e Tower Commission t h a t Mr. P e r e s a s k e d f o r U.S. c o n s e n t t o s e l l I r a n a q u a n t i t y of weapons. (Newsweek, March 9 , 1987: 26). Mr. Ledeen met Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r i n I s r a e l i n J u l y I f 1 9 8 5 . I n a t t e n d a n c e w e r e D a v i d Kimche, a n I s r a e l i o f f i c i a l , A 1 Schwimmer, a n i n d e p e n d e n t arms d e a l e r , a n d Yaacov N i m r o d i , a n arms d e a l e r and f o r m e r I s r a e l i m i l i t a r y a t t a c h e r e l a t i o n s were t o i n T e h r a n . Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r s u g g e s t e d t h a t i f U . S . - I r a n i a n i m p r o v e e a c h s i d e would h a v e t o s e n d t h e o t h e r c l e a r s i g n a l s a b o u t i t s s e r i o u s n e s s , and I r a n c o u l d r e l e a s e h o s t a g e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y W i l l i a m Buckley. D u r i n g t h e f a l l o f 1 9 8 5 , a f t e r t h e s h i p m e n t s were a p p r o v e d , Mr. Ledeen met s e v e r a l times more w i t h M r . G h o r b a n i f a r and t h e I s r a e l i s t o work o u t a l o g i s t i c a l plan f o r a hostage release. ( S e n a t e S e l e c t C o m n i t t e e on 10). (New York T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 2 8 , 1987: A13). Intelligence: Mr. Ledeen h a s s t a t e d t h a t t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e I r a n i n i t i a t i v e e n d e d i n November o f 1 9 8 5 , when V i c e - A d m i r a l J o h n P o i n d e x t e r no l o n g e r r e l i e d upon him. I n l a t e 1 9 8 5 , U.S. a n d I s r a e l i o f f i c i a l s were c o n s i d e r i n g ways of r e p l a c i n g t h e o r i g i n a l n e t w o r k of middlemen ( L e d e e n , Schwimmer, a n d N i m r o d i ) . Mr. Ledeen i s r e p o r t e d t o h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d a s e c r e t b u s i n e s s a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r , unknown t o t h e I s r a e l i , A m e r i c a n , o r I r a n i a n (Christian Science g o v e r n m e n t s . Mr. Ledeen h a s d e n i e d t h e s e a l l e g a t i o n s . M o n i t o r , March 4 , 1 9 8 7 : 1, 3 2 ) . T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower C o m n i s s i o n J a n u a r y 9 , 1 9 8 7 ; F e b r u a r y 1 2 , 1987. LILAC, R o b e r t H . Nationality: United S t a t e s Recent P r e v i o u s O c c u p a t i o n s Vice P r e s i d e n t , American M a r k e t i n g and C o n s u l t i n g , I n c . , 1984; C o n s u l t a n t , S a u d i P r i n c e Bandar b i n S u l t a n ; C o n s u l t a n t , S a u d i A r a b i a n Ehbassy; S a u d i A r a b i a n D i v i s i o n , Air F o r c e M i l i t a r y S a l e s Program, 1979-1981; S t a f f member, N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l ; C o l o n e l , U.S. A i r Force. Role Mr. L i l a c was a f o r m e r s u p e r i o r of L t . Col. North under N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r A l l e n . A f t e r l e a v i n g t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , he formed a company, American M a r k e t i n g and C o n s u l t i n g I n c . , w i t h r e t i r e d A i r F o r c e Maj. Gen. R i c h a r d S e c o r d . T h i s company bought a Maule a i r c r a f t ( a s i n g l e e n g i n e , p r o p e l l o r d r i v e n , s h o r t t a k e - o f f and l a n d i n g , l i g h t c i v i l a i r c r a f t b u i l t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ) f o r t h e C o n t r a s . He d e n i e d any involvement i n t h e s u p p l y o f arms t o t h e C o n t r a s . (Washington P o s t , November 30, 1 9 8 6 ) . LIMAN, Arthur L. Nationality: United States Current Occupation Chief Counsel, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Recent Previous Occupations Partner, Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton and Garrison; Assistant U.S. Attorney, New York. Role Mr. L i m n was appointed January 22, 1987 as chief counsel of the Senate Select Comnittee on Secret Military Assistance to Iran and the Nicaraguan Opposition. The Comnittee is investigating the Iran arms initiative/Contra funding issue. (National Law Journal, February 2 , 1987: 2) (New York Times, January 23, 1987: A8). McFARLANE, Robert C. Nationality: United States Current Occupation Counselor, Georgetown University, Center for Strategic and International Studies Recent Previous Occupations National Security Adviser, National Security Council (October 1983-December 4, 1985 1; president's Special Envoy to the Middle East, 1983; Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs, 1982; Counselor, State Department, 1981; Staff, Senate Armed Services Committee; Senior Research Fellow, National Defense University, 1977; Role As President Reagan's National Security Adviser until December 1985, Mr. McFarlane was a central player in the decision to sell arms to Iran, and after he left office he served as an adviser on the initiative and as the Administration's envoy during a trip to Tehran on May 25-28, 1986. (Washington Post, February 27, 1987: All. Although Mr. McFarlane resigned December 4 , 1985, from the National Security Council, he continued to work as an unpaid consultant and kept a secure White House telephone and computer in his home until November of 1986. Mr. McFarlane said he briefed President Reagan on August 8, 1985, on Israeli offical David ~imche's proposal to sell anti-tank missiles to the Iranians in order to "open political talks" between the U.S. and Iran. The McFarlane testimony contradicts assertions of Donald T. Regan, former White House chief of staff. Mr. Regan said the President gave approval after the f i r s t s h i p m e n t of a r m s t o I r a n was made by I s r a e l i n A u g u s t 1 9 8 5 . T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 2 0 , 1987: A l ) . ( ~ e wYork I n h i s t e s t i m o n y t o t h e Tower Commission, Mr. M c F a r l a n e s t a t e d t h a t o n November 18, 1986 h e t o o k p a r t i n a n e f f o r t t o f a l s i f y some o f t h e h i s t o r y of t h e I r a n arms i n i t i a t i v e t o " g i l d t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s motives" and t o l e a v e ambiguous h i s r o l e i n t h e m a t t e r . The Tower Commission c o n c l u d e d t h a t Mr. M c F a r l a n e " c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c r e a t i o n of ( a ) c h r o n o l o g y w h i c h d i d not....present a f u l l and c o m p l e t e l y a c c u r a t e a c c o u n t o f t h e e v e n t s and L e f t ambiguous t h e p r e s i d e n t ' s r o l e . " ( W a l l S t r e e t J o u r n a l , F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 8 7 , p. 3). On F e b r u a r y 9 , 1 9 8 7 , Mr. M c F a r l a n e was a d m i t t e d t o B e t h e s d a N a v a l H o s p i t a l a f t e r t a k i n g a n o v e r d o s e o f valiurn. (New York T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 1 0 , 1987: A 3 ) . T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Congress House F o r e i g n A f f a i r s C o r n i t t e e , December 8 , 1 9 8 6 ; House I n t e l l i g e n c e C o m m i t t e e , December 1 0 , 1 9 8 6 ; S e n a t e I n t e l l i g e n c e C o m m i t t e e , December 1 , 1986. T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower C o m n i s s i o n December 11, 1986; F e b r u a r y 1 9 , 2 1 , 1 9 8 7 . McLAUGHLIN, J a n e E. Nationality: United S t a t e s Recent P r e v i o u s O c c u p a t i o n s F u n d r a i s e r , C h a n n e l l C o r p o r t i o n , 1986-1987 Role Ms. McLaughlin, a former f u n d r a i s e r f o r C a r l R . C h a n n e l l , t o l d t h e New York Times t h a t L t . Col. North was t h e c e n t r a l and most a c t i v e f i g u r e i n r a i s i n g money t h r o u g h Mr. ~ h a n n e l l ' s network of p r i v a t e f o u n d a t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n c o m n i t t e e s . Ms. McLaughlin s t a t e d t h a t Mr. N o r t h ' s i n v o l v e m e n t was s u p p o s e d t o b e k e p t s e c r e t . "I was t o l d by S p i t z (Mr. C h a n n e l l ) t h a t you must n e v e r r e f e r t o C o l o n e l N o r t h a s C o l o n e l N o r t h o v e r t h e phone. I t was c r u c i a l t o k e e p t h e s e t h i n g s q u i e t . " (New York Times, F e b r u a r y 26, 1987: A l , A10). Ms. McLaughlin h a s been i n t e r v i e w e d by a g e n t s of t h e FBI who work f o r Lawrence E. Walsh, s p e c i a l p r o s e c u t o r i n t h e I r a n arms i n i t i a t i v e l ~ o n t r a funding matter. McMAHON, J o h n N . Nationality: United S t a t e s Kecent P r e v i o u s Occupations D e p u t y D i r e c t o r , C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency, 1982-86 ( r e s i g n e d F e b r u a r y 1986); CIA o f f i c i a l , 1951-. Role On November 2 5 , 1 9 8 5 , Mr. McMahon f i r s t l e a r n e d t h a t L t . C o l . N o r t h h a d r e c e i v e d CIA h e l p i n o b t a i n i n g a n a i r p l a n e t o d e l i v e r weapons t o I r a n . He s u b s e q u e n t l y r e f u s e d t o l e t t h e CIA p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h o u t p r e s i d e n t i a l authorization. I n November o f 1 9 8 5 , Mr. McMahon r e q u e s t e d t h a t S t a n l e y Sporkin, former C I A general counsel, d r a f t a f i n d i n g f o r t h e P r e s i d e n t t o s i g n g i v i n g r e t r o a c t i v e l e g a l approval f o r t h e agency's actions. (Washington P o s t , J a n u a r y 2 0 , 1987: A2). Mr. McMahon a t t e n d e d a December 7 , 1 9 8 5 , N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l m e e t i n g w i t h P r e s i d e n t R e a g a n , f o r m e r C h i e f o f S t a f f Donald R e g a n , S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e S h u l t z , S e c r e t a r y of D e f e n s e W e i n b e r g e r a n d f o r m e r N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r s M c F a r l a n e a n d P o i n d e x t e r a t w h i c h t h e a r m s - f o r - h o s t a g e s p r o g r a m was d i s c u s s e d . Mr. McMahon s t a t e d t h a t h e a r g u e d a g a i n s t t h e arms s a l e s on t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e weapons would n o t s t r e n g t h e n " m o d e r a t e s " i n I r a n b e c a u s e m o s t h a d b e e n k i l l e d s i n c e t h e R e v o l u t i o n by t h e Khomeini r e g i m e . V a r i o u s a c c o u n t s o f t h e m e e t i n g e x i s t . Mr. McMahon s t a t e d t h a t no d e c i s i o n was r e a c h e d a t t h e meeting. "we d i d n ' t w a l k away w i t h a n y m a r c h i n g o r d e r s o r a n y d e c i s i o