Selected Bicentennial Celebrations Commemorating the 200th Anniversaries of the U.S. Constitution and of the U.S. Congress

SELECTEI) BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATIONS COMMEMORATING THE 2 0 0 t h ANNIVERSARIES OF THE U.S. CONSTITUTION AND OF THE U.S. CONGRESS Roger H. Davidson S e n i o r S p e c i a l i s t i n American N a t i o n a l Government and P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Thomas K e p h a r t R e s e a r c h A s s i s t a n t i n American N a t i o n a l Government November 1986 T h e Congressional Research Service works exclusivelv for the Congress. conducting research, analyzing legislation, and prot iding information at the request of committees, Members. and their staffs. The Service makes such research available, without partisan bias, in rnanv forms including studies, reports, cornpilations, digests. and backqround briefings. Upon request. CRS assists committees in 'knalyzing legislative proposals and issues. and in assessing the possible effects of these proposals and their alternatives. The Service's senior specialists and subject analysts are also available for personal consultations in their respective fields of expertise. ABSTRACT P l a n n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r commemorating t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l s o f t h e Congress and t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a r e i n h i g h g e a r . This report provides a c a l e n d a r of 1 8 t h c e n t u r y e v e n t s t h a t may o c c a s i o n c e l e b r a t i o n s o r o b s e r v a n c e s , and a p r e l i m i n a r y r e v i e w of s e l e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s c u r r e n t l y i n p r e p a r a t i o n by f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s , p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and s t a t e and l o c a l entities. I t expands upon t h e l i s t i n g s i n c l u d e d i n e a r l i e r CRS p u b l i c a t i o n s on t h i s s u b j e c t , R e p o r t No. 84-575, ( A p r i l 1 8 , 1 9 8 4 ) , R e p o r t No. 85-100s (May 1, 1 9 8 5 ) , and R e p o r t No. 86-9 ( J a n u a r y 1986). A s t h e p e r i o d of s i g n i f i c a n t d a t e s h a s p r o c e e d e d , p l a n n i n g and a c t i v i t y h a s s t e a d i l y q u i c k e n e d and broadened. The a u t h o r s wish t o c r e d i t Mary L. Dunkley f o r t h e s e c r e t a r i a l p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s r e p o r t . Contents ........................................... 1 ABOUT THIS COMPENDIUM .......................................... 7 GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED BICENTENNIAL PROJECTS ............................ 8 U.S. Senate ...................................................... 8 U.S. House of Representatives .................................... 11 BICENTENNIAL CALENDAR Commission on the Bicentennial of the Constitution ......................................... 13 U.S. Supreme Court ............................................... 16 The Library of Congress ......................................... 17 Manuscript Division ......................................... 17 Copyright Office ............................................ 1 8 Congressional Research Service .............................. 18 National Endowment for the Humanities ............................ 2 0 The National Archives ............................................ 2 3 Smithsonian Institution .......................................... 2 4 U.S. Information Agency .......................................... 26 National Park Service ............................................ 27 U.S. Marshals Service ............................................ 28 U.S. Bureau of the Census ........................................ 2 8 National Historical Publications and Records Commission ...................................... 2 9 BICENTENNIAL PROJECTS PRIVATE GROUPS .................................. 30 American Rar Association ......................................... 30 .................................... 31 The Brookings Institution ........................................ 33 American Enterprise Institute Claremont Institute for the Study of Statesmanship and Political Philosophy ...................... 34 Committee on the Constitutional System ........................... 35 .......................... 37 Convention 11. Inc............................................... 37 Council for the Advancement of Citizenship ....................... 38 Daughters of the American Revolution ............................. 40 Federal Bar Association .......................................... 40 First Federal Congress Project ................................... 41 The Jefferson Foundation ......................................... 42 National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution .......... 44 The New York Public Library ...................................... 44 Project '87 ...................................................... 47 U.S. Association of Former Members of Congress ................... 50 U.S. Capitol Historical Society .................................. 50 University of Wisconsin Projects ................................. 51 University of Dallas ...........................................51 U.S. Military Academy ........................................... 52 STATE AND LOCAL BICENTENNIAL COMMISSIONS .............................. 53 "The Constitution and The Commonwealth" Alabama Humanities Foundation .................................... 53 Arizona Commission on the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution .................................... 53 California Bicentennial Commission ............................... 54 We The People .Colorado: The Colorado Commission on the Bicentennial .............................. 54 Connecticut ...................................................55 ..................................... 55 Florida Endowment for the Humanities ............................. 56 Delaware Heritage Commission Hawaii ....................................................... 57 Committee to Commemorate the U.S. Constitution in Illinois .................................... 58 Kentucky Department of Education ................................. 58 Louisiana Bicentennial Commission ................................ 59 Maryland Office for the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution .................................... 5 9 .................. 61 Montana Statehood Centennial Office and Commission ............... 62 New Hampshire Bicentennial Commission ............................ 6 3 Missouri Constitutional Bicentennial Commission New Hampshire Constitution Bicentennial Education Commission ........................................ 6 3 New Jersey Bicentennial Commission ............................... 6 4 New York ......................................................... 6 4 North Carolina Bicentennial Commission on the United States Constitution .............................. 6 4 North Dakota Constitution Celebration Committee .................. 6 5 Oregon Commission on the Ricentennial of the Constitution ......................................... 6 5 Pennsylvania Commission on the Ricentennial of the United States Constitution ........................... 6 5 Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission .................... 65 Philadelphia "We the People .200" Committee ..................... 66 Rhode Island Bicentennial Foundation ............................. 67 viii U.S. Constitution Bicentennial Commission of South Carolina ........................................... 67 Tennessee: Knoxville-Knox County Constitution Bicentennial Commission ..................................... 68 ................ 69 Virginia Commission on the Bicentennial .......................... 69 Washington Constitutional Committee .............................. 71 APPENDIX .............................................................. 72 Utah Governor's Commission on Law and Citizenship BICENTENNIAL CALENDAR O f f i c i a l Washington and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c r o s s t h e n a t i o n a r e p r e p a r i n g f o r two h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t b i c e n t e n n i a l c e l e b r a t i o n s : t h e U.S. t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l of C o n s t i t u t i o n i n 1987, and t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e U.S. C o n g r e s s i n 1989. A c t u a l l y , t h e n a t i o n i s i n t h e m i d s t of a p e r i o d of b i c e n t e n n i a l d a t e s , e x t e n d i n g t o t h e B i l l of R i g h t s ' b i c e n t e n a r y i n 1991. occasion f o r bicentennial celebrations. A number of t h e s e may be Here i s a c h r o n o l o g y of s e l e c t e d eighteenth century events with p o t e n t i a l f o r b i c e n t e n n i a l observance. 11 March 28, 1785: Mount Vernon C o n f e r e n c e . George Washington h o s t e d a m e e t i n g a t Mount Vernon of f o u r c o m i s s i o n e r s from Maryland and f o u r from V i r g i n i a t o d i s c u s s problems r e l a t i n g t o t h e n a v i g a t i o n of t h e Chesapeake Bay and t h e Potomac R i v e r . A f t e r n e g o t i a t i n g a g r e e m e n t s , t h e commissioners recommended t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l e g i s l a t u r e s t h a t a n n u a l c o n f e r e n c e s be h e l d on commercial m a t t e r s , and t h a t P e n n s y l v a n i a be i n v i t e d t o j o i n Maryland and V i r g i n i a t o d i s c u s s l i n k i n g t h e Chesapeake a n d t h e Ohio R i v e r . J a n u a r y 1 6 , 1786: V i r g i n i a ' s l e g i s l a t u r e a d o p t e d a s t a t u t e f o r r e l i g i o u s freedom, o r i g i n a l l y d r a f t e d by Thomas J e f f e r s o n and i n t r o d u c e d by James Madison. The measure p r o t e c t e d V i r g i n i a ' s c i t i z e n s a g a i n s t compulsion t o a t t e n d o r s u p p o r t any c h u r c h , and a g a i n s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n based upon r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f . The law s e r v e d a s a model f o r t h e F i r s t Amendment t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n . J a n u a r y 21, 1786: V i r g i n i a ' s l e g i s l a t u r e i n v i t e d a l l t h e s t a t e s t o a September m e e t i n g i n Annapolis t o d i s c u s s commercial problems. August 7, 1786: The Congress of t h e C o n f e d e r a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d a motion o f f e r e d by C h a r l e s Pinckney of S o u t h C a r o l i n a t o amend t h e A r t i c l e s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n o r d e r t o g i v e Congress more c o n t r o l o v e r f o r e i g n a f f a i r s 1/ T h i s l i s t i s drawn from: Chronology of B i c e n t e n n i a l D a t e s . this c o n s t ~ t u t i o n : A B i c e n t e n n i a l C h r o n i c l e , September 1983, r e v i s e d W i n t e r , 1985. P u b l i s h e d by P r o j e c t '87 of t h e American H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e American P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n . pp. i n s i d e f r o n t c o v e r , 51-53. CRS -2 and i n t e r s t a t e commerce. Because amendments t o t h e A r t i c l e s r e q u i r e d t h e unanimous c o n s e n t of t h e s t a t e s , a n u n l i k e l y e v e n t u a l i t y , Congress d e c l i n e d t o recommend t h e changes. September 11-14, 1786: A n n a p o l i s Convention. New York, New J e r s e y , Delaware, P e n n s y l v a n i a and V i r g i n i a s e n t a t o t a l of t w e l v e d e l e g a t e s t o t h e c o n f e r e n c e which had been proposed by V i r g i n i a i n J a n u a r y t o d i s c u s s commercial m a t t e r s . (New Hampshire, M a s s a c h u s e t t s , Rhode I s l a n d and N o r t h C a r o l i n a s e n t d e l e g a t e s b u t t h e y f a i l e d t o a r r i v e i n t i m e . ) The s m a l l a t t e n d a n c e made d i s c u s s i o n of commercial m a t t e r s f r u i t l e s s . On September 1 4 , t h e c o n v e n t i o n a d o p t e d a r e s o l u t i o n d r a f t e d by A l e x a n d e r Hamilton a s k i n g a l l t h e s t a t e s t o send r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o a new c o n v e n t i o n t o b e h e l d i n P h i l a d e l p h i a i n May of 1787. T h i s m e e t i n g would n o t be l i m i t e d t o commercial m a t t e r s b u t would a d d r e s s a l l i s s u e s n e c e s s a r y " t o r e n d e r t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e F e d e r a l Government a d e q u a t e t o t h e e x i g e n c i e s of t h e Union." F e b r u a r y 4, 1787: The end of S h a y s ' R e b e l l i o n . G e n e r a l Benjamin L i n c o l n , l e a d i n g a c o n t i n g e n t of 4 , 4 0 0 s o l d i e r s e n l i s t e d by t h e M a s s a c h u s e t t s g o v e r n o r , r o u t e d t h e f o r c e s of D a n i e l Shays. A d e s t i t u t e f a r m e r , Shays had o r g a n i z e d a r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t t h e M a s s a c h u s e t t s government, which had f a i l e d t o t a k e a c t i o n t o a s s i s t t h e s t a t e ' s d e p r e s s e d farm p o p u l a t i o n . The u p r i s i n g s , which had begun i n t h e summer of 1786, were c o m p l e t e l y c r u s h e d by t h e end of F e b r u a r y . The M a s s a c h u s e t t s l e g i s l a t u r e , however, e n a c t e d some s t a t u t e s t o a s s i s t debt -ridden farmers. F e b r u a r y 21, 1787: The Congress of t h e C o n f e d e r a t i o n c a u t i o u s l y e n d o r s e d t h e p l a n a d o p t e d a t t h e A n n a p o l i s Convention f o r a new m e e t i n g of d e l e g a t e s from t h e s t a t e s " f o r t h e s o l e and e x p r e s s p u r p o s e of r e v i s i n g t h e A r t i c l e s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n and r e p o r t i n g t o Congress and t h e s e v e r a l l e g i s l a t u r e s s u c h a l t e r a t i o n s and p r o v i s i o n s t h e r e i n . " May 25, 1787: Opening of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Convention. On May 25, a quorum of d e l e g a t e s from s e v e n s t a t e s a r r i v e d i n P h i l a d e l p h i a i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e c a l l from t h e A n n a p o l i s Convention, and t h e m e e t i n g convened. U l t i m a t e l y , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a l l t h e s t a t e s b u t Rhode I s l a n d a t t e n d e d . The d i s t i n g u i s h e d p u b l i c f i g u r e s i n c l u d e d George Washington, James Madison, Benjamin F r a n k l i n , George Mason, A l e x a n d e r Hamilton, Gouverneur M o r r i s , James W i l s o n , Roger Sherman and E l b r i d g e Gerry. May 29, 1787: V i r g i n i a P l a n Proposed. On t h e f i f t h day of t h e m e e t i n g , Edmund Randolph, a d e l e g a t e from V i r g i n i a , o f f e r e d 15 r e s o l u t i o n s c o m p r i s i n g t h e " V i r g i n i a P l a n " of Union. R a t h e r t h a n amending t h e A r t i c l e s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n , t h e p r o p o s a l d e s c r i b e d a c o m p l e t e l y new o r g a n i z a t i o n of government i n c l u d i n g a b i c a m e r a l l e g i s l a t u r e which r e p r e s e n t e d t h e s t a t e s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , w i t h t h e l o w e r house e l e c t e d by t h e p e o p l e and t h e u p p e r h o u s e chosen by t h e lower body from nominees proposed by t h e s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s ; an e x e c u t i v e chosen by t h e l e g i s l a t u r e ; a j u d i c i a r y b r a n c h ; and a c o u n c i l comprised of t h e e x e c u t i v e and members of t h e j u d i c i a r y b r a n c h w i t h a v e t o o v e r l e g i s l a t i v e enactments. CRS-3 June 15, 1787: New J e r s e y P l a n Proposed. D i s p l e a s e d by Randolph's p l a n which p l a c e d t h e s m a l l e r s t a t e s i n a d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o s i t i o n , William P a t t e r s o n proposed i n s t e a d o n l y t o modify t h e A r t i c l e s of Confederation. The New J e r s e y p l a n would g i v e Congress power t o t a x and t o r e g u l a t e f o r e i g n and i n t e r s t a t e commerce, and e s t a b l i s h e d a p l u r a l e x e c u t i v e (without v e t o power) and a supreme c o u r t . June 19, 1787: A f t e r d e b a t i n g a l l t h e p r o p o s a l s , t h e c o n v e n t i o n decided not merely t o amend t h e A r t i c l e s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n , but t o conceive a new n a t i o n a l government. The q u e s t i o n of e q u a l v e r s u s p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by s t a t e s i n t h e l e g i s l a t u r e t h e n became t h e f o c u s of t h e d e b a t e . June 21, 1787: representatives. June 26, 1787: The Convention adopted a two-year term f o r The Convention adopted a s i x - y e a r t e r m f o r s e n a t o r s . J u l y 12, 1787: The Connecticut Compromise ( I ) . Based upon a p r o p o s a l made by Roger Sherman of C o n n e c t i c u t , t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Convention a g r e e d t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e lower house s h o u l d be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o a s t a t e ' s p o p u l a t i o n ( a l l of t h e w h i t e r e s i d e n t s , and t h r e e - f i f t h s of t h e b l a c k s ) . J u l y 13, 1787: Northwest Ordinance. While t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Convention met i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , t h e Congress of t h e C o n f e d e r a t i o n c r a f t e d a n o t h e r governing i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e t e r r i t o r y n o r t h of t h e Ohio R i v e r . The Northwest Ordinance, w r i t t e n l a r g e l y by Nathan Dane of M a s s a c h u s e t t s , provided f o r i n t e r i m governance of t h e t e r r i t o r y by C o n g r e s s i o n a l a p p o i n t e e s ( a governor, s e c r e t a r y and t h r e e j u d g e s ) , c r e a t i o n of a b i c a m e r a l l e g i s l a t u r e when t h e r e were 5,000 f r e e males i n t h e t e r r i t o r y , and u l t i m a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h r e e t o f i v e s t a t e s on a n e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h t h e s t a t e s a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e . Freedom of worship, r i g h t t o t r i a l by j u r y , ' a n d p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n were g u a r a n t e e d , and s l a v e r y p r o h i b i t e d . J u l y 16, 1787: The C o n n e c t i c u t Compromise (11). The Convention agreed t h a t each s t a t e should be r e p r e s e n t e d e q u a l l y i n t h e upper chamber. August 6, 1787: The f i v e - m a n committee a p p o i n t e d t o d r a f t a c o n s t i t u t i o n based upon 23 "fundamental r e s o l u t i o n s " drawn up. by t h e convention between J u l y 19 and J u l y 26 s u b m i t t e d a document c o n t a i n i n g 23 a r t i c l e s . - August 6-September 10, 1787: The G r e a t Debate. The Convention d e b a t e d t h e d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n and a g r e e d t o p r o h i b i t Congress from banning t h e f o r e i g n s l a v e t r a d e f o r twenty y e a r s . August 16, 1787: The Convention g r a n t e d t o Congress t h e r i g h t t o r e g u l a t e f o r e i g n t r a d e and i n t e r s t a t e commerce. August: The Convention a g r e e d t o p r o h i b i t Congress from banning t h e f o r e i g n s l a v e t r a d e f o r twenty y e a r s . August 29, 1787: The Convention a g r e e d t o t h e f u g i t i v e s l a v e c l a u s e . September 6, 1787: President. The Convention a d o p t e d a f o u r - y e a r t e r m f o r t h e September 8 , 1787: A f i v e - m a n committee, comprised o f W i l l i a m Samuel Johnson ( c h a i r ) , Alexander H a m i l t o n , James Madison, Rufus King and Gouverneur M o r r i s , was a p p o i n t e d t o p r e p a r e t h e f i n a l d r a f t September 12, 1787: The committee s u b m i t t e d t h e d r a f t , w r i t t e n p r i m a r i l y by Gouverneur M o r r i s , t o t h e Convention. September 13-15, 1787: The Convention examined t h e d r a f t , c l a u s e by c l a u s e , and made a few changes. September 17, 1787: A l l t w e l v e s t a t e d e l e g a t i o n s v o t e d a p p r o v a l of t h e document. T h i r t y - n i n e of t h e f o r t y - t w o d e l e g a t e s p r e s e n t s f g n e d t h e e n g r o s s e d copy, and a l e t t e r of t r a n s m i t t a l t o Congress was d r a f t e d . The Convention f o r m a l l y a d j o u r n e d . September 20, 1787: Congress r e c e i v e d t h e proposed C o n s t i t u t i o n . September 26-27, 1787: Some r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s sought t o have Congress c e n s u r e t h e Convention f o r f a i l i n g t o a b i d e by C o n g r e s s ' i n s t r u c t i o n o n l y t o r e v i s e t h e A r t i c l e s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n . September 28, 1787: Congress r e s o l v e d t o submit t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n t o s p e c i a l s t a t e r a t i f y i n g c o n v e n t i o n s . A r t i c l e V I I of t h e document s t i p u l a t e d t h a t i t would become e f f e c t i v e when r a t i f i e d by n i n e s t a t e s . October 27, 1787: The f i r s t " F e d e r a l i s t " p a p e r a p p e a r e d i n New York C i t y newspapers, one of 8 5 t o a r g u e i n f a v o r of t h e a d o p t i o n of t h e new frame of government. W r i t t e n by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and J o h n J a y , t h e e s s a y s a t t e m p t e d t o c o u n t e r t h e arguments of a n t i - F e d e r a l i s t s , who f e a r e d a s t r o n g c e n t r a l i z e d n a t i o n a l government. December 7 , 1787: Delaware r a t i f i e d t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e f i r s t s t a t e t o do s o , by unanimous v o t e . December 1 2 , 1787: P e n n s y l v a n i a r a t i f i e d t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i n t h e f a c e of c o n s i d e r a b l e o p p o s i t i o n . The v o t e i n c o n v e n t i o n was 46 t o 23. December 1 8 , 1787: New J e r s e y r a t i f i e d unanimously. J a n u a r y 2 , 1788: G e o r g i a r a t i f i e d unanimously. J a n u a r y 9 , 1788: C o n n e c t i c u t r a t i f i e d by a v o t e of 128 t o 40. F e b r u a r y 6 , 1788: The M a s s a c h u s e t t s c o n v e n t i o n r a t i f i e d by1 a c l o s e v o t e of 187 t o 168, a f t e r v i g o r o u s d e b a t e . Many a n t i - F e d e r a l i s t s , - CRS 5 i n c l u d i n g Sam Adams, changed s i d e s a f t e r F e d e r a l i s t s p r o p o s e d n i n e amendments, i n c l u d i n g one which y a u l d r e s e r v e t o t h e s t a t e s a l l powers not " e x p r e s s l y d e l e g a t e d " t o t h e n a t i o n a l government by t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . March 24, 1788: Rhode I s l a n d , which had r e f u s e d t o s e n d d e l e g a t e s t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Convention, d e c l i n e d t o c a l l a s t a t e c o n v e n t i o n and h e l d a p o p u l a r referendum i n s t e a d . F e d e r a l i s t s d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e , and t h e v o t e r s r e j e c t e d t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , 2708 t o 237. Maryland r a t i f i e d by a v o t e of 6 3 t o 11. A p r i l 28, 1788: May 23, 1788: S o u t h C a r o l i n a r a t i f i e d by a v o t e of 149 t o 73. J u n e 21, 1788: New Hampshire became t h e n i n t h s t a t e t o r a t i