Legal Right of Minors to Obtain Contraceptives

- 943 A Congressional Research Semice The Library of Congress Washington, D.C. 20540 LEGAL RIGHT OF MINORS TO OBTAIN CONTRACEPTIVES Rita Ann Reimer Legislative Attorney American Law Division September 24, 1986 LEGAL RIGHT OF MINORS TO OBTAIN CONTRACEPTIVES Introduction Minors have a constitutionally protected right of privacy which encompasses the right to receive contraceptives under a 1977 Supreme Court decision, Carey v. Population Services 1nternational.l 'I'hus any statute which flatly denies their access to coqtraceptives is unconstitutional, based on this ruling; and such access is constitutionally guaranteed even in those states which have no statutory or case law which specifically permit it. Bowever, the extent, if any, to which this right can be constitutionally limited has not yet been considered by that Coart. In particular, questions remain as to whether a government entity can condition the receipt of contraceptives by a minor on notification of and/or consent by the minor's parent(s) to the minor's receipt of the contraceptives. This report provides information on federal and state statutory and case law on this topic. Carey v. Population Services International Carey v. Population Services International followed by some 12 years the landmark 1965 Supreme Court decision, Griswold v. Connecticut, which struck down on constitutional grounds a Connecticut statute which barred the use of contraceptives by married couples as violative of the right of marital privacy. While this right is not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, the Court 431 U.S. 678 (1977). 381 U.S. 479 (1965). based its ruling on the 9th amendment, which provides that "[tlhe enumeration . in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people." The Griswold Court found that the framers of the Constitution did not intend for the first eight amendments (which enumerate specifically protected rights) "to exhaust the basic and fundamental rights which the Constitution guaranteed to the people [ ;] "3 and that "[tJo hold that a right so basic and fundamental and so deep-rooted in our society as the right of privacy in marriage may be infringed because that right is not guaranteed in so many words by the first eight amendments to the Constitution is to ignore the Ninth Amendment and give it no effect whatsoeverw-- contrary to the explicit direction in its language that it not be construed to deny or disparage other rights retained by the people.4 Seven years after Griswold, in Eisenstadt v. ~ a i r d , the ~ Supreme' Court struck d o n a Massachusetts statute which prohibited the distribution of contraceptives to unmarried, but not to married persons. The Court held that providing dissimilar treatment for married and unmarried persons who are similarly sftuated in this context violates the fourteenth amendment's equal protection clause. The Eisenstadt Court found it unnecessary to consider whether a state could ban the distribution of all contraceptives, reasoning that regardless of whether this was possible access or non-access to them must be the same for married and unmarried persons. If, under Griswold, the distribution of contraceptives to married persons could not be prohibited, a ban on their Id. at Id. - at 490. 491-92 (emphasis added by the Court). 5 405 U.S. 438 (1972). distribution to unmarried persons would be equally impermissible, since the constitutionally protected right of privacy inheres in the individual and not in the marital couple. On the other hand, if Griswold did not bar a prohibition on the distribution of contraceptives, any such ban which was limited to unmarried persons would be underinclusive and invidiously discriminatory. Carey v. Population Services International held that regulations which impose a burden on a decision as fundamental as whether to bear or beget a child c.an be justified only by compelling state interests, and must be narrowly drawn to express only those interests. Applying this standard, it invalidated -- a New York statute which, inter alia, made it a crime for any person to sell or distribute any nonprescription contraceptives to a minor under the age of 16. New York argued that this prohibition was a permissible regulation of minorsf morality in furtherance of the state's policy against promiscuous sexual intercourse among the young. However, the Court noted that it had already rejected the argument that sexual activity may be deterred by increasing the hazards attendant on it as a justification for restrictions on the freedom to choose whether to bear or beget a child, in Eisenstadt v. Baird and in Roe v. ~ade,6the decision which held a woman's right of personal privacy included the right to decide whether or not to terminate a pregnancy. 7 Also, it found that substantial doubt existed as to whether limiting access to contraceptives would in fact substantially discourage early sexual behavior-- The Court held that during the first trimester of pregnancy this decision was one for the woman and her physician, and during the second trimester the state could regulate abortions only to the extent'needed to protect the woman's health. Only during the third trimester can the state limit or proscribe abortions regardless of the woman's desires. New York having conceded that there was no evidence that teenage extramarital sexual activity increases in proportion to the availability of contraceptives. The Court held that this unsupported assertion was insufficient to justify the burden imposed by the challenged statute on the exercise of a fundamental right, since it could not be shown to be a rational means for accomplishing the desired result. The fact that minors could receive contraceptives from physicians was also found insufficient to save the statute, since the state asserted no medical necessity for distinguishing between prescription and nonprescription contraceptives in this content. The Court also relied on its earlier decision in Planned Parenthood of Missouri v. anf forth,^ which held that states could not impose a blanket prohibition on the right of a minor 'to obtain an abortion, or a blanket requirement of parental consent to a minor's choice. It held that this - decision foreclosed a fortiori its upholding the constitutionality of a blanket prohibition on the distribution of contraceptives to minors. Hinors and Abort ions The Supreme Court followed up its decision in Planned Parenthood of Nissouri v. Danforth with Bellotti v. ~ a i r d ,a~ 1979 plurality decision which held that state laws requiring parental consent for a minor to obtain an abortion are constitutionally permissible as.1ong as the laws provide an alternative procedure whereby authorization for the abortion can be obtained. However, the case struck down a Massachusetts law which required a single, 428 U.S. 52 (1976). 