Summaries of Federal Environmental Laws Administered by the Environmental Protection Agency

SUMMARIES OF FEDERAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS ADMINISTERED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY by the Environmental Protection Section of the Environment And Natural Resources Policy Division With Contributions By The Science Policy Research Division March 1, 1984 TP 450 U.S. B . 2 . The Congressional Research Service works exclusively for the Congress, conducting research, analyzing legislation, and providing information at the request of committees, Members, and their staffs. The Service makes such research available, without partisan bias, in many forms including studies, reports, compilations, digests, and background briefings. Upon request, CRS assists committees in analyzing legislative proposals and issues, and in assessing the possible effects of these proposals and their alternatives. The Service's senior specialists and subject analysts are also available for personal consultations in their respective fields of expertise. ABSTRACT These summaries of environmental laws administered by the Environmental Protection Agency are intended to supplement earlier CRS reports with concise descriptions of EPA's present authorities and responsibilities. Although many details or technical aspects are omitted, emphasis has been placed on conveying the essence of each statute, along with the overall strategy of pollution control, definitions of key terms, and the status of legislative authorizations. CONTENTS .................................................................... iii INTRODUCTION ................................................................ 3 CLEAN A I R ACT ............................................................... 5 CLEAN WATER ACT ............................................................. 13 THE OCEAN DUMPING ACT ....................................................... 19 S A F E D R I N K I N G WATER ACT ..................................................... 23 THE RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT .................................. 29 ................................................................. 33 FEDERAL I N S E C T I C I D E , F U N G I C I D E . AND RODENTICIDE ACT (FIFRA) ................. 39 T O X I C SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ................................................ 45 N O I S E CONTROL ACT O F 1972 ............................................... 51 ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ...................................... 55 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL P O L I C Y ACT: EPA FUNCTIONS UNDER THE ACT ............ 61 ABSTRACT 1 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 1 SCHEDULE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STATUTE AUTHORIZATION EXPIRATIONS ( a s of J a n u a r y 1984) E x p i r a t i o n of Authorizations C l e a n A i r Act -* / September 30, 1981 Clean Water Act ( a ) Sewage t r e a t m e n t g r a n t s September 30, 1985 ( b ) O t h e r programs September 30, 1982 Resource C o n s e r v a t i o n and Recovery Act September 30, 1982 Superfund C o l l e c t i o n of t a x e s f o r f u n d September 30, 1985 S a f e D r i n k i n g Water Act September 30, 1982 Federal Insecticide, F u n g i c i d e , and R o d e n t i c i d e Act September 30, 1984 T o x i c S u b s t a n c e s C o n t r o l Act September 3 0 , 1983 Ocean Dumping September 30, 1982 h n v i r o n m e n t a l R e s e a r c h and Development September 30, 1982 */ House r u l e s r e q u i r e enactment of a n a u t h o r i z a t i o n b e f o r e a n a p p r o & i a t i o n b i l l can be c o n s i d e r e d , b u t t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t can be waived-and f r e q u e n t l y h a s been. Thus, w h i l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a t u t e a u t h o r i z a t i o n s have e x p i r e d from t i m e t o t i m e , programs have c o n t i n u e d and have been funded. INTRODUCTION The authorities and responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency derive primarily from about 10 major statutes together with provisions from several other statutes. The origin of EPA and the evolution of the major statutes are described in a CRS report, "Environmental Protection: An Historical Review of the Legislation and Programs of the Environmental Protection Agency," March 1, 1983 [Report No. 83-34 ENR]. Such an historical approach has numerous advantages, and it provides insights into h m Congress has developed and modified pollution control programs. But the format of that earlier report resulted in lengthy descrip- tions of superseded provisions which may obscure the picture of current authorities and responsibilities. This report is designed to supplement the earlier one by providing a concise picture of EPA's present authorities and responsibilities. This report, then, consists of precis of EPA-administered statutes, with each chapter intended to be a discrete analysis. While these summaries present h the essence of each statute, they are necessarily incomplete. Many details and secondary provisions are omitted, and even major components of some statutes are only sketched in. The 190-page Clean Air Act, for example, is summarized in 8 pages. Moreover, this report describes the statutes without discussing actual implementation problems that may have occurred. For example, deadlines to control pollutant discharges and achieve particular statutory mandates have often been postponed as a result of delayed standard-setting by EPA. Nevertheless, every effort has been made to convey the overall strategy of pollution control, and the major programs authorized by each act. In short, while this report is not intended to contain the level of detail necessary for one to evaluate specific regulatory requirements, it does provide an overview of environmental programs, an introduction to hcw each Act is structured, definitions of key terms, and reviews of the current status of each act. The chapters of this report were prepared in the Environment and Natural Resources Policy Division (ENR) under the direction of John Blodgett; with contributions by Maria Grimes, Claudia Copeland, Martin Lee, Donald Feliciano, Mark Reisch, Steve Hughes and John Blodgett, and vith material contributed by Migdon Segal of the Science Policy Research Division, and vith editing by Steve Hughes of ENR; and editorial production by Sharon Nixon, Office of Senior Specialists. CLEAN AIR ACT The Clean Air Act is Congress' response to deteriorating air quality resulting from the growth of America's industrialization as well as its dependence on the automobile. The Act is designed to limit and reverse the pollution of the ambient air through reductions of individual pollutants emitted by their sources. Initial versions of the Act in the early 1960s limited the Federal role largely to research and development and to assistance to the States that were still primarily responsible for pollution control programs. However, as knowledge about air pollution increased and air quality appeared to worsen, the Federal role was strengthened in a series of amendments. These amendments culminated in December 1970, when the Clean Air Act was enacted essentially in its present form (P.L. 91-604). The newly created Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was authorized to carry out the provisions of the Act. With the energy crisis of 1973-1974, the Act was amended by the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act (EsEcA) of 1974 (P.L. 93-319) in an effort to stimulate increased use of domestic fuels through temporary waivers of emission control requirements. Continued energy and economic concerns plus a number of implementation problems led to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 (P.L. 95-95). None of these amendments changed the basic structure or the goals of the Act; neither did they permit any waiver of health-based air quality standards, though delays in attainment were allwed. BACKGROUND Strategically, the Clean Air Act is designed around health-based national ambient air quality standards. These are to be met through the application of control technology that will reduce emissions continuously and result in improved air quality. Costs and technological capability are subordinated to the requirement for protecting health. Moreover, these requirements are national, so that no facility should gain a competitive edge by having to meet less stringent controls in some areas. The basic structure of the Clean Air Act is contained in the following provisions : National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) , which set limits on pollution levels in ambient air; National Emission Standards to control hazardous air pollutants (NESHAPS); State Implementation Plans (SIPS), which contain the pollution cleanup program of each State; New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), which impose technologybased control requirements on emissions from new stationary sources of pollution; Statutory mobile source controls that restrict emissions from motor vehicles; Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD), designed to prevent cleaner air in selected regions from deteriorating to the maximum (most ~olluted) levels allowed by the NAAQS; and Limitations on new emissions in non-attainment areas--those where NAAQS are not being met--by utilizing ceilings or offsets. CRS - 7 1. N a t i o n a l Ambient A i r Q u a l i t y S t a n d a r d s ( s e c t i o n 1 0 9 ) The Act r e q u i r e s EPA t o e s t a b l i s h NAAQS f o r a i r p o l l u t a n t s t h a t e n d a n g e r p u b l i c h e a l t h and w e l f a r e and t h a t a r e e m i t t e d i n t o t h e a i r by numerous sources. EPA must s e t two l e v e l s of NAAQS: "Primary s t a n d a r d s " s e t a t l e v e l s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o t e c t human h e a l t h ; more s t r i n g e n t " s e c o n d a r y s t a n d a r d s " s e t t o p r o t e c t w e l f a r e , w h i c h i n c l u d e s a i r p o l l u t i o n " e f f e c t s on s o i l s , w a t e r , c r o p s , v e g e t a t i o n , manmade m a t e r i a l s , a n i m a l s , w i l d l i f e , w e a t h e r , v i s i b i l i t y , c l i m a t e , damage t o and d e t e r i o r a t i o n of p r o p e r t y , and h a z a r d s t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a s w e l l a s e f f e c t s on economic v a l u e s and on p e r s o n a l c o m f o r t and v e l l b e i n g . " EPA h a s promulgated NAAQS f o r s e v e n major p o l l u t a n t s : s u l f u r oxides (SOX), suspended p a r t i c u l a t e m a t t e r (TSP), n i t r o g e n o x i d e s ( N O X ) , c a r b o n monoxide ( c o ) , photochemical o x i d a n t s (measured a s o z o n e ) , h y d r o c a r b o n s (HC), and l e a d ( ~ b ) . These a r e o f t e n c a l l e d " c r i t e r i a p o l l u t a n t s " b e c a u s e t h e i r s t a n d a r d s a r e based on " c r i t e r i a documents" p r e p a r e d by EPA. Except f o r l e a d , which was l i s t e d more r e c e n t l y , t h e e n f o r c e m e n t d e a d l i n e f o r a t t a i n i n g t h e NAAQS f o r t h e c r i t e r i a p o l l u t a n t s was December 3 1 , 1982. Urban a r e a s w i t h s e v e r e o x i d a n t and c a r b o n monoxide problems may r e c e i v e a n e x t e n s i o n t o December 3 1 , 1987, p r o v i d e d t h e y t a k e c e r t a i n e x t r a s t e p s t o c o n t r o l t h e sources of t h e s e p o l l u t a n t s . EPA was t o have reviewed t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on w h i c h c u r r e n t NAAQS a r e b a s e d by t h e end of 1980, and e v e r y 5 y e a r s t h e r e a f t e r ; t h e r e v i e w s a r e n o t y e t completed, however. A l s o , EPA h a s s t a t u t o r y mandates t o s t u d y s e v e r a l u n r e g u l a t e d p o l l u t a n t s f o r p o s s i b l e c o n t r o l , i n c l u d i n g cadmium and p o l y c y c l i c o r g a n i c m a t t e r (PoM), one of s e v e r a l v o l a t i l e o r g a n i c compounds. 