f y , by a v o t e of 57 t o 47. The c o n v e n t i o n proposed t w e l v e amendments. J u n e 25, 1788: D e s p i t e s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n l e d by P a t r i c k Henry, V i r g i n i a r a t i f i e d t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n by 8 9 t o 79. James Madison l e d t h e f i g h t i n f a v o r . The c o n v e n t i o n recommended a b i l l of r i g h t s comprised of twenty a r t i c l e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o twenty f u r t h e r changes. J u l y 2, 1788: The P r e s i d e n t of C o n g r e s s , Cyrus G r i f f i n of V i r g i n i a , announced t h a t t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n had been r a t i f i e d by t h e r e q u i s i t e n i n e s t a t e s . A committee was a p p o i n t e d t o p r e p a r e f o r t h e change i n government. J u l y 26, 1788: New P o r k r a t i f i e d by a v o t e of 30 t o 27 a f t e r Alexander Hamilton d e l a y e d a c t i o n , hoping t h a t news of r a t i f i c a t i o n from New Hampshire and V i r g i n i a would i n f l u e n c e a n t i - F e d e r a l i s t s e n t i m e n t . August 2, 1788: North C a r o l i n a d e c l i n e d t o r a t i f y t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n u n t i l a b i l l of r i g h t s was added. September 13, 1788: Congress s e l e c t e d New York as t h e s i t e of t h e new government and c h o s e d a t e s f o r t h e appointment of and b a l l o t i n g by p r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t o r s , and f o r t h e m e e t i n g of t h e f i r s t C o n g r e s s u n d e r t h e Constitution. October 10, 1788: o f f i c i a l business. The Congress of t h e C o n f e d e r a t i o n t r a n s a c t e d i t s l a s t December 23, 1788: The S t a t e of Maryland ceded t e n s q u a r e m i l e s t o Congress f o r a f e d e r a l c i t y . J a n u a r y 7, 1789: P r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t o r s were c h o s e n by t e n of t h e s t a t e s t h a t had r a t i f i e d t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n ( a l l b u t New York). F e b r u a r y 4 , 1789: P r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t o r s v o t e d ; George Washington was chosen P r e s i d e n t , and J o h n Adams V i c e - p r e s i d e n t . E l e c t i o n s of s e n a t o r s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s took p l a c e i n t h e s t a t e s . March 4 , 1789: The f i r s t C o n g r e s s convened i n New York, w i t h e i g h t s e n a t o r s and t h i r t e e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n a t t e n d a n c e , and t h e r e m a i n d e r en route. A p r i l 1, 1789: The House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a c h i e v e d a quorum, w i t h 30 of i t s 59 members p r e s e n t , and e l e c t e d F r e d e r i c k A. Muhlenberg o f P e n n s y l v a n i a t o be i t s s p e a k e r . A p r i l 6 , 1789: The S e n a t e , w i t h 9 o f 22 s e n a t o r s i n a t t e n d a n c e , a c h i e v e d a quorum and c h o s e J o h n Langdon of New Hampshire a s temporary presiding officer. A p r i l 30, 1789: George Washington was i n a u g u r a t e d as t h e n a t i o n ' s f i r s t P r e s i d e n t under t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . The o a t h of o f f i c e was a d m i n i s t e r e d by R o b e r t R. L i v i n g s t o n , c h a n c e l l o r of t h e S t a t e of New York, on t h e b a l c o n y o f F e d e r a l H a l l , a t t h e c o r n e r of Wall and Broad Streets. J u l y 27, 1789: Congress e s t a b l i s h e d t h e Department of F o r e i g n A f f a i r s ( l a t e r changed t o Department of S t a t e ) . August 7 , 1789: Congress e s t a b l i s h e d t h e War Department. September 2 , 1789: September 22, 1789: General. Congress e s t a b l i s h e d t h e T r e a s u r y Department. Congress c r e a t e d t h e o f f i c e of P o s t m a s t e r September 24, 1789: Congress p a s s e d t h e F e d e r a l J u d i c i a r y A c t , which e s t a b l i s h e d a Supreme C o u r t , 1 3 d i s t r i c t c o u r t s and 3 c i r c u i t c o u r t s , and c r e a t e d t h e o f f i c e of t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l . September 25, 1789: Congress s u b m i t t e d t o t h e s t a t e s t w e l v e amendments t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e f i v e s t a t e r a t i f y i n g c o n v e n t i o n s t h a t had emphasized t h e need f o r immediate changes. November 20, 1789: New J e r s e y became t h e f i r s t s t a t e t o r a t i f y t e n of t h e t w e l v e amendments, The B i l l of R i g h t s . November 21, 1789: A s a r e s u l t of C o n g r e s s i o n a l a c t i o n t o amend t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , N o r t h C a r o l i n a r a t i f i e d t h e o r i g i n a l document, by a v o t e of 194 t o 77. December 1 9 , 1789: Maryland r a t i f i e d t h e B i l l of R i g h t s . December 22, 1789: North C a r o l i n a r a t i f i e d t h e B i l l of R i g h t s . J a n u a r y 25, 1790: New Hampshire r a t i f i e d t h e B i l l of R i g h t s . J a n u a r y 28, 1790: Delaware r a t i f i e d t h e B i l l of R i g h t s - F e b r u a r y 24, 1790: March 1 0 , 1790: May 29, 1790: 34 t o 32. New York r a t i f i e d t h e B i l l o f R i g h t s . P e n n s y l v a n i a r a t i f i e d t h e B i l l of R i g h t s . Rhode I s l a n d r a t i f i e d t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , by a v o t e CKS - 7 J u n e 7, 1790: Rhode I s l a n d r a t i f i e d t h e B i l l of R i g h t s . J u l y 1 6 , 1790: George Washington s i g n e d l e g i s l a t i o n s e l e c t i n g t h e D i s t r i c t of Columbia a s t h e permanent n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l , t o be o c c u p i e d i n 1800. P h i l a d e l p h i a housed t h e government d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v e n i n g decade. December 6 , 1790: Philadelphia. J a n u a r y 1 0 , 1791: March 4 , 1791: state. A l l t h r e e b r a n c h e s of government a s s e m b l e d i n Vermont r a t i f i e d t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . Vermont was a d m i t t e d t o t h e Union a s t h e f o u r t e e n t h November 3 , 1791: Vermont r a t i f i e d t h e B i l l of R i g h t s . December 1 5 , 1791: V i r g i n i a r a t i f i e d t h e R i l l of R i g h t s , making i t p a r t of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n . ABOUT THIS COMPENDIUM A s i n t h e t h r e e p r e v i o u s v e r s i o n s of t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n , t h e a u t h o r s have s o u g h t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t b i c e n t e n n i a l a c t i v i t i e s and c e l e b r a t i o n s from a w i d e v a r i e t y o f sources. To e n s u r e t h a t t h e e n t r i e s a r e c u r r e n t , a l l t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t a p p e a r e d i n p r i o r v e r s i o n s were c a n v a s s e d and r e v i s i o n s o r a d d i t i o n s i n c o r p o r a t e d where a p p r o p r i a t e . These o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been g e n e r o u s and h e l p f u l i n s h a r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e i r programs o r p l a n s . I n t h o s e few c a s e s where we have n o t been d i r e c t l y i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , we have indicated t h e s o u r c e of our information. to: Raymond W . I n assembling t h i s m a t e r i a l , t h e authors a r e e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l Smock, D i r e c t o r , O f f i c e f o r t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l , U.S. House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ; R i c h a r d Baker, S e n a t e H i s t o r i a n ; S h e i l a h K . Mann and C y n t h i a H a r r i s o n , P r o j e c t ' 5 7 ; Donald F. X. F i n n , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , U.S. Constitution B i c e n t e n n i a l ; members of t h e Committee on t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l , S o c i e t y f o r H i s t o r y i n t h e F e d e r a l Government; and t h e s t a f f of t h e Commission on t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y Bonnie M e r s i n g e r o f t h e S t a t e and L o c a l A f f a i r s Department. CRS - 8 GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED BICENTENNIAL PROJECTS U.S. Senate I n 1980 t h e S e n a t e e s t a b l i s h e d a S t u d y Group on t h e Commemoration o f t h e United S t a t e s Senate Bicentenary. Under t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p of f o r m e r R e p u b l i c a n Leader Hugh S c o t t , t h e p a n e l i n c l u d e d c u r r e n t and former S e n a t o r s , t h e L i b r a r i a n of C o n g r e s s , t h e A r c h i v i s t of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and d i s t i n g u i s h e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l scholars. By c r e a t i n g t h e S t u d y Group n e a r l y a decade b e f o r e t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l b i c e n t e n n i a l , t h e S e n a t e hoped t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e b e n e f i t s o f c a r e f u l advance p l a n n i n g , t o draw a s much a s p o s s i b l e on e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s , and t o k e e p expenses a t a r e a s o n a b l e minimum. The Study Group's 1982 f i n a l r e p o r t (Sen. Doc. 98-13) recommended s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s of p u b l i c a t i o n s , c e r e m o n i a l e v e n t s , c o n f e r e n c e s and e x h i b i t s . The p a n e l s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e S e n a t e e s t a b l i s h , on t h e eve of t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l , a commission of S e n a t o r s t o o v e r s e e s p e c i f i c i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e s e recommendations. I n A p r i l 1986 t h e S e n a t e f o l l o w e d t h e S t u d y Group's a d v i c e and c r e a t e d a seven-member b i c e n t e n n i a l p a n e l , s t a f f e d by t h e o f f i c e s o f S e n a t e H i s t o r i a n R i c h a r d A . Baker and S e n a t e C u r a t o r James R. Ketchum, under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n of S e c r e t a r y of t h e S e n a t e Jo-Anne L. Coe. C h a i r e d by S e n a t e P r e s i d e n t P r o Tempore Strom Thurmond, t h e Commission i n c l u d e s t h e S e n a t e ' s most s e n i o r member, J o h n S t e n n i s ; i t s f l o o r l e a d e r s , R o b e r t Dole and Robert C . Byrd; and S e n a t o r s Mark H a t f i e l d , Nancy Kassebaum, and P a u l Simon. Among t h e major p r o j e c t s underway a r e a r e v i s i o n of t h e S e n a t e p o r t i o n of t h e B i o g r a p h i c a l D i r e c t o r y of t h e American C o n g r e s s , a g u i d e t o S e n a t e r e c o r d s a t t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , S e n a t o r Robert C . B y r d ' s "Addresses on t h e H i s t o r y of t h e U.S. S e n a t e , " a S e n a t e h i s t o r i c a l almanac, and e x h i b i t i o n s based on t h e S e n a t e ' s c o l l e c t i o n a t t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s and on t h e works of American CRS-9 g r a p h i c a r t i s t s d e p i c t i n g t h e S e n a t e from i t s f o r m a t i v e y e a r s t o t h e p r e s e n t . The f i r s t two S e n a t e " B i c e n t e n n i a l P u b l i c a t i o n s " have been completed and a r e a v a i l a b l e from t h e S e n a t e H i s t o r i c a l O f f i c e . They a r e t h e Guide t o Research C o l l e c t i o n s of Former United S t a t e s S e n a t o r s , 1789-1982 (S. Doc. 97-41) and Records Management Handbook f o r United S t a t e s S e n a t o r s and t h e i r R e p o s i t o r i e s ( S . Pub. 99-4). The f i r s t of t h e s e w i l l be r e v i s e d i n 1989 t o i n c l u d e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and photographic l i k e n e s s e s of most former members. management handbook f o r committees--a p u b l i s h e d i n 1987. A records companion t o t h e second volume--will be A d e t a i l e d l i s t of p r o j e c t s i s a v a i l a b l e from t h e S e n a t e Historical Office. The S e n a t e B i c e n t e n n i a l Commission i s s e e k i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t i e s from a l l who wish t o o f f e r them. On-going S e n a t e B i c e n t e n n i a l P r o j e c t s B i o g r a p h i c a l D i r e c t o r y of t h e U.S. Congress, 1774-1989 T h i s 2,000-page, 11,000 e n t r y p u b l i c a t i o n was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1859 and l a s t updated i n 1971. Under t h e a u t h o r i t y of S. Con. Res. 8 5 ( 9 9 t h Congress), t h e new e d i t i o n i s b e i n g prepared on a n automated d a t a base by t h e S e n a t e H i s t o r i c a l O f f i c e and t h e O f f i c e f o r t h e B i c e n t e n a r y of t h e House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Scheduled f o r p u b l i c a t i o n e a r l y i n 1989, t h e r e v i s e d volume w i l l i n c o r p o r a t e new c a t e g o r i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n on members' c o n g r e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s , major l e g i s l a t i v e accomplishments, and c i t a t i o n s t o b i o g r a p h i c a l books and a r t i c l e s . S e n a t o r Robert C. Byrd's Addresses on t h e H i s t o r y of t h e U.S. Senate I n 1980 S e n a t o r Robert C. Byrd began a n e x t e n s i v e s e r i e s of a d d r e s s e s t o t h e S e n a t e on t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ' s h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n s . By mid-1986 he had d e l i v e r e d 83 speeches c o v e r i n g t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d from 1789 t o t h e l a t e 1950s a s w e l l a s numerous t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o t h e S e n a t e ' s development. It i s recommended t h a t t h e s e a d d r e s s e s be p u b l i s h e d by t h e S e n a t e i n an a p p r o p r i a t e l y i l l u s t r a t e d and indexed volume. Records Management Handbook f o r U.S. S e n a t e Committees I n 1985 t h e O f f i c e of t h e S e c r e t a r y p u b l i s h e d Records Management Handbook f o r U n i t e d S t a t e s S e n a t o r s and T h e i r R e p o s i t o r i e s . T h i s 130-page book, d e s i g n a t e d " S e n a t e B i c e n t e n n i a l P u b l i c a t i o n #2," p r o v i d e s e x t e n s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r members t o i d e n t i f y and p r e s e r v e t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l l y v a l u a b l e r e c o r d s . E a r l y i n 1987 t h e S e c r e t a r y ' s O f f i c e i n t e n d s t o p u b l i s h a companion volume t o e n s u r e t h a t S e n a t e committees p r e s e r v e a r i c h h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d f o r t h e u s e of f u t u r e generations. Guide t o R e s e a r c h C o l l e c t i o n s of Former U.S. S e n a t o r s , 1789-1989 The f i r s t e d i t i o n of t h i s volume was p u b l i s h e d i n 1983 as " S e n a t e B i c e n t e n n i a l P u b l i c a t i o n # I . " It was produced Erom a n e n t i r e l y automated d a t e b a s e and would be e a s i l y u p d a t e d t o i n c l u d e a l l f o r m e r S e n a t o r s who s e r v e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t one hundred C o n g r e s s e s . U n l i k e t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n , i t would i n c l u d e p h o t o g r a p h s o r o t h e r p i c t o r i a l l i k e n e s s e s of most former members. S e n a t e H i s t o r i c a l Almanac A 100-page compendium of S e n a t e f a c t s , a n e c d o t e s , " f i r s t s , " s t a t i s t i c s , and n o t a b l e e v e n t s , t h i s volume w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d and a r r a n g e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y from 1789 t o 1989 and d e s i g n e d f o r wide d i s t r i b u t i o n by members. Exhibitions S e v e r a l b i c e n t e n n i a l e x h i b i t i o n s a r e now i n t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e , w i t h i n s t a l l a t i o n i n t h e C a p i t o l o r S e n a t e o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s s c h e d u l e d f o r 1989. One p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l h i g h l i g h t n o t a b l e e v e n t s i n t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y of t h e S e n a t e ' s h i s t o r y t h r o u g h d i s p l a y of a wide s e l e c t i o n of o r i g n i a l documents, many drawn from t h e S e n a t e ' s c o l l e c t i o n a t t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s . A second e x h i b i t w i l l f o c u s on works o f American g r a p h i c a r t i s t s d e p i c t i n g t h e S e n a t e ' s f o r m a t i v e y e a r s t o t h e p r e s e n t . Drawings, e n g r a v i n g s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e n d e r i n g s , and p h o t o g r a p h s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e S e n a t e ' s l e g i s l a t i v e , c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , and a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e . I n a d d i t i o n , e x h i b i t s d e v o t e d t o t h e f i v e members of t h e S e n a t e commemorated i n p o r t r a i t u r e i n t h e S e n a t o r s ' R e c e p t i o n Room a r e a l s o p l a n n e d . Documents and m e m o r a b i l i a which c h r o n i c l e t h e S e n a t e c a r e e r s of D a n i e l W e b s t e r , Henry C l a y , J o h n C . Calhoun, R o b e r t La F o l l e t t e , and R o b e r t A. T a f t w i l l be f e a t u r e d . Each e x h i b i t theme may be expanded and r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l s d e v e l o p e d , s u c h a s p o s t e r s , c a t a l o g u e s , and p r i n t f o l i o s . Guide t o Engraved Views of t h e S e n a t e S i n c e 1971, n e a r l y 500 engraved views of t h e S e n a t e , i t s chambers, committee rooms, and members, have been a c q u i r e d under t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e Commission on A r t and A n t i q u i t i e s . Most of t h e s e p r i n t s d a t e from t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and s e r v e a s a v i t a l s o u r c e of g r a p h i c d o c u m e n t a t i o n of t h e S e n a t e ' s l e g i s l a t i v e and s o c i a l h i s t o r y . A t p r e s e n t , a n i l l u s t r a t e d g u i d e t o t h i s c o l l e c t i o n i s being prepared f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . S u g g e s t t o n s and r e q u e s t s f o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o t h e S e n a t e H i s t o r i c a l O f f i c e o r t h e O f f i c e of S e n a t e C u r a t o r , U n i t e d S t a t e s S e n a t e , Washington, DC U.S. 20510; (202) 224-6900 ( H i s t o r i a n ) ; 224-2955 (Curator). House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s On December 1 7 , 1982, t h e 9 7 t h Congress a d o p t e d H a Res. 621, which e s t a b l i s h e d t h e O f f i c e f o r t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The p u r p o s e of t h i s o f f i c e i s t o p l a n t h e commemoration of t h e 2 0 0 t h a n n i v e r s a r y of t h e House i n 1989. The management, s u p e r v i s i o n , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e o f f i c e i s under t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e S p e a k e r of t h e House. It i s s t a f f e d by a p r o f e s s i o n a l h i s t o r i a n , s e l e c t e d by a b i p a r t i s a n committee of House Members a f t e r a nationwide search. The H i s t o r i a n was a p p o i n t e d by t h e S p e a k e r w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o political affiliation. The o f f i c e w i l l c e a s e t o e x i s t n o t l a t e r t h a n September 30, 1989, u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e p r o v i d e d by law o r r e s o l u t t o n On August 1, 1985, t h e House p a s s e d H . Res. 249, e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e b i p a r t i s a n Commission on t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s B i c e n t e n a r y . The Commission w i l l o v e r s e e t h e p l a n n i n g and d i r e c t i o n of t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e House and d e v e l o p a program i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e O f f i c e f o r t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e House, which w i l l s e r v e a s t h e s t a f f of t h e Commission. The eight-member Commission i s composed of t h r e e R e p u b l i c a n s , t h r e e Democrats, and two f o r m e r Members of t h e House, o n e from each p a r t y . and M i n o r i t y Leader Robert Michel ( R - I l l . ) M a j o r i t y Leader Jim Wright (D-Tex.) s e r v e a s e x - o f f i c i o members. The chairman of t h e Commission, a p p o i n t e d by t h e S p e a k e r on August 1, 1985, i s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Lindy (Mrs. H a l e ) Boggs (D-La.). The o t h e r members of t h e Commission a r e : (D-N.J.), Newt G i n g r i c h (R-Ga.), P h i l S h a r p (D-Ind.), J o h n Rhodes (R-Ariz.) P a u l Henry (R-Mich.), and Bud S h u s t e r (R-Pa.). and R i c h a r d B o l l i n g (D-Mo.) P e t e r Rodino Former R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s have a l s o been named t o t h e commission. The f o l l o w i n g p r o j e c t s were e i t h e r u n d e r way o r planned a s of l a t e - 1 9 8 6 : B i o g r a p h i c a l D i r e c t o r y of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Congress a u t h o r i z e d by S. Con. Res. 85, 9 9 t h Congress. A t h o r o u g h r e v i s i o n of t h e s t a n d a r d b i o g r a p h i c a l r e s o u r c e of a l l Members who have s e r v e d i n t h e Congress s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e C o n t i n e n t a l Congress i n 1774. T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n i s a c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t w i t h t h e Senate H i s t o r i c a l Office. A Guide t o R e s e a r c h C o l l e c t i o n s of Former Members of t h e U.S. House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . A n a t i o n w i d e s u r v e y i n a l l 50 s t a t e s i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d t o l o c a t e h i s t o r i c a l l y v a l u a b l e p a p e r s , memoirs, d i a r i e s , p h o t o -g r a p- h s , and o t h e r r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l on t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 0 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s who have s e r v e d i n t h e House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s i n c e 1789. The Guide w i l l be p u b l i s h e d i n 1988. B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Data Base on t h e H i s t o r y o f t h e U.S. House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . T h i s p r o j e c t w i l l r e s u l t i n a s s e m b l i n g l i s t s of books and a r t i c l e s on t h e House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g b i o g r a p h i e s and a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s of Members and f o r m e r Members, d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n s , h i s t o r i e s , and s c h o l a r l y s t u d i e s by o r a b o u t Members and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f . S e l e c t e d e n t r i e s w i l l be p u b l i s h e d i n t h e new e d i t i o n of t h e B i o g r a p h i c a l D i r e c t o r y of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n