443 U.S. 622 (1979). This decision is discussed at length in "The 'Squeal Rule' and a Minor's Right to Privacy," 12 Hofstra L. Rev. 497, 512-18 (1984)- p r e g n a n t woman under t h e a g e of 18 t o o b t a i n t h e c o n s e n t of b o t h of h e r p a r e n t s b e f o r e s h e c o u l d have a n a b o r t i o n - I f e i t h e r parent refused t o consent, the minor c o u l d s e e k a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r t h e a b o r t i o n i n a j u d i c i a l p r o c e e d i n g , where c o n s e n t would b e g i v e n " f o r good c a u s e shown." The Court concluded t h a t t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s of c h i l d r e n c a n n o t be e q u a t e d w i t h t h o s e of a d u l t s , b e c a u s e of t h e i r p e c u l i a r v u l n e r a b i l i t y ; t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o make c r i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s i n a n informed, mature manner; and t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e p a r e n t a l r o l e i n c h i l d r e a r i n g ; 1 ° b u t h e l d t h a t t h e p e c u l i a r n a t u r e of t h e a b o r t i o n d e c i s i o n , which t h e Court found t o b e v e r y d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s a minor might f a c e , n e c e s s i t a t e d d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t where p a r e n t a l consent t o a b o r t i o n s w a s concerned. Thus, i f a p r e g n a n t minor c h o s e t o b y p a s s h e r p a r e n t s , o r could not o b t a i n t h e i r consent, s h e w a s e n t i t l e d t o seek a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r h e r a b o r t i o n from a c o u r t w i t h o u t b e i n g r e q u i r e d t o show t h a t s h e had c o n s u l t e d w i t h o r s o u g h t t h e c o n s e n t of h e r p a r e n t s , and w i t h o u t n o t i f i c a t i o n of h e r p a r e n t s t h a t s h e i n t e n d e d t o go t o courtl1-both of which were r e q u i r e d by t h e i n v a l i d a t e d M a s s a c h u s e t t s s t a t u t e . While t h e p l u r a l i t y d e c i s i o n d i s c u s s e d a p o s s i b l e mature/immature minor d i s t i n c t i o n i n t h i s c o n t e x t , f o u r J u s t i c e s r e f u s e d t o j o i n i n t h i s p o r t i o n of t h e opinion because the d i s t i n c t i o n w a s not involved i n t h e challenged statute.12 Two y e a r s l a t e r , i n H.L. v. Matheson,13 t h e Court upheld t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of a Utah s t a t u t e which r e q u i r e d p a r e n t a l n o t i f i c a t i o n b e f o r e lo 443 U.S. a t 634. l1 Id. a t 647. T h i s p o s i t i o n was a f f i r m e d i n Akron v. Akron C e n t e r f o r ~ e ~ r o d u c z vHee a l t h , I n c . , 462 U.S. 416 (1983). - - l2 See, e g g . , I d . a t 656 ( S t e v e n s , J., l3 450 U.S. 397 (1981). concurring). a n unemancipated minor c o u l d o b t a i n a n a b o r t i o n ; however, i t d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t h e q u e s t i o n of whether t h e s t a t u t e c o u l d v a l i d l y be a p p l i e d t o emancipated o r "mature" m i n o r s , s i n c e t h e minor p l a i n t i f f d i d n o t a l l e g e o r o f f e r e v i d e n c e t h a t s h e o r a n y member of h e r c l a s s 1 4 m e t e i t h e r of t h e s e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The Court l a t e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h i s d e c i s i o n a s " u p h o l d i n g a p a r e n t a l n o t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t b u t n o t e x t e n d i n g t h e h o l d i n g t o A t u r e o r emancipated minors o r t o immature minors showing s u c h n o t i f i c a t i o n d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e i r b e s t i n t e r e s t s , " i n Planned Parenthood Ass 'n of Kansas C i t y , M i s s o u r i , I n c . v - A s h c r o f t .I5 On t h e same day t h a t c a s e w a s d e c i d e d , t h e Court n o t e d i n Akron v. Akron C e n t e r f o r Reproductive Health , I n c t h a t " [ a ] m a j o r i t y o f t h e Court ... h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t [ t h e ] s t a t e and p a r e n t a l i n t e r e s t s [on which p a r e n t a l n o t i c e laws have b e e n b a s e d ] must g i v e ' w a y t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t of a m a t u r e minor o r of a n immature minor whose b e s t i n t e r e s t s a r e c o n t r a r y t o p a r e n t a l - f n ~ o l v e m e n t . " ~It ~ f u r t h e r noted, but i n d i c t a , t h a t a s t a t u t e r e q u i r i n g t h a t a m i n o r ' s p a r e n t s be n o t i f i e d t h a t t h e minor i s s e e k i n g a n a b o r t i o n would be u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t h e c a s e of a mature m i n o r . l 8 The Court h a s not had a subsequent o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e f i n i t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h t h i s p o i n t . P a r e n t a l C o n s e n t / N o t i f i c a t i o n and Minors' Access t o C o n t r a c e ~ t i v e s I n Planned Parenthood A s s 'n of Utah v. Matheson,19 a f e d e r a l d i s t r i c t l4 The s u i t was b r o u g h t a s a c l a s s a c t i o n on b e h a l f of a l l p r e g n a n t , unmarried minors i n t h e s t a t e . 462 U.S. 472, 491 n. 17 (1983). - 16 Supra n. 11.. Id. - l7 I d . a t 427-28, n. 10. a t 441, n. 31. 582 F.Supp. L O O 1 (D. Utah 1983). c o u r t i n v a l i d a t e d a Utah s t a t u t e which r e q u i r e d p a r e n t s o r g u a r d i a n s t o be n o t i f i e d b e f o r e a minor c o u l d r e c e i v e c o n t r a c e p t i v e s . That c o u r t r e l i e d i n - p a r t on t h e d i c t a i n Akron v. Akron Center f o r R e p r o d u c t i v e H e a l t h , I n c . , - r e l a t i n g t o p a r e n t a l n o t i f i c a t i o n and a b o r t i o n s , s u p r a , and h e l d t h a t t h e same r e a s o n i n g s h o u l d a p p l y t o p a r e n t a l n o t i f i c a t i o n and c o n t r a c e p t i v e s . It a n a l o g i z e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n t o t h a t p r e s e n t e d i n Carey v. P o p u l a t i o n S e r v i c e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , which h e l d t h a t minors c o u l d n o t be s u b j e c t t o a b l a n k e t p r o h i b i t i o n on o b t a i n i n g c o n t r a c e p t i v e s i n p a r t b e c a u s e t h e y c o u l d not be s u b j e c t t o s u c h a p r o h i b i t i o n on t h e 3 r o b t a i n i n g a b o r t i o n s , under Planned Parenthood of M i s s o u r i v. Danforth. The c o u r t e x p l a i n e d : [ T l h e d e c i s i o n whether t o u s e c o n t r a c e p t i v e s i s a s - i n t i m a t e and p e r s o n a l a s , and i n v o l v e s r i s k s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l , which a r e comparable t o t h o s e r a i s e d by t h e d e c i s i o n whether t o h a v e a n a b o r t i o n . The c o u r t , t h e r e f o r e , i s p e r s u a d e d t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t s i n Akron and H.L. [v. Matheson, s u p r a ] c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of p a r e n t a l n o t i f i c a t i o n Laws i n t h e a b o r t i o n c o n t e x t s u p p o r t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e s t a t e may n o t impose a b l a n k e t - p a r e n t a l n o t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t on minors s e e k i n g t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y p r o t e c t e d r i g- h t t o d e c i d e whether t o b e a r o r t o beget a c h i l d by u s i n g c o n t r a c e p t i v e s . 