2. Hazardous A i r P o l l u t a n t s ( S e c t i o n 112) The 1970 CAA r e q u i r e s EPA t o d e v e l o p a l i s t i n g o f a i r p o l l u t a n t s whose emissions a r e l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n m o r t a l i t y o r s e r i o u s i r r e v e r s i b l e i l l n e s s a n d , once l i s t e d , p r o p o s e s t a n d a r d s t o r e g u l a t e such emissions. Congress and o t h e r g r o u p s have been concerned a b o u t EPA's slowness i n implementing t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s . - substances*/ f o u r of them. S i n c e 1970, t h e agency h a s l i s t e d 7 a s h a z a r d o u s and e s t a b l i s h e d e m i s s i o n s t a n d a r d s f o r t h e f i r s t ~ e t w e e n1977 and 1982, EPA i d e n t i f i e d a n o t h e r 37 s u b s t a n c e s a s c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e l i s t i n g , b u t h a s n o t approved i n c l u s i o n on t h e l i s t n o r proposed e m i s s i o n s t a n d a r d s f o r any of them. 3. S t a t e Implementation P l a n s (SIPS) ( S e c t i o n 110) While t h e Act a u t h o r i z e s t h e F e d e r a l EPA t o s e t NAAQS, i t d e l e g a t e s t o t h e S t a t e s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e p r o c e d u r e s by which t h e NAAQS w i l l be met and e n f o r c e d . EPA must approve t h e p l a n s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y a r e a d e q u a t e t o meet t h e s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s . The United S t a t e s h a s been d i v i d e d i n t o 247 a i r q u a l i t y c o n t r o l (AQcKs) r e g i o n s , and each S t a t e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e NAAQS i n t h e a i r q u a l i t y r e g i o n s w i t h i n i t s jurisdiction. SIPS a r e developed by a s s e s s i n g e m i s s i o n s i n a i r q u a l i t y r e g i o n s and computing by m a t h e m a t i c a l modeling w h e t h e r t h o s e e m i s s i o n s w i l l r e s u l t i n a i r q u a l i t y i n v i o l a t i o n of a p p l i c a b l e a i r q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s ; t o t h e e x t e n t s t a n d a r d s would b e e x c e e d e d , t h e S t a t e imposes c o n t r o l s on s o u r c e s t o r e d u c e the excess emissions. The Act now p r o h i b i t s t h e u s e of t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h d i s - p e r s e r a t h e r t h a n r e d u c e emissions--such a s very t a l i stacks--except s p e c i a l , v e r y l i m i t e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s and on an i n t e r i m b a s i s o n l y . p r o h i b i t s i n t e r m i t t e n t r a t h e r t h a n c o n t i n u o u s c o n t r o l methods. in It a l s o Proposed new and m o d i f i e d s o u r c e s must o b t a i n S t a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r m i t s f o r which t h e a p p l i c a n t shows how t h e a n t i c i p a t e d e m i s s i o n s w i l l n o t exceed a l l o w a b l e 1 i m i t s */ Mercury, b e r y l l i u m , a s b e s t o s , v i n y l c h l o r i d e , b e n z e n e , r a d i o n u c l i d e s , inorganic arsenic. . Follcwing the 1977 Amendments, each State by July 1979 was to incorporate as to nonattainment areas new requirements and the new deadlines for achieving NAAQS into its SIP. All States have submitted revised, partial, or complete plans and many have been approved by EPA. If EPA finds it cannot approve a SIP and the attainment deadline is exceeded, then it must impose a construction ban on new major sources of the pollutant in question. EPA1s authority to impose such sanctions has been upheld by the courts, and the agency has imposed construction bans on 49 States in mid-1979. EPA has also withheld funds from 3 States temporarily for failure to invoke "reasonable efforts" to comply. 4. New Source Performance Standarcs (NsPS) -(Section 111) These standards are to ensure that new industrial facilities comply with uniform Federal standards. Applying to certain categories of stationary sources that are major polluters (for example, pmerplants, steel mills, smelters), NSPS set maximum emissions for new or extensively modified facilities in these categories, with the emission levels determined by the best "adequately demonstrated" continuous control technology available, taking costs into account. EPA must regularly revise and update NSPS applicable to designated sources as new technology becomes available, since the goal of using them is to prevent new pollution problems from developing and to force the installation of new control technology. 5. Emission Controls for Mobile Sources ( ~ i t l e11) Since 1965, the CAA has established emission standards for automobiles and light trucks; most other mobile sources have been regulated subsequently. These Federal standards preempt State auto emission standards, except for California, which is permitted to request a waiver annually to allow stricter standards. EPA conducts a testing and certification program to ensure that new model vehicles--including imports--meet the standards. The 1970 A c t r e q u i r e d t h a t e m i s s i o n s of c a r b o n monoxide and h y d r o c a r b o n s be r e d u c e d by 90% by 1975 and e m i s s i o n s o f n i t r o g e n o x i d e s b e r e d u c e d by 90% by 1976 from t h e e m i s s i o n s a l l m e d i n 1970. d e a d l i n e s and s e t i n t e r i m s t a n d a r d s . The 1974 amendments d e l a y e d t h e The 1977 Amendments f u r t h e r d e l a y e d t h e d e a d l i n e s , t o 1982 f o r CO and H C , and t o 1985 f o r NOx; a l s o , t h e e m i s s i o n r e d u c t i o n f o r NOx was r e d u c e d t o 7 5 % , w i t h t h e 90% r e d u c t i o n s e t a s a r e s e a r c h goal. To r e d u c e p o l l u t i o n f u r t h e r , t h e CAA a l s o r e q u i r e s EPA t o c o n t r o l f u e l s and f u e l a d d i t i v e s which a r e u s e d i n m o b i l e s o u r c e s . Under t h i s a u t h o r i t y , EPA h a s b e e n p h a s i n g o u t t h e u s e o f l e a d as a n o c t a n e - b o o s t e r b e c a u s e o f i t s h e a l t h h a z a r d s , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e p r o h i b i t i n g i t s u s e i n c a r s c a t a l y t i c c o n v e r t e r s , w h i c h a r e "poisoned" by t h e l e a d . 6. P r e v e n t i o n o f S i g n i f i c a n t D e t e r i o r a t i o n (PSD) ( T i t l e I , P a r t C ) Prevention of S i g n i f i c a n t D e t e r i o r a t i o n i s t h e p o l i c y t h a t e x i s t i n g l e v e l s o f a i r q u a l i t y h i g h e r t h a n r e q u i r e d by NAAQS s h o u l d b e p r o t e c t e d against s i g n i f i c a n t degradation. I t means t h a t s o u r c e s i n " c l e a n a i r " r e g i o n s do n o t have any " r i g h t " t o p o l l u t e t h e c l e a n a i r i n c r e m e n t e v e n i f t h e NAAQS would n o t b e v i o l a t e d . Such s o u r c e s must i n s t a l l r e q u i r e d e m i s s i o n c o n t r o l t e c h n o l o g y t h a t may b e s t r i c t e r t h a n t h a t r e q u i r e d by NSPS. The j u s t i f i c a t i o n s of t h e p o l i c y a r e t h a t i t p r o t e c t s a i r q u a l i t y , m a i n t a i n s c l e a n a i r i n c r e m e n t s f o r f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t , and p r e v e n t s f i r m s from g a i n i n g a c o m p e t i t i v e e d g e by II shopping" f o r " c l e a n a i r " t o p o l l u t e . p r e t e d by t h e courts--PSD I m p l i c i t i n t h e 1970 Act--as inter- was made e x p l i c i t by t h e 1977 Amendments; and PSD r e q u i r e m e n t s must b e a p a r t o f a l l S I P S . A t p r e s e n t , PSD r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y o n l y t o p a r t i c u l a t e s and s u l f u r o x i d e s , b u t w i l l b e e x t e n d e d t o o t h e r p o l l u t a n t s i n a second s e t of r e g u l a t i o n s . these. EPA h a s p r o p o s e d b u t n o t y e t f i n a l i z e d The Act n m r e g u l a t e s PSD by r e q u i r i n g c l e a n a i r a r e a s t o b e d e s i g n a t e d in t h r e e c l a s s e s w i t h s p e c i f i e d i n c r e m e n t s of p o l l u t i o n a l l o w e d t o be e m i t t e d i n each. These i n c r e m e n t s r a n g e from v e r y l i t t l e i n C l a s s I a r e a s - - s t a t u t o r i l y t h e s e i n c l u d e l a r g e n a t i o n a l p a r k s and w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s - - t h r o u g h modest i n c r e a s e s i n C l a s s I1 a r e a s ( n e a r l y a l l o t h e r r e g i o n s ) t o e s s e n t i a l l y t h e l e v e l o f minimum (NAAQS) s t a n d a r d s i n C l a s s 111 a r e a s (more i n d u s t r i a l i z e d a r e a s ) . P r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v i n g EPA c o n c u r r e n c e a r e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r r e - c l a s s i f y i n g other than those s t a t u t o r i l y designated a s Class I. areas New and m o d i f i e d s o u r c e s i n PSD a r e a s must i n s t a l l Best A v a i l a b l e C o n t r o l Technology (BAcT). As p a r t of t h e PSD r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e Act p r o v i d e s f o r v i s i b i l i t y p r o t e c t i o n i n mandatory C l a s s I a r e a s . EPA must l i s t mandatory F e d e r a l C l a s s I a r e a s where v i s i b i l i t y i s i m p o r t a n t and i d e n t i f y e m i s s i o n s o u r c e s which i m p a i r v i s i b i l i t y . S t a t e s must t h e n i n c l u d e i n S I P S e m i s s i o n l i m i t a - t i o n s b a s e d on b e s t a v a i l a b l e r e t r o f i t t e c h n o l o g y f o r t h e s e s o u r c e s . 7. Nonattainment A r e a s ( ~ i t l eI , P a r t D ) Nonattainment a r e a s a r e r e g i o n s w h i c h have f a i l e d t o meet NAAQS f o r one o r more p o l l u t a n t s . I n t h e view of some, t h e 1970 Act p r o h i b i t e d t h e con- s t r u c t i o n o f new f a c i l i t i e s i n n o n a t t a i n m e n t a r e a s a f t e r t h e s t a t u t o r y 1975 d e a d l i n e f o r a c h i e v i n g NAAQS. Most h e a v i l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d and d e n s e l y popu- l a t e d a r e a s o f t h e c o u n t r y f a i l e d t o meet t h e d e a d l i n e , however--many, f a c t , s t i l l have n o t a c h i e v e d i t . in I f i n d u s t r i a l expansion continued t o be p r o h i b i t e d i n t h e s e r e g i o n s , t h e y w e r e l i k e l y t o s u f f e r economic and s o c i a l hardships. S i n c e no s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o m i t i g a t e t h i s p r o h i b i t i o n , t h e EPA e s t a b l i s h e d a n " o f f s e t p o l i c y " a s a n i n t e r i m m e a s u r e . Under t h i s p o l i c y , a p r e c o n s t r u c t i o n review was r e q u i r e d i n n o n a t t a i n m e n t a r e a s , and new o r m o d i f i e d s o u r c e s would be p e r m i t t e d i f t h e i r e m i s s i o n s would b e more t h a n o f f s e t by e m i s s i o n r e d u c t i o n s from e x i s t i n g s o u r c e s i n t h e a r e a . The net total emissions of the new source together with the reduced emissions of existing sources must contribute to reasonable progress tmard attainment of NAAQS. Thus, the policy permitted the opportunity for new construction in nonattainment areas, while ensuring that progress tmard the achievement of clean air would continue. The 1977 CAA Amendments incorporated the "offset" strategy and defined the conditions for permitting new construction. These conditions include: a State permit system for all new or modified sources; offsets that ensure "reasonable further progress" tmard attainment; installation of equipment to obtain the Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER) by new and expanded facilities and reasonably available control technology (RAcT) to retrofit existing plants; additional mobile source control measures and improved public transportation in areas which cannot attain oxidant and carbon monoxide standards by 1982. States which fail to institute such measures, especially mandatory inspection/ maintenance programs for auto emission controls, would face sanctions of a construction ban, losing CAA grants and certain Federal highway construction funds, or, at EPA's discretion, sewage treatment construction grants for plants that would contribute to the nonattainment problem. In 1983, EPA limited imposition of sanctions to areas not acting in good faith to comply. The agency also decided not to ban new construction in nonattainment areas with fully approved remedial plans. The 1977 Amendments (section 323) also established the National Commission on Air Quality to report to Congress on the effectiveness of the programs of the CAA. The Commission submitted its final report, "To Breathe Clean Air", to Congress on March 2, 1981. Several of this report's recommendations have been incorporated in various legislation pending before the 98th Congress. CLEAN WATER ACT The p r i n c i p a l l a w g o v e r n i n g p o l l u t i o n i n t h e N a t i o n ' s w a t e r w a y s i s t h e F e d e r a l Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , o r C l e a n Water A c t . i n 1948 (P.L. 80-845), amendments i n 1972 (P.L. 92-500) Originally enacted t o t a l l y revised the A c t , g i v i n g i t i t s c u r r e n t s h a p e and s p e l l i n g o u t a m b i t i o u s programs f o r w a t e r q u a l i t y improvement new b e i n g p u t i n p l a c e by i n d u s t r i e s and m u n i c i p a l ities. Congress made c e r t a i n f i n e - t u n i n g amendments i n 1977 (P.L. a g a i n r e a u t h o r i z e d and r e v i s e d p o r t i o n s o f t h e law i n 1981 (P.L. 95-217) and 97-117). OVERVIEW The Clean Water Act e s t a b l i s h e s a s i t s o b j e c t i v e t h e r e s t o r a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e " c h e m i c a l , p h y s i c a l , and b i o l o g i c a l i n t e g r i t y o f t h e Nation's waters." 