g r e s s , w h i l e t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e e n t r i e s w i l l form a n e l e c t r o n i c d a t a b a s e available t o researchers. B l a c k Americans i n Congress. which was l a s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1976. Women i n Congress. l a s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1976. R e s e a r c h is u n d e r way t o u p d a t e t h i s b o o k l e t , I t w i l l be a v a i l a b l e i n 1988. R e s e a r c h i s u n d e r way t o u p d a t e t h i s b o o k l e t , which was I t w i l l be a v a i l a b l e i n 1988. Meeting o f Congress i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , J u l y 16, 1987. To commemorate t h e 2 0 0 t h a n n i v e r s a r y of t h e "Great Compromise" t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d t h e b a s i s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e House and S e n a t e . T h i s e v e n t w i l l f o c u s on t h e d i s t i n c t i v e r o l e of t h e C o n g r e s s i n t h e f e d e r a l system. The e v e n t s w i l l i n c l u d e a n a c t u a l l e g i s l a t i v e m e e t i n g , t h e f i r s t t i m e i n 187 y e a r s t h a t t h e Congress w i l l have convened o u t s i d e of Washington, D.C. Ceremonial S e s s i o n s of t h e House and S e n a t e March 4 , 1989 and A p r i l 1, 1989. To commemorate t h e c o n v e n i n g of t h e F i r s t Congress under t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a s p e c i a l j o i n t s e s s i o n w i l l b e h e l d on March 4 , 1989. On A p r i l 1, 1989, t h e House w i l l commemorate t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l of i t s f i r s t quorum w i t h a s p e c i a l ceremony i n t h e House Chamber. R e s e a r c h C o n f e r e n c e s on Congress. A t l e a s t two c o n f e r e n c e s w i l l be h e l d , o n e i n 1987 and one i n 1988, j o i n t l y s p o n s o r e d w i t h t h e S e n a t e , t h e L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s , and o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l s p o n s o r s . House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s B i c e n t e n n i a l B r o c h u r e , 1987. An i l l u s t r a t e d , f o u r c o l o r b r o c h u r e f e a t u r i n g a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e House and i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e House Chamber w i l l be p r e p a r e d f o r u s e b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e 1 0 0 t h Congress. E x h i b i t i o n s and P o s t e r s . P l a n s a r e under way t o c r e a t e s p e c i a l b i c e n t e n n i a l A s e r i e s of b i c e n t e n n i a l e x h i b i t s i n t h e C a p i t o l and t h e House o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s . p o s t e r s w i l l be p r i n t e d and made a v a i l a b l e f o r wide d i s t r i b u t i o n . Documentary F i l m on t h e H i s t o r y of C o n g r e s s . An hour-long documentary f i l m on t h e h i s t o r y of t h e Congress w i l l be produced by t h e award-winning p r o d u c e r Ken Burns. Sponsored by A m e r i t e c h , t h e f i l m i s s c h e d u l e d f o r v i e w i n g on PBS i n 1989 and w i l l a l s o be d i s t r i b u t e d t o s c h o o l s i n v i d e o c a s s e t t e f o r m a t . I l l u s t r a t e d h i s t o r y of t h e Congress. An i l l u s t r a t e d , p o p u l a r h i s t o r y o f t h e Congress w i l l be d e v e l o p e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e documentary f i l m and w i l l a p p e a r a s a "companion" volume t o t h e f i l m . N a t i o n a l and S t a t e "Town Meeting" T e l e c o n f e r e n c e s . The House Commission h a s e n c o u r a g e d t h e development of a s e r i e s of two-way t e l e c o n f e r e n c e s between t h e Congress and t h e 50 s t a t e s t o d i s c u s s a broad r a n g e of t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o f e d e r a l s t a t e r e l a t i o n s under t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . M a t e r i a l e d i t e d from t h e t e l e c o n f e r e n c e s would a l s o be made a v a i l a b l e i n v i d e o c a s s e t t e f o r m a t f o r f u r t h e r u s e i n s c h o o l s . F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s e and o t h e r b i c e n t e n n i a l programs of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p l e a s e c o n t a c t : D r . Raymond X. Snock, H i s t o r i a n and D i r e c t o r , O f f i c e f o r t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l , 138 Cannon House O f f i c e B u i l d i n g , Washington, DC 20515; t e l e p h o n e ( 2 0 2 ) 225-1153. Commission on t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n An i n t e r - b r a n c h F e d e r a l Commission on t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n was a u t h o r i z e d on September 29, 1953, when P r e s i d e n t Reagan s i g n e d S. 118 i n t o law (P.L. 98-101). The Commission's p u r p o s e i s t o promote and c o o r d i n a t e a c t i v i t i e s t o commemorate t h e September 17, 1987, b i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . I t s 23 members i n c l u d e 20 a p p o i n t e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t ( i n c l u d i n g f o u r e a c h s e l e c t e d from t h e recommendations of t h e Speaker o f t h e House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t h e P r e s i d e n t p r o ternpore of t h e S e n a t e , and t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ) . The Former Chief Justice, who serves as Commission Chairman, the President pro tempore of the Senate, and a representative of the Speaker of the House of Representatives also sit on the Commission. The duties of the Commission are to: (1) plan and develop activities to commemorate the bicentennial of the Constitution, including a limited number of projects to be undertaken by the Federal Government and seeking to balance the goals of ceremony and celebration with those of scholarship and education; (2) encourage private organizations and State and local governments to organize and participate in bicentennial activities commemorating or examining the drafting, ratification, and history of the Constitution and the specific features of the document; (3) coordinate activities throughout all of the States; and ( 4 ) serve as a clearinghouse for collecting and disseminating information about bicentennial events and plans. 3/ On September 17, 1985, the Commission submitted to the President, each House of the Congress and the Judicial Conference of the United States a comprehensive report incorporating specific recommendations for commemorating and coordinating the bicentennial and related activities. The Commission in its report urged adoption of several amendments to its authorizing statute "in response to the threat posed to the successful execution of the Commission's responsibilities by the shortage of time and the modest initial supporting appropriations." 41 Proposed amendments would remove the limitation on the number of federally compensated commission staff and civil service regulation exemptions for staff paid from private funding; permit the commission to authorize production and 3/ - Public Law 98-101, Sec. 4 . 4 1 "First Report of the Commission on the Bicentennial of the United states Constitution" September 17, 1985. p. 4 . d i s t r i b u t i o n of commemorative medals and c o i n s employing t h e o f f i c i a l b i c e n t e n n i a l emblem t o r a i s e r e v e n u e ; and r a i s e t h e c e i l i n g on i n d i v i d u a l and c o r p o r a t i v e contributions. The Commission's i n i t i a l f u n d i n g was p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h a f i s c a l y e a r 1985 supplemented a p p r o p r i a t i o n of $331,000. The Commission was a p p r o p r i a t e d an a d d i t i o n a l $12 m i l l i o n i n t h e c o n t i n u i n g a p p r o p r i a t i o n s r e s o l u t i o n f o r FY 1986 (H.J. Res. 465). The l e g i s l a t i o n removed t h e c u r r e n t l a w ' s l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e number of s t a f f and d e t a i l s t o t h e commission. The Commission a l s o recommended c r e a t i o n of a one-time n a t i o n a l h o l i d a y , September 1 7 , 1987, t o mark t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n ' s a d o p t i o n of t h e document. The Commission i s u n d e r t a k i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g programs: (1) p u b l i c a t i o n of a c a l e n d a r of commemorative d a t e s and e v e n t s of t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l e r a ; ( 2 ) c o m p i l a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of a handbook of p l a n n e d b i c e n t e n n i a l p r o j e c t s and e v e n t s ; ( 3 ) p u b l i c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of a b i c e n t e n n i a l n e w s l e t t e r ; ( 4 ) e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a n a t i o n a l s p e a k e r ' s b u r e a u of i n d i v i d u a l s knowledgeable a b o u t t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n ' s h i s t o r y ; ( 5 ) e n c o u r a g i n g development of a v a r i e t y of e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s ; ( 6 ) s p o n s o r s h i p of s c h o l a s t i c c o m p e t i t i o n s ; and ( 7 ) s p o n s o r s h i p of p l a n t i n g of c o n s t i t u t i o n t r e e s . Members of t h e Commission a r e : Former Chief J u s t i c e Warren E. B u r g e r , Chairman, Washington, DC; F r e d e r i c k K. B i e b e l , CT; R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Lindy Boggs (D-LA), Washington, DC; H e r b e r t B r o w n e l l , NY; Lynne V. Cheney, Washington, DC; R e p r e s e n t a t i v e P h i l i p M. Crane (R-IL), Washington, DC; Dennis DeConcini, Tucson, AZ; W i l l i a m J . Green, P h i l a d e l p h i a , PA; Edward V. H i l l , Los A n g e l e s , CA; Honorable C o r n e l i a G . Kennedy, D e t r o i t , M I ; S e n a t o r Edward M. Kennedy (D-MA), Washington, DC; H a r r y McKinley L i g h t s e y , J r . , Columbia, SC; W i l l i a m L u c a s , D e t r o i t ; B e t t y S o u t h a r d Murphy, Washington, DC; Thomas H. O'Connor, B o s t o n , MA; P h y l l i s S c h l a f l y , A l t o n , I L ; Bernard H . S i e g a n , San Diego, CA; S e n a t o r Ted S t e v e n s CRS- 16 (R-AK), Washington, DC; Obert C. T a n n e r , S a l t Lake C i t y , UT; S e n a t o r Strom Thurmond, (R-S.C.), Washington, DC; Ronald H . Walker, Washington, DC; Honorable C h a r l e s E . Wiggins, San F r a n c i s c o , CA; C h a r l e s Alan W r i g h t , A u s t i n , TX. The Commission w i l l t e r m i n a t e on December 31, 1989. can be o b t a i n e d from: N W , Washington, DC U.S. Additional information D r . Mark W. Cannon, E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , 734 J a c k s o n P l a c e , 20503. Phone (202) 872-1787. S u ~ r e m eCourt The Supreme C o u r t i s p r e p a r i n g two e x h i b i t s t o commemorate t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . One e x h i b i t w i l l f o c u s on t h e Supreme C o u r t ' s r o l e i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and some of i t s major c a s e s . l i g h t t h e d r a f t i n g of t h e document. The s e c o n d w i l l h i g h - L i k e some o t h e r r e c e n t Court e x h i b i t s , t h e s e two e x h i b i t s c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e f o r t r a v e l t o o t h e r c o u r t - h o u s e s and institutions. The J u d i c i a l C o n f e r e n c e of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , under t h e Chief J u s t i c e ' s l e a d e r s h i p , p l a n s t o a d a p t t h e f i v e "Equal J u s t i c e Under t h e Law" f i l m s , which were produced t o commemorate t h e 1976 b i c e n t e n n i a l , s o t h e y w i l l r e l a t e t o t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . "The Documentary H i s t o r y of t h e Supreme Court of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 17891 8 0 0 , " i s a h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t whose work w i l l shed l i g h t on t h e e a r l y h i s t o r y of t h e n a t i o n ' s h i g h e s t c o u r t . J o i n t l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e Supreme C o u r t , t h e Supreme Court H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , and t h e N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s and Records Commission, t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l produce a multi-volume c o l l e c t i o n of c o u r t r e c o r d s , p r i v a t e p a p e r s , and o t h e r m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g t o t h e C o u r t ' s e a r l y history. Co11imbf.a ! J n i v e r s i t y P r e s s w i l l p u b l i s h t h e s e r i e s - The volumes produced by t h e documentary h i s t o r y p r o j e c t w i l l b r i n g t o g e t h e r and make a c c e s s i b l e t o s c h o l a r s and lawyers h i t h e r t o u n p u b l i s h e d s o u r c e m a t e r i a l ' s from t h e C o u r t ' s e a r l y y e a r s . They w i l l document t h e C o u r t ' s r o l e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e American J u d i c i a l s y s t e m and l e g a l p r e c e d e n t s . A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on b i c e n t e n n i a l p l a n s of t h e Supreme C o u r t c a n be o b t a i n e d from: Washington, D.C. G a i l Galloway, C u r a t o r , Supreme C o u r t of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 20543 t e l e p h o n e (202) 479-3298; and on t h e documentary h i s t o r y by w r i t i n g t o D r . Maeva Marcus and D r . James R. P e r r y , E d i t o r s , Supreme Court of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Washington, D.C. 20543. The L i b r a r y of Congress The L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s w i l l c e l e b r a t e t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l w i t h a major e x h i b i t entitled: "The American S o l u t i o n : O r i g i n s of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n . " The e x h i b i t , which w i l l open i n t h e G r e a t H a l l of t h e Thomas J e f f e r s o n Memorial B u i l d i n g on May 1 4 , 1987, w i l l f e a t u r e s u c h i t e m s a s James M a d i s o n ' s n o t e s of t h e d e b a t e s i n t h e P h i l a d e l p h i a Convention, George Washington's p e r s o n a l copy o f t h e V i r g i n i a P l a n of Union, William P a t e r s o n ' s New J e r s e y P l a n , a n d a n n o t a t e d c o p i e s of t h e committee r e p o r t s , which c o n s t i t u t e t h e f i r s t p r i n t i n g s of t h e finished Constitution. These documents w i l l be accompained by p o r t r a i t s of t h e p r i n c i p a l l e a d e r s of t h e Convention and s k e t c h e s of t h e contemporary s c e n e . f u r t h e r information contact: Manuscript D i v i s i o n . For J o h n S e l l e r s , M a n u s c r i p t D i v i s i o n , 287-0195. A s a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e United S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s w i l l s p o n s o r p u b l i c a t i o n of a supplement t o Max F a r r a n d ' s The Records of t h e F e d e r a l Convention o f 1787. James H. Hutson, c h i e f of t h e M a n u s c r i p t D i v i s i o n , w i l l e d i t t h e s u p p l e m e n t , and t h e Yale University P r e s s w i l l publish it. The Permanent Committee f o r t h e O l i v e r Wendell Holmes D e v i s e w i l l p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . F a r r a n d ' s work, f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1911 and r e v i s e d and e x ~ a n d e di n 1937, i s t h e s t a n d a r d documentary c o l l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s c o n c e r n i n g t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Convention. S i n c e 1937, many a d d i t i o n a l documents produced by members of t h e C o n v e n t i o n have been d i s c o v e r e d . These, i n a d d i t i o n t o documents uncovered i n a n a t i o n w i d e s e a r c h which t h e L i b r a r y w i l l commission, w i l l b e p u b l i s h e d w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e s c h o l a r l y n o t e s i n a s u p p l e m e n t a r y volume. P u b l i c a t i o n of t h e supplement i s s c h e d u l e d f o r 1987. P e r s o n s w i s h i n g a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s p r o j e c t s h o u l d c o n t a c t James H. H u t s o n , C h i e f , M a n u s c r i p t D i v i s i o n , L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s , Washington, D.C. 20540. Copyright O f f i c e . The C o p y r i g h t O f f i c e and t h e P a t e n t and Trademark O f f i c e of t h e Department of Commerce a r e making p l a n s t o c e l e b r a t e t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e f i r s t c o p y r i g h t and p a t e n t laws. (Congress p a s s e d t h e f i r s t F e d e r a l p a t e n t act o n A p r i l 1 0 , 1790, and t h e f i r s t F e d e r a l c o p y r i g h t law on May 3 1 of t h a t y e a r . ) The h i g h l i g h t of t h e c e l e b r a t i o n i s i n t e n d e d t o be a Kennedy C e n t e r program i n May 1990, i n v o l v i n g a r t i s t s and o t h e r c r e a t i v e p e o p l e . A private-sector w i l l be s e t up t o p l a n and f i n a n c e v a r i o u s programs and c e l e b r a t i o n s - - w h i c h group will i n c l u d e s e m i n a r s , e x h i b i t s , l e c t u r e s , a n e s s a y c o n t e s t , and p e r h a p s a commemorative p o s t a g e stamp. A p r e s i d e n t i a l p r o c l a m a t i o n a u t h o r i z e d by P u b l i c Law 99-523 w i l l c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e of i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o p e r t y p r o t e c t i o n s , and w i l l e n c o u r a g e e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and programs. F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a c t Winston Tabb, C o p y r i g h t O f f i c e , a t 287-6800. Congressional Research Service. The C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e (CRS) of t h e L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s h a s e s t a b l i s h e d a n i n t e r d i v i s i o n a l team on t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l s of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and of t h e C o n g r e s s . The team, c o o r d i n a t e d by S e n i o r S p e c i a l i s t Roger H. Davidson, i n c l u d e s members from f i v e CRS r e s e a r c h d i v i s i o n s and s e n i o r s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e f i e l d s o f American p u b l i c law, s o c i a l w e l f a r e , American n a t i o n a l government and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . t h e team a r e two-fold: O b j e c t i v e s of ( 1 ) t o g a t h e r and exchange i n f o r m a t i o n on b i c e n t e n n i a l p l a n s a s t h e y emerge; and ( 2 ) t o c o o r d i n a t e i n t e r n a l r e s e a r c h i n s u p p o r t of c o n g r e s s i o n a l b i c e n t e n n i a l programs. An i m p o r t a n t b i c e n t e n n i a l p r o j e c t i s c o m p l e t i o n of t h e 8 t h e d i t i o n of The C o n s t i t u t i o n of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America, A n a l y s i s and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , c o m p i l e d by Johnny H. K i l l i a n , S e n i o r S p e c i a l i s t i n American P u b l i c Law. The volume, which w i l l b e p u b l i s h e d a s a S e n a t e document e a r l y i n 1987, l i s t s a l l c a s e s and p r e c e d e n t s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s and c l a u s e s of t h e Constitution. The new e d i t i o n w i l l a p p e a r i n two volumes--the main volume which g o e s t h r o u g h 1982, and a s u p p l e m e n t a r y volume which c o v e r s r e c e n t developments t h r o u g h J u l y 1986. K i l l i a n compiled t h e 7 t h e d i t i o n o f t h e r e f e r e n c e work, which a p p e a r e d i n 1972. P l a n n e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n by t h e L i b r a r y i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1987 i s a c o l l e c t i o n of t h e 2100 q u o t a t i o n s most s o u g h t by R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and S e n a t o r s o v e r t h e l a s t 50 y e a r s . Based on t h e CRS Q u o t a t i o n F i l e , t h i s volume w i l l c o n t a i n many e n t r i e s n o t found i n o t h e r s o u r c e s a l o n g w i t h c i t a t i o n s and n o t e s of i n t e r e s t made by S e r v i c e l i b r a r i a n s over t h e decades- T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n w i l l be o f f e r e d f o r sale t o the public. A n a l y s t s i n CRS's Government D i v i s i o n h a v e p r e p a r e d a r e p o r t which i d e n t i f i e s and summarizes more t h a n 700 major a c t s a p p r o v e d by C o n g r e s s from 1789 t o 1980. 5/ 51 U.S. L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s . C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e . Major a c t s of c o n g r e s s and T r e a t i e s approved by t h e S e n a t e , 1789-1980. R e p o r t No. 82-156 GOV, by C h r i s t o p h e r D e l l and S t e p h e n W. S t a t h i s . Washington, 1982. p. 255. A packet of pre-printed bicentennial information is available to Members of Congress on request. Congressional offices desiring information or assistance regarding the bicentennials of the Constitution or of the Congress may contact the Congressional Research Service at (202) 287-5700 or Dr. Davidson at (202) 287-8634. National Endowment for the Humanities The National Endowment for the Humanities has established an Office of the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution. Following the view that the 200th anniversary of the Constitution offers a chance for "encouraging renewed scholarly interest in and public reflection on the principles and foundations of constitutional government," 61 the Endowment's seven grant-making divisions are all undertaking special bicentennial initiatives . The Endowment is soliciting proposals on "the philosophical, literary, historical, and political origins of the Constitution, the relation of the structure of the Constitution to American political, social, and intellectual culture, and the connection between self71 government and the purposes of human life." Topics of special interest to the Endowment are: (1) history of the founding period; ( 2 ) constitutional principles; ( 3 ) the United States Constitution and the world; (4) individual rights; (5) the character of democracy; (6) American federalism; ( 7 ) political institutions, and (8) constitutional interpretation. Following is a brief description of the types of projects being supported by each of the Endowment's divisions. Questions about the appropriate division to 61 National Endowment for the Humanities. Office of the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution. The Bicentennial of the Constitution. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1983. p. 3. 