20 - It a l s o found t h a t t h e b l a n k e t n o t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t v i o l a t e d and was preempted by T i t l e X of t h e f e d e r a l P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e Act, d i s c u s s e d below. F e d e r a l Funding Requirements The Family P l a n n i n g S e r v i c e s and P o p u l a t i o n R e s e a r c h Act of 1 9 7 0 , ~T ~i t l e X of t h e P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e Act, p r o v i d e s f e d e r a l f u n d i n g f o r t h e - 20 I d . a t 1009. 21 Pub. L. 91-572, t o 300a-8). 84 S c a t . 1 5 0 4 , c o d i f i e d a s amended a t 42 U.S.C. § § 300 CRS-8 establishment of voluntary family planning clinics. The Act 's declaration of purposes states that it is intended "to assist in making comprehensive voluntary family planning services readily available to all persons desiring such services "22 Although the original enactment did not specifically deal with minors' access to these services, by 1975 Congress had become concerned over the fact that teenagers were not availing themselves of the services offered by these clinics;23 and in 1978 the Act was amended to specifically encompass services for adolescents. 24 In 1981, Congress again amended the Act to provide that, "[tlo the extent practical, entities which receive grants or contracts under this subsection shall encourage family participation in projects assisted under this subsection. "25 Following this amendment, the Department of Health and Human Services [HHS] promulgated a regulation which would have required federallyfunded family planning clinics to notify the parents of any minor who received prescription contraceptives from any such clinic. 26 These regulations were invalidated in two circuit court decisions which failed to reach the constitutional issue raised by the plaintiffs, namely whether the notification requirement unconstitutionally infringed upon minorsf protected privacy rights. 27 Rather, those cases held that HHS lacked the 22 42 U.S.C. 5 300 nt. - 23 S. Rep. No. 29, 94th Cong., 1st Sess. at 55; see generally "Minor's Right to Privacy," supra n. 9 at 502. 24 Pub. E. 95-613, 5 l(a)(l), 25 Pub. L. 97-35, 5 931(b)(l), 26 42 C.F.R. 92 Stat. 3093. 95 Star. 357, 570. 5s 59.2, 59=5(a)(12)(1983). 27 Planned Parenthood Federation, Inc. v. Heckler, 712 F. 2d 650 (D.C. Cir. 1983); State of New York v. Heckler, 719 Fb2d 1191 (2d Cir. 1983). CRS-9 s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y t o mandate p a r e n t a l n o t i f i c a t i o n and t h a t t h e r e g u l a t i o n s were c o n t r a r y t o t h e i n t e n t of Congress, which was m e r e l y t o e n c o u r a g e p a r e n t a l involvement where a p p r o p r i a t e . T h i s same r e s u l t w a s r e a c h e d i n s e v e r a l f e d e r a l d i s t r i c t c o u r t d e c i s i o n s . 28 The p e r t i n e n t r e g u l a t i o n s have now been amended t o p r o v i d e t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o who u t i l i z e s f e d e r a l l y - f u n d e d f a m i l y p l a n n i n g c l i n i c s w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l u n l e s s t h e r e c i p i e n t of t h e a i d a g r e e s t o i t s d i s c l o ~ u r e . ~ 9 T h i s r e q u i r e m e n t a p p l i e s t o a l l s u c h c l i n i c s t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and s u p e r s e d e s any c o n f l i c t i n g s t a t e laws which would o t h e r w i s e a p p l y t o t h i s situation. S t a t e S t a t u t e s Which R e l a t e t o t h e R i g h t of H i n o r s t o O b t a i n C o n t r a c e p t i v e s The f o l l o w i n g s t a t u t o r y s u r v e y p r o v i d e s a n o v e r v i e w o f t h e l i m i t e d t o p i c of s t a t e laws which s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l w i t h t h e r i g h t of a minor t o g a i n a c c e s s to contraceptives. - It d o e s n o t i n c l u d e s t a t u t e s which b e a r on t h e r i g h t ( o r l a c k t h e r e o f ) of a minor t o o b t a i n a n a b o r t i o n , a l t h o u g h a b o r t i o n may b e c o n s i d e r e d a form of c o n t r a c e p t i o n . A l s o , i t d o e s n o t i n c l u d e s t a t u t e s which s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l with t h e prevention o r treatment of v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e , a l t h o u g h s u c h p r e v e n t i o n o r t r e a t m e n t may e n t a i l t h e u s e o f c o n t r a c e p t i v e devices. Note what o n l y a few s t a t e s have p e r t i n e n t laws which a p p l y u n i v e r s a l l y , and s e v e r a l s t a t e s have no l a w s ' w h a t s o e v e r . As is c l e a r from t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n , however, minors a r e e n t i t l e d t o r e c e i v e c o n t r a c e p t i v e s and may be a b l e t o do s o a b s e n t p a r e n t a l n o t i f i c a t i o n a n d / o r c o n s e n t , b a s e d on U n i t e d S t a t e s Supreme Court d e c i s i o n s . These c a s e s 28 E-go, Doe v b P i c k e t t , 480 F.Supp. 1218 (S.D. W.Va. 1979)(pre-1981 amendment); Planned Parenthood Ass'n o f Utah v . Matheson, s u p r a n.. 19. - would c o n t r o l b o t h i n t h e a b s e n c e of p e r t i n e n t s t a t e s t a t u t e s and t o o v e r r u l e conflicting statutes. A l s o , f a m i l y p l a n n i n g c l i n i c s which r e c e i v e f e d e r a l f u n d i n g under T i t l e X of t h e P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e A c t a r e bound by t h e s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s d i s c u s s e d above. While t h i s s u r v e y is r e a s o n a b l y c o m p l e t e , 3 0 i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a d d i t i o n a l s t a t e s have r e c e n t l y - e n a c t e d o r o b s c u r e l y - i n d e x e d s t a t u t e s which a r e n o t reflected. A l s o , s t a t e s may have promulgated r e g u l a t i o n s which b e a r on t h e s u b j e c t , which r e g u l a t i o n s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h . F i n a l l y , t h e s e s t a t u t e s a r e f o r t h e most p a r t p a r a p h r a s e d , r a t h e r t h a n quoted e x a c t l y , s o t h e s t a t u t o r y t e x t s s h o u l d be c o n s u l t e d i f a d d i t i o n a l information is required. Alabama: Any minor may g i v e e f f e c t i v e c o n s e n t f o r a n y l e g a l l y a u t h o r i z e d m e d i c a l , h e a l t h o r mental h e a l t h s e r v i c e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r e s e n c e o f , o r t o t r e a t , pregnancy o r v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e , and t h e c o n s e n t of no o t h e r p e r s o n s h a l l be deemed n e c e s s a r y (Ala. Code § 22-8-6). Alaska: A minor may g i v e c o n s e n t f o r d i a g n o s i s , p r e v e n t i o n o r t r e a t a e n t of pregnancy ( A l a s k a S t a t . 