n a t t h a t moment." (Tower Commission R e p o r t , Appendix B , V F ) . Mr. McMahon a l s o o b j e c t e d t o g i v i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e t o I r a n d u r i n g a m e e t i n g t h a t t o o k p l a c e o n J a n u a r y 18, 1986. D u r i n g t h i s m e e t i n g Mr. McMahon, a c c o m p a n i e d b y D e p u t y D i r e c t o r R o b e r t G a t e s , was t o l d by L t . C o l . N o r t h a n d f o r m e r N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r P o i n d e x t e r t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t had s i g n e d a s e c r e t f i n d i n g t h e d a y b e f o r e a n d t h a t t h e CIA would c o o p e r a t e on t h e a r m s t r a n s f e r i n i t t i v e . Mr. McMahon o b j e c t e d on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r was u n t r u s t w o r t h y a n d t h a t t h e p r o j e c t e d a r m s s a l e s m i g h t a l t e r t h e m i l i t a r y 18, b a l a n c e i n t h e I r a n - I r a q war. ( S e n a t e S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e on I n t e l l i g e n c e : 19). T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Congress Senate Intelligence Committee, December 1, 1986 Testified before Tower Commission J a n u a r y 6 , 1987 MEDINA , Ramon (Luis Posada Carriles) Recent Previous Occupations CIA offical, - 1967 Mr. Medina reportedly was one of the principals who oversaw the private contra re-supply operation from San ~alvador'sIlopango Air Force base. The operation was organized and supervised by Lt. Col. Oliver North and retired Air Force Maj. Gen. Richard V. Secord. (Christian Science Monitor, January 20, 1987: 1 6 ) . MEESE, Edwin 3d Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation United S t a t e s Attorney General Recent Previous Occupations C o u n s e l o r t o P r e s i d e n t Reagan, 1981-85; A d v i s e r t o Reagan-Bush ' 8 0 , 1980; P r o f e s s o r o f Law, U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , San D i e g o , 1977-78. Role A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l Edwin Meese 3d a t t e n d e d a J a n u a r y 7 , 1 9 8 6 , W h i t e House m e e t i n g w i t h S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e S h u l t z , S e c r e t a r y o f D e f e n s e W e i n b e r g e r , V i c e P r e s i d e n t Bush, and t h e n - C h i e f of S t a f f Donald Regan when f o r m e r N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r J o h n P o i n d e x t e r and f o r m e r C I A D i r e c t o r C a s e y made t h e c a s e f o r a n i n i t i a t i v e o r a n o v e r t u r e t o t h e more m o d e r a t e e l e m e n t s i n t h e I r a n i a n Government w h i c h would i n v o l v e s h i p p i n g a l i m i t e d s u p p l y of a r m s t o I r a n . Mr. Meese s t a t e d t h a t h e was n o t t h e n a w a r e t h a t P r e s i d e n t Reagan had s i g n e d a d r a E t E i n d i n g on J a n u a r y 6 , 1 9 8 7 , t h a t i n s t r u c t e d t h e DCI n o t t o r e p o r t t h e a r m s t r a n s f e r s t o C o n g r e s s . Mr. Meese a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e p r e v i o u s a r m s I t was r e p o r t e d t h a t Mr. Meese, a l o n g w i t h Mr. shipments were n o t d i s c u s s e d . Regan, s u p p o r t e d t h e i n i t i a t i v e . (Tower C o m n i s s i o n R e p o r t , A p p e n d i x B , V H). Mr. Meese a l s o a t t e n d e d , a l o n g w i t h Mr. W e i n b e r g e r , Mr. C a s e y , then-CIA c h i e f c o u n s e l S t a n l e y S p o r k i n , a n d Mr. P o i n d e x t e r , a J a n u a r y 1 6 , 1986 m e e t i n g i n w h i c h t h e f i n a l d r a f t o f t h e P r e s i d e n t i a l f i n d i n g was d i s c u s s e d a n d Mr. Meese t e s t i f i e d t h a t h e b e l i e v e d i t was l e g a l n o t t o i n f o r m reviewed. C o n g r e s s of t h e a r m s t r a n s f e r s t o I r a n u n t i l a l l t h e h o s t a g e s w e r e r e l e a s e d . 18). ( S e n a t e S e l e c t C o m n i t t e e on I n t e l l i g e n c e : Mr. Meese d i s c l o s e d i n November o f 1986 t h a t $10 t o $30 m i l l i o n f r o m t h e U.S. arms s a l e s t o I r a n had b e e n c h a n n e l e d t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s , i n a n o p e r a t i o n s u p e r v i s e d by N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l s t a f f e r L t . C o l . N o r t h . (New York T i m e s , March 5 , 1987: A19). MEJIA VICTORES, O s c a r Hurnberto Nationality: Guatemala Recent Previous Occupations C h i e f of S t a t e a n d Commander-in-Chief, Armed F o r c e s , 1983-1986 Role G e n e r a l Mejia V i c t o r e s i s b e l i e v e d t o have a i d e d L t . Col. N o r t h ' s e f f o r t s t o p r o v i d e f u n d i n g f o r t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s d u r i n g t h e two-year C o n g r e s s i o n a l ban. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Tower Commission R e p o r t , t h e G u a t a m a l a n m i l i t a r y provided a s s i s t a n c e f o r s e v e r a l years t o t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . In its r e p o r t , t h e Tower Commission d e s c r i b e d a memorandum d a t e d March 5 , 1 9 8 5 , f r o m L t . C o l . N o r t h t o R o b e r t C. M c F a r l a n e , d e t a i l i n g p l a n s t o s h i p "$8 m i l l i o n worth of munitions" f o r t h e contras through a t h i r d country, using f a l s e c e r t i f i c a t e s f r o m t h a t c o u n t r y s t a t i n g t h a t t h e m u n i t i o n s were f o r i t s own u s e . The name of t h e c o u n t r y was d e l e t e d f r o m t h e r e p o r t , b u t i t i s r e p o r t e d (New Y o r k T i m e s , b y t h e N e w York Times t h a t t h e c o u n t r y was G u a t e m a l a . F e b r u a r y 2 8 , 1987: A10). T h e New York Times ( F e b r u a r y 2 8 , 1987: ~ 1 0 r) e p o r t e d t h a t ~ u a t e m a l a ' s involvement i n t h e Nicaraguan c o n f l i c t began a f t e r General Mejia V i c t o r e s s e i z e d power i n a m i l i t a r y c o u p . G e n e r a l M e j i a V i c t o r e s i s r e p o r t e d t o b e a c l o s e f r i e n d of F e l i x R o d r i g u e z , a Cuban-American who h a s p u b l i c l y a c k n o w l e d g e d h i s r o l e i n t h e p r i v a t e n e t w o r k t o p r o v i d e weapons t o t h e Nicaraguan rebels. MESSING, J r . , Andrew Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , National Defense Council Role Mr. M e s s i n g i s r e p o r t e d t o b e l i n k e d t o p r i v a t e f u n d i n g e f f o r t s f o r t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . I n a n A p r i l 18, 1 9 8 5 , l e t t e r , s u b s e q u e n t l y r e l e a s e d by t h e Tower Commission L t . C o l . O l i v e r N o r t h s k e t c h e d a d i a g r a m l i n k i n g h i m s e l f t o R o b e r t Owen, a f o r m e r S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t c o n s u l t a n t , t o M r . M e s s i n g a n d t o L i n d a G u e l l , f o r m e r d i r e c t o r of W e s t e r n G o a l s F o u n d a t i o n . Under Mr. Owen's name i s t h e word "weapons," u n d e r Mr. M e s s i n g ' s i s "funds" and o v e r Ms. G u e l l ' s i s 11money." ( W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1987: A19). MILLER, E r n e s t Nationality: Canada Current Occupation O f f i c e r , T r i a d American C o r p o r a t i o n Role A c c o r d i n g t o p r e s s a c c o u n t s , Canadian b u s i n e s s p a r t n e r s E r n e s t M i l l e r and Donald F r a s e r p r o v i d e d Adnan Khashoggi between $10 and $40 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s t h r o u g h a Caymen I s l a n d s bank t o h e l p f i n a n c e a U.S. arms s h i p m e n t t o I r a n i n 1986. When Mr. Khashoggi f a i l e d t o r e i m b u r s e them i n f u l l , t h e y r e p o r t e d l y became a w a r e t h a t some of t h e I r a n i a n payment may h a v e been d i v e r t e d t o t h e Contras. (Washington P o s t , December 2 4 , 1986: A-1, A-8). Roy Furmark, b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e of Adnan Khashoggi, i n f o r m e d t h e n CIA D i r e c t o r W i l l i a m Casey on O c t o b e r 7 , 1986, t h a t a l t h o u g h M r . Khashoggi had p r o v i d e d t h e money t o f i n a n c e t h e arms t r a n s f e r s , Mr. Khashoggi had borrowed t h e money f r o m two C a n a d i a n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , Mr. Furmark s t a t e d t h a t " t h e C a n a d i a n s w e r e p u t t i n g l o t s of p r e s s u r e on Adnan ( K h a s h o g g i ) , and t h a t t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o s u e him and h e would have t o b r i n g i n ( s i c ) t h e U.S. i n t o t h e transaction." (Tower Commission R e p o r t , Appendix B , I X D). MILLER, R i c h a r d Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation I n t e r n a t i o n a l B u s i n e s s Communications, 1983- Recent Previous Occupations D i r e c t o r f o r b r o a d c a s t s e r v i c e s , Reagan-Bush 1980 Campaign; D i r e c t o r , Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l and P u b l i c A f f a i r s Development, 1980-1983. Kol e Mr. M i l l e r h a s been i d e n t i f i e d , a l o n g w i t h C a r l R. ( S p i t z ) C h a n n e l l , a s o n e o f t h e key f i g u r e s i n d o m e s t i c l o b b y i n g e f f o r t s f o r t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . The Washington P o s t ( F e b r u a r y 28, 1987: A13) r e p o r t e d t h a t Mr. M i l l e r and Mr. C h a n n e l l p r o v i d e d a p r o x i m a t e l y $40,000 t o a n arm of t h e N i c a r a g u a n Democratic F o r c e (FDN) i n Washington, D.C. on t h e a c c o u n t of t h e N a t i o n a l Endowment f o r t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n of L i b e r t y (NEPL). The Washington P o s t ( F e b r u a r y 28, 1987: A131 r e p o r t e d t h a t Mr. M i l l e r p r o v i d e d a t l e a s t $11,000 t h r o u g h h i s c o r p o r a t i o n , I n t e r n a t i o n a l B u s i n e s s I B C r e c e i v e d a n e s t i m a t e d $276,000 from t h e U.S. S t a t e Communications (IBC). Department a s p a r t of a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n e f f o r t t o b u i l d s u p p o r t f o r t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l cause. (Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l , March 2 , 1987: 2 ) . -- The M i l l e r and C h a n n e l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s NEPL, IBC, and t h e American C o n s e r v a t i v e T r u s t (ACT) ( a C h a n n e l l p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n