7/ - Ibid. which a p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n s h o u l d be s u b m i t t e d and d e a d l i n e s f o r s u b m i t t i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s s h o u l d be s e n t t o t h e O f f i c e of t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l , Room 504, N a t i o n a l Endowment f o r t h e H u m a n i t i e s , I J a s h i n g t o n , D.C. 20506. O r c a l l t h e O f f i c e of t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l a t ( 2 0 2 ) 756-0332. D i v i s i o n of F e l l o w s h i p s and Seminars. The d i v i s i o n s p o n s o r s p r o j e c t s f o r advanced s t u d y and r e s e a r c h i n t h e h u m a n i t i e s . I n 1983 t h e d i v i s i o n announced s p e c i a l c o m p e t i t i o n s f o r C o n s t i t u t i o n a l F e l l o w s h i p s ( p r o v i d i n g s t i p e n d s of up t o $27,5000 f o r s i x t o t w e l v e months o f f u l l - t i m e s t u d y and r e s e a r c h ) and Summer S t i p e n d s and i n 1985, a s p a r t of t h e Younger S c h o l a r s program, a s p e c i a l c o m p e t i t i o n commemorating t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n w a s announced. These programs p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h e r s , i n d e p e n d e n t s c h o l a r s , and s t u d e n t s t o p u r s u e s t u d y and r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o t h e United S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n . The d i v i s i o n a l s o welcomes a p p l i c a t i o n s t o c o n d u c t summer s e m i n a r s on b i c e n t e n n i a l t o p i c s w i t h i n i t s two s e m i n a r programs c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s and t h e o t h e r f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . - one f o r I n t h e summer of 1986 t h e f i r s t of a s e r i e s of t h r e e B i c e n t e n n i a l Law P r o f e s s o r s S e m i n a r s f o c u s i n g on t h e p o l i t i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l , and p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i g i n s and i n t e n t i o n s of t h e f r a m e r s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n was h e l d i n v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s i n t h e United S t a t e s . D i v i s i o n o f R e s e a r c h Programs. This d i v i s i o n provides s u p p o r t f o r long- t e r m and c o l l a b o r a t i v e p r o j e c t s i n t h e h u m a n i t i e s , major r e s e a r c h c o n f e r e n c e s , p r e p a r a t i o n of r e f e r e n c e works and e d i t i o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h materials, and a s s i s t a n c e w i t h p u b l i c a t i o n e x p e n s e s . A s a s p e c i a l I n i t i a t i v e , t h e Endowment i s e n c o u r a g i n g p r o p o s a l s t o p u b l i s h c o l l e c t i o n s o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p a p e r s of t h e founding period, o r t o r e i s s u e out-of-print o r hard-to-obtain s e m i n a l works o n t h e American p o l i t i c a l o r d e r , o r c o l l e c t i o n s of t h e f o u n d i n g p e r i o d ' s b a s i c works and documents. Division of Education Programs. The division supports a wide variety of humanities education projects at all levels of schooling, public and private. Projects may involve such activities as improving specific course offerings; putting on conferences, workshops, or institutes for teachers and professors; preparing teaching materials; or undertaking joint university-school projects. As a special initiative, the division seeks proposals from scholars for conducting institutes for secondary-school teachers on teaching the history and principles of the Constitution and the nature of constitutional government. Division of General Programs. This division exists to transmit significant work in humanities disciplines to wide audiences, and to deepen the public's understanding of the humanities--through radio and television programming, interpretive exhibitions, lectures, conferences, and publications. For the bicentennial the division encourages major efforts to educate the general public on all facets of the history, principles, and nature of the American constitutional experience. Office of Challenge Grants. Through this office, the Endowment supports non-profit educational and cultural institutions and organizations in order to increase their financial stability, encourage long-range planning, and promote diverse and continuing base of support. a The Office of Challenge Grants welcomes applications from institutions and organizations devoted to the study of the humanities aspects of constitutionalism. Matching fund requirements vary according to the project. Division of State Programs. State humanities councils in the 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico award grants to institutions and organizations within each state according to guidelines and application deadlines determined by each council. Most grants are made for the purpose of promoting public understanding and appreciation of the humanities. Many s t a t e c o u n c i l s a r e f u n d i n g p r o j e c t s r e l a t e d t o t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l o f t h e U.S. Constitution. F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t a c t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t e h u m a n i t i e s c o u n c i l d i r e c t l y f o r a p p l i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s and d e a d l i n e i n f o r m a t i o n . Addresses and t e l e p h o n e numbers f o r t h e 52 h u m a n i t i e s c o u n c i l s c a n be f o u n d i n t h e Appendix t o t h i s report. The N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s The N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , t h e r e p o s i t o r y of t h e o r i g i n a l copy o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , i s c u r r e n t l y implementing s e v e r a 1 b i c e n t e n n i a l p r o j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g s p e c i a l e v e n t s , c o n f e r e n c e s , e x h i b i t s , f i l m s , and p u b l i c a t i o n s . Among t h e s p e c i a l e v e n t s b e i n g p l a n n e d a r e p u b l i c r e a d i n g s of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n s p o n s o r e d by N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s C e n t e r s i n e a c h r e g i o n a l a r e a ; a n 87-hour v i g i l t o honor t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n which w i l l end w i t h a n a t u r a l i z a t i o n ceremony on September 1 7 , 1987; and a s e r i e s of b i c e n t e n n i a l s p o t s t o be a i r e d o n p u b l i c and commercial radio stations. C o n f e r e n c e s on s e l e c t e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s s u e s w i l l be h e l d a t s e v e r a l p r e s i d e n t i a l l i b r a r i e s , and symposia and d e b a t e s on c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s s u e s w i l l be s p o n s o r e d by s e l e c t e d r e g i o n a l b r a n c h e s of t h e A r c h i v e s . A number of t e a c h e r workshops on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n w i l l be h e l d a t t h e A r c h i v e s B u i l d i n g . E x h i b i t s a l s o w i l l be a major emphasis a t t h e A r c h i v e s . I n O c t o b e r 1986, t h e A r c h i v e s opened a new e x h i b i t e n t i t l e d "The American E x p e r i m e n t : Creating t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n " i n t h e r o t u n d a of t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s B u i l d i n g a t S e v e n t h and P e n n s y l v a n i a Avenues, N . W . Experiment: the rotunda. I n A p r i l 1987 a s e c o n d major e x h i b i t , "The American L i v i n g w i t h t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n " w i l l open i n c i r c u l a r g a l l e r y s u r r o u n d s A p o s t e r e x h i b i t o f document f a c s i m i l e s , " T i s Done! a N a t i o n , " w i l l be f o r s a l e t o t h e p u b l i c . We Have Become The Archives is also planning a Constitutional film festivals in the National Archives Building and at National Archives Centers across the nation. Among the publications already completed or being planned are: The Story of the Constitution (facsimile reprint); Framers of the Constitution (a biographical directory); Foreign Relations of the United States, 1783-1789, (a documentary edition); brochures on regional Archives branches1 Constitutional holdings; a guide to selected pre-federal records in the National Archives; a facsimile reprint of the Constitution; a pocket-sized edition of the Constitution; feature articles on the Constitution in Social Education; The Constitution: Evolution of a Government (a teaching unit for use by secondary schools) and special theme issues of Prologue: Journal of the National Archives. Additional information on National Archives programs can be obtained by contacting: Linda N. Brown or Timothy Walch at (202) 523-3216. The National Archives Volunteers' Constitution Study Group began in 1982 a program of monthly lectures on the constitutional system. Topics of the lectures have included the first Congress, the first Presidency, the first Supreme Court, the Federalist Papers, religious liberty and the possibility of a second Constitutional Convention. volumes. These will be available shortly in two forthcoming Forthcoming lecturers include Lloyd N o Cutler on the Constitution and the world community George Voinovich on the Constitution and the cities, and David Burnham on technology and constitutional privacy. Additional information can be obtained by contacting: Ralph Pollock, Chairman, Constitution Study Group, at (202) 523-3183. Smithsonian Institution A recent reinstalled action at the SmithsonianlsNational Museum of American History, titled "After the Revolution: Every Day Life in 18th-century America," provides a historical context for the Constitution. A portion of the exhibit links the large political issues of the Constitution and its ratification to the everyday lives of 18th-century Americans. In 1987, the exhibition's study gallery will offer a graphics exhibit on the debate over ratification. In September 1987, the National Museum of A-nerican History's Division of Armed Forces History will open an exhibition describing the "Japanese-American Experience During World War 11," that community's civil-rights ordeal with its patriotic contributions during the war. The constitutionality of the Japanese- American internment program and how this experience helped to change the attitudes of many Americans toward ethnic minorities will be discussed. The saga of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, composed of Japanese-Americans, will be featured. The National Portrait Gallery plans an exhibition on "The Portrait in America from 1700 to 1776," opening in October 1987. In addition, two exhibitions are planned by the National Portrait Gallery for 1989: "Portraits of Distinguished American Jurists" and a second exhibition celebrating the bicentenary of the First Congress. A major international symposium, "Constitutional Roots, Rights and Responsibilities," will be held May 18-23, 1987, sponsored by the Smithsonian's Office of Symposia and Seminars and the American Bar Association in collaboration with several U.S. and foreign universities. In 1987, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars hopes to launch a symposium or seminar on the transformation of U.S. law beginning with the Constitution. The Smithsonian's Office oE Elementary and Secondary Education plans a 1987 seminar for teachers, "Political and Social Heritage as Protected by the Constitution." Additional information can be obtained from: Affairs, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC Mary Combs, Office of Public 20560; telephone (202) 357-2627. U.S. I n f o r m a t i o n Agency Throughout t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l p e r i o d , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s I n f o r m a t i o n Agency w i l l g i v e major a t t e n t i o n i n i t s o v e r s e a s i n f o r m a t i o n and c u l t u r a l programs t o A m e r i c a ' s 200 y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e w i t h d e m o c r a t i c c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government. Emphasis w i l l be g i v e n t o t h e r e l e v a n c e of t h e U.S. c o n s t i t u t i o n a l experience i n t h e world today. USIAfs 214 o v e r s e a s p o s t s i n 129 c o u n t r i e s a r e o r g a n i z i n g b i c e n t e n n i a l r e l a t e d s p e a k i n g programs and c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n by American e x p e r t s i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l law, h i s t o r y , government, and t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . Special book p r o j e c t s and e x h i b i t s a r e b e i n g p l a n n e d f o r USIA l i b r a r i e s , r e a d i n g rooms and c o o p e r a t i n g b i - n a t i o n a l centers. Documentary r e p o r t i n g and news c o v e r a g e of b i c e n t e n n i a l e v e n t s by f o r e i g n media w i l l be f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e Agency. of t h e U.S. Study c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s y s t e m w i l l be a major component i n USIA's E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g and academic s t u d y programs. specially-prepared Overseas p o s t s w i l l d i s t r i b u t e p a m p h l e t s and p o s t e r s i n l o c a l languages. The Voice of America, r e a c h i n g 120 m i l l i o n l i s t e n e r s i n 42 l a n g u a g e s e a c h week, h a s begun c a r r y i n g r e l e v a n t news and f e a t u r e programs. IJORLDNET, USIA's i n t e r n a t i o n a l s a t e l l i t e t e l e v i s i o n network, w i l l emphasize b i c e n t e n n i a l themes, and t h e agency w i l l f a c i l i t i t a t e o v e r s e a s d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e l e v a n t v i d e o and f i l m p r o d u c t s produced by American media. B i c e n t e n n i a l c o v e r a g e and f e a t u r e s w i l l be c a r r i e d by USIA's r a d i o t e l e t y p e d a i l y p r e s s s e r v i c e i n f o u r w o r l d l a n g u a g e s and i n i t s t e n m u l t i l i n g u a l magazines. USIA-administered e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l exchange programs--including t h o s e concerned w i t h academic and youth exchange, i n t e r n a t i o n a l v i s i t o r s , and grant assistance t o p r i v a t e sector organizations--will t o Constitutional bicentennial activities. give p r i o r i t y attention A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d from: C o o r d i n a t o r Eor t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e U.S. I n f o r m a t i o n Agency, Washington, DC O f f i c e of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n s t i t u t i o n (BICN), U.S. 20547; t e l e p h o n e ( 2 0 2 ) 366-0130. National Park Service The N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e i s working i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e "We t h e P e o p l e 200" Committee and t h e F r i e n d s of Independence N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c a l P a r k i n making b i c e n t e n n i a l p l a n s f o r Independence N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c a l P a r k i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , s i t e of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Convention. S p e c i a l h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary e x h i b i t s on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a r e p l a n n e d a t t h e V i s i t o r C e n t e r and a t t h e Second Bank of t h e United S t a t e s . A s s o c i a t e d r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e a "Daybook" of d a i l y e n t r i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e development of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i n 1787 and a comprehensive c o m p u t e r i z e d b i b l i o g r a p h y of works about t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n and i t s participants. The P a r k S e r v i c e ' s H i s t o r y D i v i s i o n w i l l u n d e r t a k e a N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c a l Landmark Theme S t u d y t o i d e n t i f y s i t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h F e d e r a l c o u r t d e c i s i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t i n d e f i n i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . An i n t e r p r e t i v e m u s i c a l drama c e l e b r a t i n g t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , "Four L i t t l e P a g e s , " h a s been d e v e l o p e d f o r performance n a t i o n w i d e , w i t h s u p p o r t from t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r and s t a t e humanities councils. I n cooperation with t h e National Park Service, I n t e r p r e t i v e P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , h a s r e p u b l i s h e d S i g n e r s of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , a volume o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d by t h e NPS i n t h e l a t e 1970s. A r e p r i n t of t h e NPS handbook The Framing of t h e F e d e r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n i s p l a n n e d , and a l e a f l e t on t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s and t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i s now a v a i l a b l e . A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e from: H i s t o r i a n , N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e , P.O. Edwin C . B e a r s s , C h i e f Box 37127, Washington, DC 20013. U.S. M a r s h a l s S e r v i c e Under t h e d i r e c t i o n of H i s t o r i a n F r e d e r i c k S. Calhoun, t h e U.S. Marshals S e r v i c e of t h e Department of J u s t i c e i s p r e p a r i n g a museum e x h i b i t commemorating t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e O f f i c e of M a r s h a l and Deputy i n 1989. The e x h i b i t w i l l b e c i r c u l a t e d n a t i o n w i d e by t h e S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n ' s T r a v e l i n g E x h i b i t i o n Service. I n a d d i t i o n , D r . Calhoun i s w r i t i n g a g e n e r a l h i s t o r y of t h e M a r s h a l s S e r v i c e from 1789 t o t h e p r e s e n t . The i n t e n t of b o t h t h e e x h i b i t and t h e g e n e r a l h i s t o r y i s t o e d u c a t e t h e American p u b l i c on t h e r o l e m a r s h a l s and d e p u t i e s have p l a y e d i n American h i s t o r y , and enhance t h e p u b l i c ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e development of t h e F e d e r a l s y s t e m of government I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d by c o n t a c t i n g F r e d e r i c k S o Calhoun, H i s t o r i a n , U.S. M a r s h a l s S e r v i c e , One T y s o n ' s C o r n e r C e n t e r , McLean, VA 22102; t e l e p h o n e ( 7 0 3 ) 285-1218. U.S. Bureau o f t h e Census A r t i c l e I , S e c t i o n 2 of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n mandates t h e d e c e n n i a l c e n s u s , a m a j o r p u r p o s e of which i s l e g i s l a t i v e a p p o r t i o n m e n t . One p r o p o s a l i s t o produce a b o o k l e t f o r s c h o o l s and a g e n e r a l a u d i e n c e on t h e h i s t o r y of r e a p p o r t i o n m e n t and r e d i s t r i c t i n g , and t h e Census B u r e a u ' s r o l e i n i t . Later possibilities, w h i l e p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e 1990 b i c e n t e n n i a l o f t h e f i r s t F e d e r a l c e n s u s , i n c l u d e examining t h e socioeconomic changes t h a t a p p e a r t o have a f f e c t e d t h e h i s t o r i c a l development of b o t h t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and t h e Congress. A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d from: D r . F r e d e r i c k G. Bohme, C h i e f , Census H i s t o r y S t a f f , DUSD, Bureau of t h e Census, Washington, DC ( 3 0 1 ) 763-7936. 20233; t e l e p h o n e N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s and Records Commission The Cornmisston, e s t a b l i s h e d a s a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y by t h e 1 9 3 4 N a t i o n a l Archives Act, provides f i n a n c i a l support f o r f o u r on-going documentary h i s t o r y p r o j e c t s oE t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l e r a . U.S. These i n c l u d e a documentary h i s t o r y of t h e Supreme Court, a documentary h i s t o r y of t h e f i r s t F e d e r a l Congress a t George Washington U n i v e r s i t y , and documentary h i s t o r i e s of t h e f i r s t F e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s , and t h e r a t i f i c a t i o n of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and B i l l of R i g h t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin. For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t a c t Richard A. J a c o b s , Acting Executive D i r e c t o r , ( 2 0 2 ) 523-5384. BICENTENNIAL PROJECTS SPONSORED BY PRIVATE GROUPS American Bar Association The American Bar Association (ABA) plans to tell the story of the United States Constitution and improve the constitutional literacy of American citizens as its two-pronged objective for celebrating September 17, 1987, the 200th anniversary of the approval of the Constitution. The ABA program includes several elements: a four-part television series for the Public Broadcasting Service; a series of 35-minute segments to be used in National Public Radio programming; a Sunday newspaper supplement; conferences and seminars; workshops for elementary and secondary school teachers; a mock trial and national writing competition; and a variety of publications. The centerpiece of the ABA program will be a television series on the Constitution which will be hosted by ABC news anchor Peter Jennings and which will run on PBS. The series will embrace four hour-long documentaries designed to "analyze contemporary constitutional questions and trace the historic development of fundamental constitutional principles." 8/ ABA anticipates that programs will be recorded and used for classroom instruction at junior-high levels and above. The ABA plans to tie its bicentennial programs with the law-related education program which it has been conducting for school children for more than ten years. Its Youth Education for Citizenship Committee, which oversees the law-related education program, plans a series of regional bicentennial leadership workshops to familiarize teachers and school administrators with the television programs. 8/ Passport to Legal Understanding: American Bar Association, Vol. 3, No. 2, Fall 1985. p. 1. Complementing the television programs will be the Sunday newspaper supplement with articles on constitutional history. The American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation will provide elementary and secondary school teachers with the articles, and with teaching guides and other supplementary materials. Community forums are in progress on topics similar to those covered in television specials. forums. ABA will provide materials to assist organizers of the A discussion leaders' guide will outline four model formats for local meetings: mock legislative hearing, town hall meeting, mock trial, and debate. Additional information on bicentennial plans of the American Bar Association can be obtained by writing: Robert S. Peck, Staff Director, American Bar Association, 750 North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60611. American Enterprise Institute In 1978 the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) launched a special project on "A Decade of Study of the Constitution." project activities include: The (1) annual conferences on significant, thematic questions about the Constitution; (2) public policy television forums on topics related to the Constitution; (3) international conferences on constitutionalism; and (4) longer works of constitutional scholarship. The director of the Project is AEI Resident Scholar Dr. Robert A. Goldwin. AEI has held seven annual conferences on the U.S. Constitution. The first conference addressed the question, "How Democratic Is the Constitution?" Successive conferences addressed: "How Capitalistic Is the Constitution?" Does the Constitution Secure Rights?" "How "How Federal Is the Constitution?" "Does Separation of Powers Still Work?" "How Does the Constitution Secure Religious Freedom?" and "The Constitution, Slavery and Its Aftermath." Following each conference, AEI publishes volumes of essays under the same title as the conference. Included are essays prepared for the conference and supplementary essays commissioned by AEI. Volumes of essays resulting from four conferences are currently available. The'fifth volume is scheduled for publication late in 1986; future volumes will be available at about one-year intervals . Two public policy television forums dealing with topics related to the Constitution are produced each year by the AEI Constitution Project. Panelists include constitutional scholars and public officials holding a variety of opinions. The forums are both audio and videotaped; edited booklets containing the transcripts of the forums are also available. The forums held to date are: 1. "How Long Should They Serve: and Congress" 2. "Choosing Presidential Candidates: How Good Is the New Way?" 3. "President vs. Congress: 4. "Whom Do Judges Represent?" 