5 09.65.100). Arizona: No p e r t i n e n t p r o v i s i o n s were found. Arkansas: Any f e m a l e , r e g a r d l e s s of a g e o r m a r i t a l s t a t u s , i s a u t h o r i z e d and empowered t o c o n s e n t t o any s u r g i c a l o r n e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t o r p r o c e d u r e s not p r o h i b i t e d by l a w which may be s u g g e s t e d , recommended, p r e s c r i b e d o r d i r e c t e d b y . a d u l y l i c e n s e d p h y s i c i a n , when g i v e n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h pregnancy o r c h i l d b i r t h , e x c e p t f o r t h e u n n a t u r a l i n t e r r u p t i o n of a pregnancy (Ark. S t a t . § 30 S t a t u t o r y i n d i c e s were, a t a minimum, checked u n d e r " c h i l d r e n , " " m i n o r s , " o r " i n f a n t s , " a s a p p r o p r i a t e ; " b i r t h c o n t r o l , " " f a m i l y p l a n n i n g , " and "contraceptives." C a l i f o r n i a : An unmarried minor may g i v e c o n s e n t t o t h e f u r n i s h i n g of h o s p i t a l , m e d i c a l and s u r g i c a l c a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e p r e v e n t i o n o r t r e a t m e n t of pregnancy, e x c l u d i n g s t e r i l i z a t i o n ( C a l . C i v i l Code 5 34.5)- Family p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s s h a l l be o f f e r e d t o a l l f o r m e r , c u r r e n t , o r p o t e n t i a l r e c i p i e n t s of c h i l d b e a r i n g a g e and p r o v i d e d t o a l l such e l i g i b l e i n d i v i d u a l s who v o l u n t a r i l y r e q u e s t s u c h s e r v i c e s . Such s e r v i c e s s h a l l be o f f e r e d and p r o v i d e d w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o marital s t a t u s , a g e , o r parenthood. No w i t h s t a n d i n g any o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s of law, t h e f u r n i s h i n g of t h e s e f a m i l y s e r v i c e s s h a l l n o t r e q u i r e t h e c o n s e n t of anyone o t h e r t h a n t h e p e r s o n who i s t o r e c e i v e them. The l a w d e f i n e s "former, c u r r e n t o r p o t e n t i a l r e c i p i e n t " t o i n c l u d e a 1 1 p e r s o n s e l i g i b l e For Medi-Cal b e n e f i t s (a s t a t e program which p r o v i d e s medical c a r e f o r p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t s ) , a l l persons e l l g i b l e f o r p u b l i c s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r which f e d e r a l reimbursement is a v a i l a b l e u n d e r t h e S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A c t , and a l l p e r s o n s i n a f a m i l y whose c u r r e n t s o c i a l , economic and h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f a m i l y would l i k e l y become a r e c i p i e n t of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e w i t h i n t h e n e x t 5 y e a r s (Welf. 6 I n s t . Code § 14503). Colorado: A l l m e d i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e c o n t r a c e p t i v e p r o c e d u r e s , s u p p l i e s , and i n f o r m a t i o n s h a l l be r e a d i l y and p r a c t i c a b l y a v a i l a b l e t o e a c h p e r s o n d e s i r o u s of t h e same r e g a r d l e s s of s e x , r a c e , a g e , income, number o f c h i l d r e n , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , c i t i z e n s h i p , o r motive. However, no unmarried p e r s o n under 18 y e a r s of a g e may c o n s e n t t o permanent s t e r i l i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t of a p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n (Colo- Rev. S t a t . 5 25-6-102). Except w i t h r e g a r d t o a b o r t i o n , b i r t h c o n t r o l p & o c e d u r e s , s u p p l i e s and i n f o r m a t i o n m y be f u r n i s h e d by l i c e n s e d p h y s i c i a n s t o any minor who is p r e g n a n t , o r a p a r e n t , o r m a r r i e d , o r who h a s t h e c o n s e n t of h i s p a r e n t o r CRS-12 legal guardian, or who has been referred for such services by another *physician, a clergyman, a family planning clinic, a school or institution of higher education, or any state or local government agency or instrumentality, or who requests and is in need of birth control procedures, supplies, or information ( § 13-22-105)Connecticut: No pertinent provisions were found. Delaware: A minor 12 years of age or over who professes to be either pregnant or exposed to the chance of becoming pregnant may give written consent, except to abortion, to any licensed physician, hospital or public clinic for any diagnostic, preventive, lawful therapeutic procedures, medical or surgical care and treatment, including X rays, by any physician licensed for the practice of medicine or surgery or osteopathic medicine or surgery in the state, and by any hospital or public clinic, their qualified employees or agents while acting within the scope of their employmentThe physician, surgeon, or hospital to whom such consent is given may, in the sole exercise of his, her or its discretion, either provide or withhold from,the parents or legal guardian or spouse of such minor information as to diagnosis, therapeutic procedures, care and treatment rendered or to be rendered the minor as the physician, surgeon or hospital deems to be advisable under the circumstances, having primary regard for the interests of the minor (Del. Code tit. 13, § 708)District of Columbia: No pertinent provisions were found. Florida: Maternal health and contraceptive information and services of a nonsurgical nature may be rendered to any minor by persons licensed to practice medicine, as well as by the state department of health and rehabilitative services through its family planning program, provided the minor (1) is CRS-13 married; ( 2 ) is a p a r e n t ; ( 3 ) is pregnant; ( 4 ) h a s t h e consent of a p a r e n t o r l e g a l g u a r d i a n ; o r ( 5 ) may, i n t h e o p i n i o n of t h e p h y s i c i a n , s u f f e r p r o b a b l e h e a l t h h a z a r d s i f s u c h s e r v i c e s a r e n o t p r o v i d e d ( F l a g S t a t . § 381.382(5)). Georgia: W i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of a v a i l a b l e f u n d i n g , a l l a g e n c i e s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e S t a t e Department of Human Resources and c o u n t y and d i s t r i c t d e p a r t m e n t s of f a m i l y and c h i l d r e n ' s s e r v i c e s ) a r e a u t h o r i z e d t o o f f e r f a m i l y