c o m m i t t e e ) -- a r e i n d i r e c t l y l i n k e d on t h e f l o w c h a r t ( f o u n d i n t h e o f f i c e s a f e o f L t . Col. O l i v e r N o r t h ) by a r r o w s t o what a p p e a r s t o be Lake R e s o u r c e s , I n c . , a Panamanian r e g i s t e r e d c o r p o r a t i o n u s e d by Mr. N o r t h and r e t i r e d A i r F o r c e Maj. Gen. R i c h a r d V. S e c o r d t o s e t up a bank a c c o u n t i n S w i t z e r l a n d . P r o f i t s from t h e I r a n i a n arms s a l e s went t h r o u g h t h e a c c o u n t . The Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l r e p o r t e d t h a t s p e c i a l p r o s e c u t o r Lawrence E. Walsh i s p u r s u i n g l i n k s between Mr. M i l l e r and a Caymen I s l a n d s r e g i s t e r e d c o r p o r a t i o n , I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o m u n i c a t i o n s , I n c . The f l o w c h a r t s u g g e s t s a (wall S t r e e t f l o w of f u n d s from I B C t o a company i d e n t i f i e d a s I.C., I n c . J o u r n a l , March 2 , 1987: 2 ) . MUSKI E , Edmund Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation P a r t n e r , Chadbourne & Parke, 1982- Recent P r e v i o u s Occupations Member, P r e s i d e n t ' s S p e c i a l Review Board, 1986-87; S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , 1980-1981; U.S. S e n a t o r , 1959-1980. Role Former S e n a t e Muskie s e r v e d a s a member of t h e Tower Commission, f o r m a l l y c a l l e d t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s S p e c i a l Review Board. NAKASONE, Y a s u h i r o Nationality: Japan Current Occupation Prime M i n i s t e r of J a p a n Role Prime M i n i s t e r Nakasone i s r e p o r t e d t o have been i n v o l v e d i n e f f o r t s t o f r e e U.S. h o s t a g e s i n Lebanon. Prime M i n i s t e r Nakasone a d m i t t e d t h a t h e had spoken by t e l e p h o n e w i t h P r e s i d e n t Reagan i n J u l y o f 1985, a b o u t t h e American h o s t a g e s . He h a s d e n i e d t h a t J a p a n h a s had any knowledge of o r r o l e i n t h e s h i p m e n t of U.S. arms t o I r a n . ( F a c t s on F i l e , December 19, 1986: 9 3 2 ) . CRS- 77 NIELDS, John Nationality: United States Current Occupation Chief Counsel, House Select Committee to Investigate Covert Arms Transactions with Iran Recent Previous Occupations Attorney, Howrey 6 Simon Role Mr. Nields is chief counsel to the House Select Committee to Investigate Covert Arms Transactions with Iran. He was chief counsel to the House Committee on Standards and Official Conduct during the Koreagate inquiry. (Wall Street Journal, January 9, 1987: 2). CRS- 78 NIMRODI, Yaacov Nationality: Israel Current Occupation A r m s merchant Recent Previous Occupations I s r a e l i military intelligence operative Role Mr. Nimrodi, a f o r m e r I s r a e l i m i l i t a r y a t t a c h e i n Tehran and a n a s s o c i a t e o f Manucher G h o r b a n i f a r and Adnan Khashoggi, was a key member o f t h e o r i g i n a l n e t w o r k o f middlemen who f a c i l i t a t e d t h e arms t r a n s f e r t o I r a n . B e g i n n i n g i n J a n u a r y , 1 9 8 5 , M r . Nimrodi, a l o n g w i t h A 1 Schwinuner, an arms d e a l e r , and Amiram Nir, a d v i s e r on c o u n t e r t e r r o r i s m t o then-Prime M i n i s t e r Shimon P e r e s , h e l d a s e r i e s o f m e e t i n g s w i t h Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r t o d i s c u s s t h e p o s s i b l e s a l e o f TOW m i s s i l e s t o I r a n and t r a d i n g h o s t a g e s f o r weapons. Roy Furmark, an a s s o c i a t e o f Mr. Khashoggi, t o l d C h a r l e s A l l e n , C I A N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e O f f i c e r , t h a t " p r o f i t was c e r t a i n l y a m o t i v e b u t t h a t t h e g r o u p d i d s e e t h e i r e f f o r t s l e a d i n g toward s t a b i l i t y i n t h e r e g i o n and t h e r e l e a s e of t h e hostages." (Tower Comnission R e p o r t , Appendix B, I 1 C). Mr. Nimrodi t o o k p a r t i n s e v e r a l m e e t i n g s i n t h e f a l l of 1985 w i t h M i c h a e l Ledeen, A1 Schwimmer, and David Kimche i n which Manucher G h o r b a n i f a r b r i e f e d t h e g r o u p on t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e s i t u a t i o n i n I r a n and d i s c u s s e d t h e t e c h n i c a l i t i e s of arms s h i p m e n t s . ( S e n a t e S e l e c t Committee on I n t e l l i g e n c e : 6 ) . Mr. Nimrodi h e l p e d d e v e l o p I s r a e l i r e l a t i o n s w i t h I r a n i n t h e 19609, and l a t e r u s e d t h e c o n t a c t s h e made i n I r a n t o d e v e l o p a l u c r a t i v e t r a d i n g b u s i n e s s and t o h e l p w i t h t h e arms s a l e s t o I r a n . (Washington P o s t , December 1 4 , 1986: H-1). NORTH, O l i v e r L . Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation U n i t e d S t a t e s Marine Corps o f f i c e r Recent Previous Occupations Deputy D i r e c t o r , P o l i t i c a l - M i l i t a r y A f f a i r s , N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l Role L t . Col. O l i v e r L. N o r t h , a former member of t h e s t a f f o f t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , p l a y e d t h e c e n t r a l r o l e i n s u p e r v i s i n g t h e arms s h i p m e n t s t o I r a n and i n h e l p i n g c o o r d i n a t e a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s , d u r i n g t h e two-year p e r i o d when Congress b a r r e d U.S. government a i d f o r t h e r e b e l s . (New York Times, March 4 , 1987: A14). A c c o r d i n g t o C o n g r e s s i o n a l t e s t i m o n y g i v e n by Mr. McFarlane, Mr. N o r t h assumed a n a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e arms i n i t i a t i v e on e i t h e r November 22 o r 2 3 , 1985. I t was on one of t h e s e d a y s t h a t Mr. McFarlane a s k e d Mr. N o r t h t o h e l p move a shipment o f I s r a e l i - o w n e d HAWK a n t i - a i r c r a f t m i s s i l e s , which had been d e l a y e d i n P o r t u g a l , from I s r a e l t o I r a n . (New York Times, March 1 , 1987: 4 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o C o n g r e s s i o n a l t e s t i m o n y by former CIA D i r e c t o r W i l l i a m C a s e y , Mr. N o r t h a s k e d t h e C I A f o r h e l p i n moving t h e arms s h i p m e n t , (New York Times, J a n u a r y 3 , 1987: 4 ) . During 1985 and 1986, Mr. North c o o r d i n a t e d t h e d e t a i l s of t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l d e f e n s e e f f o r t , r e l y i n g upon a network of p l a n e s , s h i p s , and dummy c o r p o r a t i o n s financed w i t h m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s i n c a s h kept i n s e c r e t Swiss bank a c c o u n t s . From t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y Agency, Mr. North o b t a i n e d t o p s e c r e t encryption devices t o create a secure comunications l i n k t o the p r i v a t e o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e Contra supply operation. (Time, March 9 , 1987: 38). Mr. N o r t h r e l i e d upon h i s c o m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m t o c o o r d i n a t e arms s h i p m e n t s from Europe, t o s u p e r v i s e "drops11 of arms i n t o C e n t r a l America and t o i n s t r u c t o t h e r members o f t h e Contra s u p p l y network where and when t o t r a n s f e r funds. (Washington P o s t , F e b r u a r y 27, 1987: A l l , Mr. N o r t h worked p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e l y w i t h r e t i r e d Air F o r c e Maj. Gen. R i c h a r d V . S e c o r d . Mr. N o r t h and Mr. Secord t o g e t h e r o r g a n i z e d and managed t h e c o v e r t n e t w o r k t o s u p p l y arms t o t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s , which was Mr. code-named P r o j e c t Democracy, o r PRODEM. (Newsweek, March 9 , 1987: 3 2 ) . N o r t h , Mr. S e c o r d , and Mr. S e c o r d ' s b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e A l b e r t Hakim, who h a n d l e d t h e f i n a n c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s , were t h e key p l a y e r s of t h e P r o j e c t Democracy n e t w o r k . The S e n a t e S e l e c t Committee r e p o r t q u o t e d a n u n i d e n t i f i e d CIA o f f i c e r i n v o l v e d i n t h e arms i n i t i a t i v e a s d e s c r i b i n g Mr. S e c o r d and Mr. Hakim a s " a l m o s t co-equal l i e u t e n a n t s " of Mr. N o r t h . (New York T i m e s , J a n u a r y 3 0 , 1987: A9). Mr. N o r t h g a v e t h e I r a n i a n arms n e g o t i a t i o n s t h e code-name P r o j e c t Kecovery. The two p r o j e c t s merged a f t e r Mr. North t o o k o n p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e I r a n i a n arms d e a l t h e f a l l o f 1985. A f l o w c h a r t p u b l i s h e d i n t h e Tower Commission R e p o r t which was found i n Mr. N o r t h ' s White House s a f e , l i s t s more t h a n 20 d i f f e r e n t c o r p o r a t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s which s u g g e s t t h e f i n a n c i a l n e t w o r k c r e a t e d by Mr. N o r t h t o r u n t h e two o p e r a t i o n s . (Los Angeles Times, March 2 , 1987: 13). Mr. N o r t h f i l e d s u i t F e b r u a r y 24, 1987, a g a i n s t t h e s p e c i a l p r o s e c u t o r i n t h e I r a n - c o n t r a i n i t i a t i v e , Lawrence E. Walsh, and A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l Edwin Meese 3 d , c h a l l e n g i n g t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f t h e F e d e r a l law p e r m i t t i n g appointment of a s p e c i a l prosecutor. (Mew York Times, F e b r u a r y 25, 1987: All. T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Congress House F o r e i g n A f f a i r s C o r n i t t e e , December 9 , 1986; t o o k F i f t h Amendment; House I n t e l l i g e n c e Committee, December 9 , 1986; t o o k F i f t h Amendment; S e n a t e I n t e l l i g e n c e C o m n i t t e e , December 1 , 1986; t o o k F i f t h Amendment. OWEN, Robert Nationality: United States Recent Previous Occupations Republican Congressional aide; State Department Consultant. Role Mr. Owen worked out of the State Department's Nicaraguan Humanitarian Office as well as Lt. Col. Oliver North's National Security Council office as an informal liaison between the Nicaraguan rebel leaders and their U.S. supporters. Mr. Owen created the Institute for Democracy, Education and Assistance (IDEA) which is identified on the flow chart found in Lt. Col. ~ o r t h ' s safe and is believed to be an entity established to manage money raised and spent in support of the Nicaraguan rebels during a two-year Congressional ban on direct U.S. military assistance to them. (Washington Post, February 28, 1987: 13). Test if ied before Congress Senate Intelligence Cornittee, December 8, 1986; took Fifth Amendment. PARLOW, Thomas Nationality: Denmark Current Occupation Shipping agent Role M r . P a r l o w , a Danish s h i p p i n g a g e n t , was r e p o r t e d l y i n v o l v e d i n s u p p l y i n g a s m a l l f r e i g h t e r , t h e E r r i a , t o L t . Col. N o r t h f o r u s e i n d e l i v e r i n g a r m s t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . Thomas C l i n e s , ex-CIA a g e n t and c l o s e a s s o c i a t e o f r e t i r e d A i r F o r c e Maj. Gen. R i c h a r d V . S e c o r d , and Mr. N o r t h u s e d t h e E r r i a i n t h e s p r i n g of 1986, i n an u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t t o f r e e U.S. h o s t a g e s i n (Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l , F e b r u a r y Lebanon w i t h a ransom p a i d by H. Ross P e r o t . 