5. 'War Powers and the Constitution" Limiting Terms for the President Does the Separation of Powers Still Work?" 6. "Religion and the Constitution" 7. "Forming a Government Under the Constitution" 8. "Affirmative Action and the Constitution" 9. "The Constitution and the Budget Process" 10. "How to Interpret the Constitution" In September 1983, AEI's "International Conference on the Writing of Constitutions" brought together representatives of 21 nations, most of whom helped write the constitutions of their countries. Papers on constitution- w r i t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s were p r e p a r e d by a u t h o r s from E g y p t , F r a n c e , G r e e c e , N i g e r i a , S p a i n , Venezuela, and Y u g o s l a v i a . A volume r e s u l t i n g from t h e c o n f e r e n c e w i l l i n c l u d e p a p e r s , commentaries, and p o r t i o n s of t h e c o n f e r e n c e p r o c e e d i n g s - A second i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e , h e l d i n November 1985, had t h e theme of " U n i t y and D i v e r s i t y : An I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on C o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m . " Authors and p a r t i c i p a n t s from more t h a n 20 c o u n t r i e s d i s c u s s e d d i f f e r e n t ways t h a t n a t i o n s a d d r e s s e t h n i c , r e l i g i o u s , r a c i a l , l i n g u i s t i c , and r e g i o n a l d i v e r s i t y . d i s c u s s e d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n s of U.S., M a l a y s i a and Y u g o s l a v i a . Papers Canada, Belgium, S w i t z e r l a n d , I n d i a , S p a i n , Both i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s w e r e h e l d i n t h e Supreme C o u r t B u i l d i n g a t t h e i n v i t a t i o n of t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e Warren E. B u r g e r . A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n P r o j e c t c a n be o b t a i n e d by contacting: W i l l i a m Schambra, C o - d i r e c t o r o f C o n s t i t u t i o n a l S t u d i e s , American E n t e r p r i s e I n s t i t u t e , 1150 1 7 t h S t r e e t , N.W., ( 2 0 2 ) 862-6497. Washington, DC 20036; t e l e p h o n e To o b t a i n p u b l i c a t i o n s and t a p e s , phone ( 8 0 0 ) 424-2873. The Brookings I n s t i t u t i o n The Brookings I n s t i t u t i o n h a s c o m p l e t e d a p r o j e c t t o p r o v i d e t h o s e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n w i t h s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s e s o f t h e wide r a n g e o f s p e c i f i c amendments t h a t have been p r o p o s e d , o r t h a t might be d e v e l o p e d , t o a l t e r t h e constitutional structure. The a n a l y s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a book e n t i t l e d C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Reform and E f f e c t i v e Government, by James L. S u n d q u i s t , p u b l i s h e d i n J a n u a r y 1986. Among p r o p o s a l s examined a r e t h o s e t h a t would: Link t h e e x e c u t i v e and l e g i s l a t i v e b r a n c h e s t o g e t h e r t h r o u g h i n t e r c h a n g e of p e r s o n n e l - - t h a t i s , by g i v i n g C a b i n e t members a d i r e c t r o l e i n t h e l e g i s l a t i v e branch o r , conversely, p e r m i t t i n g members of Congress t o s e r v e i n t h e C a b i n e t . Make p o s s i b l e t h e r e s o l u t i o n of s t a l e m a t e s by c a l l i n g new e l e c t i o n s , t h r o u g h p e r m i t t i n g t h e P r e s i d e n t t o d i s s o l v e t h e Congress o r p r o v i d i n g an e a s i e r method f o r t h e Congress t o remove t h e P r e s i d e n t o r both. Link t h e b r a n c h e s t h r o u g h t h e e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , by r e q u i r i n g a p a r t y ' s c a n d i d a t e s f o r P r e s i d e n t and House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , and p e r h a p s S e n a t e c a n d i d a t e s a s w e l l , t o r u n a s a combined s l a t e . Lengthen t h e t e r m s o f e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s , such a s s i x y e a r s f o r t h e P r e s i d e n t and f o u r y e a r s f o r members of t h e House. Modify t h e p r e s e n t t w o - t h i r d s treaties. r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a p p r o v a l of Authorize item veto; authorize l e g i s l a t i v e veto. The Brookings s t u d y , which began i n J a n u a r y 1983, was c a r r i e d o u t i n d e p e n d e n t l y of t h e Committee on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l System's work, b u t i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h a t body. I n a d d i t i o n t o a n a l y z i n g proposed r e f o r m s , t h e book s e t s f o r t h t h e h i s t o r y of t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s b e i n g r e c o n s i d e r e d , t h e i r o r i g i n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n and r a t i o n a l e , and a t t e m p t s a t r e f o r m o v e r t h e y e a r s . The d e g r e e of dependence of one r e f o r m measure upon o t h e r s i s c o n s i d e r e d , and t h e e x p e r i e n c e of o t h e r c o u n t r i e s and of t h e s t a t e s i s drawn upon where a p p r o p r i a t e . I n sum, t h e book p r o v i d e s background i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n of i s s u e s of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reform. Claremont I n s t i t u t e f o r t h e S t u d y of S t a t e s m a n s h i p and P o l i t i c a l P h i l o s o p h y The Claremont I n s t i t u t e f o r t h e S t u d y of S t a t e s m a n s h i p and P o l i t i c a l P h i l o s o p h y i s c o n d u c t i n g a b i c e n t e n n i a l program e n t i t l e d "Novus Ordo S e c l o r u m , " funded by t h e N a t i o n a l Endowment f o r t h e H u m a n i t i e s and p r i v a t e f o u n d a t i o n s . program began i n 1983 and w i l l c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h 1989. The It i n c l u d e s c o n f e r e n c e s , l e c t u r e s , p u b l i c a t i o n s , media programs, and e x h i b i t s d e v o t e d t o examining and e l u c l d a t i n g t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s of AmerCcan c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m . The Claremont I n s t i t u t e i s p u b l i s h i n g a n a n n u a l s e r i e s of b i c e n t e n n i a l e s s a y s and books, based on o r i g i n a l s c h o l a r s h i p p r e s e n t e d a t t h e p r o j e c t ' s annual conferences. Claremont a l s o p u b l i s h e s a c i t i z e n s ' handbook c o n t a i n i n g t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , D e c l a r a t i o n of Independence, and t h e r e f l e c t i o n s of v a r i o u s American s t a t e s m e n and n o t a b l e s . A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d from: Claremont I n s t i t u t e f o r t h e S t u d y of S t a t e s m a n s h i p and P o l i t i c a l P h i l o s o p h y , Douglas J e f f r e y and C h r i s t o p h e r F l a n n e r y , D i r e c t o r s , 4650 Arrow Highway, S u i t e D-6, M o n t c l a i r , CA 91763; t e l e p h o n e ( 7 1 4 ) 621-6825. Committee on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l System The Committee on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l System began i n mid-1982 t o examine t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l s y s t e m ' s a b i l i t y t o o p e r a t e i n t o d a y ' s complex world. The non- p a r t i s a n g r o u p i s c o - c h a i r e d by S e n a t o r Nancy Landon Kassebaum (R-Kansas), C. Douglas D i l l o n , U n d e r s e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r P r e s i d e n t Eisenhower and S e c r e t a r y of t h e T r e a s u r y under P r e s i d e n t Kennedy, and Lloyd N. C u t l e r , C o u n s e l t o t h e Ptesident during the Carter administration. Committee members, once d e s c r i b e d a s "more i n t e n t on c e r e b r a t i n g about t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l t h a n on c e l e b r a t i n g i t , " 91 r e p r e s e n t s e v e r a l hundred f o r m e r and c u r r e n t p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s , c i v i c l e a d e r s , journalists, and a c a d e m i c i a n s . The problem which s e r v e s as a c a t a l y s t f o r t h e Committee's s e m i a n n u a l g a t h e r i n g s h a s been s t a t e d by i t s c o - c h a i r s : " O u r n a t i o n a l government i s n ' t c o p i n g a d e q u a t e l y w i t h o u r n a t i o n a l o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l problems, and . . . the f a u l t l i e s l e s s i n t h e q u a l i t y of o u r l e a d e r s o r t h e s o u n d n e s s of t h e i r p o l i c i e s 91 TRB From Washington. v . 188, p. 4 . C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Questions. The New R e p u b l i c . than in the structure we require them to operate within." 101 The Committee is studying both "horizontal separation of powers" (issues of the federal executive and legislative branches), and "vertical separation of powers" (issues relating to federal-state-local relations). Currently members of the Committee are examining constitutional amendments, possible structural and related legislation, and political party rules. the categories of the discussions are: Some of (1) interlocking the branches and linking elections--including synchronized terms, possible special elections, optional single ballots, and Cabinet positions for congressional leaders, (2) changing the balance--including presidential item vetoes, firm schedules for essential votes, relaxed treaty votes, and extraordinary majorities for budget increases; and (3) subconstitutional issues--including campaign finance, congressional organization, and political parties and conventions. The Committee is conducting a series of regional and national meetings to discuss and refine its conclusions. By the fall of 1987 the Committee envisions a major national meeting and formal conclusions for broad public discussion and possible submission to the Congress. Additional information can be obtained by writing: The Committee on the Constitutional System, 1755 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Suite 410, Washington, DC 20036. 101 Can We Improve on Our Constitutional System? Wall Street Journal, F'ebruzy 15, 1983, p. 32. "The Constitution and The Commonwealth" "The Constitution and The Commonwealth" is a bicentennial project of the Institute of Government, University of Virginia. The Project Director is Dr. Timothy G. O'Rourke. The program includes a series of 20 public meetings on the Constitution, known as "Virginia Court Days Forums," over a three-year period, 1984 through 1986. The Court Days Forums have been held at historic sites throughout Virginia. The series includes: the forums themselves; publication of background papers on constitutional issues (in the University of Virginia News Letter); and a public television series based on the Forums. To date, 17 forums have been held with panels composed of historians, political scientists, lawyers, and journalists. Topics include "The Meaning of Constitutionalism," "Separation of Church and State," "The Role of Political Parties in Making Constitutional Government Work," "Courts and the Constitution: Toward an Imperial Judiciary," and "Federalism and the Constitution: Whither the American States?" Additional information can be obtained by contacting, "The Constitution and The Commonwealth," Institute of Government, 207 Minor Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903; telephone (804) 924-3396. Convention 11, Inc. Convention 11, founded in 1976, is dedicated to citizenship education for America's youth. Convention I1 annually sponsors a national model Constitutional Convention for high school students. Each year, students from across the country come to Washington for five days in February to propose, debate and vote on amendments to the United States Constitution. The convention is a participatory e d u c a t i o n program where t h e d e l e g a t e s a c t i v e l y s e t t h e t o n e of t h e s e s s i o n . The f i n a l p l e n a r y meeting i s h e l d on t h e f l o o r of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s House o f Representatives. Convention I1 i s p l a n n i n g s p e c i a l c e l e b r a t i o n s f o r i t s s e s s i o n s d u r i n g t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l e r a , t h e f i r s t o f which i s t o convene i n t h e h a l l s of Congress F e b r u a r y 3-7, 1987. P l a n s i n c l u d e a s s i s t i n g a g e n c i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s on t h e s t a t e and l o c a l l e v e l w i t h c o n v e n t i o n s i n S t a t e C a p i t o l s . I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y Committee's Subcommittee on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , Convention I1 s p o n s o r s a n e s s a y c o n t e s t f o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ; c o n t e s t winners p a r t i c i p a t e i n a b i r t h d a y b r e a k f a s t f o r t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , h e l d a n n u a l l y on o r about September 17. The Convention I1 s t a f f , comprised o f v o l u n t e e r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s from a c r o s s t h e n a t i o n , i s s u p p o r t e d by a Founders Committee of o v e r 100 U n i t e d S t a t e s S e n a t o r s and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , a Board of D i r e c t o r s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o f f e r i n g g u i d a n c e p r o bono p u b l i c o , and a N a t i o n a l Advisory C o u n c i l of professional educators. A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be o b t a i n e d by c o n t a c t i n g : Martin P e t r a i t i s , Program D i r e c t o r , Convention 11, P o s t O f f i c e Box 1987, Washington, DC 20013- 1987; t e l e p h o n e ( 2 0 2 ) 544-1789. C o u n c i l f o r t h e Advancement of C i t i z e n s h i p The C o u n c i l f o r t h e Advancement of C i t i z e n s h i p , a c o n s o r t i u m of 49 n a t i o n a l , s t a t e and l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , was c r e a t e d i n 1981 t o f o s t e r c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n . During t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l p e r i o d , CAC i s u n d e r t a k i n g programs d e s i g n e d t o s u p p o r t two of i t s primary p u r p o s e s : 1) t o i n c r e a s e p u b l i c awareness of t h e i m p o r t a n c e of c i t f z e n s h i p and c l t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n as f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e r n s i n American l i f e and 2 ) t o f o s t e r t h e s h a r i n g of c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n among d i v e r s e g r o u p s a c r o s s t h e s p e c t r u m o f American s o c i e t y . The C o u n c i l i s d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p r o j e c t s and a c t i v i t i e s of t h e Commission of t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e U . S . C o n s t i t u t i o n t h r o u g h i t s q u a r t e r l y n e w s l e t t e r , C i t i z e n s h i p E d u c a t i o n News, and i s c o l l e c t i n g and d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l p r o j e c t s and a c t i v i t i e s of C A C ' s member organizations. These p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e N a t i o n a l B i c e n t e n n i a l C o m p e t i t i o n of C i v i c E d u c a t i o n ; v a r i o u s g r a s s r o o t s a c t i v i t i e s of t h e D a u g h t e r s of t h e American R e v o l u t i o n ; t h e " B i l l of R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s " p r o j e c t of t h e C e n t e r f o r R e s p o n s i b l e C i t i z e n s h i p u n d e r t h e Freedoms F o u n d a t i o n ; a n d t h e J e f f e r s o n M e e t i n g s of t h e J e f f e r s o n F o u n d a t i o n , among o t h e r s . The C o u n c i l w i l l f o c u s on c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s s u e s d u r i n g i t s F i f t h Annual J e n n i n g s Randolph Forum t o be h e l d i n Washington, D.C. t o p i c , "America's Changing Face: on May 1-3, 1987. The The C h a l l e n g e s of I m m i g r a t i o n and C i v i c Values i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , " w i l l examine t h e s o c i a l , economic, c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l consequences of i m m i g r a t i o n on American l i f e and t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l q u e s t i o n of t h e r i g h t s of e t h n i c and r a c i a l groups under t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . Along w i t h t h e C e n t e r f o r C i v i c E d u c a t i o n (of C a l a b a s a s , CA), t h e C o u n c i l i s u n d e r t a k i n g a c l e a r i n g h o u s e and l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t f o r i t s member o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e i r l o c a l a f f i l i a t e s . i n d e v e l o p i n g community-based B i l l s of R i g h t s b i c e n t e n n i a l s . The g o a l i s t o a s s i s t l o c a l l e a d e r s a c t i v i t i e s commemorating t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and Two c l e a r i n g h o u s e c e n t e r s , one on e a c h c o a s t , have been s e t up, and t h r e e workshops ( i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , New O r l e a n s , and Los A n g e l e s ) a r e planned f o r community l e a d e r s . R e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e J e n n i n g s Randolph Forum o r any of t h e o t h e r CAC a c t i v i t i e s c a n be a d d r e s s e d t o : Diane U. E i s e n b e r g , C o u n c i l f o r t h e Advancement of C i t i z e n s h i p , One Dupont C i r c l e , S u i t e 520, Washington, DC 20036; phone ( 2 0 2 ) 861-2583. D a u g h t e r s of t h e American R e v o l u t i o n Through t h e i r C o n s t i t u t i o n Week Committee, DAR members h a v e promoted c e l e b r a t i o n of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n ' s a d o p t i o n d u r i n g t h e week o f September 17-23 e a c h y e a r f o r a l m o s t 35 y e a r s . For t h e coming o b s e r v a n c e , t h e DAR h a s d e s i g n e d a l o g o a s w e l l a s a s p e c i a l p i n and a bonbon d i s h . A commemorative medal, which w i l l emphasize t h e o b s e r v a n c e , i s i n t h e d e s i g n i n g s t a g e . Between now and 1987, t h e members w i l l b e working on s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s and d i s p l a y s t o g i v e emphasis t o t h e " c o n t r a c t of freedom" and i t s 2 0 0 t h a n n i v e r s a r y . C l e r g y w i l l be a s k e d t o c e l e b r a t e w i t h p a t r i o t i c music and sermons which r e l a t e t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e Constitution. Banks, s t o r e s and h o t e l s w i l l b e a s k e d t o c a r r y t h e message "Proud Americans Honor t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n " on t h e i r marquees. C o n s t i t u t i o n Computer Quiz D i s k s , c o m p a t i b l e w i t h most computers, a r e a v a i l a b l e . A s p e c i a l program w i l l be h e l d i n C o n s t i t u t i o n H a l l i n 1987 and a s e s s i o n of t h e a n n u a l DAR C o n t i n e n t a l Congress i n 1987 w i l l be d e d i c a t e d t o t h e c e l e b r a t i o n of t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l . F e d e r a l Bar A s s o c i a t i o n The F e d e r a l Bar A s s o c i a t i o n (FBA) h a s formed a s e l e c t committee t o s t u d y and f o r m u l a t e p l a n s f o r t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s o b s e r v a n c e of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n bicentennial. The FBA's s p r i n g m e e t i n g w i l l be h e l d i n P h i l a d e l p h i a w i t h commemorative a c t i v i t i e s a t Independence N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c a l P a r k on May 1 and 2 , 1987. S p e c i a l emphasis w i l l be p l a c e d on p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s h i g h l i g h t i n g t h e f i r s t t h r e e a r t i c l e s of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . The Washington, DC, c h a p t e r ' s " B i l l o f R i g h t s Program," i n which members of t h e young l a w y e r s d i v i s i o n s p e a k t o s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a b o u t t h e B i l l of X i g h t s w i l l be expanded t o t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s 9 0 c h a p t e r s n a t i o n w i d e . information, contact: Washington, DC F o r more J o h n B l a n c h e , S t a f f D i r e c t o r , 1815 H S t r e e t , N.W., 20006; t e l e p h o n e (202) 638-0252. F i r s t F e d e r a l Congress P r o j e c t T h i s p r o j e c t a t t h e George Washington U n i v e r s i t y (GWU) i s p u b l i s h i n g a l l e x t a n t p a p e r s , b o t h o f f i c i a l and u n o f f i c i a l , r e l a t i n g t o t h e h i s t o r y of t h e f i r s t Congress under t h e U. S. C o n s t i t u t i o n . Sponsored by GWU and t h e N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s and Records Commission, The Documentary H i s t o r y o f t h e F i r s t F e d e r a l C o n g r e s s , 1789-1791 h a s p u b l i s h e d t o d a t e t h r e e volumes ( S e n a t e L e g i s l a t i v e J o u r n a l , S e n a t e E x e c u t i v e J o u r n a l and R e l a t e d Documents, House Journal). T h r e e voluiaes encompassing t h e o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y o f a l l l e g i s l a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h i s Congress a r e b e i n g p u b l i s h e d by t h e J o h n s Hopkins University Press. Two o f t h e s e volumes were made a v a i l a b l e i n F e b r u a r y 1986, t h e t h i r d i n March 1986. F u t u r e volumes w i l l i n c l u d e h i s t o r i e s and documents r e l a t i n g t o p e t i t i o n s r e c e i v e d by t h e FFC, and o t h e r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s of t h i s C o n g r e s s ; t h e j o u r n a l of S e n a t o r W i l l i a m Maclay and o t h e r n o t e s t a k e n by S e n a t o r s on t h e d e b a t e s of t h e f i r s t S e n a t e ; t h e v a r i o u s f i r s t h a n d - p r i n t e d v e r s i o n s of t h e d e b a t e s of t h e House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and a t r a n s c r i p t i o n of t h e s h o r t h a n d n o t e s