p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s t o any p e r s o n r e q u e s t i n g s u c h s e r v i c e s (Ga. Code § 49-7-3). A l s o , a n y f e m a l e r e g a r d l e s s of a g e o r marital s t a t u s may c o n s e n t t o medical o r s u r g i c a l t r e a t s e n t f o r h e r s e l f , when g i v e n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h pregnancy, t h e p r e v e n t i o n t h e r e o f , o r c h i l d b i r t h ( § 31-9-2(a)(5)). Hawaii: A minor ( d e f i n e d a s any p e r s o n from t h e a g e o f 1 4 t o 17 i n c l u s i v e ) s e e k i n g f a m i l y p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s s h a l l have t h e same l e g a l c a p a c i t y t o a c t ( i - e . , c o n s e n t t o t h e r e c e i p t o f c o u n s e l i n g and m e d i c a l care d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e f a m i l y p l a n n i n g ) a 8 a p e r s o n o f f u l l l e g a l a g e and c a p a c i t y , t h e i n f a n c y of any minor and any c o n t r a r y p r o v i s i o n s o f l a w n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g . No c o n s e n t by any o t h e r p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s ( i n c l u d . i n g , b u t n o t l i m i t e d t o a s p o u s e , parent, custodian, o r guardian) is necessary i n order t o authorize the p r o v i s i o n o f s u c h s e r v i c e s t o s u c h minor (Hawaii Rev. S t a t . §§ 577A-1, Idaho: No - 5778-2)- p e r t i n e n t p r o v i s i o n s were found. I l l i n o i s : B i r t h c o n t r o l s e r v i c e s and i n f o r m a t i o n may be r e n d e r e d by d o c t o r s l i c e n s e d i n I l l i n o i s t o p r a c t i c e medicine i n a l l of i t s b r a n c h e s t o any minor (1) who i s m a r r i e d ; o r ( 2 ) who i s a p a r e n t ; o r ( 3 ) who is p r e g n a n t ; o r ( 4 ) who h a s t h e c o n s e n t of h i s p a r e n t o r l e g a l g u a r d i a n ; o r ( 5 ) a s t o whom t h e f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e s u c h s e r v i c e s would c r e a t e a s e r i o u s h e a l t h h a z a r d ; o r ( 6 ) i s r e f e r r e d f o r s u c h s e r v i c e s by a p h y s i c i a n , cLergyman o r a planned p a r e n t h o o d agency (111. S t a t . chap. 111.5, § 4651). CRS-14 I n d i a n a : No p e r t i n e n t p r o v i s i o n s were found. - Iowa: The s t a t e d i v i s i o n of t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Department may o f f e r , p r o v i d e , o r p u r c h a s e f a m i l y p l a n n i n g and b i r t h c o n t r o l s e r v i c e s t o e v e r y p e r s o n who is a n e l i g i b l e a p p l i c a n t o r r e c i p i e n t of s e r v i c e o r any f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from t h e department of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , o r who i s r e c e i v i n g f e d e r a l s u p p l e m e n t a r y s e c u r i t y income (Iowa Code 9234.21). Kansas: The s e c r e t a r y of h e a l t h and environment s h a l l e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n f a m i l y p l a n n i n g c e n t e r s which, upon r e q u e s t o f a n y p e r s o n who i s o v e r 18 y e a r s of a g e and who i s m a r r i e d o r who h a s b e e n r e f e r r e d t o t h e c e n t e r by a p e r s o n l i c e n s e d t o p r a c t i c e medicine and s u r g e r y and who r e s i d e s i n t h e s t a t e , may f u r n i s h and d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g , and means and methods of planned parenthood (Kan. S t a t . § 23-501). Kentucky: Any p h y s i c i a n , upon c o n s u l t a t i o n by a minor a s a p a t i e n t , v i t h t h e c o n s e n t of s u c h minor may make a d i a g n o s t i c examinakion f o r pregnancy, and may a d v i s e , p r e s c r i b e f o r and t r e a t - s u c h minor r e g a r d i n g c o n t r a c e p t i o n , pregnancy o r c h i l d b i r t h , e x c l u d i n g s t e r i l i z a t i o n o r a b o r t i o n , a l l w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t of o r n o t i f i c a t i o n t o t h e p a r e n t ( s ) , g u a r d i a n , o r c u s t o d i a n of such minor p a t i e n t . The t r e a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l may i n f o r m t h e p a r e n t o r Legal g u a r d i a n of t h e minor p a t i e n t of any t r e a t m e n t g i v e n o r needed where, i n t h e judgment of t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l , i n f o r m i n g t h e p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n would b e n e f i t t h e h e a l t h of t h e minor p a t i e n t (Ky. Rev. S t a t . 5 214.185). L o u i s i a n a : No p e r t i n e n t p r o v i s i o n s were found. - Maine: Family p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s s h a l l be r e a d i l y and p r a c t i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o a l l persons d e s i r i n g and needing such s e r v i c e s (He. Rev. Code t i t . 2 2 , 1903.1). 5 Such s e r v i c e s may be f u r n i s h e d t o any minor who i s a p a r e n t o r m a r r i e d o r h a s t h e c o n s e n t of h i s o r h e r p a r e n t o r l e g a l g u a r d i a n o r who may CRS-15 s u f f e r , i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l judgment o f a p h y s i c i a n , p r o b a b l e h e a l t h h a z a r d s i f , s u c h s e r v i c e s are n o t p r o v i d e d ( § 1 9 0 8 ) Maryland: A minor s h a l l have t h e same c a p a c i t y t o c o n s e n t t o m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t a s a n a d u l t Lf t h e minor s e e k s t r e a t m e n t o r a d v i c e c o n c e r n i n g c o n t r a c e p t i o n n o t amounting t o s t e r i l i z a t i o n (Md. H e a l t h Gen. Code 5 20-102). M a s s a c h u s e t t s : A r e g i s t e r e d p h y s i c i a n may a d m i n i s t e r t o o r p r e s c r i b e f o r a n y m a r r i e d p e r s o n d r u g s o r a r t i c l e s i n t e n d e d f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f pregnancy o r conception. A r e g i s t e r e d p h a r m a c i s t a c t u a l l y engaged i n t h e b u s i n e s s of pharmacy may f u r n i s h s u c h d r u g s o r a r t i c l e s t o a n y m a r r i e d p e r s o a p r e s e n t i n g a p r e s c r i p t i o n from a r e g i s t e r e d p h y s i c i a n . A p u b l i c h e a l t h agency, a r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e , o r a m a t e r n i t y h e a l t h c l i n i c o p e r a t e d by o r i n a n a c c r e d i t e d h o s p i t a l may f u r n i s h i n f o r m a t i o n t o any m a r r i e d p e r s o n as t o where p r d ~ e s s i o n a la d v i c e r e g a r d i n g s u c h d r u g s o r a r t i c l e s may be l a w f u l l y o b t a i n e d (Mass- Gen. Laws chap. 272, 5 21A). NOTE: T h i s law was d e c l a r e d u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i n E i s e n s t a d t v. B a i r d , d i s c u s s e d pp. 2-3, - supra. Michigan: The s t a t e d e p a r t s e n t o f p u b l i c h e a l t h , and u n d e r i