'Iko g o a l s a l s o a r e e s t a b l i s h e d : z e r o d i s c h a r g e of pollu- t a n t s by 1985 a n d , a s a n i n t e r i m g o a l and where p o s s i b l e , w a t e r q u a l i t y t h a t i s b o t h " f i s h a b l e " and "swimmable" by mid-1983. The Act c o u l d b e s a i d t o c o n s i s t of two m a j o r p a r t s , one b e i n g t h e T i t l e I1 p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h a u t h o r i z e a F e d e r a l g r a n t program t o a s s i s t munic i p a l i t i e s i n c o n s t r u c t i n g sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s . The o t h e r m a j o r p a r t i s r e g u l a t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s , found t h r o u g h o u t t h e A c t , t h a t a p p l y t o i n d u s t r i a l and m u n i c i p a l d i s c h a r g e r s . The Act h a s been termed a t e c h n o l o g y - f o r c i n g s t a t u t e b e c a u s e of t h e r i g o r o u s demands p l a c e d on t h o s e who a r e r e g u l a t e d by i t t o a c h i e v e h i g h e r and h i g h e r l e v e l s of p o l l u t i o n a b a t e m e n t . I n d u s t r i e s were g i v e n u n t i l J u l y 1 , 1 9 7 7 , t o i n s t a l l " b e s t p r a c t i c a b l e c o n t r o l t e c h n o l o g y " (BPT) t o clean up waste discharges. Municipal wastewater treatment plants were required to meet an equivalent goal, termed "secondary treatment," by that date. (Municipalities unable to achieve secondary treatment by that date may apply for case-by-case extensions up to July 1, 1988.) Cities that discharge wastes into marine waters are eligible for case-by-case waivers of the secondary treatment requirement, where sufficient showing can be made that natural factors provide significant elimination of traditional forms of pollution. The Clean Water Act requires greater pollutant cleanup by mid-1984, generally demanding use by industry of "best available technology" (BAT) economically achievable. Time extensions up to mid-1987 are available for industrial sources utilizing innovative or alternative technology. No time extensions are allowed for treatment of toxic pollutants, however. Failure to meet statutory deadlines could lead to enforcement action. Under this Act, Federal jurisdiction is broad, particularly regarding establishment of national standards or effluent limitations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issues regulations containing the BPT and BAT effluent limitations applicable to categories of industrial sources (such as iron and steel manufacturing, organic chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and others). Certain responsibilities are delegated to the States, and this Act, like other environmental laws, embodies a philosophy of Federal-State partnership in which the national government sets the agenda and standards for pollution abatement and States carry out day-to-day activities of implementation and enforcement. Delegated responsibilities under the Act include authority for qualified States to issue discharge permits to industries and municipalities and to certify and administer portions of the construction grants program. (As of December 1983, 34 States plus the V i r g i n I s l a n d s had been d e l e g a t e d t h e p e r m i t program, and 45 S t a t e s p l u s P u e r t o R i c o had o b t a i n e d a u t h o r i t y t o manage p o r t i o n s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l c o n s t r u c t i o n g r a n t s programs.) I n addition, States a r e responsible for establishing water quality s t a n d a r d s , c o n s i s t i n g o f a d e s i g n a t e d u s e ( r e c r e a t i o n , w a t e r s u p p l y , indust r i a l , o r o t h e r ) , p l u s a numerical o r n a r r a t i v e statement of t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of v a r i o u s c o n s t i t u e n t s necessary t o support t h e d e s i g n a t e d use. s t a n d a r d s s e r v e a s t h e backup t o f e d e r a l l y s e t technology-based These requirements, by i n d i c a t i n g where a d d i t i o n a l p o l l u t a n t c o n t r o l s a r e needed t o a c h i e v e t h e o v e r a l l g o a l s of t h e Act. Programs i n t h e Clean Water Act a r e p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d a t p o i n t s o u r c e p o l l u t i o n , t h a t i s , w a s t e s d i s c h a r g e d from d i s c r e t e and i d e n t i f i a b l e s o u r c e s , such a s p i p e s and o u t f a l l s . In c o n t r a s t , l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n h a s been given t o n o n p o i n t s o u r c e p o l l u t i o n ( s t o r m w a t e r r u n o f f from a g r i c u l t u r a l , f o r e s t r y , and u r b a n a r e a s ) , d e s p i t e e s t i m a t e s t h a t i t may r e p r e s e n t 50 p e r c e n t of t h e N a t i o n ' s w a t e r p o l l u t i o n problem. The 1972 amendments a u t h o r i z e d a g r a n t program t o e n a b l e S t a t e s and r e g i o n a l a g e n c i e s t o d e v e l o p p l a n s f o r cont r o l l i n g n o n p o i n t s o u r c e s , and a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o r e g u l a t e t h i s d i v e r s e t y p e o f p o l l u t i o n problem was g i v e n t o S t a t e s , n o t t h e F e d e r a l Government. However, EPA p e r f o r m s and s u p p o r t s r e s e a r c h and i s s u e s g u i d a n c e on c o n t r o l methods. While t h e Act imposes g r e a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l demands, i t a l s o r e c o g n i z e s t h e need f o r comprehensive r e s e a r c h on v a t e r q u a l i t y problems. This i s p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t a t u t e , on t o p i c s i n c l u d i n g p o l l u t i o n i n t h e Great Lakes, in-place t o x i c p o l l u t a n t s i n h a r b o r s and n a v i g a b l e w a t e r n a y s , and w a t e r p o l l u t i o n r e s u l t i n g from mine d r a i n a g e . The Act a l s o p r o v i d e s s u p p o r t f o r t r a i n i n g p e r s o n n e l t o o p e r a t e and m a i n t a i n w a s t e w a t e r t r e a t m e n t facilities. -TITLE - 11--CONSTRUCTION GRANT? PROGRAM F e d e r a l law h a s a u t h o r i z e d g r a n t s f o r p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n , and c o n s t r u c t i o n of m u n i c i p a l sewage t r e a t m e n t f a c i l i t i e s s i n c e 1956 (P.L. 84-660). g r a n t s program was g r e a t l y expanded i n 1972. This S i n c e t h a t time Congress h a s a u t h o r i z e d $49 b i l l i o n and a p p r o p r i a t e d $38 b i l l i o n f o r g r a n t s t o a i d w a s t e water treatment plant construction. G r a n t s a r e a l l o c a t e d among t h e S t a t e s a c c o r d i n g t o a complex s t a t u t o r y formula t h a t combines two f a c t o r s : State p o p u l a t i o n and a n e s t i m a t e o f m u n i c i p a l sewage t r e a t m e n t f u n d i n g needs d e r i v e d from a b i e n n i a l s u r v e y conducted by EPA and t h e S t a t e s . The most r e c e n t e s t i m a t e , completed i n 1982, i n d i c a t e s t h a t $118 b i l l i o n i s needed t o c o n s t r u c t m u n i c i p a l w a s t e w a t e r t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s i n t h e United S t a t e s . F e d e r a l g r a n t s a r e made f o r t y p e s o f p r o j e c t s ( s u c h a s s e c o n d a r y o r more s t r i n g e n t t r e a t m e n t and a s s o c i a t e d s e w e r s ) based on a p r i o r i t y l i s t e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e S t a t e s . From f i s c a l y e a r 1972 t h r o u g h f i s c a l y e a r 1984, g r a n t s have been a v a i l a b l e f o r up t o 75 p e r c e n t of t o t a l p r o j e c t c o s t s , o r up t o 85 p e r c e n t where i n n o v a t i v e o r a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n o l o g y i s u s e d , such a s r e c l a i m i n g o r r e c y c l i n g of w a t e r . Beginning i n f i s c a l y e a r 1985, t h e F e d e r a l s h a r e of c o s t s f o r new p r o j e c t s w i l l be 55 p e r c e n t . The f u n d i n g bonus f o r innova- t i v e o r a l t e r n a t i v e p r o j e c t s w i l l c o n t i n u e , however, a l l o w i n g up t o 75 percent Federal funding. S t a t e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e non-Federal share of project costs. Over t i m e , c r i t i c s have argued t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n g r a n t s program had become a m a s s i v e p u b l i c works program, r a t h e r t h a n one focused on improving water quality. I n p a r t t o c o u n t e r t h i s c h a r g e , Congress amended t h e law i n 1581 t o l i m i t F e d e r a l f u n d i n g t o t y p e s of p r o j e c t s t h a t would meet t h e g o a l s of the Act. Thus, b e g i n n i n g i n f i s c a l y,ear 1 9 8 5 , p r o j e c t s s u c h a s c o n s t r u c t i o n of new c o l l e c t o r s e w e r s o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g sewer l i n e s , w h i c h may not be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o water q u a l i t y , w i l l n o t b e g r a n t - e l i g i b l e , they p r e v i o u s l y were. although (Flowever, Governors have t h e d i s c r e t i o n t o u s e up t o 20 p e r c e n t o f a S t a t e ' s a n n u a l a l l o t m e n t f o r such p r o j e c t s .) PERMITS, REGULATIONS, AND ENFORCEMENT To a c h i e v e i t s o b j e c t i v e , t h e Act embodies t h e c o n c e p t t h a t a l l d i s c h a r g e s i n t o t h e N a t i o n ' s w a t e r s a r e u n l a w f u l , u n l e s s s p e c i f i c a l l y a u t h o r i z e d by a permit. Thus, e x i s t i n g and new i n d u s t r i a l and m u n i c i p a l d i s c h a r g e r s must a p p l y t o EPA ( o r q u a l i f i e d S t a t e s ) f o r p e r m i t s u n d e r t h e A c t ' s N a t i o n a l P o l l u t a n t D i s c h a r g e E l i m i n a t i o n System (NPDES) program. An NPDES p e r m i t r e q u i r e s t h e d i s c h a r g e r ( s o u r c e ) t o a t t a i n technology-based e f f l u e n t l i m i t s (BPT o r BAT f o r i n d u s t r y , s e c o n d a r y t r e a t m e n t f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , o r more s t r i n g e n t w a t e r quality protection). The p e r m i t a l s o r e q u i r e s t h e s o u r c e t o m a i n t a i n r e c o r d s and t o c a r r y o u t e f f l u e n t m o n i t o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s . y e a r p e r i o d s and must b e r e - i s s u e d Permits a r e issued f o r five- thereafter. The NPDES p e r m i t i n c o r p o r a t e s n u m e r i c a l e f f l u e n t l i m i t a t i o n s i s s u e d by EPA. The BPT l i m i t a t i o n s f o c u s e d on r e g u l a t i n g d i s c h a r g e s o f s o - c a l l e d c o n v e n t i o n a l p o l l u t a n t s , s u c h as b a c t e r i a and oxygen-demanding m a t e r i a l s . The BAT l i m i t a t i o n s emphasize c o n t r o l l i n g t o x i c p o l l u t a n t s - - h e a v y p e s t i c i d e s , and o r g a n i c c h e m i c a l compounds. metals, Under p r o v i s i o n s o f a 1976 c o n s e n t d e c r e e w h i c h Congress r a t i f i e d i n amendments i n 1 9 7 7 , EPA i s s u e s e f f l u e n t l i m i t a t i o n s f o r 65 named c l a s s e s o r c a t e g o r i e s o f t o x i c p o l l u t a n t s , o r " p r i o r i t y p o l l u t a n t s , " a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t i n g 129 s p e c i f i c c h e m i c a l substances. In addition t o these l i m i t a t i o n s applicable t o categories of i n d u s t r y , EPA i s s u e s w a t e r q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a f o r t h e p r i o r i t y p o l l u t a n t s . The c r i t e r i a recommend a m b i e n t , o r o v e r a l l , c o n c e n t r a t i o n l e v e l s f o r t h e same p o l l u t a n t s and p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e t o S t a t e s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g w a t e r q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s t h a t will a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s o f t h e A c t . A s e p a r a t e type of permit i s required t o undertake dredging o r f i l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the Nation's waters. A u t h o r i z e d by s e c t i o n 404 of t h e A c t , t h i s p e r m i t program i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e U.S. Army Corps o f E n g i n e e r s s u b j e c t t o , and u s i n g EPA's e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d a n c e . C e r t a i n t y p e s of a c t i v i t i e s a r e exempt from p e r m i t r e q u i r e m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g normal f a r m i n g , r a n c h i n g , and f o r e s t r y p r a c t i c e s ; some c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e ; and a c t i v i t i e s a l r e a d y r e g u l a t e d by S t a t e s u n d e r o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e A c t . EPA may d e l e g a t e c e r t a i n s e c t i o n 404 permitting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o q u a l i f i e d S t a t e s . O t h e r r e g u l a t i o n s i s s u e d by EPA under t h e Act i n c l u d e g u i d e l i n e s on d i s p o s i n g o f sewage s l u d g e and g u i d e l i n e s f o r l i m i t i n g d i s c h a r g e of p o l l u t a n t s i n t o t h e ocean. EPA a l s o p r o v i d e s g u i d a n c e on t e c h n o l o g i e s t h a t w i l l a c h i e v e BPT, BAT, and o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s . The NPDES p e r m i t , c o n t a i n i n g e f f l u e n t l i m i t a t i o n s of what may b e d i s c h a r g e d by a s o u r c e , i s t h e A c t ' s p r i n c i p a l e n f o r c e m e n t t o o l . EPA may i s s u e a compliance o r d e r or b r i n g a c i v i l s u i t i n U.S. d i s t r i c t c o u r t a g a i n s t p e r s o n s who v i o l a t e t h e t e r m s of a n NPDES p e r m i t o r one i s s u e d under s e c t i o n 404. The p e n a l t y f a r such a v i o l a t i o n i s up t o $10,000 p e r d a y . p e n a l t y o f up t o $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e r d a y o r one-year c r i m i n a l v i o l a t i o n s of t h e Act--for A stiffer imprisonment i s a u t h o r i z e d f o r w i l l f u l or negligent violations. I n a d d i t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s may b r i n g a c i v i l a c t i o n i n U.S. d i s t r i c t c o u r t a g a i n s t p e r s o n s who v i o l a t e a p r e s c r i b e d e f f l u e n t l i m i t a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l s a l s o may b r i n g s u i t a g a i n s t t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r of EPA f o r f a i l u r e t o c a r r y o u t a n o n - d i s c r e t i o n a r y d u t y under t h e law. THE OCEAN DUMPING ACT INTRODUCTION The 1 9 7 2 Ocean Dumping A c t , t h e f i r s t two t i t l e s o f t h e Marine p r o t e c t i o n R e s e a r c h and S a n c t u a r i e s Act ( P . L . 92-532), h a s two b a s i c a i m s : i n t e n t i o n a l ocean dumping, and t o a u t h o r i z e r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h . t o regulate The t h i r d t i t l e , n o t addressed h e r e , a u t h o r i z e s t h e establishment of marine s a n c t u a r i e s . The A c t ' s b a s i c p r o v i s i o n s h a v e remained v i r t u a l l y unchanged s i n c e 1 9 7 2 , b u t some new a u t h o r i t i e s h a v e b e e n a d d e d . These i n c l u d e ( 1 ) new r e s e a r c h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r EPA; ( 2 ) s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t i n g EPA t o r e d u c e o r p h a s e o u t t h e d i s p o s a l o f "harmful" s e w a g e s l u d g e s and i n d u s t r i a l w a s t e s ; and ( 3 ) i n c l u d i n g Long I s l a n d Sound w i t h i n t h e purview o f t h e A c t . Four F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s h a v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s u n d e r t h e Ocean Dumping Act: The E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n Agency, Corps o f E n g i n e e r s , N a t i o n a l O c e a n i c and Atmospheric A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and C o a s t Guard. EPA h a s p r i m a r y a u t h o r i t y f o r r e g u l a t i n g ocean d i s p o s a l of a l l s u b s t a n c e s e x c e p t dredged s p o i l s , w h i c h a r e u n d e r t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e Corps o f E n g i n e e r s . r e s e a r c h on t h e e f f e c t s of man-induced Long-range c h a n g e s t o t h e m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t is c h a r g e d t o t h e N a t i o n a l O c e a n i c and Atmospheric A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h i l e EPA i s a u t h o r i z e d t o c a r r y o u t r e s e a r c h and d e m o n s t r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o p h a s i n g o u t sewage s l u d g e and i n d u s t r i a l w a s t e dumping. Under t h e A c t , t h e Coast Guard i s c h a r g e d w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g s u r v e i l l a n c e o f o c e a n dumping. REGULATING OCEAN DUMPING T i t l e I of t h e Act p r o h i b i t s a l l ocean dumping, e x c e p t t h a t a l l o w e d by p e r m i t s , i n any ocean w a t e r s under U.S. j u r i s d i c t i o n , by any v e s s e l r e g i s t e r e d by t h e U.S., o r by any v e s s e l s a i l i n g from U.S. p o r t s . The Act a b s o l u t e l y b a n s a n y dumping of r a d i o l o g i c a l , c h e m i c a l , o r b i o l o g i c a l w a r f a r e a g e n t s o r any h i g h - l e v e l radioactive waste. P e r m i t s f o r dumping any o t h e r m a t e r i a l s , e x c e p t d r e d g e s p o i l s , can be i s s u e d by t h e EPA " a f t e r n o t i c e and opportunity f o r public hearings ...where the Administrator determines t h a t such dumping w i l l n o t u n r e a s o n a b l y d e g r a d e o r endanger human h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , o r a m e n i t i e s , o r t h e m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t , e c o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s , o r economic potentialities." The EPA s h a l l d e s i g n a t e s i t e s f o r dumping. ments (P.L. 95-153/P.L,. 96-225) F u r t h e r amend- s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u i r e d t h a t dumping of m u n i c i p a l sewage s l u d g e o r i n d u s t r i a l w a s t e s which u n r e a s o n a b l y d e g r a d e t h e environment be phased o u t by December 1981. Recent amendments ( P . L . 97-424) placed a two-year moratorium on t h e d i s p o s a l of n u c l e a r m a t e r i a l s i n t h e o c e a n . The Corps o f E n g i n e e r s i s s u e s p e r m i t s f o r dumping dredged m a t e r i a l . P e r m i t s a r e t o be based on t h e same c r i t e r i a u t i l i z e d by EPA, and t o t h e e x t e n t p o s s i b l e , EPA-recommended dumping s i t e s s h a l l be u s e d . Where t h e o n l y f e a s i b l e d i s p o s i t i o n o f dredged m a t e r i a l would v i o l a t e t h e dumping c r i t e r i a , t h e Corps c a n r e q u e s t a n EPA w a i v e r . The p e r m i t s i s s u e d u n d e r t h e Act s p e c i f y t h e t y p e o f m a t e r i a l t o be dumped, t h e amount t o be t r a n s p o r t e d f o r dumping, t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e dumping, t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e f o r which t h e p e r m i t s a r e v a l i d , end s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r surveillance. The A d m i n i s t r a t o r can r e q u i r e a n a p p l i c a n t f o r a p e r m i t t o p r o v i d e such i n f o r m a t i o n a s h e may c o n s i d e r n e c e s s a r y t o review and e v a l u a t e the application. The Act p r o v i d e s f o r c i v i l p e n a l t i e s o f n o t more t h a n $50,000 f o r e a c h v i o l a t i o n t o be a s s e s s e d by t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r , t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t such f a c t o r s a s g r a v i t y o f t h e v i o l a t i o n , p r i o r v i o l a t i o n s , and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o f good f a i t h ; no p e n a l t y s h a l l be a s s e s s e d u n t i l a f t e r n o t i c e and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a hearing. I n a d d i t i o n , any p e r s o n who v i o l a t e s a r e q u i r e m e n t o f t i t l e I o f t h e A c t , r e g u l a t i o n s i s s u e d under i t , o r t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f a n o c e a n dumping p e r m i t , s h a l l be f i n e d n o t more t h a n $50,000 o r i m p r i s o n e d more t h a n one y e a r . The C o a s t Guard i s d i r e c t e d t o c o n d u c t s u r v e i l l a n c e and o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e enforcement a c t i v i t y t o prevent unlawful t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l f o r dumping, o r u n l a w f u l dumping. The Act v o i d s a n y o t h e r r e g u l a t i o n o f ocean dumping. The C l e a n Water Act and t h e Ocean Dumping Act o v e r l a p w i t h r e s p e c t t o v e s s e l s d i s c h a r g i n g i n t o t e r r i t o r i a l s e a s , b u t any q u e s t i o n o f c o n f l i c t i s e s s e n t i a l l y moot b e c a u s e EPA h a s promulgated a u n i f o r m s e t of s t a n d a r d s ( 4 0 CFR P a r t s 220-229, 38 Fed. Reg. 28610 ( 1 9 7 3 ) . dumping S t a t e s a r e p r o h i b i t e d from r e g u l a t i n g o c e a n . The Act a l s o r e q u i r e s t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r , t o t h e e x t e n t p o s s i b l e , t o a p p l y t h e s t a n d a r d s and c r i t e r i a b i n d i n g upon t h e U.S. by t h e C o n v e n t i o n on t h e P r e v e n t i o n o f Marine P o l l u t i o n by Dumping o f , W a s t e s and O t h e r Matter. T h i s c o n v e n t i o n , s i g n e d i n London by 80 c o u n t r i e s i n November 1972, i n c l u d e d Annexes p r o h i b i t i n g t h e dumping o f m e r c u r y and cadmium and t h e i r s u b s t a n c e s , o r g a n o h a l o g e n s u b s t a n c e s i n c l u d i n g DDT and PCBs, p e r s i s t e n t p l a s t i c s , o i l , h i g h l e v e l r a d i o a c t i v e w a s t e s , and c h e m i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l w a r f a r e a g e n t s ; and r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l p e r m i t s f o r o t h e r h e a v y m e t a l s , c y a n i d e s and f l u o r i d e s , and medium and l o w - l e v e l radioactive wastes, c o n v e n t i o n on August 3 , 1973. The S e n a t e r a t i f i e d t h e RESEARCH ON OCEAN DUMPING The second title, as amended, authorizes two types of research: general research on ocean resources, under the jurisdiction of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and research related to phasing out ocean disposal activities, concluded by the Environmental Protection Agency. The Ocean Dumping Act directs the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to carry out a comprehensive and long-term research program on the effects not only of ocean dumping, but also pollution, overfishing, and other man-induced changes of the ecosystem. Additionally, NOAA is to assess damages from spills a f petroleum and petroleum products. The research role of the EPA includes "research, investigations, experiments, training, demonstrations, surveys, and studies'' to minimize or end the dumping of sewage sludge and of industrial wastes, and to investigate alternatives available. The 1980 amendments also required EPA to study technological options for removing heavy metals and other organic materials from New York City sewage. SAFE D R I N K I N G WATER ACT T h i s c h a p t e r b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e s t h e F e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s of p u b l i c d r i n k i n g w a t e r s u p p l i e s a s implemented u n d e r t h e S a f e D r i n k i n g Water A c t . The S a f e D r i n k i n g Water Act ( P . L . 