1 3 , 1987: 5 0 ) . The Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l r e p o r t e d t h a t Mr. Parlow i s a l o n g t i m e f r i e n d of Thomas C l i n e s , ex-CIA o f f i c i a l who i s l i n k e d t o t h e s h i p m e n t s o f arms t o t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . PERES , Shimon Nationality: Israel Current Occupation F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r , 1986- Recent Previous Occupations Prime M i n i s t e r , 1984-86; L e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n , 1977-84. Role During a n e a r l y May of 1985 m e e t i n g w i t h Michael Ledeen, then-Prime M i n i s t e r P e r e s a s k e d f o r U.S. c o n s e n t t o s e l l I r a n a q u a n t i t y o f weapons. In a c a b l e t o S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e S h u l t z , t h e n - N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r R o b e r t McFarlane r e p o r t e d t h a t Mr. P e r e s had r a i s e d t h e i s s u e of t r a d i n g arms f o r hostages. ( S e n a t e S e l e c t Committee on I n t e l l i g e n c e : 5 ) . (Tower Commission R e p o r t : Appendix B , 1 1 ) . On J u l y 1 4 , 1985, Mr. P e r e s s e n t A 1 Schwimmer, a d v i s e r on t e c h n o l o g y t o Mr. P e r e s , t o meet w i t h Michael Ledeen. Mr. Schwimmer d i s c u s s e d t h e d e t a i l s o f h i s e a r l i e r m e e t i n g i n Europe w i t h David Kimche, t h e n D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l o f t h e I s r a e l i F o r e i g n M i n i s t r y , Adnan Khashoggi and Manucher G h o r b a n i f a r . I n t h e l a t t e r p a r t of F e b r u a r y 1986, Mr. P e r e s w r o t e t o P r e s i d e n t Reagan a d v o c a t i n g c o n t i n u e d e f f o r t s t o g a i n a " s t r a t e g i c opening" i n I r a n . He promised I s r a e l i s u p p o r t f o r t h i s p o l i c y . PEROT, H . Ross Nationality: United S t a t e s Recent Previous Occupations Member o f t h e Board of D i r e c t o r s , G e n e r a l M o t o r s C o r p o r a t i o n ; Chairman, E l e c t r o n i c Data Systems C o r p o r a t i o n ; Member, p r e s i d e n t ' s F o r e i g n I n t e l l i g e n c e A d v i s o r y B o a r d . Role A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Tower Commission R e p o r t , Mr. P e r o t , a t t h e r e q u e s t of L t . C o l . O l i v e r N o r t h , p l a c e d two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n a S w i s s b a n k , C r e d i t S u i s s e Bank, i n May o f 1 9 8 6 , i n a n e f f o r t t o g a i n t h e r e l e a s e o f two A m e r i c a n h o s t a g e s , i n c l u d i n g W i l l i a m B u c k l e y , h e l d i n Lebanon. The a r r a n g e m e n t s f e l l t h r o u g h a n d t h e money was n e v e r u s e d . (Newsweek, March 9 , 1 9 8 7 : 2 6 ) . PIOWATY, John Nationality: United S t a t e s Recent Previous Occupations Veteran f i g h t e r p i l o t Role A c c o r d i n g t o news r e p o r t s , Mr. Piowaty was h i r e d t o f l y s e c r e t m i s s i o n s o v e r N i c a r a g u a by a r e t i r e d A i r F o r c e C o l o n e l , R i c h a r d Gadd. Edward De G a r a y , c h a i r m a n of C o r p o r a t e A i r S e r v i c e s , employed Mr. Piowaty and o t h e r members of t h e r e b e l r e s u p p l y o p e r a t i o n ' s f l i g h t crews. (Newsweek, March 9 , 1987: 3 4 ) . POINDEXTER, J o h n M . Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation R e a r A d m i r a l , U n i t e d S t a t e s Navy Recent Previous Occupations National S e c u r i t y Adviser, National S e c u r i t y Council Role Rear A d m i r a l P o i n d e x t e r r e p l a c e d R o b e r t M c F a r l a n e a s N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r o n December 4 , 1985. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Tower C o m i s s i o n R e p o r t , L t . CoL. O l i v e r N o r t h k e p t Mr. P o i n d e x t e r " e x h a u s t i v e l y i n f o r m e d " o f t h e I r a n i a n arms i n i t i a t i v e . ( T i m e , March 9 , 1987: 3 8 ) . Mr. P o i n d e x t e r a c t i v e l y s u p e r v i s e d L t . C o l . N o r t h i n r u n n i n g t h e C o n t r a r e s u p p l y e f f o r t , f i r s t a s Mr. ~ c F a r l a n e ' sd e p u t y a n d t h e n a f t e r Mr. M c F a r l a n e ' s r e s i g n a t i o n . Mr. P o i n d e x t e r k e p t i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h Mr. N o r t h t h r o u g h a p r i v a t e i n t e r - o f f i c e c o m p u t e r communications network which h e e s t a b l i s h e d August 31, 1985, between h i s (New York o f f i c e a n d Mr. N o r t h ' s t h a t was code-named " p r i v a t e B l a n k Check." T i m e s , March 1, 1987: 5 ) . On J a n u a r y 1 7 , 1 9 8 6 , Mr. P o i n d e x t e r b r i e f e d P r e s i d e n t Reagan b e f o r e t h e P r e s i d e n t s i g n e d a s e c r e t i n t e l l i g e n c e f i n d i n g a u t h o r i z i n g t h e s a l e o f weapons and s p a r e p a r t s t o I r a n . The Tower C o m n i s s i o n R e p o r t f a u l t e d Mr. P o i n d e x t e r f o r f a i l i n g t o r e s t r a i n Mr. N o r t h i n t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e ~ r a n / ~ o n t rp ao l i c i e s . 'I P o i n d e x t e r ' s own b e n t f o r o p e r a t i o n s a i d e d a n d a b e t t e d r a t h e r t h a n c o m p e n s a t e d f o r ~ o r t h . " (Time, March 9 , 1987: 3 9 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l Edwin Meese, M r . P o i n d e x t e r was f u l l y a w a r e t h a t Mr. N o r t h was a r r a n g i n g t h e d i v e r s i o n o f p r o f i t s from t h e arms s a l e s t o a i d t h e r e b e l s f i g h t i n g i n Nicaragua. ( W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , F e b r u a r y 2 5 , 1987: A17). The Tower C o m n i s s i o n R e p o r t c o n c l u d e d t h a t Mr. P o i n d e x t e r " f a i l e d g r i e v o u s l y " i n h i s d u t y t o P r e s i d e n t Reagan, d e l i b e r a t e l y s h i e l d i n g P r e s i d e n t Reagan f r o m t h e d e t a i l s o f Mr. N o r t h ' s a c t i v i t i e s . Mr. P o i n d e x t e r r e s i g n e d h i s p o s i t i o n a s N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r on November 2 5 , 1986. Testified before Congress Senate Intelligence Committee, November 21; December 3, 1986; took Fifth Amendment ; House Foreign Affairs Committee, December 9, 1986; took Fifth Amendment; House Intelligence Committee, December 19, 1986; took Fifth Amendment. POWELL, C o l i n L. Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation Deputy N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r , N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , 1987- Recent Previous Occupations U.S. Army G e n e r a l , V C o r p s , Europe, 1986-87; M i l i t a r y A s s i s t a n t t o S e c r e t a r y of D e f e n s e , 1983-86; A s s i s t a n t D i v i s i o n Commander, 4 t h I n f a n t r y D i v i s i o n , 1981-83; E x e c u t i v e A s s i s t a n t t o S e c r e t a r y , Department o f Energy, 1979. Role G e n e r a l Powell was o r d e r e d by S e c r e t a r y of Defense W e i n b e r g e r t o a r r a n g e f o r t h e t r a n s f e r of Army weapons t o t h e CIA. He was a s s i s t e d i n t h i s a c t i o n by Major G e n e r a l V i n c e n t Russo of t h e Defense L o g i s t i c s Agency. He a l s o d i s c u s s e d t h e arms t r a n s f e r o p e r a t i o n w i t h L t . Col. N o r t h a s well a s p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s I s r a e l would h a v e i n r e p l a c i n g them. ( S e n a t e S e l e c t Committee on Intelligence: 1 7 , 18). QUINTERO, R a f a e l (Chi-Chi) Nationality: U n i t e d S t a t e s (Cuban e x i l e ) Current Occupation CIA Role Mr. Q u i n t e r o h a s been i d e n t i f i e d a s working f o r Thomas C l i n e s , a n ex-CIA o f f i c i a l l i n k e d t o arms s h i p m e n t s t o t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s , a t C o n t r a s u p p l y Mr. b a s e s i n C o s t a R i c a and E l S a l v a d o r . (Newsweek, March 9 , 1987: 35). Q u i n t e r o o n c e worked under Mr. C l i n e s i n t h e CIA and l a t e r became h i s b u s i n e s s associate. (Washington P o s t , J a n u a r y 18, 1987: A l , ~ 6 ) . KABIN, Y i tzhak Nationality: Israel C u r r e n t Occupat ion M i n i s t e r o f D e f e n s e , 1984- Recent Previous Occupations P r i m e M i n i s t e r , 1974-77; M i n i s t e r o f L a b o r , 1974. Role I s r a e l i Defense M i n i s t e r Rabin a g r e e d t o a n i n i t i a l shipment o f I s r a e l i TOW m i s s i l e s t o I r a n on c o n d i t i o n s t h a t p a y m e n t s be made i n a d v a n c e , a n d t h e U.S. g i v e w r i t t e n a p p r o v a l t o t h e d e a l a n d p r o m i s e t o r e p l e n i s h I s r a e l i s t o c k s of the missiles. The Tower Commission R e p o r t s t a t e d t h a t Mr. R a b i n had p r o p o s e d s e n d i n g b e t w e e n 20 a n d 50 S p a n i s h - s p e a k i n g m i l i t a r y t r a i n e r s t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n rebels. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e p o r t of t h e S e n a t e S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e o n I n t e l l i g e n c e c o n t e n d e d t h a t Mr. R a b i n o n S e p t e m b e r 1 2 , 1 9 8 6 , h a d o f f e r e d "a s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t y of c a p t u r e d S o v i e t b l o c a r m s f o r u s e by t h e N i c a r a g u a n resistance." Mr. R a b i n , i n a F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 8 7 , s t a t e m e n t r e l e a s e d by t h e I s r a e l i D e f e n s e M i n i s t r y , d e n i e d t h a t h e had o f f e r e d t o s e n d e i t h e r a d v i s e r s o r weapons t o t h e C o n t r a s . He s t a t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h h e h a d met w i t h L t . C o l . O l i v e r N o r t h i n May o f 1986 a t t h e Waldorf A s t o r i a H o t e l i n New York, Mr. N o r t h t o l d Mr. R a b i n t h a t h e had f i r s t p r o p o s e d t h e i d e a of s e n d i n g c a p t u r e d S o v i e t b l o c weapons t o N i c a r a g u a t o P r e s i d e n t Reagan. Mr. R a b i n s t a t e d f u r t h e r t h a t h e h a d " r e j e c t e d t h e p r o p o s a l o u t of hand." He d e n i e d a s 1I t o t a l l y g r o u n d l e s s " t h e c l a i m made i n t h e Tower C o m i s s i o n R e p o r t t h a t h e h a d o f f e r e d t o provide m i l i t a r y i n s t r u c t o r s t o t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . (Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l , F e b r u a r y 2 8 , 1987: A10). RAFSANJANI, Ali Akbar Hashemi Nationality: Iran Current Occupation Speaker, I ranian Parliament Role The London Times, (~ovember29, 1986: 251, reported that Mr. Rafsanjani was one of five prominent figures in Iran who arranged for Robert ~cFarlane's visit to Iran without telling the Ayatollah Khomeini. According to the Times, he told the Ayatollah Khomeini of Robert ~ c ~ a r l a n e ' visit s after the American envoy arrived in Iran. The Wall Street Journal (March 5 , 1987: 62) quoted Ad Dastour, an Arabic newspaper published in London, as saying that Mr. Rafsanjani may have profited from the U.S. arms deal. Ali Nurizadeh, an exiled Iranian journalist and editor of Ad Dastour, reported that $6 million from the arms sales was deposited in a bank account in Geneva controlled by Mr. ~ a sanjani's f son, Saed. REAGAN, Ronald Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation P r e s i d e n t , U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America, 1981- On J a n u a r y 1 7 , 1986, a f t e r a b r i e f i n g by t h e n - N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r John P o i n d e x t e r , P r e s i d e n t Reagan s i g n e d a s e c r e t i n t e l l i g e n c e " f i n d i n g u a u t h o r i z i n g t h e s a l e of weapons and s p a r e p a r t s t o I r a n . P r e s i d e n t Reagan h a s s t a t e d t h a t h i s o b j e c t i v e s were t o improve r e l a t i o n s w i t h I r a n , end t h e I r a n - I r a q w a r , and f a c i l i t a t e t h e r e l e a s e of American h o s t a g e s h e l d c a p t i v e i n Lebanon. I n h i s f i r s t m e e t i n g w i t h t h e Tower Comnission, P r e s i d e n t Reagan s a i d he had g i v e n p r i o r a p p r o v a l of t h e I s r a e l i s h i p m e n t s o f August-September 1985 b u t i n h i s second m e e t i n g h e s a i d t h a t , a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h then-Chief of S t a f f Donald Regan, h e b e l i e v e d he had n o t g i v e n a p p r o v a l p r i o r t o t h e i r c o m p l e t i o n . S u b s e q u e n t l y he m a i n t a i n e d t h a t he c o u l d n o t remember when he had g i v e n a p p r o v a l t o t h e arms shipment t o I r a n , "I d i d a p p r o v e i t , I j u s t c a n ' t s a y s p e c i f i c a l l y when." (New York Times, March 5 , 1987: A19). Mr. McFarlane, i n t e s t i m o n y t o t h e Tower Commission, i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t g a v e h i s a p p r o v a l t o t h e f i r s t arms shipment b e f o r e t h e weapons w e r e s h i p p e d a t t h e end of August of 1985. Mr. Regan h a s been e q u a l l y adamant i n s a y i n g t h e P r e s i d e n t e n d o r s e d t h e shipment o n l y a f t e r i t was made. The Tower Report c o n c l u d e d t h a t Mr. Reagan p r o b a b l y d i d g i v e h i s a s s e n t t o t h e f i r s t I r a n arms shipment b e f o r e t h e shipment t o o k p l a c e i n August of 1985. The R e p o r t s t a t e d f u r t h e r t h a t some P r e s i d e n t i a l a i d e s d e l i b e r a t e l y t r i e d t o c o n c e a l i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e I r a n arms i n i t i a t i v e from t h e P r e s i d e n t and t o minimize Mr. R e a g a n ' s r o l e . The P r e s i d e n t was n o t p a r t of t h e e f f o r t , t h e R e p o r t s t a t e d , and "did n o t i n t e n d t o m i s l e a d t h e American I t d i d s t a t e t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t "was n o t t o t a l l y c a n d i d a t a l l public." times". P r e s i d e n t Reagan, i n a November 13 and 1 9 , 1986, s p e e c h and p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e , and i n a March 4 , 1987, b r o a d c a s t t o t h e N a t i o n , s t a t e d t h a t h i s p o l i c y toward I r a n had d e t e r i o r a t e d i n t o a t r a d e of arms f o r h o s t a g e s and t h a t "what began he accepted " f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " f o r t h e Iran-Contra i n i t i a t i v e . a s a s t r a t e g i c opening t o I r a n d e t e r i o r a t e d i n i t s implementation i n t o t r a d i n g arms f o r hostages." (New York Times, March 5 , 1987: A l l . The Tower Commission R e p o r t c o n c l u d e d t h a t Mr. ~ e a g a n ' s I r a n i n i t i a t i v e Itbecame....a s e r i e s of a r m s - f o r - h o s t a g e s d e a l s , " and t h a t t h e exchange o f arms f o r h o s t a g e s was a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s p o l i c y toward I r a n " a l m o s t from t h e beginning." (New York Times, March 5 , 1987: A19). P r e s i d e n t Reagan h a s s t a t e d he was n o t " f u l l y informed" of t h e d i v e r s i o n of funds t o t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . (New York Times, December 1 4 , 1986: 4-1, 4-21. The Tower Report found no e v i d e n c e t h a t P r e s i d e n t Reagan e v e r a p p r o v e d t h e broad p l a n t o a i d t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . But i t quoted s e v e r a l i n t e r n a l documents s u g g e s t i n g t h a t Mr. Reagan knew a b o u t a t l e a s t some of t h e activities. (New York Times, F e b r u a r y 27, 1987: A l l . According t o t h e S e n a t e S e l e c t Committee on I n t e l l i g e n c e R e p o r t , P r e s i d e n t Reagan may have been b r i e f e d o r a l l y on a memorandum d r a f t e d i n A p r i l of 1986, by L t . Col. N o r t h , which s u g g e s t e d d i v e r t i n g $12 m i l l i o n t o t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . The Committee s a i d t h e memorandum a p p e a r e d t o have been s e n t t o Mr. ~ o r t h ' ss u p e r i o r , V i c e Admiral P o i n d e x t e r , b u t t h a t t h e Comnittee had no e v i d e n c e t h a t Mr. P o i n d e x t e r had t o l d t h e P r e s i d e n t a b o u t t h e d i v e r s i o n of f u n d s . (New York Times, J a n u a r y 1 9 , 1987: A7). T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower Comnission J a n u a r y 2 6 , 1987; F e b r u a r y 1 1 , 1987. REED, Frank H. Nationality: United States Recent Previous Occupations Headmaster, Lebanese International School (Muslim West Beirut) Role Mr. Reed was taken captive September 9, 1986, in South Beirut, reportedly by the Islamic Jihad (anonymous phone call, September 9, 1986), which later denied responsibility in a written message on September 11, 1986 (Voice of ~ebanon). The al-Baath Cells Organization was also reported to have claimed responsibility (Voice of Lebanon, December 13, 19861, as did the Umar al-Mukhtar Forces of the Arab Revolutionary Cells. (Beirut Radio, September 14, 1986). REGAN, Donald T. Nationality: United S t a t e s Recent P r e v i o u s O c c u p a t i o n s White House C h i e f of S t a f f , 1985-87; S e c r e t a r y of t h e T r e a s u r y , 1981-85; Chairman o f t h e Board, Chief E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e r , M e r r i l l Lynch, P i e r c e , F e n n e r & S m i t h , I n c . , 1973-81. Role Mr. Regan was p r e s e n t on J a n u a r y 1 7 , 1986, a l o n g w i t h Vice P r e s i d e n t Bush and t h e n - N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r John P o i n d e x t e r , when P r e s i d e n t Reagan s i g n e d a s e c r e t i n t e l l i g e n c e " f i n d i n g " a u t h o r i z i n g t h e s a l e of weapons and s p a r e p a r t s t o I r a n . He was aware of s u b s e q u e n t arms s a l e s t o I r a n . Mr. Regan s a i d u n d e r o a t h t h a t h e d i d n o t know o f t h e d i v e r s i o n o f p r o f i t s t o t h e Nicaraguan C o n t r a s b e f o r e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l Meese r e p o r t e d i t i n November of 1986, (Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l , December 1 8 , 1986: 3, 1 2 ) . I n a May 1 6 , 1986, message which L t . Col. N o r t h s e n t t o Vice Admiral P o i n d e x t e r , Mr. N o r t h s a i d , "I have no i d e a what Don Regan d o e s o r d o e s n o t know r e my p r i v a t e Mr. P o i n d e x t e r r e p l i e d t o Mr. N o r t h ' s message, Regan U.S. o p e r a t i o n . . . . I 1 knows v e r y l i t t l e of your o p e r a t i o n and t h a t i s j u s t a s w e l l . " (washington P o s t , F e b r u a r y 27, 1987: ~ 1 ) . o on The Tower Comnission Report s t a t e d t h a t "(m)ore t h a n a l m o s t a n y c h i e f of s t a f f o f r e c e n t h i s t o r y , (Regan) a s s e r t e d p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e White House s t a f f and s o u g h t t o e x t e n d t h i s c o n t r o l t o t h e n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y adviser....He e s p e c i a l l y s h o u l d h a v e e n s u r e d t h a t p l a n s were made f o r h a n d l i n g a n y p u b l i c d i s c l o s u r e o f t h e ( I r a n arms s a l e s ) i n i t i a t i v e . He must b e a r p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c h a o s t h a t descended upon t h e White House when such d i s c l o s u r e d i d occur." (Washington P o s t , F e b r u a r y 28, 1987: A17). Mr. Regan r e s i g n e d a s White House Chief of S t a f f on F e b r u a r y 27, 1987. T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower Comnission J a n u a r y 7 , 1987 RODRIGUEZ, F e l i x ( a l i a s Max Gomez) Nationality: United S t a t e s Recent Previous Occupations C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency o f f i c i a l Role Mr. R