of Thomas Lloyd on t h e d e b a t e s ; and l e t t e r s and o t h e r p e r s o n a l p a p e r s of members. The p r o j e c t h a s a l r e a d y c o l l e c t e d a l l o f t h e m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s 18- volume s e r i e s . Three related bicentennial period projects (The Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, The Documentary History of the First Federal Congress Project, and The Documentary History of the U.S. Supreme Court, 1789-1800) have joined to form a consortium, Foundations of the American Constitutional System, Inc. In addition to fundraising, this consortium intends to launch some special bicentennial ventures, still in the planning stage. Additional information can be obtained from: Charlene Bickford, Director, First Federal Congress Project, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052; telephone (202) 676-6777. The Jefferson Foundation Since its founding in 1983, The Jefferson Foundation--a non-profit, nonadvocacy, educational organization--has engaged growing numbers of Americans in study and discussion of the Constitution. The Foundation has a "The Jefferson Meeting on the Constitution" program that involves citizens--first in issue committees, then in a general session--in discussing up to six constitutional issues on which the Foundation has prepared discussion guides. The titles of these guides are: To Make and Alter Their Constitutions of Government, a discussion of article V of the Constitution, which gives citizens the power to call a convention for the purpose of proposing amendments to the Constitution; So Great a Power to Any Single Person, an examination of the desirability of extending the President's term of office to six years while removing the opportunity to be re-elected; The Plain Simple Business of Election, an exploration of arguments for and against the popular election of the President; The Root of Republican Government, a discussion of proposals for extending the terms of members of the House of Representatives and for limiting the number of terms they may serve; To Control the Abuses of Government, a discussion of pros and cons of giving the President an item veto; and During Good Behavior, an exploration of points of view about setting terms of office for federal judges and/or altering the manner of their selection. The Mischief of Faction, which explores campaign spending and free speech. These discussion guides may be purchased from the Jefferson Foundation for $1 each, 75 cents each for groups planning Jefferson meetings. Jefferson meetings at the school, community, and statewide levels are currently being planned in 40 states. The Foundation has prepared two guides for planning and carrying out Jefferson meetings. Constitution: The Jefferson Meeting on the The Constitution in the Classroom, A Guide for Teachers provides a step-by-step plan for organizing a classroom meeting and suggestions for integrating it into course plans, suggesttons for using the meeting in various settings involving participants at varying skill levels, and a listing of print and audio-visual resources for students and teachers. The Jefferson Meeting on the Community, A Guide for Communities provides a step-by-step guide to organizing a community Jefferson meeting, discusses the leadership and funding necessary for such a meeting, suggests alternative schedules for one and two-day meetings, and answers a variety of questions that will occur to community leaders who want to organize a community Jefferson meeting. Each guide may be purchased, in a packet that also contains the six discussion guides listed above, for $12. For additional information, assistance in planning a Jefferson meeting, or to order Foundation materials, contact: Foundation, 1529 18th Street, N.W., Dick Merriman, Director, Jefferson Washington, DC 20036, (202) 234-3688. National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution is encouraging its members to take an active role in the national commemoration of the Constitution Bicentennial at the grass-roots level. The focus of the SAR's efforts for the commemoration period is "Celebrate Your Heritage." SAR members in more than 450 chapters and state societies are being urged to work with their communities and use national resources to contribute to public awareness of the bicentennial. Among their activities are sponsoring oration contests, holding commemorative ceremonies in the various states, organizing local displays, and encouraging resolutions proclaiming September 17th as Constitution Day in cities, counties and states. The National Scoiety is documenting SAR bicentennial activities throughout the country. For more information, contact: Stewart Boone McCarty, Jr., Chairman, U.S. Constitution Bicentennial Committee, 3222 Prince William Drive, Fairfax, VA 22031; telephone (703) 591-2060. The New York Public Library The New York Public Library is preparing a major exhibition on the origins of the Constitution of the United States as the centerpiece of its efforts to commemorate the bicentennial of the drafting and ratification of the Constitution. Tentatively entitled "Are We To Be a Nation? The Making of the Constitution," the exhibition will be on view from April through September 1987 in Gottesman Exhibition Hall of the Central Research Library at Fifth Avenue and 42nd Street in New York City. Richard B. Morris, the Gouverneur Morris Professor of History, Emeritus, at Columbia University, editor of The Papers of John Jay and co-chairman of P r o j e c t '87, i s working w i t h t h e L i b r a r y t o p l a n t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e e x h i b i t i o n and t o i d e n t i f y and s e l e c t m a t e r i a l s f o r i t . c u r a t o r of t h i s e x h i b i t i o n . P r o f e s s o r Morris i s honorary A s s i s t i n g t h e Library, Professor Morris, Richard B. B e r n s t e i n , t h e e x h i b i t i o n ' s Research C u r a t o r , and Kym S. R i c e , t h e e x h i b i t i o n ' s C o n s u l t a n t on i c o n o g r a p h i c and p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l s , i s a 23-member n a t i o n a l committee. O v e r a l l s u p e r v i s i o n of t h e e x h i b i t i o n i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of D i a n t h a D. S c h u l l , t h e L i b r a r y ' s manager of e x h i b i t i o n s . The e x h i b i t i o n w i l l t r a c e t h e h i s t o r y of c o n s t i t u t i o n - m a k i n g and e f f o r t s t o form a n American n a t i o n , from t h e Albany P l a n of Union of 1754 t h r o u g h t h e F i r s t and Second C o n t i n e n t a l C o n g r e s s e s t o t h e A r t i c l e s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n and t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n ( a s w e l l a s s t a t e c o n s t i t u t i o n s of t h e 1770s and 1 7 8 0 s ) . emphasize t h e c r u c i a l decade 1781-1791--from It w i l l M a r y l a n d ' s r a t i f i c a t i o n of t h e A r t i c l e s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n t o V i r g i n i a ' s r a t i f i c a t i o n of t h e f i r s t t e n amendments t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e B i l l of R i g h t s . Among t h e c r i t i c a l themes of t h e h i s t o r y of t h i s p e r i o d t h a t t h e e x h i b i t i o n w i l l h i g h l i g h t a r e : * * t h e making of t h e A r t i c l e s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n , t h e f i r s t c o n s t i t u t i o n of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t s s t r e n g t h s and d e f e c t s , a n d t h e accomplishments of t h e C o n f e d e r a t i o n government, i n c l u d i n g t h e n e g o t i a t i o n of t r e a t i e s of a l l i a n c e w i t h F r a n c e , t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , and S p a i n , t h e T r e a t y of P a r i s of 1783 t h a t s e c u r e d B r i t i s h r e c o g n i t i o n o f American independence and ended t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y War, and t h e o r d i n a n c e s f o r g o v e r n i n g t h e Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . t h e s t a t e s ' e f f o r t s t o w r i t e c o n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e 1770s a n d 1 7 8 0 s , t o reform t h e i r l e g a l s y s t e m s t o t a k e a c c o u n t of t h e i r newly-won independence and t o p r o t e c t i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s , and t o d e a l w i t h t h e problems of d i v i d e d l o y a l t i e s c a u s e d by t h e R e v o l u t i o n . * t h e growing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e weaknesses of t h e A r t i c l e s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n , and t h e movement t o s t r e n g t h e n and u l t i m a t e l y t o r e p l a c e them, i n c l u d i n g t h e Mount Vernon c o n f e r e n c e of 1785 and t h e A n n a p o l i s Convention of 1786. * t h e F e d e r a l Convention of 1787--its d e l e g a t e s , agenda, and t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i t faced i n preparing a replacement f o r t h e A r t i c l e s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n . * the struggle for ratification--the first national political campaign, and one that produced one of the greatest American contributions to political theory, The Federalist. * the launching of the new national government, and the completion of the process of constitution-making by the First Congress, which passed laws setting up the executive departments and the judiciary, revenue and finance systems, and amendments to the constitution to protect individual liberties. * the place of the American experiments in nation-building and constitution-making in Western political thought, the reactions of Europeans to the Americans' labors, and the fruitful transAtlantic dialogue on political theory and constitutionalism. The principal sources for the Library's exhibition will be its own extensive collections of original books, magazines, newspapers, pamphlets, broadsides, manuscripts, documents, correspondence, prints, maps, and other materials from this period. These collections will be supplemented by major loans from other national institutions. A book entitled Are We To Be a Nation: The Making of the Constitution, written by Mr. Bernstein with Ms. Rice, and setting forth in greater detail and with full documentation the arguments presented in the Gottesman Hall exhibition, will be published in Harch 1987 by Harvard University Press. In conjunction with the American Library Association, the Library is preparing a panel version of the Gottesman Hall exhibition that will visit 30 major American cities from March 1987 through September 1988. The Library is also developing a series of public programs associated with the exhibition that will explore the enduring issues of American constitutionalism in the two centuries since 1787. Research Library. These programs will take place at the Central Associated public programs will take place at several of the branch libraries, which will also receive poster versions of the exhibition and related materials to stimulate public interest in the bicentennial and the constitutional legacy of 1787-1987. The Schomburg C e n t e r f o r Research i n Black C u l t u r e i s a l s o p r e p a r i n g a major e x h i b i t i o n , e n t i t l e d "Blacks and t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , " t o be d i s p l a y e d a t t h e C e n t e r from March 12 t h r o u g h J u l y 3 1 , 1987. P r o f e s s o r D e r r i c k A. B e l l , J r . , of t h e Harvard Law S c h o o l i s g u e s t c u r a t o r of t h i s e x h i b i t i o n , working w i t h Howard Dodson, Chief of t h e Schomburg C e n t e r . I n q u i r i e s s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o : R i c h a r d B. B e r n s t e i n , U.S. Constitution E x h i b i t i o n , The New York P u b l i c L i b r a r y , F i f t h Avenue and 42nd S t r e e t , New York, NY 10018; phone (212) 930-0679. P r o i e c t '87 The American P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e American H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n a r e engaged i n a j o i n t p r o j e c t t o c e l e b r a t e t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e United S t a t e s Constitution. Dubbed P r o j e c t ' 8 7 , t h e e f f o r t was i n a u g u r a t e d by t h e two a s s o c i a t i o n s i n 1977 t o "promote s c h o l a r s h i p , enhance t e a c h i n g and promote p u b l i c e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . " 111 P r o j e c t '87 h a s e v o l v e d through t h r e e s t a g e s : r e s e a r c h ; e d u c a t i o n ; and p u b l i c programs. The f i r s t s t a g e s p o n s o r e d f o u r c o n f e r e n c e s and more t h a n 50 r e s e a r c h g r a n t s and f e l l o w s h i p s . P r o j e c t '87 h a s a l s o p r o v i d e d r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t f o r a supplement t o Max F a r r a n d ' s Records of t h e F e d e r a l Convention, i n p r e p a r a t i o n by t h e L i b r a r y of Congress. E d u c a t i o n a l and p u b l i c programs now occupy t h e P r o j e c t '87 s t a f f , who a l s o s e r v e a s a c l e a r i n g h o u s e and informat i o n resource f o r bicentennial planning. E d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a l r e a d y underway i n c l u d e d i s t r i b u t i o n of L e s s o n s on t h e Constitution--a c o l l e c t i o n of 60 l e s s o n s f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . 111 P r o j e c t '87 Expands A c t i v i t i e s . - PS, v. 1 5 , F a l l 1982, p. 641-642. In addition, three series of college faculty seminars on constitutional issues have been held, in 1983, 1984 and 1985. The seminar participants were professors who teach American history and government courses but who are not constitutional scholars. These faculty hoped to increase attention to constitutional principles and issues. Project '87 is also working with other organizations to produce instructional television series for a variety of audiences. With the Agency for Instructional Technology, Project '87 is creating in-school television programs for seventh, eighth and ninth graders. The International University Consortium, Maryland Public Television, and Project '87 are developing a television-assisted college course on the Constitution for distant learners; a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities supports this project. An educational program, begun in 1986, awards James Madison Fellowships to secondary school teachers to participate in a summer institute devoted to the study of constitutional scholarship. Each teacher will then be responsible for organizing local programs in his/her community. Twenty Madison Fellows are conducting programs in 16 states this fall* Fifty Madison Fellows will be selected in 1987. A quarterly magazine, this Constitution: A Bicentennial Chronicle, published since September 1983, serves as the centerpiece for the Project '87 public programs effort. The publication is designed "to forge a link between scholars of the Constitution and the people who will be planning programs for the public and for the schools in observance of this historical occasion." 12/ 121 Introducing thls Constitution: A Bicentennial Chronicle, September 1983,y. 2. Each i s s u e of t h e magazine f e a t u r e s a r t i c l e s on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n - - s u g g e s t e d themes and t o p i c s f o r b i c e n t e n n i a l programs. A second r e g u l a r f e a t u r e of t h e magazine h i g h l i g h t s documents r e l a t i n g t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n - - a thorough d i s c u s s i o n - of t h e i r c o n t e n t and a n a n a l y s i s of t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e . The t h i r d s e c t i o n of t h i s C o n s t i t u t i o n i s a c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from p l a n n e r s of b i c e n t e n n i a l programs, a s w e l l a s e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . I t s e r v e s as a c l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r p l a n n e r s and e d u c a t o r s i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g a b o u t p r o j e c t s i n t h e i r areasF o r l i b r a r i e s , b u s i n e s s e s , c o u r t h o u s e s , s c h o o l s and c i v i c c e n t e r s , p r o j e c t '87 h a s produced a n e x h i b i t of 1 2 f u l l c o l o r , 22" x 36" p o s t e r s on t h e s t o r y of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n c a l l e d "The B l e s s i n g s of L i b e r t y . " The e x h i b i t c a n be purchased e i t h e r unmounted o r mounted on t h r e e l i g h t w e i g h t c a r d b o a r d kiosks. A u s e r ' s g u i d e w i t h l e s s o n s f o r g r a d e s 4-6, 7-9, and 10-12, as well as e s s a y s and b i b l i o g r a p h i e s , accompanies t h e e x h i b i t . P r o j e c t '87 i s o r g a n i z i n g a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l e c t u r e s e r i e s f o r t h e p u b l i c i n 1986. The l e c t u r e s w i l l f e a t u r e O r r i n G. H a t c h , U n i t e d S t a t e s S e n a t e ; Robert F. D r i n a n , Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y Law S c h o o l ; Susan Ross, Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y Law S c h o o l ; James MacGregor Burns, P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , W i l l i a m s C o l l e g e ; H a r o l d H. Greene, U.S. D i s t r i c t J u d g e ; and Ed Yoder, Washington P o s t c o l u m n i s t , and be o f f e r e d t h r o u g h t h e S m i t h s o n f a n R e s i d e n t A s s o c i a t e s Program. I n t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l y e a r , P r o j e c t '87 and t h e League of Women V o t e r s E d u c a t i o n Fund w i l l o f f e r two " C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Forums." The forums w i l l engage s c h o l a r s and p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s i n d e b a t e s a b o u t f u n d a m e n t a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l issues. Each forum w i l l be moderated by a d i s t i n g u i s h e d b r o a d c a s t j o u r n a l i s t . The forums w i l l be t e l e v i s e d . Video c a s s e t t e s of t h e forums accompanied by d i s c u s s i o n g u i d e s w i l l he d i s t r i b u t e d t o c i v i c g r o u p s , l i b r a r i e s and s c h o o l s . The f i r s t forum on May 24, 1987, i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , w i l l honor t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e o p e n i n g of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Convention. G e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on P r o j e c t '87 i s a v a i l a b l e by w r i t i n g t o : ' 8 7 , 1527 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. Project Subscriptions t o t h i s C o n s t i t u t i o n a r e a v a i l a b l e f r e e t o i n s t i t u t i o n s planning b i c e n t e n n i a l programs. I n d i v i d u a l s u b s c r i p t i o n s a r e a v a i l a b l e a t a c o s t of $10 p e r y e a r ( f o u r i s s u e s ) ; r a t e s f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s n o t p l a n n i n g b i c e n t e n n i a l e v e n t s a r e $16 per year. S u b s c r i p t i o n r e q u e s t s s h o u l d be s e n t t o t h e P r o j e c t '87 a d d r e s s g i v e n above. U.S. A s s o c i a t i o n o f Former Members of Congress The A s s o c i a t i o n h a s e s t a b l i s h e d a s t u d y group t o c o n s i d e r t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s r o l e i n t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l and t o f o r m u l a t e recommendations and p l a n s f o r t h e Association. The A s s o c i a t i o n p l a n s t o p u r s u e a n a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e commemoration and c e l e b r a t i o n of t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l . F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a c t : J e d J o h n s o n , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , U.S. A s s o c i a t i o n of Former Members of Congress, 1755 M a s s a c h u s e t t s Avenue, N.W., Honorable Washington, DC 20036. U. S. C a p i t o l H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y The S o c i e t y h a s o p e r a t e d s i n c e 1978 a B i c e n t e n n i a l Symposium program under t h e d i r e c t i o n of h i s t o r i a n Ronald Hoffman. been h e l d t o d a t e . Interests: E i g h t of t h e 1 3 a n n u a l symposia have Themes of upcoming symposia i n c l u d e : "Of Consuming L i f e s t y l e s i n t h e E r a of t h e American R e s o l u t i o n , " "James Madison and t h e P h i l o s o p h y of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , " "The American R e v o l u t i o n a s a S o c i a l Movement," " R a t i f i c a t i o n and t h e F i r s t E l e c t i o n , " "Launching t h e Extended R e p u b l i c , " and "The B e g i n n i n g s of t h e F e d e r a l Government." We The S o c i e t y a l s o p u b l i s h e s a number of h i s t o r i c a l volumes, i n c l u d i n g The P e o p l e . The S o c i e t y ' s w i d e l y - c i r c u l a t e d "We The People" c a l e n d a r i n c l u d e s h i s t o r i c a l c i t a t i o n s f o r each day of t h e y e a r . For more i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t a c t : Richard S t r i n e r , Chief H i s t o r i a n , 1J.S. C a p i t o l H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , 200 Maryland Avenue, N.E., Washington, DC 20002; t e l e p h o n e , (202) 543-8919. U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin P r o j e c t s The U n i v e r s i t y o f Wisconsin i s t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s f o r two p r o j e c t s : the documentary h i s t o r y of t h e r a t i f i c a t i o n of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and t h e B i l l of R i g h t s , and t h e documentary h i s t o r y of t h e f i r s t F e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s . Other s p o n s o r s a r e t h e N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s and Records Commission and t h e N a t i o n a l Endowment For t h e Humanities. The p r o j e c t e n v i s i o n s p u b l i s h i n g 19 volumes of papers on t h e r a t i f i c a t i o n of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and 4 volumes of p a p e r s on t h e f i r s t F e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d from: John Kaminski, Department of H i s t o r y , 455 N. Park S t r e e t , U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, Madison, W I 53706; t e l e p h o n e (608) 263-1865. U n i v e r s i t v of D a l l a s C o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m i n America i s a t h r e e - y e a r p r o j e c t of t h e U n v i e r s i t y of Dallas celebrating the Constitution bicentenniali s h o l d i n g a n academic conference: Each October, t h e U n i v e r s i t y "To S e c u r e t h e B l e s s i n g of L i b e r t y : P r i n c i p l e s of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n " (1985), "E P l u r i b u s Unum: First Constitutional P r i n c i p l e s and t h e I n s t i t u t i o n s of Government" (1986), and " C o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m i n America" (1957). Each s p r i n g from 1985 through 1987, t h e U n i v e r s i t y i s i n v i t i n g a prominent s c h o l a r o r p u b l i c o f f i c i a l t o p r e s e n t a l e c t u r e on a t o p i c r e l a t e d t o t h a t y e a r ' s conference. The l e c t u r e s w i l l be p u b l i s h e d . The U n i v e r s i t y i s a l s o s p o n s o r i n g summer s e m i n a r s f o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and a b i c e n t e n n i a l s p e a k e r s ' bureau. For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a c t : Thurow, t h e U n i v e r s i t y of D a l l a s , I r v i n g , TX U.S. D r . Sarah 75062; t e l e p h o n e ( 2 1 4 ) 721-5279. M i l i t a r y Academy F o r i t s f a l l 1986 S t u d e n t Conference on U.S. A f f a i r s , t h e M i l i t a r y Academy's theme i s " t h e U.S. Constitution: A Bicentennial Reappraisal." Plenary sessions and round t a b l e s e m i n a r s a d d r e s s e d t o p i c s o n " i n d i v i d u a l R i g h t s v s . S o c i e t a l Norms," "The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Power," and "Promote t h e G e n e r a l W e l f a r e . " Student d e l e g a t e s from more t h a n 100 u n i v e r s i t i e s g a t h e r e d a t West P o i n t t o d i s c u s s t h e s e t o p i c s w i t h s c h o l a r s who s e r v e d as p l e n a r y s p e a k e r s and p a n e l i s t s . STATE AND LOCAL BICENTENNIAL COPlMISSIONS Increasing numbers of states and localities are making bicentennial preparations. Those whose plans are taking shape include the following. Information for those entries denoted by an asterisk ( * ) was obtained from the Federal Commission's State/Local Affairs Department. Alabama Humanities Foundation* The planning and coordination of the commemoration of the bicentennial in Alabama have been initiated as a joint project of the Alabama Humanities Foundation and the governor's office. Under this arrangement, the AHF will coordinate activities deemed necessary by the governor's office to observe this event through support from the State and the National Endowment for the Humanities. Programs are planned by the Alabama Department of Archives and History; Alabama Historical Commission; Alabama Public Library Service; Alabama State Council on the Arts; Alabama Administrative Office of Courts; Alabama Public Television Network; Alabama State Department of Education; Alabama Commission on Higher Education; Alabama Department of Post-Secondary Education; and Alabama Rumanities Foundation. For information, contact: Walter Cox, Alabama Humanities Foundation, Box A-40, Birmingham-Southern College, Birmingham, AL 35254; telephone (205) 324-1134. Arizona Commission on the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution* A ceremony comnemorating the opening of the Constitutional Convention is planned for May 25, 1987. The Commission is encouraging establishment of local commissions. For information, contact: Hon. W i l l i a m Holohan, C h i e f J u s t i c e , Supreme Court oE A r i z o n a , Commission on t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l o f t h e U.S. Room 201 S t a t e C a p i t o l B u i l d i n g , Phoenix, AZ Constitution, 85007; t e l e p h o n e ( 6 0 2 ) 255-4534. C a l i f o r n i a B i c e n t e n n i a l Commission On September 27, 1984, t h e governor s i g n e d l e g i s l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h i n g a f i v e member commission t o d e v e l o p a c a l e n d a r of e v e n t s f o r t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l e r a , from J a n u a r y 1987 t o J u l y 1992. The commission h a s s c h e d u l e d a number of programs i n c l u d i n g s c h o o l p r o j e c t s , a s p e a k e r s b u r e a u , b i c e n t e n n i a l album and a n o u t r e a c h program which e n c o u r a g e s c i t i e s and c o u n t i e s t o e s t a b l i s h l o c a l b i c e n t e n n i a l commissions. For more i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t a c t : J e f f e r y D o Allen, Executive D i r e c t o r , C a l i f o r n i a B i c e n t e n n i a l Commission, 1455 Crenshaw Blvd., S u i t e 200, T o r r a n c e , CA 90501; t e l e p h o n e ( 2 1 3 ) 328-1787. - We The P e o ~ l e C o l o r a d o : The Colorado Commission on t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l The C o l o r a d o Commission, c r e a t e d by s t a t u t e May 10, 1985, c o m p r i s e s n i n e members a p p o i n t e d by Governor R i c h a r d Lamm. The Commission, u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n of P r e s i d e n t James C. P i e r c e , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of t h e C o l o r a d o Endowment f o r t h e Humanities, s e r v e s a s a clearinghouse, disseminating a q u a r t e r l y n e w s l e t t e r s t a t e - w i d e t o i n d i v i d u a l s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s c h o o l s , and l i b r a r i e s . The Commission's B i c e n t e n n i a l p l a n s i n c l u d e : Development of a b i c e n t e n n i a l r e s o u r c e c a t a l o g f o r s t a t e w i d e d i s t r i b u t i o n ; a f a l l 1986 c o n f e r e n c e t o a s s i s t l o c a l c o ~ n m u n i t i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e i r b i c e n t e n n i a l p l a n s ; a s e r i e s of media p u b l i c s e r v i c e announcements and l o c a l l y produced v i d e o t a p e programs; and a h i g h v i s i b i l i t y e d u c a t i o n a l program, p o s s i b l y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Colorado Bar A s s o c i a t i o n and l e a g u e of women v o t e r s . For more i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a c t : 6199 S. P i k e Drive, Larkspur, CO E s t h e r Marie Capps, Program C o o r d i n a t o r , 80118; phone (303) 681-3053. Connecticut I n C o n n e c t i c u t , p l a n s a r e underway t o s p o n s o r a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n i n v o l v i n g p u b l i c and c i v i c l e a d e r s . A prominent person w i l l be sought t o l e a d t h e d i s c u s s i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s s u e s , j u s t a s was done i n 1787The H a r t f o r d Courant, t h e c o u n t r y ' s o l d e s t newspaper of c o n t i n u o u s c i r c u l a t i o n , d a t i n g back t o 1764, i s l e a d i n g t h e e f f o r t t o r e t r i e v e important a r t i c l e s and e d i t o r i a l s from s t a t e a r c h i v e s t o r e - p u b l i s h and s t i m u l a t e debate. E f f o r t s a r e being made t o l i n k C o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o c e s s w i t h a n a n a l y s i s of l o c a l government c h a r t e r s . Delaware H e r i t a g e Commission The Commission h a s r e e n a c t e d t h e r i d e of t h e Delaware d e l e g a t e s t o t h e Annapolis Convention and begins a y e a r of commemorative a c t i v i t i e s l e a d i n g t o t h e r a t i f i c a t i o n day of December 7, 1987, w i t h s t a t e w i d e f i r e h a l l c e l e b r a t i o n s on December 7, 1986. The Commission p u b l i s h e s a q u a r t e r l y n e w s l e t t e r , " F u l l y , F r e e l y , and E n t i r e l y . " and h a s s e v e r a l books i n t h e p r o c e s s of p u b l i c a t i o n . The B i c e n t e n n i a l Community Improvement fund p r o v i d e s $3 m i l l i o n of matching funds f o r b r i c k s and mortar p r o j e c t s t o enhance community h e r i t a g e , w h i l e a c h a l l e n g e g r a n t program p r o v i d e s matching funds f o r s m a l l e r p r o j e c t s . $10,000 i n s c h o l a r s h i p s i s awarded t o CRS- 56 g r a d u a t i n g s e n i o r s , and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l e c t u r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r n o n - p r o f i t groups. The Commission s u p p o r t s r e s t o r a t i o n of t h e J o h n D i c k i n s o n p l a n t a t i o n and " C o n s t i t u t i o n P l a c e , " a two-block a r e a i n Dover on t h e s i t e of r a t i f i c a t i o n . Other p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e a f i l m e d d r a m a t i c c h a r a c t e r s t u d y o f John D i c k i n s o n , a Delaware h i s t o r y f i l m , a major s c u l p t u r e , a p o s t e r s e r i e s w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l p a c k e t s , and a s c h o l a r l y conference. E x h i b i t i o n s , l o c a l c e l e b r a t i o n s , and b a l l s a r e p l a n n e d . D r . C l a u d i a L. Bushman, C a r v e 1 S t a t e O f f i c e F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t a c t : B u i l d i n g , 820 N . F r e n c h S t r e e t , Wilmington, DE 19801; t e l e p h o n e ( 3 0 2 ) 652-6662. F l o r i d a Endowment f o r t h e Humanities The F l o r i d a Endowment f o r t h e H u m a n i t i e s i s d e v e l o p i n g a s t a t e - w i d e program of a c t i v i t i e s c e l e b r a t i n g t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l s oE t h e U.S. C o n s t i t u t i o n and Congress. The s c h e d u l e of programs w i l l b e g i n d u r i n g f a l l 1986 and c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h 1987. F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a c t : Program Development, P.O. Randy L o Akers, A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r f o r Box 16989, Tampa, FL 33687; phone (813) 974-4094. Georgia* The C a r l Vinson I n s t i t u t e of Government was awarded a g r a n t Erom t h e N a t i o n a l Endowment f o r t h e H u m a n i t i e s t o s p o n s o r a s e r i e s of p u b l i c a s s e m b l i e s on i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of t h e U.S. Constitution. i n s e v e r a l c i t i e s of t h r e e s o u t h e a s t e r n s t a t e s : Alabama. F i v e a s s e m b l i e s have been h e l d : on t h e s u b j e c t of "Crime and J u s t i c e : The a s s e m b l i e s a r e b e i n g h e l d G e o r g i a , S o u t h C a r o l i n a , and i n D e c a t u r , GA, on A p r i l 3 , 1986, R i g h t s of t h e Accused and V i c t i m s " ; i n Columbia, SC, o n May 1, 1986, on t h e s u b j e c t of "The C o n s t i t u t i o n and I s s u e s Ln Education"; i n Savannah, GA, on May 28, 1986, on t h e s u b j e c t of "The C o n s t i t u t i o n and R e l i g i o n " ; i n Montgomery, AL, on S e p t e a b e r 24, 1986, on t h e t o p i c of "Voting R i g h t s , " and i n Athens, GA, i n October 1986 on t h e t o p i c of "Orwellian C o n s t i t u t i o n a l I s s u e s : P r i v a c y R i g h t s i n a Computer Era." Hawaii* Hawaii's b i c e n t e n n i a l observance h a s i n c l u d e d a d r a m a t i c r e a d i n g and symposium based on t h e t r i a l of John P e t e r Zenger, p r e s e n t e d i n a courtroom a t t h e Hawaii Supreme Court b u i l d i n g A p r i l 1986. The p l a y was video-taped f o r b r a o d c a s t by a l o c a l c a b l e network and made a v a i l a b l e t o s c h o o l s and l i b r a r i e s throughout t h e s t a t e . I n August, a multi-agency sponsored C i t i z e n s h i p I n s t i t u t e h e l d i t s five-day c o n f e r e n c e on " H i s t o r i c a l and P h i l o s o p h i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r t h e United S t a t e s and Hawaii S t a t e C o n s t i t u t i o n s . " The Commission a l s o p l a n s t o h o l d a c i t i z e n ' s c o n f e r e n c e i n t h e format of a town h a l l meeting t o d i s c u s s contemporary c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s s u e s w i t h community l e a d e r s . Idaho* Among t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l a c t i v i t i e s planned i n Idaho a r e a s e r i e s of media e v e n t s t o d i r e c t p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n t o September 17, 1957, when t h e Governor w i l l i s s u e an a p p r o p r i a t e proclamation i n c e l e b r a t i o n of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n ' s bicentennial. Other e v e n t s i n c l u d e commemorative l e g i s l a t i v e ceremonies, development oE model c o n s t i t u t i o n s c h o o l l e s s o n p l a n s , s t u d e n t e s s a y c o n t e s t s and c e l e b r a t i o n of Law Day, May 1, 1987 and a J u d i c i a l C o n f e r e n c e / S t a t e Bar Meeting r e f l e c t i n g on t h e importance of t h e U.S. Supreme Court. Committee t o Commemorate t h e U-So C o n s t i t u t i o n i n I l l i n o i s The I l l i n o i s committee, c h a i r e d by R i c h a r d Friedman, was o r g a n i z e d by t h e I l l i n o i s Supreme Court i n 1985 t o s e r v e a s a c o o r d i n a t i n g c l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r I l l i n o i s b i c e n t e n n i a l observances. The committee i s c o m p i l i n g a c a t a l o g of planned commemorative e v e n t s i n t h e s t a t e and h a s begun p l a n n i n g and f u n d r a i s i n g efforts. The committee w i l l s p o n s o r a r e e n a c t m e n t of t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n i n t h e o l d s t a t e C a p i t o l b u i l d i n g on o r a b o u t September 17, 1987, and w i l l be i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i z i n g mock t r i a l s , J e f f e r s o n m e e t i n g s , summer t e a c h e r s e m i n a r s , c u r r i c u l u m p a c k e t s , c o n c e r t s , and o t h e r e v e n t s . The committee i s b e i n g a s s i s t e d i n many of i t s a c t i v i t i e s by t h e Chicago H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y and t h e s t a t e Bar Association. For more i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t a c t : D r i v e , S u i t e 2100, Chicago, I L C h e r y l N i r o , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , 75 E, Wacker 60601; phone (312) 726-4853. Kentucky Department of Education* The Kentucky Department of E d u c a t i o n i s c o o r d i n a t i n g Kentucky's o b s e r v a n c e of t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l . The Department r e c e n t l y conducted, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e s t a t e Humanities C o u n c i l , seven U.S. C o n s t i t u t i o n seminars f o r t e a c h e r s i n each of Kentucky's c o n g r e s s i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . The s e m i n a r s gave e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s a d d i t i o n a l knowledge of t h e e a r l y R e p u b l i c t h r o u g h workshops conducted by r e s o u r c e p e o p l e i n t h e a r e a s of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r y and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l law. A b i c e n t e n n i a l book of t e a c h i n g i d e a s compiled from t h e s e m i n a r s i s b e i n g made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e 1986-1987 s c h o o l y e a r . The Department h a s planned a f u l l s c h e d u l e of a c t i v i t i e s c u l m i n a t i n g i n t h e s i g n i n g of a f a c s i m i l e of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n by s t a t e l e a d e r s and Kentucky's f e d e r a l d e l e g a t i o n , September 17, 1987. F o r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s t a t e ' s p l a n s , c o n t a c t : B e t t y H. Seay, P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r y , Kentucky Department of E d u c a t i o n , C a p i t a l P l a z a Tower, F r a n k f o r t , KY 40601. L o u i s i a n a B i c e n t e n n i a l Commission* A t t h e time of p r i n t i n g , we have no i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e commission's b i c e n t e n n i a l plans. For information, contact: A s s i s t a n t , G o v e r n o r ' s O f f i c e , P.O. Carl S t a g e s , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Box 44004, Baton Rouge, LA 70804. Maryland O f f i c e f o r t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e U . S . C o n s t i t u t i o n The O f f i c e was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e four-day commemoration of t h e A n n a p o l i s Convention B i c e n t e n n i a l , September 11-14, E v e n t s and a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e f o u r d a y s i n c l u d e d a two-day 1986. meeting i n A n n a p o l i s o f t h e F e d e r a l B i c e n t e n n i a l Commission, t h r e e b a l l e t p e r f o r m a n c e s , a c o l o n i a l b a l l , a C o n s t i t u t i o n R e s o u r c e s Room i n t h e S t a t e House, a day-long c o n f e r e n c e on M a r y l a n d ' s r o l e i n t h e c r e a t i o n and a d o p t i o n of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , a n E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y F a i r , a n "Evening o f E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y E n t e r t a i n m e n t " a t t h e A n n a p o l i s C i t y dock, and s e v e n performances of t h e p l a y , "A More P e r f e c t Union," s p e c i a l l y w r i t t e n f o r t h e A n n a p o l i s Convention B i c e n t e n n i a l . The O f f i c e c o o p e r a t e d w i t h t h e Department of t h e Army i n t h e day-long c e l e b r a t i o n a t F o r t Meade on September 1 4 , which emphasized t h e n a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e of t h e c a l l t o P h i l a d e l p h i a t h a t was i s s u e d by t h e A n n a p o l i s Convention. With s u p p o r t from t h e F e d e r a l B i c e n t e n n i a l Commission, t h e O f f i c e w r o t e and p u b l i s h e d a t a b l o i d on t h e background a n d i m p o r t a n c e of t h e A n n a p o l i s Convention. A hundred t h o u s a n d c o p i e s of t h e 12-page newspaper were p u b l i s h e d , w i t h 50,000 b e i n g d i s t r i b u t e d i n Maryland and t h e b a l a n c e b e i n g d i s t r i b u t e d by t h e F e d e r a l Commission n a t i o n w i d e . The O f f i c e a l s o produced a v a r i e t y o f commemorative and s o u v e n i r i t e m s f o r t h e A n n a p o l i s Convention, i n c l u d i n g a l i m i t e d e d i t i o n commemorative c o i n , a p o s t e r , T - s h i r t s , t o t e b a g s , n o t e p a p e r , and p a p e r w e i g h t s . The O f f i c e p u b l i s h e d and d i s t r i b u t e d t o e v e r y s c h o o l and l i b r a r y i n t h e s t a t e t h e A n n a p o l i s Convention p l a y , "A More P e r f e c t Union," and a pamphlet on t h e h i s t o r y of t h e A n n a p o l i s Convention by S h i r l e y V . B a l t z . The O f f i c e w r o t e and p u b l i s h e d a n e d u c a t i o n a l p a c k e t on Maryland and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e f o u r t h g r a d e , and d i s t r i b u t e d i t t o e v e r y school i n t h e s t a t e . 1987. A h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n a l p a c k e t w i l l be d i s t r i b u t e d i n The B i c e n t e n n i a l O f f i c e a l s o produced two needlework k i t s of t h e " F e d e r a l S n a k e , " one i n n e e d l e p o i n t and o n e i n c o u n t e d c r o s s s t i t c h . I n a n e f f o r t t o c r e a t e a f o c a l p o i n t f o r M a r y l a n d ' s c e l e b r a t i o n of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n B i c e n t e n n i a l , t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l O f f i c e e s t a b l i s h e d a tax-exempt e d u c a t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n t o d e s i g n , b u i l d , and t o u r a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e fifteen-foot, s h i p - r i g g e d v e s s e l named t h e " F e d e r a l i s t , " which was t h e c e n t e r p i e c e of M a r y l a n d ' s r a t i f i c a t i o n p a r a d e i n 1788. Inc., The Maryland F e d e r a l i s t F o u n d a t i o n , c h a i r e d by J o h n D r i g g s , w i l l s e c u r e t h e f u n d s n e s e s s a r y f o r t h e p r o j e c t from private sources. The r e c r e a t e d "Maryland F e d e r a l i s t " w i l l be completed i n t h e summer of 1987. w i t h s u p p o r t from t h e Maryland H u m a n i t i e s C o u n c i l , t h e O f f i c e w i l l l a u n c h an "Evening With t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n " s e r i e s i n O c t o b e r 1986. The n i n e programs i n t h e s e r i e s w i l l be h o s t e d by community c o l l e g e s around t h e s t a t e . A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be o b t a i n e d from: D r . Gregory A. S t i v e r s o n , D i r e c t o r , Maryland O f f i c e f o r t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n , Maryland S t a t e A r c h i v e s , 350 Rowe B o u l e v a r d , A n n a p o l i s , MD ( 3 0 1 ) 269-3916. 21401; t e l e p h o n e Michigan Commission on the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution Michigan Governor James J. Blanchard appointed a 21-member Commission on the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution on July 16, 1986. The Commission will promote and sponsor observances of the 200th anniversary of the signing of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights. Activities are to begin in 1987 (also Michigan's 150th birthday as a State), and extend to the 1991 bicentennial of the ratification of the Bill of Rights. Minnesota* At the time of printing we have no information Minnesota's bicentennial plans. For information, contact: 111, State Capitol, St. Paul, MN State Attorney General Hubert H e Humphrey 55155. Missouri Constitutional Bicentennial Commission* The United States Constitution Bicentennial Commission of Missouri was established by Executive Order of the Governor on June 6, 1985. is Supreme Court Judge Albert L. Rendlen. The Chairman Missouri is planning a year-long observance with emphasis on educational contests open to all public and private institutions. Fairs and festivals throughout the State are using the Bicentennial as their theme. For more information contact: Ms. Joanne M. Hibdon, Administrative Assistant, State Capitol Building, Room 116-3, Jefferson City, MO 65101. Montana Constitutional Connections Committee A volunteer committee affiliated with Montana's Centennial Office has been officially recognized as the state's bicentennial commission. Chaired by retired State Supreme Court Chief Justice Frank 1 - Haswell, the committee has adopted a role and scope statement endorsing special observances for each year from 1987 to 1991. Montana marks her 100th anniversary of admission to statehood on November 8, 1989, and the national anniversaries are being integrated with the state's centennial planning. In 1986, the committee initiated a "Constitutional Connections" newsletter for circulation to more than 3,000 schools, libraries, civic and fraternal clubs, legal and other professional associations, youth and veterans groups. With assistance from the U.S. Committee on the Constitutional System, a conference titled "Montanans Debate United States Constitutional Reform" also is being sponsored, with almost 100 citizens invited as delegates to vote on propositions relating to the question of separation of powers. Planning for a major event on September 17, 1987, is in formative stages. There is strong likelihood that Jefferson Meetings will be conducted throughout the period, as well as special youth education programs on both federal and state constitutional matters. Close coordination with the Montana Committee for the Humanities and other existing agencies or organizations will be encouraged. Inquiries should be directed to: Cheryl Hutchinson, Centennial Coordinator, Montana Constitutional Connections Committee, c/o Centennial Office, P.O. Box 1989, Capitol Station, Helena, MT 59620. New Hampshire B i c e n t e n n i a l Commission New Hampshire e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f i r s t s t a t e commission t o c e l e b r a t e t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i n 1981. The Commission, composed of l e g i s l a t o r s and e x e c u t i v e a p p o i n t e e s , h a s embarked upon i t s i n i t i a l p r o j e c t w i t h t h e s u p p o r t of t h e New Hampshire C o u n c i l f o r t h e Humanities. "AEter t h e Revolution: New Hampshire and t h e New Nation, 1780-1800" i n v o l v e s a h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y of e i g h t s e l e c t e d communities and w i l l c u l m i n a t e w i t h a t r a v e l i n g e x h i b i t on p a t t e r n s of town development, a chamber t h e a t e r p r o d u c t i o n on New Hampshire's r a t i f i c a t i o n