t s s u p e r v i s i o n a l o c a l h e a l t h d e p a r t m e n t , s h a l l p u b l i c i z e t h e p l a c e s where f a m i l y s e r v i c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e (Mich. Comp. Laws 5 333.9131). The d e p a r t m e n t o f m e n t a l h e a l t h may p r o v i d e t o any i n d i v i d u a l r e c e i v i n g m e n t a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s from t h e d e p a r t n e n t w r i t t e n o r o r a l n o t i c e of t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y i f f a m i l y planning s e r v i c e s and, upon r e q u e s t oE t h e i n d i v i d u a l , o f f e r e d u c a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n on f a m i l y planning (5 330.1938). Minnesota: The commissioner of h e a l t h may make s p e c i a l g r a n t s t o c i t i e s , c o u n t i e s , g r o u p s of c i t i e s o r c o u n t i e s , o r n o n p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n s t o p r o v i d e prepregnancy family planning s e r v i c e s . No f u n d s p r o v i d e d by t h e s e g r a n t s may . be used t o s u p p o r t any f a m i l y p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s f o r a n y unemancipated minor i n any e l e m e n t a r y o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l b u i l d i n g . Any p e r s o n employed t o p r o v i d e f a m i l y p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s who is p a i d i n whole o r i n p a r t from t h e s e funds who . a d v i s e s s t e r i l i z a t i o n t o any unemancipated minor s h a l l , f o l l o w i n g s u c h recommendation, s o n o t i f y t h e m i n o r ' s p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n of t h e r e a s o n s f o r s u c h a c t i o n (Minn. S t a t . 5 145.925). E x c e p t i o n s t o t h e above n o t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t o c c u r when t h e minor i s l i v i n g a p a r t from h i s o r h e r p a r e n t s and managing h i s o r h e r ovn f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s , o r when t h e minor h a s been m a r r i e d o r h a s b o r n e a c h i l d ( § 144.342). H i s s i s s i p p i : C o n t r a c e p t i v e s u p p l i e s and i n f o r m a t i o n may be f u r n i s h e d by p h y s i c i a n s t o any minor who i s a p a r e n t , o r who is m a r r i e d , o r who h a s t h e c o n s e n t of h i s o r h e r p a r e n t o r l e g a l ' g u a r d i a n , o r who h a s been r e f e r r e d f o r s u c h s e r v i c e by a n o t h e r p h y s i c i a n , a clergyman, a f a m i l y p l a n n i n g c l i n i . ~ ,a s c h o o l o r i n s t i t u t i o n of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , o r any a g e n c y o r i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y of t h e s t a t e o r any of i t s s u b d i v i s i o n s (Miss. Code 5 41-42-7). M i s s o u r i : B e n e f i t payments f o r m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n c e s h a l l be made on b e h a l f of t h o s e e l i g i b l e needy p e r s o n s who a r e u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e f o r i t i n whole o r i n -- p a r t f o r , i n t e r a l i a , f a m i l y p l a n n i n g as d e f i n e d by f e d e r a l r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s 3 1 (Mo. S t a t . § 1.521. Montana: A minor who p r o f e s s e s o r i s found t o b e p r e g n a n t may c o n s e n t t o h e a l t h s e r v i c e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e p r e v e n t i o n , d i a g n o s i s , and t r e a t m e n t of t h i s condition. Such c o n s e n t o b l i g e s t h e h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l , i f h e a c c e p t s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t r e a t m e n t , t o c o u n s e l t h e minor by h i m s e l f o r by r e f e r r a l t o a n o t h e r h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l (Hont. Code - 31 See g e n e r a l l y 42 C.F.R. 5 41-1-402)- p a r t 59 ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Nebraska: S o c i a l s e r v i c e s may be p r o v i d e d on b e h a l f o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t s , i n c l u d i n g f a m i l y p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s (Neb. Rev. S t a t . § 68-1202). Those e l i g i b l e t o r e c e i v e t h e s e s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d e p e n d e n t c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s , b l i n d p e r s o n s , and d i s a b l e d p e r s o n s as d e f i n e d b y s t a t e l a w ; and f o r m e r and p o t e n t i a l r e c i p i e n t s as d e f i n e d i n f e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s ( § 68-1203). Nevada: A minor may n o t c o n s e n t t o h i s s t e r i l i z a t i o n (Nev. Rev. S t a t . § As p a r t o f t h e s t a t e ' s h e a l t h and v e l f a r e p r o g r a m s , t h e w e l f a r e d i v i s i o n of t h e s t a t e w e l f a r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 4 s a u t h o r i z e d t o conduct a f a m i l y planning s e r v i c e i n a n y c o u n t y o f t h e s t a t e , and t o e s t a b l i s h a p o l i c y o f r e f e r r a l o f w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s f o r b i r t h c o n t r o l ( § 422.235). New Hampshire: The town c l e r k s h a l l d i s t r i b u t e w i t h e a c h c e r t i f i c a t e o f f i l i n g o f n o t i c e o f i n t e n t i o n t o m a r r y , a l i s t o f f a m i l y p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s and s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e s t a t e (N.H. Rev. S t a t . @ 457:28-a). New J e r s e y : No p e r t i n e n t p r o v i s i o n s were found. New Mexico: It i s t h e p u r p o s e of t h e New Mexico F a m i l y P l a n n i n g Act (N.M. S t a t . §§ 24-8-1 t o 24-8-8) t o a s s u r e t h a t comprehensive f a m i l y planning s e r v i c e s a r e a c c e s s i b l e on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s t o a l l who want and need them ( § 24-8-3(B)). N e i t h e r t h e s t a t e , i t s l o c a l government u n i t s n o r any h e a l t h f a c i l i t y f u r n i s h i n g f a m i l y p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s s h a l l s u b j e c t any person t o any s t a n d a r d o r requirement a s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e r e c e i p t of any r e q u e s t e d f a m i l y p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e e x c e p t f o r a r e q u i r e m e n t oE r e f e r r a l t o a p h y s i c i a n when t h e r e q u e s t e d s e r v i c e i s s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t f a m i l y p l a n n i n g o r n o n p r e s c r i p t i o n i t e n s ; any r e q u i r e m e n t imposed by l a w o r r e g u l a t i o n a s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e r e c e i p t o f a f a m i l y p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e ; o r payment f o r t h e s e r