o d r i g u e z i s a f o r m e r C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency o p e r a t i v e who c o o r d i n a t e d t h e s u p p l y o p e r a t i o n t o t h e C o n t r a s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d when C o n g r e s s had t e r m i n a t e d m i l i t a r y a i d . He was t h e m e d i a t o r between American a i r c r e w s and S a l v a d o r a n Air F o r c e o f f i c i a l s . Vice P r e s i d e n t Bush h a s s a i d t h a t Mr. R o d r i g u e z met t h r e e t i m e s w i t h members o f h i s s t a f f , Donald P. G r e g g , Mr. ~ u s h ' sN a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r and Col. Samuel J . Watson 1 1 1 , Mr. ~ r e g g ' sd e p u t y . (Newsweek, March 9 , 1987: 3 5 ) . SCHWIMMER, Adolph ( A l ) Nationality: United S t a t e s , I s r a e l ( d u a l c i t i z e n s h i p ) Current Occupation A d v i s e r on t e c h n o l o g y t o Prime M i n i s t e r Shimon P e r e s ; I n d e p e n d e n t arms d e a l e r . Recent Previous Occupations Founder and former h e a d , I s r a e l i A i r c r a f t I n d u s t r i e s Role B e g i n n i n g i n J a n u a r y o f 1985, Mr. Schwimmer, a l o n g w i t h Amiram Nir, a d v i s e r on c o u n t e r t e r r o r i s m t o t h e n Prime M i n i s t e r Shimon P e r e s , and Yaacov N i m r o d i , an arms d e a l e r , met w i t h I r a n i a n arms merchant Manucher G h o r b a n i f a r i n a s e r i e s o f m e e t i n g s t o d i s c u s s t h e p o s s i b l e s a l e of TOW m i s s i l e s t o I r a n and t r a d i n g h o s t a g e s f o r weapons. Roy Furmark, a b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e of Adnan Khashoggi, t o l d Charles A l l e n , C I A National I n t e l l i g e n c e O f f i c e r , t h a t " p r o f i t was c e r t a i n l y a m o t i v e b u t t h a t t h e g r o u p d i d s e e t h e i r e f f o r t s l e a d i n g t o w a r d (Tower Commission s t a b i l i t y i n t h e r e g i o n and t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e h o s t a g e s . " B , I 1 C). R e p o r t , Appendix Mr. Schwimmer was c o n s u l t e d by Prime M i n i s t e r P e r e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o o p e n i n g p o s s i b l e c o n t a c t s w i t h I r a n . These d i s c u s s i o n s f o l l o w e d t h e s u g g e s t i o n s made t o Mr. P e r e s by Michael Ledeen, a c o n s u l t a n t t o t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , t h a t such c o n t a c t s be i n i t i a t e d . I n e a r l y J u l y o f 1985, Mr. Schwimner, a f r i e n d o f David ~ i m c h e ' s , met w i t h Mr. Ledeen i n Washington, D.C. and b r i e f e d Mr. Ledeen on a n e a r l i e r m e e t i n g he had had i n Europe w i t h Mr. Kimche, Adnan Khashoggi, and Manucher G h o r b a n i f a r . He s u g g e s t e d t o Mr. Ledeen t h a t he meet w i t h Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r t o d i s c u s s t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n I r a n . 5 , 6). ( S e n a t e S e l e c t C o m n i t t e e on I n t e l l i g e n c e : SCOWCROFT, Brent Nationality: United States Recent Previous Occupations Member, President's Special Review Board, 1986-87; Brigadier General, U.S. Air Force; National Security Adviser, National Security Council; Vice Chairman, Kissinger Associates, Inc.; Member, Advisory Board, Georgetown Center for Strategic and International Studies. Role General Scowcroft was a member of the Tower Comnission, formally called the president's Special Review Board. SECORD, R i c h a r d V . Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , S t a n f o r d Technology T r a d i n g I n c . , V i e n n a , VA. Recent Previous Occupations Major G e n e r a l , U.S. A i r Force; Deputy A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y of Defense f o r Middle E a s t ; D i r e c t o r , A i r F o r c e M i l i t a r y A s s i s t a n c e Advisory Group, I r a n ; P r e s i d e n t , S t a n f o r d Technology T r a d i n g Group I n t e r n a t i o n a l ; C o n s u l t a n t , S p e c i a l O p e r a t i o n s P o l i c y Advisory Group, Department o f Defense. Role The Tower Comnission Report i d e n t i f i e d r e t i r e d A i r F o r c e Maj. Gen. R i c h a r d V. S e c o r d a s a c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n t h e s e c r e t arms s a l e s t o I r a n a s well a s i n t h e p r i v a t e C o n t r a a i r r e s u p p l y o p e r a t i o n based a t t h e E l S a l v a d o r a n a i r base a t Ilopango. Mr. S e c o r d and h i s b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e , A l b e r t Hakim, w e r e t h e two most prominent f i g u r e s among t h e c l a n d e s t i n e o p e r a t o r s who a s s i s t e d Mr. N o r t h . (Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l , March 2 , 1987: 2 ) . The Tower Comnission R e p o r t s t a t e d t h a t m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s i n p r o f i t f r o m t h e I r a n arms s a l e s were d e p o s i t e d i n Swiss bank a c c o u n t s i n t h e name of Lake R e s o u r c e s , a dummy c o r p o r a t i o n r e g i s t e r e d i n Panama w i t h a bank a c c o u n t (Washington P o s t , i n S w i t z e r l a n d and c o n t r o l l e d by Mr. Secord and Mr. North. March 6 , 1987: A l l ) . M r . S e c o r d r e l i e d h e a v i l y on S o u t h e r n A i r T r a n s p o r t , a Miami-based f r e i g h t c a r r i e r , which h a s been l i n k e d t o h i s p r i v a t e C o n t r a r e s u p p l y e f f o r t s . S o u t h e r n A i r T r a n s p o r t p l a n e s were used t o s h i p U.S. weapons t o I s r a e l f o r l a t e r s h i p m e n t t o I r a n a n d , t h r o u g h a Panamanian f r o n t , Amalgamated commercial E n t e r p r i s e s (ACE), t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p u r c h a s e and m a i n t e n a n c e of p l a n e s u s e d i n t h e c o v e r t a i r l i f t t o Nicaragua. (Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l , March 2 , 1987: 2 ) (Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l , F e b r u a r y 1 3 , 1987: 5 0 ) . Mr. S e c o r d p l a y e d a p r i n c i p a l r o l e i n h e l p i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a s e c o n d c h a n n e l t o I r a n i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t of August 1986 a f t e r t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n no l o n g e r wanted t o r e l y upon Manucher G h o r b a n i f a r , t h e I r a n i a n arms m e r c h a n t . The s e c o n d c h a n n e l , known i n t h e Tower Comnission R e p o r t o n l y a s " t h e R e l a t i v e , " had been c u l t i v a t e d i n London by Mr. S e c o r d . I n a September 1 0 , 1 9 8 6 , memo t h a t C h a r l e s A l l e n , CIA N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e O f f i c e r , s e n t t o f o r m e r CIA D i r e c t o r W i l l i a m C a s e y , A l l e n s a i d f o r m e r N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r P o i n d e x t e r t o l d L t . C o l . North t o c o n t i n u e t o e s t a b l i s h " t h e ~ e l a t i v e " t h r o u g h Mr. S e c o r d and h i s b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e A l b e r t Hakim. (Tower Commission R e p o r t , Appendix B , IX A). Mr. S e c o r d r e p o r t e d i n a message t o Mr. N o r t h , " M ~ judgment i s t h a t we h a v e opened up a new and p r o b a b l y much b e t t e r c h a n n e l t o I r a n . T h i s c o n n e c t i o n h a s been e f f e c t i v e l y r e c r u i t e d and h e w a n t s t o s t a r t dealing." (Newsweek, March 9 , 1987: 2 9 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o A d o l f o C a l e r o , who h e a d s t h e N i c a r a g u a n D e m o c r a t i c F r o n t (FDN), t h e arms p u r c h a s e d by t h e FDN d u r i n g t h e C o n g r e s s i o n a l ban w e r e o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h r e e i n t e r m e d i a r i e s , Mr. S e c o r d , r e t i r e d Army Maj. Gen. S i n g l a u b , and r e t i r e d Army L t . Col. James L. McCoy. Mr. C a l e r o s t a t e d t h a t Mr. S e c o r d p r o v i d e d t h e l a r g e s t amount of weapons between $8 and $9 m i l l i o n m o s t l y t h r o u g h t h e c o r p o r a t e name Energy R e s o u r c e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l . worth ( W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , March 6 , 1987: A l l ) . -- -- T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Congress S e n a t e I n t e l l i g e n c e , December 9 , 1986; S e n a t e I n t e l l i g e n c e Committee, December 2 3 , 1986. SHACKLEY, Theodore C. Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation D i r e c t o r , T.G.S., International; D i r e c t o r , R.E.I. Recent Previous Occupations A s s o c i a t e Deputy D i r e c t o r of O p e r a t i o n s , C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency; C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency S t a t i o n C h i e f , Vietnam; C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency S t a t i o n C h i e f , Laos. Role Mr. S h a c k l e y was one o f t h e f i r s t Americans c o n s u l t e d by Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r c o n c e r n i n g t h e s a l e o f arms t o I r a n . Mr. S h a c k l e y met Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r on November 19-21, 1984, i n Hamburg, West Germany. During a s u b s e q u e n t s e r i e s o f m e e t i n g s , Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r s u g g e s t e d t h a t I r a n would be w i l l i n g t o t r a d e some Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r a l s o S o v i e t equipment c a p t u r e d i n I r a q f o r TOW m i s s i l e s . m e n t i o n e d t h e f o u r American h o s t a g e s i n Lebanon, i n c l u d i n g W i l l i a m Buckley, and c l a i m e d h e c o u l d g e t them r e l e a s e d i n exchange f o r c a s h . Mr. S h a c k l e y was i n t r o d u c e d t o Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r by G e n e r a l Manucher Hashemi, former head of S A V A K ' S Department V I I I ( c o u n t e r e s p i o n a g e ) . (Tower Commission R e p o r t , Appendix 6 , I B). Mr. S h a c k l e y s t a t e d t h a t h e met w i t h Mr. G h o r b a n i f a r o n l y t o d i s c u s s t h e i m p o r t a t i o n i n t o I r a n of machinery and p r o s t h e s e s f o r wounded Iranian veterans. (Washington P o s t , F e b r u a r y 2 , 1987: A10). Mr. S h a c k l e y p r e p a r e d a memorandum f o r t h e S t a t e Department i n which h e r e l a y e d an I r a n i a n p r o p o s a l t o ransom t h e h o s t a g e s h e l d i n Lebanon. He s a i d he p l a y e d no r o l e after this time. (Washington P o s t , J a n u a r y 18, 1987: A-16). T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower C o m i s s i o n F e b r u a r y 5 , 1987 SHULTZ, G e o r g e P. Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , 1982- Recent Previous Occupations D i r e c t o r a n d P r e s i d e n t , B e c h t e l Group I n c . , 1975-80; P r e s i d e n t , B e c h t e l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1975-80; P r o f e s s o r , management a n d p u b l i c p o l i c y , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1974-82. Role S e c r e t a r y S h u l t z o p p o s e d t h e s a l e of a r m s t o I r a n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e S e n a t e S e l e c t c o m m i t t e e o n I n t e l l i g e n c e r e p o r t , Mr. S h u l t z , a t t h e A u g u s t 8 , 1985, m e e t i n g o f t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y P l a n n i n g Group, v o i c e d o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p l a n t o p e r m i t t h e s a l e o f TOWS t o I r a n t h r o u g h I s r a e l . Mr. S h u l t z h a s s a i d t h a t a l t h o u g h he knew a r m s s a l e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a s p a r t of a p l a n t o i m p r o v e r e l a t i o n s w i t h I r a n , h e was o n l y p a r t i a l l y i n f o r m e d o f t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e t a i l s of s u c h a p l a n . D u r i n g t h e Geneva summit m e e t i n g i n November 19-21, 1 9 8 5 , Mr. S h u l t z was a d v i s e d by t h e n - N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r R o b e r t M c F a r l a n e t h a t a r m s were t o be s h i p p e d t o I r a n by I s r a e l i n a n e f f o r t t o f a c i l i t a t e r e l e a s e of U.S. h o s t a g e s h e l d i n Lebanon. (New York T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 1 2 , 1987: A3). The Tower C o m n i s s i o n R e p o r t f a u l t e d Mr. S h u l t z , a s w e l l a s S e c r e t a r y o f Defense Weinberger, f o r n o t b e i n g e n e r g e t i c enough i n o p p o s i n g t h e I r a n policy. The Tower C o m n i s s i o n s t a t e d , " T h e i r o b l i g a t i o n was t o g i v e t h e P r e s i d e n t t h e i r f u l l s u p p o r t and c o n t i n u e d a d v i c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e program o r , i f they could not i n conscience do t h a t , t o do inform t h e President. I n s t e a d t h e y s i m p l y d i s t a n c e d t h e m s e l v e s from t h e p r o g r a m . They p r o t e c t e d t h e r e c o r d a s t o t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s on t h e i s s u e . They were n o t e n e r g e t i c i n a t t e m p t i n g t o p r o t e c t t h e P r e s i d e n t from t h e consequences o f h i s p e r s o n a l commitment t o f r e e i n g t h e h o s t a g e s . " (New York T i m e s , March 6 , 1987: A l , A19). Mr. S h u l t z h a s s a i d h e was unaware o f t h e d i v e r s i o n of f u n d s t o t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . The Tower Commission R e p o r t s t a t e d t h a t i n J u n e o f 1 9 8 6 , t h e n - N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r P o i n d e x t e r r e p o r t e d t h a t Mr. S h u l t z "knows n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e p r i o r f i n a n c i n g " of t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s and a d d e d , " I t s h o u l d s t a y t h a t way." (New York Times, March 4 , 1987: A15). On a r e c e n t t r i p t o t h e P e o p l e s R e p u b l i c on t h e Tower Commission's f i n d i n g s , " I do n o t d e s i g n e d somehow o r o t h e r t o make a r e c o r d t o o p e r a t e t h a t way." (New York Times, March 6 , o f C h i n a , Mr. S h u l t z romnented a g r e e t h a t my a c t i o n s w e r e I do n o t p r o t e c t myself. 1987: A l ) . T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Congress House F o r e i g n A f f a i r s C o m n i t t e e , December 8 , 1986. T e s t i f i e d b e f o r e Tower Commission J a n u a r y 2 2 , 1987 SINGLAUB, John Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation D i r e c t o r , U.S. C o u n c i l f o r World Freedom Recent Previous Occupations C h i e f of S t a f f , Army F o r c e s Comnand, F o r t McPherson, 1977-1978; C h i e f of S t a f f , U.S. F o r c e s , Korea, -1977. Role G e n e r a l John S i n g l a u b p l a y e d a major r o l e i n r a i s i n g p r i v a t e f u n d s f o r t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . The Tower Commission Report c i t e d a l e t t e r from L t . C o l . O l i v e r N o r t h t o t h e ambassador o f an u n i d e n t i f i e d C e n t r a l American c o u n t r y , r e q u e s t i n g a m u l t i p l e - e n t r y v i s a f o r Mr. S i n g l a u b . I n h i s l e t t e r , Mr. N o r t h w r o t e t o t h e ambassador t h a t G e n e r a l S i n g l a u b ' s v i s i t " w i l l w e l l s e r v e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f your c o u n t r y and mine." The Tower Commission r e p o r t n o t e d t h a t G e n e r a l S i n g l a u b s a i d t h a t on h i s r e t u r n h e had met w i t h s e v e r a l l e a d e r s o f t h e N i c a r a g u a n C o n t r a m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n and had a g r e e d t o p r o v i d e "a few" f o r m e r m i l i t a r y t r a i n e r s . (New York Times, F e b r u a r y 28, 1987: A10). A d o l f o C a l e r o , who h e a d s t h e N i c a r a g u a n Democratic F o r c e (FDN), h a s t e s t i f i e d t h a t a l o n g w i t h r e t i r e d Air F o r c e Maj. Gen. R i c h a r d V. S e c o r d and L t . C o l . C r a i g Coy, Mr. S i n g l a u b o b t a i n e d arms f o r t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s d u r i n g t h e C o n g r e s s i o n a l ban. (Washington P o s t , March 6 , 1987: A l l ) . SPORKIN, S t a n l e y Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation U.S. D i s t r i c t Court Judge Recent Previous Occupations CIA G e n e r a l C o u n s e l Role Mr. S p o r k i n d r a f t e d a f i n d i n g f o r P r e s i d e n t Reagan w h i c h r e t r o a c t i v e l y gave l e g a l a u t h o r i t y t o CIA p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e e a r l i e r shipments through Israel. R o b e r t M . G a t e s , Deputy D i r e c t o r o f t h e C I A , r e p o r t e d t o t h e S e n a t e I n t e l l i g e n c e p a n e l i n F e b r u a r y of 1 9 8 7 , t h a t h e h a d b e e n a d v i s e d , i n 1 9 8 5 , by Mr. S p o r k i n t h a t a f i n d i n g was n o t r e q u i r e d b y l a w f o r t h e November 1 9 8 5 a r m s t r a n s f e r operation. J o h n McMahon, f o r m e r Deputy D i r e c t o r o f t h e C I A , h a s s t a t e d t h a t Mr. S p o r k i n d r a f t e d a f i n d i n g anyway b e c a u s e Mr. McMahon made i t c l e a r t o Mr. S p o r k i n " t h a t t h e r e was no way we c o u l d become i n v o l v e d " i n a n y (Washington shipment t o I r a n , whatever i t s c h a r a c t e r , without a finding. P o s t , F e b u r a r y 28, 1987: ~ 1 2 ) . Mr. S p o r k i n a l s o a t t e n d e d t h e J a n u a r y 16, 1 9 8 6 , W h i t e House m e e t i n g , a l o n g w i t h t h e n - N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r J o h n P o i n d e x t e r , then-CIA D i r e c t o r William C a s e y , A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l Edwin Meese, and S e c r e t a r y of D e f e n s e W e i n b e r g e r , t o d i s c u s s t h e f i n a l d r a f t of t h e P r e i d e n t i a l f i n d i n g a u t h o r i z i n g ( S e n a t e S e l e c t Committee on I n t e l l i g e n c e : 1 7 ) . t h e s a l e of arms t o I r a n . CKS- 10 7 SUTHERLAND, Thomas P. Nationality: United States Recent Previous Occupations Dean, School o f Agriculture, American University, Beirut Role Mr. Sutherland was taken hostage o n June 9, 1985, in Beirut near the International Airport, by Islamic Jihad. (New York Times, June 16, 1985). remained in captivity a s of March 27, 1987. He TAMBS, Lewis Nationality: United S t a t e s Recent P r e v i o u s O c c u p a t i o n s U.S. Ambassador t o C o s t a R i c a , 1985-86 ( r e t i r e d i n J a n u a r y ) ; U.S. Ambassador t o Columbia, 1983-85; C o u n s e l o r , N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , 1982-83; P r o f e s s o r , 1975-82, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , 1970-75, A r i z o n a S t a t e University; D i r e c t o r , C e n t e r f o r L a t i n American S t u d i e s , Arizona S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1972-76. Role A s Ambassador t o C o s t a R i c a , Mr. Tambs r e p o r t e d l y m a i n t a i n e d c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h p r i v a t e groups involved i n supplying t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s w i t h a i d . A CIA o f f i c i a l who t e s t i f i e d b e f o r e t h e Tower Commission s t a t e d t h a t t h e S a n t a E l e n a a i r s t r i p , i n n o r t h e r n C o s t a R i c a , which was r e p o r t e d l y d e v e l o p e d f o r u s e by t h e N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s , was a " p e t p r o j e c t " of Mr. Tambs. Mr. Tambs, i n h i s own t e s t i m o n y , s a i d h e had been t o l d by L t . Col. North t h a t h i s g o a l s h o u l d b e t o "open t h e s o u t h e r n f r o n t " f o r t h e r e b e l s . Mr. Tambs s a i d t h i s was "confirmed by ~ b r a m s " ( E l l i o t t Abrams, A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e ) and a n unnamed CIA o f f i c i a l i n s u b s e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n s i n t h e R e s t r i c t e d I n t e r a g e n c y Group (RIG) on S o u t h America, a g r o u p o f o f f i c i a l s c h a r g e d w i t h monitoring t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l ' s progress, but i n r e a l i t y involved i n s u p p o r t i n g them. (New York Times, March 4 , 1987: ~ 1 5 ) . C i t i n g t e s t i m o n y from Mr. Tambs, t h e Tower Commission R e p o r t , s a i d t h a t RIG g a v e Mr. Tambs " i n s t r u c t i o n s " a s he p r e p a r e d t o b e g i n h i s a m b a s s a d o r s h i p i n C o s t a R i c a i n J u l y o f 1985. Mr. Tambs t e s t i f i e d , "Before I went, O l l i e ( L t . Col. N o r t h ) s a i d when you g e t down t h e r e you s h o u l d open t h e s o u t h e r n f r o n t . I n t h e s u b s e q u e n t m e e t i n g s and m e