93-523), e n a c t e d on December 1 6 , 1974, i s t h e b a s i s f o r p r o t e c t i n g p u b l i c d r i n k i n g w a t e r systems. The m a j o r p a r t of t h e Act i s a n amendment t o t h e P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e A c t , a d d i n g T i t l e X I V , S a f e t y of P u b l i c Water Systems. B a s i c a l l y , t h e Act d i r e c t s t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f EPA t o p r e s c r i b e r e g u l a t i o n s f o r n a t i o n a l d r i n k i n g w a t e r s t a n d a r d s t o protect the public h e a l t h , permits S t a t e s t o enforce the requirements, provides f o r p r o t e c t i o n of underground s o u r c e s o f d r i n k i n g w a t e r , and e s t a b l i s h e s a s y s t e m f o r emergency a l l o c a t i o n o f c h e m i c a l s n e c e s s a r y f o r w a t e r p u r i f i c a t i o n . D R I N K I N G WATER STANDARDS I n p r o m u l g a t i n g d r i n k i n g w a t e r s t a n d a r d s ( s e c t i o n 1 4 1 2 ) , EPA had t o accomplish t h r e e t a s k s . F i r s t , t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r was d i r e c t e d t o i s s u e n a t i o n a l i n t e r i m primary d r i n k i n g w a t e r r e g u l a t i o n s , which a r e designed t o p r o t e c t h e a l t h t o t h e e x t e n t f e a s i b l e , t a k i n g technology, treatment techn i q u e s , and c o s t s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The i n t e r i m r e g u l a t i o n s became e f f e c - t i v e w i t h i n 18 months of t h e i r p r o m u l g a t i o n . Second, i n t h e meantime, EPA was t o c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e N a t i o n a l Academy o f S c i e n c e s (NAS) f o r a s t u d y o f t h e maximum c o n t a m i n a n t l e v e l s (MCLS) o f pollutants necessary t o protect public health. Based on t h i s r e p o r t , e n t i t l e d " D r i n k i n g Water and H e a l t h " (volume 1 was p u b l i s h e d i n 1977; f o u r more volumes have b e e n i s s u e d s i n c e ) , t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r proposed r e v i s e d p r i m a r y d r i n k i n g w a t e r s t a n d a r d s , f o l l c w e d t h u s f a r by f i n a l r e v i s e d s t a n d a r d s ( f o r 22 i n d i v i d u a l contaminants)--each o f which took e f f e c t 18 months a f t e r t h e i r promulgation. T h i r d , t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r was r e q u i r e d t o i s s u e s e c o n d a r y d r i n k i n g w a t e r r e g u l a t i o n s , which s p e c i f y t h e maximum c o n t a m i n a n t l e v e l s n e c e s s a r y t o prot e c t p u b l i c w e l f a r e , and d e a l p r i m a r i l y w i t h c o n t a m i n a n t s a f f e c t i n g odor and appearance o f d r i n k i n g w a t e r . These s t a n d a r d s a r e n o t f e d e r a l l y e n f o r c e a b l e and a r e i s s u e d a s g u i d e l i n e s t o t h e S t a t e s . The p r i m a r y enforcement r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p u b l i c w a t e r r e g u l a t i o n l i e s w i t h t h e S t a t e s , provided they adopt s t a n d a r d s a s s t r i n g e n t a s t h e n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s , a d o p t a d e q u a t e p r o c e d u r e s f o r e n f o r c e m e n t , m a i n t a i n r e c o r d s , and a d o p t a p l a n f o r p r o v i d i n g emergency w a t e r s u p p l i e s ( S e c t i o n 1 4 1 3 ) . Whenever t h e Administrator f i n d s t h a t a p u b l i c v a t e r system i n a S t a t e t h a t has primary enforcement a u t h o r i t y does n o t comply w i t h r e g u l a t i o n s , h e must r e q u e s t t h e S t a t e t o r e p o r t t h e s t e p s being taken t o ensure compliance; i f the S t a t e f a i l s t o comply w i t h i n 2 months, t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r i s a u t h o r i z e d t o commence a c i v i l a c t i o n ( S e c t i o n 1414). He may conduct p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on ways t o b r i n g t h e system i n t o compliance w i t h t h e r e g u l a t i o n s , and h e s h a l l i s s u e a p p r o p r i a t e recommendations t o t h e S t a t e and p u b l i c w a t e r system. I n S t a t e s t h a t do n o t have p r i m a r y enforcement a u t h o r i t y b e c a u s e t h e y f a i l t o a d o p t a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d s and p r o c e d u r e , t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r i s a u t h o r i z e d t o a c t a s t h e p r i m a r y enforcement a u t h o r i t y . (The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f S t a t e s have primacy a u t h o r i t y , a l t h o u g h a March 1982 r e p o r t by t h e G e n e r a l Accounting O f f i c e found t h a t many of them w e r e n o t complying w i t h t h e d r i n k i n g w a t e r r e g u l a t i o n s . ) The Act p r o v i d e s f o r v a r i a n c e s i f t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e raw w a t e r ~ r e c l u d e s m e e t i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s d e s p i t e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e b e s t t e c h n o l o g y ( s e c t i o n 1415). I t a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r exemptions i f t h e s t a n d a r d s c a n n o t b e met f o r o t h e r c o m p e l l i n g r e a s o n s ( i n c l u d i n g c o s t s ) and i f t h e s y s t e m was i n o p e r a t i o n b e f o r e t h e e f f e c t i v e d a t e of t h e treatment requirements ( S e c t i o n 1416). A v a r i a n c e o r exemption c a n be i s s u e d o n l y i f i t will n o t r e s u l t i n a n u n r e a s o n able health risk. I t c a n b e i s s u e d by S t a t e s v i t h p r i m a r y e n f o r c e m e n t respon- s i b i l i t i e s , o r by t h e EPA f o r S t a t e s w i t h o u t . I n e i t h e r case, an application v o u l d have t o s p e l l o u t a p r o c e d u r e and s c h e d u l e f o r b r i n g i n g t h e s y s t e m i n t o compliance. UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL Another p r o v i s i o n o f t h e Act r e q u i r e d t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r t o p r o m u l g a t e r e g u l a t i o n s f o r S t a t e underground i n j e c t i o n c o n t r o l programs t o p r o t e c t underground s o u r c e s o f d r i n k i n g w a t e r . These r e g u l a t i o n s w e r e t o c o n t a i n minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e underground i n j e c t i o n o f w a s t e s t h a t would n o t p r e s e n t a h a z a r d t o underground s o u r c e s o f d r i n k i n g w a t e r and t o r e q u i r e t h a t a S t a t e p r o h i b i t , e f f e c t i v e 3 y e a r s a f t e r e n a c t m e n t , a n y underground i n j e c t i o n t h a t i s n o t a u t h o r i z e d by a p e r m i t i s s u e d by a S t a t e ( s e c t i o n 1 4 2 1 ) . HmTever, t h e r e g u l a t i o n s c a n n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e underground i n j e c t i o n o f b r i n e from o i l and g a s p r o d u c t i o n o r s e c o n d a r y o r t e r t i a r y r e c o v e r y o f o i l u n l e s s t h e underground s o u r c e s would be a f f e c t e d by i n j e c t i o n . W i t h i n 180 d a y s o f e n a c t m e n t , t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r was r e q u i r e d t o p u b l i s h a l i s t of S t a t e s f o r w h i c h a n underground i n j e c t i o n c o n t r o l program may b e n e c e s s a r y t o p r o t e c t d r i n k i n g w a t e r s u p p l i e s ( s e c t i o n 1422). Within 270 d a y s o f i s s u a n c e o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s by EPA, t h e S t a t e s w e r e t o p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e o f a p r o c e d u r e t o implement a n underground i n j e c t i o n c o n t r o l program. The A d m i n i s t r a t o r was r e q u i r e d t o a p p r o v e o r d i s a p p r o v e ( i n w h o l e o r i n p a r t ) t h e S t a t e p l a n s w i t h i n 3 months; i n t h e case of a p p r o v a l , t h e S t a t e s v i l l ' a s s u m e primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r enforcement. I f the Administrator disapproves a S t a t e ' s p l a n s , o r the S t a t e chooses n o t t o assume program r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , EPA must implement t h e program ( S e c t i o n 1423). I n areas t h a t o v e r l i e a sole source potable aquifer, the Administrator may p r o h i b i t new underground i n j e c t i o n w e l l s o r d i s a l la. any F e d e r a l funding f o r p r o j e c t s t h a t may t h r e a t e n t h e s e a q u i f e r s . F o r o i l and g a s i n j e c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s o n l y , S t a t e s a r e d e l e g a t e d primary enforcement a u t h o r i t y (when t h e y have e x i s t i n g programs f o r c o n t r o l ) w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o meet EPA r e g u l a t i o n s (Section 1425). The A d m i n i s t r a t o r h a s emergency power t o i s s u e o r d e r s and commence c i v i l a c t i o n s i f a contaminant l i k e l y t o e n t e r a p u b l i c d r i n k i n g v a t e r supply system p o s e s a s u b s t a n t i a l t h r e a t t o p u b l i c h e a l t h and S t a t e o r l o c a l o f f i c i a l s have n o t taken adequate a c t i o n ( S e c t i o n 1431). I f a chemical necessary f o r v a t e r treatment i s not reasonably a v a i l a b l e , t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r can i s s u e a " c e r t i f i c a t i o n of n e e d , " i n which c a s e t h e P r e s i d e n t can o r d e r a n a l l o c a t i o n of t h e c h e m i c a l t o t h o s e n e e d i n g i t (Section 1441). The A d m i n i s t r a t o r i s p r o v i d e d a u t h o r i t y t o c o n d u c t r e s e a r c h , s t u d i e s , and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e c a u s e s , t r e a t m e n t , c o n t r o l , and p r e v e n t i o n of d i s e a s e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e contamination of w a t e r ( S e c t i o n 1442). Also, he is d i r e c t e d t o p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e S t a t e s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e i r p u b l i c w a t e r s y s t e m r e g u l a t o r y responsibilities. The A d m i n i s t r a t o r can make g r a n t s ( 7 5 p e r c e n t of e s t i m a t e d c o s t s ) t o S t a t e s t o c a r r y o u t p u b l i c v a t e r s y s t e m s u p e r v i s i o n programs, p r o v i d e d t h e S t a t e w i l l have e s t a b l i s h e d a s u p e r v i s i o n program and w i l l have assumed p r i m a r y enforcement a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n a year of t h e g r a n t ( s e c t i o n 1443). And he can make g r a n t s t o c a r r y o u t underground v a t e r r e s o u r c e p r o t e c t i o n programs i f t h e S t a t e w i l l h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d an underground s o u r c e p r o t e c t i o n s y s t e m and assumed primary e n f o r c e m e n t a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n 2 y e a r s o f t h e g r a n t . The A d m i n i s t r a t o r may a l s o make g r a n t s t o d e v e l o p and d e m o n s t r a t e new t e c h n o l o g i e s f o r p r o v i d i n g s a f e d r i n k i n g w a t e r and t o i n v e s t i g a t e h e a l t h i m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e c l a m a t i o n and r e u s e o f w a s t e w a t e r s ( s e c t i o n 1444). I n a d d i t i o n , under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r i s r e q u i r e d t o g u a r a n t e e l o a n s by p r i v a t e l e n d e r s t o s m a l l ~ u b l i cw a t e r s u p p l i e r s t o e n a b l e t h e s y s t e m s t o meet n a t i o n a l p r i m a r y d r i n k i n g w a t e r s t a n d a r d s . A l s o , s u p p l i e r s o f w a t e r who may b e s u b j e c t t o r e g u l a t i o n s u n d e r t h e Act a r e r e q u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n r e c o r d s , m o n i t o r , and p r o v i d e a n y i n f o r mation t h a t the Administrator r e q u i r e s t o c a r r y o u t t h e requirements o f t h e Act ( S e c t i o n 1 4 4 5 ) . The A d m i n i s t r a t o r may a l s o e n t e r and i n s p e c t t h e p r o p e r t y o f w a t e r s u p p l i e r s t o e n a b l e him t o c a r r y o u t t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e Act. F a i l u r e t o comply w i t h t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s may r e s u l t i n c r i m i n a l penalties. The Act e s t a b l i s h e d a N a t i o n a l D r i n k i n g Water Water A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , composed of 15 members, t o a d v i s e , c o n s u l t , and make recommendations t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r on a c t i v i t i e s and p o l i c i e s d e r i v e d from t h e Act ( S e c t i o n 1 4 4 6 ) . Any F e d e r a l agency h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r f e d e r a l l y owned and m a i n t a i n e d p u b l i c w a t e r s y s t e m s must comply w i t h a l l n a t i o n a l p r i m a r y d r i n k i n g w a t e r r e g u l a t i o n s a s w e l l a s a n y underground c o n t r o l program ( S e c t i o n 1 4 4 7 ) . The Act provides f o r w a i v e r s i n t h e i n t e r e s t of n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . P r o c e d u r e s f o r j u d i c i a l r e v i e w a r e s p e l l e d o u t ( s e c t i o n 14481, and p r o v i s i o n f o r c i t i z e n s ' c i v i l a c t i o n s i s made ( S e c t i o n 1 4 4 9 ) . Citizen s u i t s may b e b r o u g h t a g a i n s t any p e r s o n o r agency a l l e g e d l y i n v i o l a t i o n o