v i c e when payment is r e q u i r e d i n t h e o r d i n a r y c o u r s e of p r o v i d i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e t o t h e person involved ( 5 24-8-5). New York: It i s a c l a s s A misdemeanor f o r any p e r s o n t o s e l l o r d i s t r i b u t e any i n s t r u m e n t o r a r t i c l e , o r any r e c i p e , d r u g o r m e d i c i n e f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f c o n c e p t i o n t o a minor under t h e a g e o f 16 y e a r s ; t h e sale o r d i s t r i b u t i o n of s u c h t o a p e r s o n o t h e r t h a n a minor under t h e a g e of 16 y e a r s i s a u t h o r i z e d o n l y by a l i c e n s e d p h a r m a c i s t b u t t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t o r d i s p l a y of s a i d a r t i c l e s , w i t h i n o r w i t h o u t t h e p r e m i s e s o f s u c h pharmacy, i s p r o h i b i t e d (N.Y. Educ. Law § 6 8 1 1 ( 8 ) ) . NOTE: T h i s law was d e c l a r e d u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i n Carey v. P o p u l a t i o n - S e r v i c e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , d i s c u s s e d s u p r a pp. 1-4. North C a r o l i n a : Any minor may ' g i v e e f f e c t i v e c o n s e n t t o a l i c e n s e d p h y s i c i a n f o r m e d i c a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n , d i a g n o s i s and t r e a t m e n t of pregnancy, n o t i n c l u d i n g a b o r t i o n o r s t e r i l i z a t i o n ( N . C . Cen. S t a t . Q.90-21.5(a)). North Dakota: No p e r t i n e n t p r o v i s i o n s were found. - Ohio: The c o u n t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r a i d t o d e p e n d e n t c h i l d r e n s h a l l r e f e r t h e mother of any needy c h i l d r e c e i v i n g a i d t o d e p e n d e n t c h i l d r e n , i f s u c h mother i s l i v i n g w i t h t h e dependent c h i l d , t o any p r i v a t e o r p u b l i c agency, m e d i c a l d o c t o r , c l i n i c , o r o t h e r p e r s o n o r o r g a n i z a t i o n which c a n a d v i s e h e r on methods of c o n t r o l l i n g t h e s i z e and s p a c e of h e r f a m i l y , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e m o t h e r ' s r e l i g i o u s and moral views. The c o u n t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n may p r o c u r e f o r s u c h mothers any p i l l s o r d e v i c e s needed and d e s i r e d by s u c h mothers f o r t h e c o n t r o l of c o n c e p t i o n (Ohio Rev. Code § 5107.10). Oklahoma: For purposes of Family P l a n n i n g C e n t e r s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e S t a t e Department of H e a l t h , t h e term " f a m i l y p l a n n i n g " i s d e f i n e d t o encompass t h e CRS-19 s p a c i n g of c h i l d r e n and i n f e r t i l i t y o r s t e r i l i t y i n husbands a n d / o r wives (Okla. S t a t . t i t . 63, $5 2071, 2072). Any minor who i s o r has been p r e g n a n t may c o n s e n t t o h e a l t h s e r v i c e s f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n , d i a g n o s i s and t r e a t m e n t of t h i s c o n d i t i o n * Any h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l who assumes t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r o v i d i n g s u c h s e r v i c e s a l s o assumes t h e o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o v i d e c o u n s e l i n g f o r t h e minor by a h e a l t h professional. I f t h e minor i s found n o t t o be p r e g n a n t , t h e h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s h a l l n o t r e v e a l any i n f o r m a t i o n w h a t s o e v e r t o t h e s p o u s e , p a r e n t o r l e g a l g u a r d i a n w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t of t h e minor ( § 2602). Any minor i n need of emergency s e r v i c e s f o r c o n d i t i o n s which v i l l endanger h e a l t h o r l i f e i f d e l a y would r e s u l t by o b t a i n i n g c o n s e n t from a s p o u s e , p a r e n t , o r l e g a l g u a r d i a n , may s e l f - c o n s e n t f o r s u c h s e r v i c e s ; however, "emergency s e r v i c e s " is d e f i n e d s o as t o e x c l u d e t h e p r e s c r i b i n g of any - m e d i c i n e o r d e v i c e f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n of pregnancy ( i b i d . ) . Oregon: Any p h y s i c i a n may p r o v i d e b i r t h c o n t r o l i n f o r m a t i o n and s e r v i c e s t o any p e r s o n w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o t h e a g e of s u c h p e r s o n (Or. Rev. S t a t . 5 109.640). The S t a t e Department of Human Resources and e v e r y c o u n t y h e a l t h department s h a l l o f f e r f a m i l y p l a n n i n g and b i r t h c o n t r o l s e r v i c e s w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f a v a i l a b l e funds- The D i r e c t o r of Human Resources may d e s i g n a t e which d i v i s i o n s s h a l l i n i t i a t e and c o n d u c t d i s c u s s i o n s of f a m i l y p l a n n i n g w i t h e a c h p e r s o n who might have a n i n t e r e s t i n and b e n e f i t from s u c h s e r v i c e ( 5 435.205). P e n n s y l v a n i a : No p e r t i n e n t p r o v i s i o n s were found. Rhode I s l a n d : No p e r t i n e n t p r o v i s i o n s were found. South C a r o l i n a : A l l a u t h o r i z e d o f f i c e s , o f f i c i a l s , o r i n d i v i d u a l s empowered t o i s s u e a m a r r i a g e l i c e n s e s h a l l , a t t h e t i m e of i s s u a n c e t h e r e o f , CRS-20 provide to applicants for marriage licenses, family planning information supplied to the issuing officials by the Department of Health and Environmental Control (S.C. Code § 20-1-240). The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control may establish policies whereby duly registered nurses may provide specified health care services, including family planning services, under the direction of a physician Licensed to practice medicine in the state and under the guidance of a registered pharmacist (5 40-33-30). South Dakota: A minor may be treated by a licensed physician before the minor's parent's or guardian's consent is obtained if a parent or guardian is not immediately available and if, in the opinion of the treating physician, exercising competent medical judgment, the attempt to secure the consent would result in delay of treatment which would threaten the minor's life or health; however, this section does not apply to sterilization or to any device or medication for the control of birth ( S . D . Codified Laws 5 20-9-4.2). Tennessee: Contraceptive supplies and information may be furnished by physicians to any minor vho is pregnant, or a parent, or married, or who has the consent of his or her parent or legal guardian, or who has been referred for such service by another physician, a clergyman, a family planning clinic, a school or institution of higher learning, or any agency or instrumentality of the state or any subdivision