of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , a s p e a k e r ' s bureau, and a c o l l e c t i o n of e s s a y s . A g u i d e i n c l u d i n g n o t e s on r e s e a r c h and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s of a v a i l a b l e primary s o u r c e s , a b i b l i o g r a p h y of secondary s o u r c e s , and n o t e s on t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l documents h a s been compiled t o a s s i s t l o c a l h i s t o r i a n s i n t h e i r research. For more i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t a c t : R u s s e l l C. Chase, Chairman, New Hampshire B i c e n t e n n i a l Comission on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , Concord, NH 03301; t e l e p h o n e (603) 271-3321. New H a m ~ s h i r eC o n s t i t u t i o n B i c e n t e n n i a l Education Commission The 1981 l e g i s l a t u r e e s t a b l i s h e d t h e New Hampshire C o n s t i t u t i o n B i c e n t e n n i a l Education Commission t o develop e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s t o t e a c h t h e s t a t e constitution i n the schools. Three volumes have been developed--one g r a d e l e v e l s 4, 8 , and 12--an3 have been c l a s s r o o m - t e s t e d and e d i t e d . each f o r Final p r i n t i n g w i l l t a k e p l a c e i n 1986. For a o r e i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t a c t : S t r e e t , Concord, NH J u s t i c e C h a r l e s G. Douglas 111, 8 C e n t r e 03301; t e l e p h o n e (603) 224-1989. New J e r s e y New J e r s e y h a s c r e a t e d a B i c e n t e n n i a l Commission t o be o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y l o c a t e d i n t h e New J e r s e y Department of S t a t e . R i c h a r d McGrath, a n a s s i s t a n t i n t h e Department of S t a t e , w i l l s e r v e as p u b l i c l i a i s o n f o r t h e commission d u r i n g i t s f o r m a t i v e s t a g e s . information, contact: F o r more R i c h a r d McGrath, A s s i s t a n t , New J e r s e y Department of S t a t e , CN 300, T r e n t o n , N J 08625. New York* F o r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t New York's b i c e n t e n n i a l p l a n s , c o n t a c t : Fredrica S. Goodman, O f f i c e of S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s and P r o t o c o l , 4 B u r n e t t Boulevard, Poughkeepsie, NY 12603; t e l e p h o n e (914) 431-5913. North C a r o l i n a Commission f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n I n J u l y 1984, t h e North C a r o l i n a l e g i s l a t u r e e s t a b l i s h e d a s t a t e commission f o r the bicentennial. The commission w i l l h a v e 21 members and a s t a f f of s i x . It i s c h a i r e d j o i n t l y by t h e Chief J u s t i c e of t h e S t a t e Supreme C o u r t , t h e P r e s i d e n t P r o Tempore of t h e S t a t e S e n a t e and t h e Speaker of t h e S t a t e House of Representatives. F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t a c t : Hon. Robert J o r d a n , L i e u t e n a n t Governor of North C a r o l i n a , North C a r o l i n a Commission f o r t h e U.S. 17254, R a l e i g h , NC 27619. C o n s t i t u t i o n , P.0. Box North Dakota Constitution Celebration Committee The Committee, chaired by Honorable Herbert L. Meschke, state Supreme Court Justice, was organized by the North Dakota Supreme Court in 1985 to formulate a program to mark both the U.S. Constitution bicentennial and the centennial of the state's constitution in 1989. For further information contact: State Capitol, Bismarck, ND William G. Bohn, State Court Administrator, 58505; phone ( 7 0 1 ) 224-4216. Oregon Commission on the Bicentennial of the Constitution Oregon has recently established a commission to coordinate the state's commemoration of the bicentennial of the Constitution. For information, contact: Hon. Charles S. Crookham, Chair, Multnomah County Circuit Court, Portland, OR 9 7 2 0 4 ; telephone ( 5 0 3 ) 248-5198. Pennsylvania Commission on the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution* Pennsylvania has established a commission to coordinate the state's official efforts to commemorate the bicentennial. We have no information about the commission's plans. For information, contact: Harrisburg, PA Mitch Akers, Pennsylvania Department of Education ( 7 1 7 ) 787-7133. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission has undertaken a wide variety of programs marking observance of the Constitution's bicentennial. S e v e r a l p u b l i c a t i o n s a r e b e i n g p l a n n e d , i n c l u d i n g s p e c i a l i s s u e s of t h e Cornmission's q u a r t e r l y j o u r n a l , two b o o k l e t s "To Form a More P e r f e c t Union" ( d e t a i l i n g landmark c o u r t c a s e s i n v o l v i n g P e n n s y l v a n i a ; ) and " P e n n s y l v a n i a and t h e F e d e r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n " ( d e s c r i b i n g P e n n s y l v a n i a ' s r a t i f i c a t i o n of t h e Constitution). A c a l e n d a r of b i c e n t e n n i a l commemorative e v e n t s t h r o u g h o u t P e n n s y l v a n i a h a s been developed and d i s t r i b u t e d . An a l l - d a y symposium on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n For l e a d e r s i n government and t h e p r o f e s s i o n s and a s e r i e s of workshops f o r s o c i a l A number of e x h i b i t s , i n c l u d i n g one s t u d i e s t e a c h e r s have a l r e a d y been h e l d . i n t h e Commission's m o b i l e museum s p e c i a l l y d i r e c t e d t o s c h o o l c h i l d r e n which w i l l t o u r t h e s t a t e , a r e b e i n g developed. Major e x h i b i t s w i l l b e mounted i n t h e s t a t e C a p i t o l ' s r o t u n d a and i n t h e s t a r e museum. For more i n f o r m a t i o n : c o n t a c t J o h n B . T r u s s e l l , Programs D i r e c t o r , W i l l i a m Penn Memorial Museum and A r c h i v e s B u i l d i n g , Box 1026, H a r r i s b u r g , PA Philadelphia: "We The P e o p l e - 17108- 200" Committee "We t h e P e o p l e 200" i s t h e n a t i o n a l c e l e b r a t i o n i n P h i l a d e l p h i a of t h e 200th a n n i v e r s a r y of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . P h i l a d e l p h i a h a s been acknowledged by B i c e n t e n n i a l Commission Chairman Warren E. Burger a s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f o c u s of n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n i n 1987, and t h e c i t y i s p l a n n i n g a c e l e b r a t i o n worthy of that attention. E v e n t s of We t h e P e o p l e 200 r a n g e from t h e s p e c t a c u l a r - - f i r e - works, c o n c e r t s , and parades--to the Constitution. the cerebral--scholarly c o n f e r e n c e s examining Although i t i s a y e a r - l o n g c e l e b r a t i o n , t h e main c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f We t h e P e o p l e 200 e v e n t s i s from May t o September, 1987. The summer w i l l b e f i l l e d w i t h c e l e b r a t i o n , b e g i n n i n g w i t h o p e n i n g ceremonies e n t i t l e d " A l l Roads Lead t o P h i l a d e l p h i a , " h e l d Nemorial Day weekend. On J u l y 1 6 , t h e U.S. Congress will return to its original home for a special legislative session to commemorate the anniversary of the "Connecticut compromiseM--the first in Philadelphia since 1800, when the Capital was moved to Washington. The culmination of the celebration will be September 17, when the national commemoration of the 200th anniversary of the signing of the Constitution will be held in Philadelphia--an event which has been called "the highlight of the bicentennial in 1987." In 1987, Philadelphia will be the Constitutional City, just as it was in 1787. For more information, contact: Fred M. Stein, Executive Director, We the People 200, 313 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106; telephone (215) 922-1987. Rhode Island Bicentennial Foundation* The Foundation will coordinate Rhode Island's bicentennial observance. We have no information about the Foundation's plans. For information, contact: Dr. Patrick T. Conley, Chairman, Rhode Island Bicentennial Foundation, 189 Wickenden Street, Providence, RI 02903. U.S. Constitution Bicentennial Commission of South Carolina The Commission was created by the South Carolina legislature to plan the state's observance of the bicentennial through June 1990. The commission, chaired by Honorable P. Bradley Morrah and staffed by the state Department of Archives and History, is filling a coordinating and sponsoring role in assisting and encouraging various state organizations in bicentennial activities. Primary focus is directed to the bicentennials of South Carolina's ratification of the Constitution in 1988 and framing of the state constitution in 1990. For more information contact: Tray Stephenson, Projects Director, P.0. 11669, Columbia, SC 29211; telephone (803) 758-5816. Box Tennessee: Knoxville-Knox County C o n s t i t u t i o n B i c e n t e n n i a l Commission The Commission was e s t a b l i s h e d on September 1 7 , 1984, by j o i n t a c t i o n of t h e Mayor of t h e C i t y of K n o x v i l l e and t h e County E x e c u t i v e o f Knox County. The Commission's r o l e i s t o f a c i l i t a t e , c o o r d i n a t e , and a s s i s t community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , f r a t e r n a l g r o u p s , s c h o o l s , and p a t r i o t i c , r e l i g i o u s , b u s i n e s s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s i n t h e K n o x v i l l e a r e a i n p l a n n i n g t h e i r own b i c e n t e n n i a l programs. The Commission m a i n t a i n s a S p e a k e r s ' Bureau, p r o v i d i n g s p e a k e r s t o c i v i c and community g r o u p s on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l , and i s s u e s a q u a r t e r l y n e w s l e t t e r l i s t i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s of l o c a l , s t a t e , and n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s t h e y p l a n and p u r s u e b i c e n t e n n i a l programs. The Commission h a s a l s o begun a s e r i e s of p u b l i c forums on v a r i o u s c r i t i c a l i s s u e s a r i s i n g u n d e r t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , open t o a l l t h e c i t i z e n s of K n o x v i l l e and Knox County. The Commission a l s o e x p e c t s t o o r g a n i z e two p u b l i c c e l e b r a t o r y e v e n t s i n 1987, on o r a b o u t May 25 and September 17, on a p p r o p r i a t e b i c e n t e n n i a l themes, p r o b a b l y of a d r a m a t i c o r m u s i c a l n a t u r e . I n 1987, t h e Commission p l a n s t o p l a c e two s e r i e s of newspaper f e a t u r e s i n l o c a l p a p e r s on t h e themes "Do you know your C o n s t i t u t i o n ? " and "This week i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1987." F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t a c t M i l t o n M. K l e i n , Chairman, c / o Department of H i s t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f T e n n e s s e e , K n o x v i l l e , TN 37996; t e l e p h o n e (615) 974-5421. Texas * We have no i n f o r m a t i o n , a s of t h e p r i n t i n g d a t e , about T e x a s ' p l a n s f o r t ; bicentennial. For information, c o n t a c t : Aubrey Johnson, D i r e c t o r f o r I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l R e l a t i o n s , P.0- Box 13561, A u s t i n , TX 78711. Utah Governor's Commission on Law and Citizenship On December 17, 1985, Governor Norman H. Rangerter reestablished the Governor's Commission on Law and Citizenship, which will be responsible for coordinating the state's celebration of the Constitution bicentennial and promoting citizenship education. The 29-member Commission will be located organizationally in the Lieutenant Governor's office. For more information: Lake City, UT contact Brinton Burbidge, 330 South 300 East, Salt 84111; phone (801) 943-0516. Virginia Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution The Commission was created by statute January 16, 1985, to commemorate several bicentennials. Virginia's bicentennial era began in 1986 with the 200th anniversary of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, and continues in 1987 with celebration of the bicentennial of the drafting of the Constitution; in 1988, Virginia's ratification; in 1989, the inauguration of Virginian George Washington as the first U.S. President; and in 1991, adoption of the Bill of Rights. The Commission plans a statewide campaign to raise public awareness about the meaning of the Constitution. This campaign will highlight key provisions of the Constitution and remind citizens of the important role that Virginians such as Madison and Washington played in drafting the Constitution, and significant constitutional controversies involving Virginia. Beginning with a conference of reporters and editors in November 1986, the Commission will encourage all media to create features drawing on constitutional themes. The Commission's educational role will primarily be as coordinator. Working with the Virginia Department of Education, the Commission will offer V i r g i n i a t e a c h e r s a d i v e r s e a r r a y of o p t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a s w e l l a s a v a r i e t y of s u p p l e m e n t a l m a t e r i a l s , which w i l l i n c l u d e a l l C o m i s s i o n publications. I n J a n u a r y of 1986, t h e Commission began p u b l i c a t i o n of a b i m o n t h l y newsl e t t e r , t h e V i r g i n i a I n d e p e n d e n t , on b i c e n t e n n i a l e v e n t s a r o u n d t h e c o u n t r y and i n Virginia. Each n e w s l e t t e r i n c l u d e s a r t i c l e s on V i r g i n i a ' s h i s t o r i c r o l e i n t h e c r e a t i o n of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , p r o j e c t i d e a s f o r l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a r e v i e w of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s on t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l , and h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n a l documents. The Commission a l s o i n t e n d s t o p u b l i s h a s e r i e s of monographs on g r e a t V i r g i n i a n s who t o o k p a r t i n t h e d r a f t i n g of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and t h e s u b s e q u e n t d e b a t e o v e r ratification. T h e s e monographs w i l l be d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s t h e Commonwealth t o p u b l i c s c h o o l s , l i b r a r i e s , and h i s t o r i c s i t e s . The Commission i s a l s o p u b l i s h i n g a b o o k l e t of b i c e n t e n n i a l p r o j e c t i d e a s f o r l o c a l l i b r a r i e s , museums, s c h o o l s , and c i v i c g r o u p s . I n c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h t h e U.S. B i c e n t e n n i a l Commission, t h e V i r g i n i a B i c e n t e n n i a l Commission h a s begun a n i n i t i a t i v e t o encourage communities t o s e t up l o c a l commissions and b e g i n p l a n n i n g f o r t h e b i c e n t e n n i a l . To t h i s end, t h e V i r g i n i a Commission w i l l s p o n s o r a s e r i e s of s i x r e g i o n a l m e e t i n g s , i n t h e l a t e w i n t e r of 1987, a t which t h e Commission s t a f f and s e l e c t e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l e x p e r t s w i l l j o i n w i t h i n t e r e s t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s i n a d i s c u s s i o n of model l o c a l a c t i v i t i e s , a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a r y and f i l m r e s o u r c e s , and a v e n u e s f o r l o c a l s c h o l a r s h i p on c o n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r y . These r e g i o n a l m e e t i n g s w i l l h e l p s t i m u l a t e and g u i d e s u b m i s s i o n s f o r t h e l o c a l g r a n t s program, u n d e r which t h e Commission w i l l award f u n d s on a c o m p e t i t i v e b a s i s t o l o c a l p r o j e c t s t h a t a r e s u p p o r t e d by matching f u n d s . These p r o j e c t s may i n c l u d e e x h i b i t s i n museums and p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s , p u b l i c symposia, s p e c i a l d e b a t e or writing projects in the schools, and new scholarship or archival work on Virginia Constitutional history. In addition to the media and regional conferences, the Virginia Commission has planned a five-day conference cosponsored by the University of Virginia, the Smithsonian Institution, and the American Bar Association on the Constitution's history and its implications for today. The Commission also plans to develop a major film project highlighting the struggle for ratification of the Constitution in Virginia. The film will draw on Virginia locales to delineate the personalities and ideas on both sides of the ratification debate. The Institute of Government at the University of Virginia serves as staff to the Virginia Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution. For further information, contact: Timothy G. O'Rourke or Tracy Warren at the University of Virginia Institute of Government, Charlottesville, VA 22903; telephone (804) 924-1053. Washington Constitution Committee Washington's bicentennial plans are being coordinated by the state Centennial Commission's Constitution Committee. For information about the state's plans, contact: Robert E. Mack, Chairman, Washington Constitution Committee, 111 West 21st Avenue, Olympia, WA 98504; telephone (206) 753-0177. APPENDIX S t a t e Humanittes Councils ALABAMA The Committee f o r t h e H u m a n i t i e s i n Alabama Box A-40 Birningham-Southern C o l l e g e Birmingham, AL 35254 (205)324-1314 ALASKA A l a s k a H u m a n i t i e s Forum 429 D S t r e e t , Rm. 312 Loussac Sogn B u i l d i n g Anchorage, AK 99501 (907)272-5341 DELAWARE Delaware H u m a n i t i e s Forum 2600 P e n n s y l v a n i a Avenue Wilmington, DE 19806 (302) 738-8491 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA D.C. Community H u m a n i t i e s Counci 1 1341 G S t r e e t , NW S u i t e 620 Washington, DC 20005 (202)347-1732 ARIZONA A r i z o n a H u m a n i t i e s Counci 1 F i r s t I n t e r s t a t e Bank P l a z a 100 W. Washington, S u i t e 1290 Phoenix, AZ 85003 (602)257-0335 FLORIDA F l o r i d a Endowment f o r t h e Humanities LET 468 U n i v e r s i t y of S o u t h F l o r i d a Tampa, FL 33620 (813)974-4094 ARKANSAS Arkansas Endowment f o r t h e Humanities The Remmel B u i l d i n g , S u i t e 102 1010 West 3 r d S t r e e t L i t t l e Rock, AR 72201 (501)372-2672 GEORGIA G e o r g i a Endowment f o r t h e Humanities 1589 C l i f t o n Rd, NE Emory U n i v e r s i t y A t l a n t a , GA 30322 (404)329-7500 CALIFORNIA C a l i f o r n i a Council f o r t h e Humanities 312 S u t t e r S t r e e t , S u i t e 601 San F r a n c i s c o , CA 94108 (415)391-1474 HAWAII Hawaii Committee f o r t h e Humanities 2615 S o u t h King S t r e e t , S u i t e 211 Honolulu, H I 96826 (808)947-5891 COLORADO C o l o r a d o H u m a n i t i e s Program 601 Broadway, S u i t e 307 Denver, CO 80203 (303)595-0881 IDAHO The A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e H u m a n i t i e s i n Idaho 1409 West Washington S t r e e t B o i s e , I D 83702 (208)345-5346 CONNECTICUT C o n n e c t i c u t Humanities C o u n c i l 195 Church S t r e e t Wesleyan S t a t i o n Middletown, CT 06457 (203)347-6888 ILLINOIS I l l i n o i s Humanities Council 201 W. S p r i n g f i e l d Avenue S u i t e 205 Champaign, IL 61820 (217)333-7611 INDIANA Indiana Committee for the Humanities 3135 Meridian Street Indianapolis, IN 46203 (317) 925-5316 MICHIGAN Michigan Council Humanities Nisbet Building, 1407 S. Harrison East Lansing, MI (517)355-0160 IOWA Iowa Humanities Board Oakdale Campus University of Iowa Iowa City, IA 52242 (319)353-6754 MINNESOTA Minnesota Humanities Commission LL 85 Metro Square St. Paul, MN 55101 (612)224-5739 KANSAS Kansas Committee for the Humanities 112 West Sixth Street, Suite 509 Topeka, KS 66603 (913)357-0359 MISSISSIPPI Mississippi Committee for Humanities, Inc. 3825 Ridgewood Road, Rm. 111 Jackson, MS 39211 (601)982-6752 KENTUCKY Kentucky Humanities Council, Inc. Ligon House University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40508 (606)258-5932 MISSOURI Missouri State Committee for the Humanities Loberg Building, Suite 204 11425 Dorsett Road Maryland Heights, MO 63043 (314)739-7368 LOUISIANA Louisiana Committee for the Humanities 1215 Prytania Street, Suite 535 New Orleans, LA 70130 (504)523-4352 MAINE Maine Humanities Council P.0. BOX 7202 Portland, ME 04112 (207)773-5051 MARY LAND The Maryland Committee for the Humanities 516 N . Charles St., #304-305 Baltimore, MD 21201 (301)837-1938 MASSACHUSETTS Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities and Public Policy 237 E. Whitmore Admin. Rldg. University of Massachusetts Amherst, HA 01003 (413)545-1936 for the Suite 30 Road 48824 MONTANA Montana Committee for the Humanities P.0. BOX 8036 Hellgate Station Missoula, MT 59807 (406)243-6022 NEBRASKA Nebraska Committee for the Bumanit ies Cooper Plaza, Suite 405 211 N. 12th Street Lincoln, NE 68508 (402)474-2131 NEVADA Nevada Humanities Committee P.0. BOX 8065 Reno, NV 89507 (702)784-6587 NEW HAMPSHIRE New Hampshire Council for the Humanities 112 South State Street Concord, NH 03301 (603)224-4071 OREGON Oregon Committee for the Humanities 418 S. W. Washington, Rm.410 Portland, OR 97204 (503)241-0543 NEW JERSEY New Jersey Committee for the Humanities 73 Easton Avenue New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (201)932-7726 PENNSYLVANIA Pennsylvania Humanities Council 401 N. Broad Street Philadelphia, PA 19108 (215)925-1005 NEW MEXICO New Mexico Humanities Council 1712 Las Lomas NE University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131 (505)277-3705 NEW YORK New York Council for the Humanities 33 West 42nd Street New York, NY 10036 (212)354-3040 NORTH CAROLINA North Carolina Humanities Committee 112 Foust Building, UNC-Greensboro Greensboro, NC 27412 (919)379-5325 NORTH DAKOTA North Dakota Humanities Council Box 2191 Bismarck, ND 58502 (701)663-1948 OHIO The Ohio Humanities Council 760 Pleasant Ridge Avenue Columbus, OH 43209 (614)236-6879 OKLAHOMA Oklahoma Humanities Committee Executive Terrace Building 2809 Northwest Expressway Suite 500 Oklahoma City, OK 73112 (405)840-1721 PUERTO RICO Fundacion Puertorriquena de las Humanidades Box 5-4307 Old San Juan, PR 00904 (809)723-2087 RHODE ISLAND Rhode Island Committee for the Humanities 463 Broadway Providence, RI 02909 (401)273-2250 SOUTH CAROLINA South Carolina Committee for the Humanities 17 Calendar Court Suite 86 Columbia, SC 29206 (803)738-1850 SOUTH DAKOTA South Dakota Committee on the Humanities University Station, Box 35 Brookings, SD 57007 (605)688-4823 TENNESSEE Tennessee Committee for the Humanities 1001 18th Avenue South Nashville, TN 37212 (615)320-7001 TEXAS Texas Cormnittee for the Humanities 1604 Nueces Austin, TX 78701 (512)473-8585 UTAH Utah Endowment for the Humanities 10 West Broadway Broadway Building, Suite 900 Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (801)531-7868 VERMONT Vermont Council on the Humanities and Public Issues Grant House, P.O. Box 58 Hyde Park, VT 05655 (802)888-3183 VIRGINIA Virginia foundation for the Humanities and Public Policy One-B West Range University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22903 (804)924-3296 WASHINGTON Washington Comiss€on for the Humanities Olympia, WA 98505 (206)866-6510 WEST VIRGINIA The Humanities Foundation of West Virginia Box 204 Institute, WV 25112 (304)768-8869 WISCONSIN Wisconsin Humanities Committee 716 Langdon Street Madison, WI 53706 (608)262-0706 WYOMING Wyoming Council for the Humanities Box 3274-University Station Laramie, WY 82701 (307)766-6496