f p r o v i s i o n s of t h e A c t , o r a g a i n s t t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r a l l e g e d f a i l u r e t o p e r f o r m any a c t i o n o r d u t y which i s n o t d i s c r e t i o n a r y . A s u r v e y of r u r a l d r i n k i n g w a t e r s u p p l i e s was mandated ( u n d e r S e c t i o n 3 o f t h e P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e A c t ) t o b e c o n t r a c t e d by t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r t o study the quantity, quality, and availability of rural drinking water supplies and to prepare a report within 2 years of enactment of the Act. Finally, the Act includes a provision amending the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, authorizing the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) to regulate bottled drinking water, The Secretary is to consult with the Administrator of EPA in drafting the regulations. The Safe Drinking Water Act has been amended three times since the original P.L. 1979 by P.L. 93-523: 96-63; (1) in November 1977 by P.L. 95-190; and ( 3 ) in December 1980 by P.L. 96-502. ( 2 ) in September THE RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND KECOVERY ACT F e d e r a l s o l i d w a s t e l a w h a s gone t h r o u g h t h r e e m a j o r p h a s e s . The S o l i d Waste D i s p o s a l A c t , p a s s e d i n 1965 ( ~ i t l e11 o f t h e C l e a n A i r Act o f 1965, P.L. 89-272), f o c u s e d p r i m a r i l y on d i s p o s a l . It a u t h o r i z e d r e s e a r c h , demon- s t r a t i o n s and t r a i n i n g , and p r o v i d e d f o r s h a r i n g w i t h t h e S t a t e s t h e c o s t s of making s u r v e y s of w a s t e d i s p o s a l p r a c t i c e s and p r o b l e m s , and d e v e l o p i n g p l a n s . The Resource Recovery Act o f 1970 (P.L. 91-512) changed t h e w h o l e t o n e o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n from e f f i c i e n c y o f d i s p o s a l , t o r e f l e c t c o n c e r n w i t h t h e reclamat i o n o f e n e r g y and m a t e r i a l s from s o l i d w a s t e . It authorized g r a n t s f o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g new r e s o u r c e r e c o v e r y t e c h n o l o g y , and r e q u i r e d a n n u a l r e p o r t s from t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n Agency (EPA) on means o f promoting r e c y c l i n g and r e d u c i n g t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f w a s t e . A more a c t i v e , p r e v e n t i v e r o l e was embodied i n t h e Resource C o n s e r v a t i o n and Recovery Act ( R C R A ) , s i g n e d by P r e s i d e n t Ford on O c t o b e r 2 1 , 1 9 7 6 , w h i c h i n s t i t u t e d t h e f i r s t F e d e r a l r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n i n t h e f i e l d by c r e a t i n g a p e r m i t program f o r h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s , and p r o h i b i t i n g open dumps. of RCRA c r e a t e s t h e h a z a r d o u s w a s t e management program. Subtitle C A w a s t e i s hazardous i f i t i s i g n i t a b l e , c o r r o s i v e , r e a c t i v e , o r t o x i c , o r a p p e a r s on a l i s t o f 85 i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s w a s t e s t r e a m s and 416 d i s c a r d e d commercial p r o d u c t s and chemicals. "sludge .. The 1976 l a w expanded t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f " s o l i d w a s t e s " t o i n c l u d e ., and o t h e r d i s c a r d e d m a t e r i a l , i n c l u d i n g s o l i d , l i q u i d , semi- s o l d , o r contained gaseous m a t e r i a l . " S p e c i f i c a l l y excluded a r e i r r i g a t i o n r e t u r n f l o w s , i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s o u r c e d i s c h a r g e s , and n u c l e a r m a t e r i a l c o v e r e d by t h e Atomic Energy A c t . The broadened d e f i n i t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important with regard to hazardous wastes, at least 95 percent of which are liquids or sludges. A manifest system, effective since 1980, is used to track such wastes from their point of generation, along their transportation routes, to the place of final treatment, storage, or disposal. (Separate authority for the clean-up of abandoned waste sites is discussed in the later chapter on "Super fund . ") Under RCRA, the generators of the waste must comply with regulations concerning recordkeeping and reporting; the labelling of wastes; the use of appropriate containers; providing information on the wastes' general chemical composition to the transporters, treaters, and disposers; and the use of the manifest system. Facilities generating less than 1,000 kilograms per month are generally exempted from the regulations; amendments to RCRA being considered by Congress in 1984 are expected to lower that exemption, probably to 100 kilograms per month. Transporters of hazardous waste must also meet certain standards. These regulations were coordinated by EPA with existing regulations of the Department of Transportation. Treatment, storage, and disposal facilities are required to have permits, to comply vith operating standards, to meet financial requirements in case of accidents, and to close d a m their facilities in accordance vith EPA regulations. States are encouraged and financially assisted to take over the hazardous waste program, which went into effect November 19, 1980, from EPA. 'ho phases of interim authorization for State programs began in 1981, vith the first phase permitting a State to oversee generator and transporter standards, manifest requirements, and some other matters. into three parts: Phase I1 authorization is broken dm7n part A lets States issue permits for storage tanks, con- t a i n e r s , and w a s t e p i l e s ; p a r t B g r a n t s a u t h o r i t y t o ~ e r m i ti n c i n e r a t o r s ; and p a r t C c o v e r s l a n d d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s . A l l t h e S t a t e s e x c e p t Wyoming a r e a s s i s t i n g EPA i n implementing RCRA u n d e r The c o o p e r a t i v e Arrangements a g r e e m e n t s c a l l e d C o o p e r a t i v e Arrangements. e n a b l e t h e S t a t e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e program ( e . g . , assisting in emit e v a l u a t i o n o r o p e r a t i n g t h e m a n i f e s t s y s t e m ) and g a i n e x p e r i e n c e , a s w e l l a s t o r e c e i v e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r programs w h i l e w o r k i n g towards achievement of f u l l a u t h o r i z a t i o n . ( ~ y o m i n gh a s d e c l i n e d t o p a r t i c i - p a t e i n t h e h a z a r d o u s w a s t e management program b e c a u s e o f b u d g e t a r y p r o b l e m s , r e q u i r i n g EPA t o u n d e r t a k e a l l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h a t S t a t e . ) Criminal v i o l a t i o n s of s u b t i t l e C ' s hazardous w a s t e p r o v i s i o n s a r e p u n i s h a b l e by $50,000 f i n e s and 2 y e a r s imprisonment; knowingly e n d a n g e r i n g human l i f e b r i n g s f i n e s o f $250,000 ($1 m i l l i o n f o r a company) and 5 y e a r s imprisonment. An i n v e n t o r y o f h a z a r d o u s w a s t e d i s p o s a l s i t e s i s t o b e under- t a k e n t o a i d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and e n f o r c e m e n t . F i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e was e a r l i e r a v a i l a b l e u n d e r s u b t i t l e D o f RCRA t o a s s i s t S t a t e s i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r m n comprehensive p l a n s f o r s o l i d v a s t e management, r e s o u r c e c o n s e r v a t i o n , and r e s o u r c e r e c o v e r y . Open dumps a r e o u t l a w e d ; t h e y must be c l o s e d o r upgraded t o s a n i t a r y l a n d f i l l s by September 1 3 , 1984. T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e teams from EPA p r o v i d e d f r e e t e c h - n i c a l , m a r k e t i n g , f i n a n c i a l , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e . Help w a s a l s o a u t h o r i z e d f o r S t a t e s and l o c a l i t i e s f o r p r o j e c t s r e c o v e r i n g e n e r g y and m a t e r i a l s from s o l i d w a s t e , t o a i d l o c a l i t i e s h a v i n g dumps l o c a t e d o v e r d r i n k i n g w a t e r s u p p l i e s , and t o a s s i s t s m a l l r u r a l communities. The modest f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d by s u b t i t l e D ended in f i s c a l y e a r 1981 a s p a r t o f o v e r a l l budget c u t b a c k s . The Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Agency i s t h e l e a d agency under KCRA, which a l s o c r e a t e d a n O f f i c e o f S o l i d Waste w i t h i n EPA, headed by a n A s s i s t a n t Administrator. The Department o f Commerce i s g i v e n s e v e r a l d u t i e s t o encourage g r e a t e r c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of r e s o u r c e r e c o v e r y t e c h n o l o g y . A l l Federal a g e n c i e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e l e g i s l a t i v e b r a n c h , a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e law and i t s regulations. Broad r e s e a r c h , development, and d e m o n s t r a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n s u b t i t l e H of RCRA. A s e r i e s of s p e c i a l s t u d i e s , and i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s f e r a c t i v i t i e s a r e c a l l e d f o r , a l t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r have a l s o been e l i m i n a t e d f o r budgetary reasons. RCRA h a s been amended t w i c e . Noncontroversial a d d i t i o n s c l a r i f y i n g c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s o f t h e law and c o r r e c t i n g c l e r i c a l e r r o r s i n t h e t e x t v e r e a t t a c h e d a s f l o o r amendments t o t h e Q u i e t Communities Act of 1978 (P.L. 6 0 9 , November 8 , 1 9 7 8 ) . (P.L. 96-482, 95- The S o l i d Waste D i s p o s a l Act Amendments of 1980 October 2 1 , 1980) v e r e somewhat more s u b s t a n t i v e and r e f l e c t e d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h RCRA. Tougher enforcement p o w e r s were g i v e n t o t h e Environ- mental P r o t e c t i o n Agency (EPA) t o d e a l w i t h i l l e g a l dumpers of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e ; EPA's a u t h o r i t y t o r e g u l a t e c e r t a i n high-volume, l a v h a z a r d wastes (knmn a s " s p e c i a l w a s t e s " ) was r e s t r i c t e d ; f u n d s v e r e a u t h o r i z e d t o c o n d u c t a n i n v e n t o r y o f h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s i t e s ; and RCRA a u t h o r i z a t i o n s v e r e e x t e n d e d t h r o u g h f i s c a l y e a r 1982. CRS- 3 3 SUPERFUND P r o p e r l y k n m n a s t h e Comprehensive E n v i r o n m e n t a l Response, c o m p e n s a t i o n , and L i a b i l i t y Act of 1980 (CERCLA, P u b l i c Law 96-510, e n a c t e d December 11, l 9 8 O ) , t h e "Superfund" law h a s f i v e main f e a t u r e s : (i) i t a u t h o r i z e s t h e F e d e r a l Government t o r e s p o n d t o h a z a r d o u s substance s p i l l s or releases; (ii) i t c r e a t e s a $1.6 b i l l i o n fund t o pay f o r t h o s e emergency and remedial clean-up responses; ( i i i ) i t c r e a t e s a n Agency f o r Toxic S u b s t a n c e s and D i s e a s e Registry; (iv) i t p r o v i d e s f o r l i a b i l i t y and f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; and (v) i t s e t s up a $200 m i l l i o n fund t o c o v e r t h e c o s t s o f m o n i t o r i n g and c a r i n g f o r p r e s e n t l y a c t i v e h a z a r d o u s w a s t e d i s p o s a l s i t e s , and l e g a l l i a b i l i t y i n c u r r e d , a f t e r t h e y h a v e been c l o s e d down. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n e l a b o r a t e s on t h e m a j o r components o f t h e Superfund Act: 1. RESPONSE (SECTION 1 0 4 ) Whenever a h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e i s r e l e a s e d o r t h e r e i s a t h r e a t of r e l e a s e i n t o t h e environment, t h e P r e s i d e n t i s a u t h o r i z e d t o t a k e a c t i o n . H i s r e s p o n s e i s n o t c o n t i n g e n t on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s p i l l e d o r r e l e a s e d , h o w e v e r , e x c e p t t h a t p e t r o l e u m and n a t u r a l g a s a r e excluded. To r e c e i v e F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e t h e S t a t e must a s s u r e ( 1 ) t h a t i t w i l l p r o v i d e f u t u r e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e s i t e ; ( 2 ) t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f any needed o f f s i t e f a c i l i t y ; and ( 3 ) t h a t i t r e m e d i a l a c t i o n , o r , i f t h e s i t e was pay 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o s t s o f by t h e S t a t e o r a l o c a l government, t h a t i t w i l l pay 50 p e r c e n t of t h e c o s t s . Within t h o s e l i m i t s , a S t a t e may a l s o be reimbursed f o r i t s e x p e n d i t u r e s between J a n u a r y 1 , 1978, and t h e d a t e o f e n a c t m e n t . The P r e s i d e n t s h a l l c o n s u l t w i t h t h e a f f e c t e d S t a t e b e f o r e r e s p o n d i n g , and h i s a c t i o n s a r e t o b e , t o t h e e x t e n d p r a c t i c a b l e , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e N a t i o n a l Contingency P l a n . S e c t i o n 105 of CERCLA c a l l s f o r t h e N a t i o n a l Contingency P l a n ( p r e p a r e d under s e c t i o n 311 o f t h e F e d e r a l Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t ) t o b e r e v i s e d and r e p u b l i s h e d t o r e f l e c t t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s a c t . w i t h i n 180 d a y s o f enactment ( i . e . , I t was t o be r e i s s u e d by J u n e 9 , 1 9 8 1 ) , b u t a p p e a r e d i n f i n a l form on J u l y 1 6 , 1982 (40 CFK P a r t 3 0 0 ) . One p a r t o f t h e c o n t i n g e n c y p l a n i s t h e N a t i o n a l P r i o r i t i e s L i s t on which EPA i s t o r a n k t h e most h a z a r d o u s abandoned w a s t e s i t e s , making them e l i g i b l e f o r Superfund c l e a n u p . The l i s t of 418 s i t e s was announced December 2 0 , 1982; u p d a t e s b r o u g h t t h e number t o 546 s i t e s by September, 1983. 2. THE FUND (SECTIONS 211 AND 221) The r e s p o n s e a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be aid from t h e Superfund i t s e l f . */ A t o t a l o f $1.6 b i l l i o n i s t o b e r a i s e d o v e r 5 y e a r s , 8 7 . 5 p e r c e n t o f i t coming from t a x e s on 42 d e s i g n a t e d chemical and p e t r o l e u m f e e d s t o c k s , and t h e remainder from c o n g r e s s i o n a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n s . */ T i t l e 11 of P u b l i c Law 96-510, c r e a t i n g t h e c l e a n u p f u n d s , i s l a b e l l e d t h e ~ a z a r d o u sS u b s t a n c e Response Revenue Act of 1980, which amends t h e I n t e r n a l Revenue Code o f 1954. S e c t i o n 211 imposes t a x e s on p e t r o l e u m and c e r t a i n c h e m i c a l s . S e c t i o n 221 e s t a b l i s h e s t h e Hazardous S u b s t a n c e Response T r u s t Fund ( t h e Superfund). S e c t i o n 222 l i m i t s t h e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e United S t a t e s t o t h e amounts i n t h e fund. S e c t i o n 223 c o n t a i n s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y t o borrow from t h e g e n e r a l fund o f t h e T r e a s u r y . S e c t i o n 231 imposes t a x e s on h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s f o r t h e P o s t c l o s u r e L i a b i l i t y T r u s t Fund, and s e c t i o n 232 c r e a t e s t h a t fund. C e r t a i n c h e m i c a l s l i s t e d i n t h e t a x t a b l e a r e exempted from payment o f t h e t a x when used f o r s p e c i f i e d p u r p o s e s , o r when produced i n c e r t a i n ways. Thus, methane and b u t a n e a r e excused from t h e t a x when u s e d a s f u e l , a s a r e s u b s t a n c e s used i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f f e r t i l i z e r ( n i t r i c a c i d , s u l f u r i c a c i d , ammonia, and methane u s e d t o produce ammonia). A l s o exempted a r e s u l f u r i c a c i d when produced a s a b y p r o d u c t of a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , and a n y c h e m i c a l s d e r i v e d from c o a l . U n l e s s e x t e n d e d , t h e t a x e s w i l l t e r m i n a t e on September 3 0 , 1985, b u t c o u l d end e a r l i e r i f demands on t h e fund do n o t exceed s p e c i f i e d amounts, which appears unlikely. I n a d d i t i o n t o t a x e s and a p p r o p r i a t i o n s , t h e fund r e c e i v e s r e i m b u r s e m e n t s from p o l l u t e r s f o r c l e a n u p and o t h e r r e s p o n s e a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t h i s a c t and under s e c t i o n 311 o f t h e C l e a n Water A c t , p l u s any p e n a l t i e s and p u n i t i v e damages a s s e s s e d u n d e r o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s o f CERCLA. The p u r p o s e s t o which t h e fund can be p u t a r e d e t a i l e d i n s e c t i o n 111 and i n c l u d e ( 1 ) r e s p o n s e c o s t s ; ( 2 ) c l a i m s made b u t n o t s a t i s f i e d u n d e r s e c t i o n 311 of t h e C l e a n Water A c t ; ( 3 ) c l a i m s by t h e U.S. o r S t a t e governments f o r l o s s o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ; and ( 4 ) such r e l a t e d e x p e n d i t u r e s a s t h e c o s t s of a s s e s s i n g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s l o s s e s , t h e c o s t s o f e p i d e m i o l o g i c s t u d i e s , and t h e c o s t s o f a program t o p r o t e c t t h e h e a l t h and s a f e t y o f employees engaged i n r e s p o n d i n g t o a h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e r e l e a s e . An a n n u a l r e p o r t i s t o b e made t o Congress on t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n and t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e f u n d , i n c l u d i n g t h e o u t l o o k f o r t h e n e x t 5 y e a r s . The fund i s g i v e n a u t h o r i t y t o borrow, w i t h i n t e r e s t , from t h e T r e a s u r y a s much a s 1 y e a r ' s r e c e i p t s i n a d v a n c e . 3. AGENCY FOR TOXIC SUBSTANCESAND D.ISEASE REGISTRY (SECTION 1 0 4 ( i ) ) T h i s agency i s c r e a t e d i n t h e P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e t o c a r r y o u t t h e health-related authorities i n the act. It i s a l s o t o maintain a r e g i s t r y o f p e r s o n s cxposed t o t o x i c s u b s t a n c e s ; m a i n t a i n a n i n v e n t o r y o f l i t e r a t u r e , r e s e a r c h , and s t u d i e s on t h e h e a l t h e f f e c t s of t o x i c s u b s t a n c e c o n t a m i n a t i o n ; p r o v i d e m e d i c a l c a r e and t e s t i n g i n c a s e s of p u b l i c h e a l t h e m e r g e n c i e s ; and p e r i o d i c a l l y conduct s u r v e y s and s c r e e n i n g programs t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e x p o s u r e t o t o x i c s u b s t a n c e s and i l l n e s s . F a c i l i t i e s of t h e P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e a r e t o be made a v a i l a b l e t o exposed p e r s o n s i n c a s e s of p u b l i c h e a l t h e m e r g e n c i e s . 4. LIABILITY AND FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (SECTIONS107 AND 108) 7 G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , c a r r i e r s , d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t y o p e r a t o r s , and w a s t e g e n e r a t o r s , a r e l i a b l e f o r r e s p o n s e c o s t s and damage t o n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . L i m i t s t o l i a b i l i t y under s e c t i o n 107 a r e s e t a s f o l l o w s : -- f o r v e s s e l s c a r r y i n g hazardous substances a s cargo o r r e s i d u e , t h e g r e a t e r amount of e i t h e r $300 p e r g r o s s t o n o r $5 m i l l i o n (and up t o h a l f t h i s maximum f o r o t h e r v e s s e l s ) ; -- f o r motor v e h i c l e s , a i r c r a f t , p i p e l i n e s , o r r o l l i n g s t o c k , $50 m i l l i o n o r a l e s s e r amount s e t by r e g u l a t i o n s b u t i n no e v e n t l e s s t h a n $5 m i l l i o n ($8 m i l l i o n i n t h e c a s e o f a r e l e a s e o f h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s l i s t e d under s e c t i o n 311 of t h e Clean Water A c t ) ; -- and f o r any o t h e r f a c i l i t y , t h e t o t a l of a l l c o s t s o f r e s p o n s e p l u s $50 m i l l i o n f o r any damages. - There a r e no l i m i t s t o l i a b i l i t y i f t h e h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e r e l e a s e i s due t o m i s c o n d u c t ; n e g l i g e n c e ; v i o l a t i o n o f any s a f e t y , c o n s t r u c t i o n , o r o p e r a t i n g s z a n d a r d s o r r e g u l a t i o n s ; o r i f c o o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e r e q u e s t e d by a p u b l i c o f f i c i a l i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h r e s p o n s e a c t i v i t i e s i s d e n i e d . p u n i t i v - damages a r e p o s s i b l e i n some c a s e s . to t\c RC t. Triple A l l Federal agencies a r e subject h n e r s and o p e r a t o r s o f v e s s e l s and f a c i l i t i e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o s h m evidence of f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (such a s i n s u r a n c e ) . 300 g r o s s t o n s ( e x c e p t n o n - s e l f - p r o p e l l e d For v e s s e l s o v e r barges not c a r r y i n g hazardous s u b s t a n c e s a s c a r g o ) such f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o b e t h e g r e a t e r of $300 p e r g r o s s t o n o r $5 m i l l i o n . For f a c i l i t i e s , t h e amount w i l l b e s e t i n r e g u l a t i o n s and phased i n o v e r a 3-6 y e a r p e r i o d , b e g i n n i n g n o t e a r l i e r t h a n 5 y e a r s a f t e r enactment o f t h e law ( i . e . , 1985). I n t h e meantime, one of t h e s t u d i e s c a l l e d f o r i n s e c t i o n 301 o f CERCLA i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of adequate p r i v a t e insurance p r o t e c t i o n . The f i n a l r e p o r t from t h e T r e a s u r y Department i n J u n e 1983 ("The Adequacy o f P r i v a t e I n s u r a n c e P r o t e c t i o n under S e c t i o n 107 o f [CERCLA]") found t h a t " b o t h t h e m a r i n e and the property-casualty i n s u r a n c e m a r k e t s have u n d e r t a k e n t o r e s p o n d t o t h e growing need f o r p o l l u t i o n i n s u r a n c e c o v e r a g e . ... t h a t Nevertheless, i t i s c l e a r b o t h t h e p r o v i d e r s and t h e p u r c h a s e r s o f i n s u r a n c e a r e most s e r i o u s l y concerned a b o u t t h e ' w o r k a b i l i t y ' t o CERCLA." o f t h e l i a b i l i t y regime a t t e n d a n t FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT (FIFRA) P e s t i c i d e s a r e chemicals used t o c o n t r o l many k i n d s o f p e s t s : insects t h a t a t t a c k c r o p s , d e s t r o y m a t e r i a l s , and s e r v e a s d i s e a s e c a r r i e r s ; weeds; f u n g i and o t h e r d i s e a s e - c a u s i n g organisms; ( s o i l ) nematodes; and o t h e r s . They have become major components o f b o t h a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and h e a l t h protection. Against t h e i r b e n e f i t s , c e r t a i n h a z a r d s must b e weighed. P e s t i c i d e s may be h i g h l y t o x i c , some a r e p e r s i s t e n t i n t h e environment, and many pose r i s k s t o n o n t a r g e t organisms. During World War 11, s y n t h e t i c o r g a n i c p e s t i c i d e s were developed f o r u s e i n t h e war e f f o r t . rapidly. A f t e r t h e war, t h e p e s t i c i d e i n d u s t r y expanded I n 1947, Congress e n a c t e d t h e F e d e r a l I n s e c t i c i d e , F u n g i c i d e , and R o d e n t i c i d e Act (FIFRA) t o p r o t e c t f a r m e r s from i n e f f e c t i v e and dangerous pesticides. It accomplished t h i s through r e g i s t r a t i o n o f l a b e l s t h a t were r e q u i r e d on a l l p e s t i c i d e s . The r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t y t o c o n t r o l p e s t i c i d e s u s e comes through t h e requirement t h a t b e f o r e a p e s t i c i d e c a n b e marketed, i t must b e g r a n t e d a " r e g i s t r a t i o n " , a d e c i s i o n based on a d e t e r m i n a t i o n of what u s e s a r e s a f e and any n e c e s s a r y r e s t r i c t i o n s on u s e . Over t h e n e x t two d e c a d e s , c o n c e r n grew about h a z a r d s t o h e a l t h and t h e environment from p e s t i c i d e s . I n r e s p o n s e , Congress e n a c t e d t h e F e d e r a l Environmental P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l Act i n 1972 (P.L. 92-516). These amendments, which r e w r o t e FIFRA, provided f o r d i r e c t c o n t r o l s on t h e u s e of p e s t i c i d e s , f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of selected pesticides into a r e s t r i c t e d use category, f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n o f manufacturing p l a