thereof, or who requests and is in need oE birth control procedures, supplies, or information (Tenn. Code Utah: - No public funds shall be paid 5 68-34-107). Texas: No pertinent provisions were found. to provide contraceptive services to an unmarried minor without the prior written consent of the minor's parent or guardian (Utah Code 5 76-7-322). CRS-21 NOTE: T h i s l a w w a s s t r u c k down i n P l a n n e d P a r e n t h o o d A s s ' n of Utah v. - Matheson, d i s c u s s e d s u p r a pp. 6-70 Vermont : No p e r t i n e n t p r o v i s i o n s were f o u n d V i r g i n i a : A minor s h a l l be deemed a n a d u l t f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o n s e n t i n g t o m e d i c a l o r h e a l t h s e r v i c e s needed i n t h e case o f b i r t h c o n t r o l , p r e g n a n c y o r f a m i l y p l a n n i n g e x c e p t f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f s e x u a l s t e r i l i z a t i o n (Va. Code 5 54- 325.2) Every p e r s o n who is empowered t o i s s u e a m a r r i a g e l i c e n s e s h a l l , a t t h e t i m e of i s s u a n c e t h e r e o f , d i s t r i b u t e t o t h e a p p l i c a n t s f o r t h e l i c e n s e , b i r t h c o n t r o l i n f o r m a t i o n and a l i s t o f f a m i l y p l a n n i n g c l i n i c s l o c a t e d i n t h e c o u n t y o r c i t y of t h e i s s u i n g o f f i c e (3 20-14.2). The S t a t e M e n t a l H e a l t h and M e n t a l R e t a r d a t i o n Board s h a l l a u t h o r i z e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f f a m i l y planning c l i n i c s i n t h e s t a t e h o s p i t a l s f o r t h e purpose of a d v i s i n g , c o u n s e l i n g and e d u c a t i n g p a t i e n t s a b o u t b i r t h c o n t r o l . All p a t i e n t s s h a l l be e l i g i b l e t o attend t h e family planning c l i n i c s o r t o receive m e d i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . Consent f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f p a t i e n t s n o t . c a p a b l e o f g i v i n g l e g a l c o n s e n t s h a l l be o b t a i n e d as p r o v i d e d by l a w (5 37.1-23.1). Washington: The t e r m " m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n c e " as p r o v i d e d u n d e r s t a t e p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e programs i s d e f i n e d t o i n c l u d e p h y s i c i a n s ' s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g p c e s c r i b e d m e d i c a t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n on b i r t h c o n t r o l d e v i c e s (Wash. Rev. Code (5 74.09.520). , West V i r g i n i a : A l o c a l b o a r d o f h e a l t h i s a u t h o r i z e d t o e s t a b l i s h and o p e r a t e one o r a o r e f a m i l y p l a n n i n g and c h i l d s p a c i n g c l i n i c s u n d e r t h e supervision of a licensed physician f o r the purpose of disseminating i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n d u c t i n g medical examinations and d i s t r i b u t i n g f a m i l y planning CRS-22 and c h i l d s p a c i n g a p p l i a n c e s , d e v i c e s , d r u g s , approved methods and m e d i c a t i o n w i t h o u t c h a r g e t o i n d i g e n t and m e d i c a l l y i n d i g e n t p e r s o n s on r e q u e s t and w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l of s a i d l i c e n s e d p h y s i c i a n (W.Va. Code § 16-2B-2). Wisconsin: The S t a t e Department of H e a l t h and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s is c h a r g e d w i t h p r o v i d i n g t h e d e l i v e r y of f a m i l y p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s throughout t h e s t a t e under W i s . S t a t . § 146.80. The s t a t u t e d o e s n o t d i s c u s s who s h a l l be e n t i t l e d t o receive these services. Wyoming: The Wyoming department of p u b l i c h e a l t h and t h e Wyoming d e p a r t m e n t of p u b l i c w e l f a r e and t h e i r l o c a l s u b d i v i s i o n s a r e empowered t o p r o v i d e and pay f o r f a m i l y p l a n n i n g and b i r t h c o n t r o l i n f o r m a t i o n and services f o r e v e r y p e r s o n who might have i n t e r e s t i n , and b e n e f i t From, s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n and s e r v i c e s ; p r o v i d e d , however, t h a t any m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s h a l l be performed by a l i c e n s e d p h y s i c i a n (Wyo. S t a t . § 35-14-101). R i t a Ann Reimer Legislative Attorney American Law D i v i s i o n September 24, 1986 APPENDIX Currency of Cited Statutes Alabama Code Annotated, 1986 Supplement. Alaska Statutes Annotated, Sept. 1985 Supplernent. Arizona Revised Statutes Annotated, 1985 Supplement. Arkansas Statutes Annotated, 1985 Supplement. California Civil and Welfare and Institutions Codes Annotated, 1986 Supplement. Colorado Revised Statutes Annotated, 1984 Supplement. Connecticut General Laws Annotated, 1986. Delaware Code Annotated, 1984 Supplement. District of Columbia Code Annotated, 1986 Supplement. Florida Statutes Annotated, 1986 Supplement. Georgia Code Annotated, 1986 Supplement. Hawaii Revised Statutes Annotated, 1984 Supplement. Idaho Code Annotated, 1986 Supplement. Illinois Statutes Annotated, 1986 Supplement. Indiana Statutes Annotated, 1986 Supplement. Iowa Code Annotated, 1986 Supplement. Kansas Statutes Annotated, 1985 Supplement. Kentucky Revised Statutes Annotated, 1986 Supplement. Louisiana Revised Statutes Annotated, 1986 Supplement. Maine Revised Statutes Annotated, 1985 Supplement Haryland Health-General Code Annotated, 1985 Supplement. Hassachusetts General Laws Annotated, .L986 SupplementMichigan Compiled Laws Annotated, 1986 Supplement. Minnesota Statutes, 1986 Supplement. Nississippi Code Annotated, 1985 Supplement. Nissouri Statutes Annotated, 1986 Supplement.' Montana Code Annotated, 1983. Nebraska Revised Statutes Annotated, 1984 Supplement. Nevada Revised Statutes Annotated, 1986. New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated, 1983 Supplement. New Jersey Statutes Annotated, 1986 Supplernent. New Hexico Statutes Annotated, 1985 Supplement. New York Education Law Annotated, 1986 Supplement. North Carolina General Statutes Annotated, Nov. 1985 Supplement. North Dakota Centennial Code Annotated, 1985 Supplement. Ohio Revised Code Annotated, 1985 Supplement. Oklahoma Statutes Annotated, 1985 Supplement. Oregon Revised Statutes Annotated, 1984. Pennsylvania Statutes Annotated, 1986. Rhode Island General Laws Annotated, 1985 Supplement. South Carolina Code Annotated, 1985 Supplement. Tennessee Code Annotated, 1985 Supplement. Texas Family Code Annotated, 1986 Supplement. Utah Code Annotated, 1986 Supplement. Vermont Statutes Annotated, 1984 Supplement. Virginia Code Annotated, 1986 Supplement. Washington Revised Code Annotated, 1986 Supplement. West Virginia Code Annotated, 1986 SupplementWisconsin Statutes Annotated, 1985 Supplement. Wyoming Statutes Annotated, 1985 Supplement.