e t i n g ( o f t h e RIG) t h a t was c o n f i r m e d by Abrarns ( E l l i o t t Abrams) and ( t h e CIA o f f i c i a l ) . T h a t was s o r t o f o u r mission." (Washington P o s t , F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1987: A18). The V i l l a g e Voice (December 30, 1986: 1 5 , 1 6 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t Mr. Tambs was t h e o b j e c t of a n a s s a s i n a t i o n a t t e m p t by C o n t r a s u p p o r t e r s who hoped t o f o r c e t h e U.S. i n t o a war w i t h Nicaragua. TEICHER, Howard J. Nationality: United States Recent Previous Occupations Senior Director, Political-Military Affairs, National Security Council; Deputy-Director, Political-Military Affairs. Role Mr. Teicher participated in the initial reassessment of U.S. policy toward Iran. He co-authored with Donald Fortier a June 11, 1985 National Security Decision Directive for Robert C. McFarlane which proposed allowing friendly states to sell to Iran arms "that would not affect the strategic balance as a means of showing Iran that i t had alternatives" to the Soviets. (Tower Commission Report, Appendix B, I1 B). In March of 1986, Mr. Teicher was requested to prepare "terms of reference" for Mr. McFarlanels use during a Euture Iran trip. (Tower Commission Report, Appendix B, VIII B ) . Mr. Teicher traveled with Lt. Col. North and Robert C. McFarlane to Iran in May of 1986 in a plane that carried spare parts in an abortive effort to secure the release of four American hostages. (Washington Post, February 17, 1987: A10). Mr. Teicher claims that he was involved only politically and not operationally. Testified before Congress Senate Intelligence Comnittee, December 12, 1986; refused to testify. Testified before Tower Comnission December 19, 1986 TOWER, John G. Nationality: United States Recent Previous Occupations Member, president's Special Review Board, 1986-87; Member, U.S. Delegation to Negotiations on Nuclear and Space Arms, 1985-1986; U.S. Senator, 1961-85; Chairman, Senate Armed Services Cornittee. Role Former Senator Tower was a member of the Tower Commission, formally called the president's Special Review Board. 'TRACY, Edward A . Nationality: United States Recent Previous Occupations Illustrator; author of children's books. Role Mr. Tracy was taken captive on October 21, 1986, in Beirut. The Revolutionary Justice Organization sent a letter and photographs to a western news agency claiming i t kidnapped Mr. Tracy and stating he was a spy for Israel and the CIA. (Reuters, UPI). He remained in captivity as of March 27, 1987. V E R , Fabian Nationality: Philippines Recent Previous Occupations Chief of S t a f f , P h i l i p p i n e Armed Forces General Ver reportedly provided an I s r a e l i arms d e a l e r f a l s e r e s a l e c e r t i f i c a t e s i n an attempt t o hide the arms s a l e s t o Iran. (Washington P o s t , December 1 1 , 1986: A-39). WALSH, Lawrence E . Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation I n d e p e n d e n t Counsel Kecent P r e v i o u s Occupations C o u n s e l , Crowe & D u n l e v y , 1981-; P a r t n e r , f i r m of D a v i s , P o l k & W a r d w e l l , 1961-81; Head w i t h r a n k o f Ambassador, US d e l e g a t i o n m e e t i n g on V i e t n a m , 1969. Kol e Mr. Walsh was a p p o i n t e d December 1 9 , 1 9 8 6 , a s i n d e p e n d e n t c o u n s e l t h e US D i s t r i c t C o u r t of A p p e a l s " t o i n v e s t i g a t e , a n d , i f w a r r a n t e d , t o p r o s e c u t e a l l e d g e d v i o l a t i o n s o f f e d e r a l c r i m i n a l l a w s by L t . C o l . N o r t h . . . o r o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i n g i n c o n c e r t w i t h North...in connection with the sale o r s h i p m e n t of m i l i t a r y arms t o I r a n and t h e t r a n s f e r o r d i v e r s i o n o f f u n d s . " Mr. Walsh h a s w i d e n e d t h e terms o f ( I n r e N o r t h Div. No. 86-6 (D.C. C i r c . ) . h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n by assuming c o n t r o l o f t h r e e J u s t i c e Department i n q u i r i e s i n t o t h e p r i v a t e American s u p p l y n e t w o r k f o r N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l g r o u p s . (New Y o r k T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 1 2 , 1987: A9). On March 5 , 1987, A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l Edwin Meese, a p p o i n t e d Mr. W a l s h a s a n i n d e p e n d e n t o f f i c e r of t h e J u s t i c e Department. T h i s d e c i s i o n g a v e Mr. Walsh e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h a u t h o r i t y t o c o n d u c t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , p r e s u m a b l y t o a s s u r e c o n t i n u i t y o f h i s e f f o r t s pending r e s o l u t i o n o f a s u i t by L t . Col. N o r t h , w h i c h c h a r g e d t h a t Mr. W a l s h ' s a p p o i n t m e n t a s i n d e p e n d e n t c o u n s e l was a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s e p a r a t i o n of powers. (New York T i m e s , March 6 , 1987: A19). WATSON, Sam I 1 1 Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation Deputy N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y Adviser t o Vice P r e s i d e n t George Bush L t . Col. Watson, a l o n g w i t h Donald Gregg, N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r t o V i c e P r e s i d e n t Bush, i s s a i d t o have had s e v e r a l c o n t a c t s w i t h F e l i x R o d r i q u e z . He i s a l s o r e p o r t e d t o have v i s i t e d two Nicaraguan r e b e l camps i n Honduras i n J a n u a r y of 1986. He, a l o n g w i t h Mr. Gregg, met, on August 1 2 , 1986, w i t h U.S. Ambassador Edwin C o r r , Deputy A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e W i l l i a m Walker, L t . Col. Robert E a r l and L t . Col. O l i v e r North t o d i s c u s s t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l supply e f f o r t . (Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l , F e b r u a r y 5 , 1987: 5 ) . ( N a t i o n a l J o u r n a l , December 20, 1986: 3079). WEINBERGER, C a s p a r W . Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation S e c r e t a r y of D e f e n s e Kecent P r e v i o u s Occupations G e n e r a l C o u n s e l , V i c e P r e s i d e n t , and D i r e c t o r , B e c h t e l C o r p . , 1973-80; S e c r e t a r y , H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , 1973-75; C o u n s e l o r t o t h e P r e s i d e n t , 1973; D e p u t y D i r e c t o r a n d D i r e c t o r , O f f i c e o f Management a n d t h e B u d g e t , 1970-73. S e c r e t a r y W e i n b e r g e r a t t e n d e d , a l o n g w i t h then-CIA D i r e c t o r William C a s e y , t h e n - N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r J o h n P o i n d e x t e r , a n d CIA G e n e r a l C o u n s e l S t a n l e y S p o r k i n , t h e J a n u a r y 1 6 , 1 9 8 7 , W h i t e House m e e t i n g a t w h i c h t h e f i n a l d r a f t o f t h e P r e s i d e n t i a l f i n d i n g a u t h o r i z i n g a r m s t r a n s f e r s t o I r a n was d i s c u s s e d a n d r e v i e w e d . Mr. W e i n b e r g e r s t a t e d t h a t h e o p p o s e d t h e s a l e o f arms t o I r a n . ( S e n a t e S e l e c t Committee o n I n t e l l i g e n c e : 17). Mr. W e i n b e r g e r s a y s t h a t h e d i d n o t know o f t h e d i v e r s i o n of f u n d s t o t h e C o n t r a s u n t i l A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l Meese d i s c l o s e d i t i n November o f 1 9 8 6 . (New York T i m e s , J a n u a r y 1 7 , 1987: A8). The Tower C o m i s s i o n R e p o r t s t a t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h S e c r e t a r i e s W e i n b e r g e r and S h u l t z opposed t h e arms d e a l s , t h e y "simply d i s t a n c e d t h e m s e l v e s from t h e march o f e v e n t s " r a t h e r t h a n p r e s s i n g t h e i r o b j e c t i o n s . (New York T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 8 7 : A9). A l t h o u g h Mr. W e i n b e r g e r p o r t r a y e d h i m s e l f a s u n i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e a r m s d e a l s , t h e Tower C o m n i s s i o n R e p o r t s t a t e d t h a t It S e c r e t a r y W e i n b e r g e r had a c c e s s t h r o u g h i n t e l l i g e n c e t o d e t a i l s a b o u t t h e operation." (New York T i m e s , March 6 , 1987: A19). S p e a k i n g t o r e p o r t e r s i n B o s t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , on March 5 , 1 9 8 7 , M r . W e i n b e r g e r r e j e c t e d t h e c r i t i c i s m o f h i m s e l f i n t h e Tower Commission R e p o r t a s II t o t a l l y u n s u p p o r t e d by a n y e v i d e n c e . " CRS- 116 Testified before Tower Commission January 1 4 , 1987 CKS- 11 7 WEIR, Benjamin Nationality: United States Current Occupation Presbyterian Minister Role Reverend Weir was kidnapped by the Islamic Jihad on May 8, 1984, and released on September 14, 1985. According to the testimony of Michael Ledeen to the Senate Select Comnittee on Intelligence, the Israelis believed that Mr. weir's release was linked to the September 1985 arms shipment to Iran. (Senate Select Comnittee on Intelligence: 9). ZUCKER, W i l l a r d I . Nationality: United S t a t e s Current Occupation Manager, Compagnie d e S e r v i c e s F i d u c i a i r e s Recent Previous Occupations A t t o r n e y , I n t e r n a l Revenue S e r v i c e Role A s manager o f Compagnie de S e r v i c e s F i d u c i a r i e s (CSF) i n Geneva, Mr. Z u c k e r t r a v e l e d t o Denmark i n A p r i l o f 1986 w i t h A l b e r t Hakim, t o p u r c h a s e a D a n i s h f l a g - f r e i g h t e r , t h e E r r i a , which was s u b s e q u e n t l y used i n e f f o r t s t o r e s u p p l y N i c a r a g u a n r e b e l s . The E r r i a was a l s o used i n t h e s p r i n g of 1986, i n a n u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t t o f r e e U.S. h o s t a g e s i n Lebanon w i t h a ransom p a i d by H. Ross P e r o t . Compagnie d e S e r v i c e s F i d u c i a r i e s , a S w i s s f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n , i s c e n t r a l t o t h e p r i v a t e f i n a n c i a l network used by L t . Col. O l i v e r N o r t h i n t h e ~ r a n l ~ o n t ri an i t i a t i v e . (Los Angeles Times, March 2 , 1987: 1 3 ) . Mr. Zucker i s r e p o r t e d l y a l s o l i n k e d t o t h e p u r c h a s e o f a STOL a i r c r a f t f o r u s e by t h e Nicaraguan r e b e l s . (Washington P o s t , December 1 4 , 1986: ~ 2 1 ) .