n t s , and f o r a n a t i o n a l m o n i t o r i n g program f o r p e s t i c i d e r e s i d u e s . I t a l s o added e n v i r o n m e n t a l ( e c o l o g i c a l ) e f f e c t s t o t h e r i s k s t o be weighed i n t h e p e s t i c i d e r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e s s . REGISTRATION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS B e f o r e a p e s t i c i d e can be used i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t must undergo a pre-market r e v i e w o f i t s p o t e n t i a l h e a l t h and e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s . a kind o f l i c e n s i n g p r o c e s s . This i s R e g i s t r a t i o n , however, r e f e r s t o t h e p r o d u c t s a l l o w e d t o be u s e d , n o t who i s allowed t o u s e t h e p r o d u c t s . S e c t i o n 3 o f FIFRA s e t s o u t t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e g i s t e r i n g p e s t i c i d e s . T h i s d e c i s i o n i s based on i n f o r m a t i o n which t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r must submit i n s u p p o r t of a r e g i s t r a t i o n . EPA must d e c i d e t h a t a proposed p e s t i c i d e r e g i s t r a t i o n " w i l l n o t g e n e r a l l y c a u s e u n r e a s o n a b l e a d v e r s e e f f e c t s " on t h e environment. The d a t a r e q u i r e d t o be s u b m i t t e d i n s u p p o r t of a r e g i s t r a t i o n i s e x t e n s i v e and e x p e n s i v e . The c o s t o f t h i s b a t t e r y o f h e a l t h and s a f e t y d a t a , f i e l d t r i a l d a t a , and t h e l i k e , c a n be many m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s . Limited exemptions from c e r t a i n r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e a l l o w e d under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . A m a n u f a c t u r e r may s e e k t o r e g i s t e r t h e same p e s t i c i d e f o r m u l a t i o n a l r e a d y r e g i s t e r e d by a c o m p e t i t o r . To p r o t e c t t h e economic r i g h t s o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r who o r i g i n a l l y g e n e r a t e d t h e r e q u i r e d d a t a , S e c t i o n 3 p r o v i d e s f o r compensation o f d a t a c o s t s . FIFRA a l s o p r o v i d e s a t e n - y e a r p e r i o d o f " e x c l u s i v e u s e ," f o r d a t a s u b m i t t e d a f t e r 1978, d u r i n g which t h e o r i g i n a l r e g i s t r a n t may n o t be compelled t o s h a r e t h e s u p p o r t i n g d a t a . These d a t a s h a r i n g p r o v i s i o n s have c o n t i n u a l l y been p o i n t s of c o n t e n t i o n among m a n u f a c t u r e r s . The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f t h e d a t a p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i s i o n s o f S e c t i o n 3 i s nm b e f o r e t h e U.S. Supreme Court ( R u c k e l s h a u s v . Monsanto Co.), - a s p a r t o f a n EPA a p p e a l of a l o w e r c o u r t d e c i s i o n v h i c h r u l e d a g a i n s t t h e Agency. The c a s e i s e x p e c t e d t o b e d e c i d e d d u r i n g t h e summer months of 1984. S e c t i o n 3 a l s o a l l o w s EPA t o c l a s s i f y p e s t i c i d e s f o r r e s t r i c t e d o r g e n e r a l R e s t r i c t e d u s e p r o d u c t s a r e o n e s judged t o b e more d a n g e r o u s t o t h e use. a p p l i c a t o r o r t o t h e environment. R e s t r i c t e d p r o d u c t s c a n b e u s e d o n l y by t h o s e who h a v e been " c e r t i f i e d t ' t h r o u g h a S t a t e program, d e s i g n e d t o a s s u r e t h e competence of t h e a p p l i c a t o r i n p r o p e r l y u s i n g p e s t i c i d e p r o d u c t s . A u t h o r i t y f o r F e d e r a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f t h o s e c o m p l e t i n g t h e i r t r a i n i n g under a S t a t e program i s found i n S e c t i o n 4 of FEFRA. I f t h e proposed r e g u l a t i o n i s f o r u s e on a food c r o p , EPA must a l s o d e t e r m i n e what i s a s a f e l e v e l of p e s t i c i d e r e s i d u e on t h e f o o d s t u f f . residue "tolerances" Drug A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . "adulterated" ' These a r e e s t a b l i s h e d by EPA, b u t e n f o r c e d by t h e Food and The FDA h a s t h e a u t h o r i t y t o d e c l a r e a f o o d s t u f f i f t h e r e s i d u e exceeds t h e s p e c i f i e d t o l e r a n c e . FDA i s respon- s i b l e f o r m o n i t o r i n g and e n f o r c i n g t h e s e r e s i d u e l e v e l s . I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e p r o p e r u s e o f p r o d u c t s i s g i v e n on t h e p e s t i c i d e label. Use i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l a b e l d i r e c t i v e s i s a v i o l a t i o n of FIFRA. REREGISTRATION Many p e s t i c i d e s w e r e r e g i s t e r e d f o r u s e b e f o r e t h e c u r r e n t e x t e n s i v e d a t a requirements were i n p l a c e . Congress d i r e c t e d EPA t o " r e r e g i s t e r " t h e s e o l d e r p r o d u c t s , t o a s s e s s t h e i r s a f e t y i n l i g h t of c u r r e n t s t a n d a r d s . EPA c r e a t e s " r e g i s t r a t i o n s t a n d a r d s " t o e v a l u a t e t h e s e o l d e r p r o d u c t s , b u t t h i s h a s proven t o be a v e r y l o n g p r o c e s s . Earlier reregistration deadlines c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s t a t u t e have nmT been dropped a l t o g e t h e r . Meanwhile, FIFRA a 1lm7s " c o n d i t i o n a l " r e g i s t r a t ion under Sect ion 3 f o r t h e s e o l d e r products now u n d e r g o i n g f u r t h e r d a t a development o r r e v i e w . C o n d i t i o n a l r e g i s t r a t i o n a l may a l s o be g r a n t e d i n some c a s e s t o new A l l registrations are limited p r o d u c t s undergoing f u r t h e r d a t a development. t o f i v e y e a r s , so r e r e g i s t r a t i o n i s a continuous process. OTHER REGISTRATION AUTHORITY B e s i d e s t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f S e c t i o n 3 , o t h e r p a r t s of FIFRA a l l m f o r u s e of p e s t i c i d e products i n c e r t a i n s p e c i a l circumstances. FIFRA S e c t i o n 5 a l l o w s E x p e r i m e n t a l Use P e r m i t s f o r p u r p o s e s o f r e s e a r c h and f u r t h e r s t u d y . S e c t i o n 18 a l l o w s f o r "emergency exemptions" from t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f FIFRA t o be g r a n t e d t o F e d e r a l o r S t a t e a g e n c i e s . In a d d i t i o n , Section 24(c) allows a S t a t e t o g r a n t a d d i t i o n a l u s e s o f a f e d e r a l l y r e g i s t e r e d p r o d u c t t o meet " s p e c i a l l o c a l needs ." I n r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e number of emergency exemption and s p e c i a l l o c a l needs r e g i s t r a t i o n s h a v e r i s e n s u b s t a n t i a l l y , and have been t h e s u b j e c t of c o n g r e s s i o n a l o v e r s i g h t and proposed amendments. CANCELLING OR SUSPENDING A REGISTRATION FIFRA S e c t i o n 6 p r o v i d e s EPA w i t h a u t h o r i t y t o c a n c e l o r immediately suspend a r e g i s t r a t i o n based on t h e f i n d i n g o f " u n r e a s o n a b l e a d v e r s e e f f e c t s . " Both a c t i o n s c a n be a p p e a l e d by t h e r e g i s t r a n t . I f appealed, a cancellation o r d e r i n i t i a t e s a d e c i s i o n review p r o c e s s d u r i n g v h i c h t h e p r o d u c t may cont i n u e t o be m a r k e t e d . In c o n t r a s t , appealing a suspension order i n i t i a t e s a d e c i s i o n review p r o c e s s d u r i n g which t h e p r o d u c t may n o t c o n t i n u e t o b e s o l d . S i n c e 1 9 7 6 , EPA h a s a t t e m p t e d t o b a l a n c e t h e r i s k s and b e n e f i t s of p e s t i c i d e s s u s p e c t e d o f c a u s i n g u n r e a s o n a b l e a d v e r s e e f f e c t s through a l e s s formal p r o c e s s . The " R e b u t t a b l e Presumption A g a i n s t R e g i s t r a t i o n (RPAR)" program i s d e s i g n e d t o i n i t i a t e a s y s t e m a t i c and i n t e n s i v e comparison of t h e r i s k s and b e n e f i t s o f p e s t icicles which exceed some p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d r i s k criteria. F o r example, a compound may r e s u l t i n s e v e r e damagz t o a q u a t i c organisms o r have been found oncogenic ( t u m o r - p r o d u c i n g ) carcinogenecity t e s t . i n a rodent These t r i g g e r s , once e x c e e d e d , l e a d EPA t o s c r u t i n i z e t h e h a z a r d e v i d e n c e , e v a l u a t e t h e r i s k s t o h e a l t h and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , s n d determine the optimal r i s k reduction s t r a t e g y t o eliminate unreasonable adverse e f f e c t s . T h i s s t r a t e g y may i n c l u d e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f some o r a l l o f a p r o d u c t ' s r e g i s t r a t i o n s , use r e s t r i c t i o n s , p r o t e c t i v e c l o t h i n g r e q u i r e m e l ~ t s , and t h e l i k e . I f a p e s t i c i d e i s c a n c e l l e d o r suspended i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t a n imminent h a z a r d , S e c t i o n 15 allcws p e r s o n s owning a n y q u a n t i t y o f t h e p r o d u c t t o be i n d e m n i f i e d by EPA f o r t h e economic l o s s o f t h e unused p r o d u c t . This u s u a l l y i s n o t n e c e s s a r y however, a s EPA h a s g e n e r a l l y a l l o w e d e x i s t i n g s t o c k s of such p r o d u c t s t o be u s e d . I f EPA i s s u e s a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r d a t a t o s u p p o r t a r e r e g i s t r a t i o n , and development o f t h e d a t a i s n o t f o r t h c o m i n g , p r o c e e d i n g s f o r s u s p e n d i n g t h e p r o d u c t ' s r e g i s t r a t i o n a r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n i t i a t e d by S e c t i o n 3 ( c ) ( 2 ) ( ~ ) . TRADE SECRETS AND PUBLIC DISCLOSURE W i t h i n 30 d a y s a f t e r a r e g i s t r a t i o n i s g r a n t e d , S e c t i o n 3 d i r e c t s EPA t o make t h e r e q u i r e d d a t a p u b l i c l y a v a i l a b l e . However, S e c t i o n 10 o f FIFRA p r o v i d e s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f c e r t a i n d a t a a s trade s e c r e t information. Section 10(g) f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t s disclosure of i n f o r m a t i o n t o f o r e i g n and m u l t i n a t i o n a l p r e s t i c i d e p r o d u c e r s o r t h e i r agents. S e c t i o n 10 t r a d e s e c r e t i s s u e s a r e a l s o p a r t o f t h e l a w s u i t c u r r e n t l y - b e i n g reviewed by t h e Supreme Court ( ~ u c k e l s h a u sv . Monsanto Co.). STATE ROLES T h e i n d i v i d u a l S t a t e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r t r a i n i n g program t o c e r t i f y p e s t i c i d e a p p l i c a t o r s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h S e c t i o n 4 o f FIFRA. S e c t i o n 26 g r a n t s t h e S t a t e s primary enforcement a u t h o r i t y f o r any p e s t i c i d e use v i o l a t i o n s . Emergency exemption and s p e c i a l l o c a l needs r e g i s t r a t i o n s a r e i n i t i a l l y r e v i e w e d a t t h e S t a t e l e v e l and can be a p p r o v e d , s u b j e c t t o a F e d e r a l EPA d e n i a l based on c e r t a i n r e l a t i v e l y narrow c o n d i t i o n s . MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS FIFRA a l s o c o n t a i n s p r o v i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g : -- r e g i s t r a t i o n and i n s p e c t i o n of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s which manufacture o r s e l l p e s t i c i d e products; -- recordkeeping; -- p e n a l t i e s f o r misusing o r m i s l a b e l l i n g a p e s t i c i d e ; -- d i s p o s a l and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of p e s t i c i d e s ; -- r e s e a r c h i n t o p e s t c o n t r o l methods; -- m o n i t o r i n g t h e u s e and impact of p e s t i c i d e s ; and -- c o o p e r a t i v e agreements between S t a t e and F e d e r a l agencies . TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT Federal toxic substances control legislation tras originally proposed in 1971. The President's Council on Environmental Quality published a report, "Toxic Substances," outlining the need for comprehensive chemical control legislation. The House and Senate each passed bills in both the 92nd and 93rd Congresses, but controversies over the scope of premarket screening, costs, and the relationship to other regulatory laws stymied final action. Episodes of damage to health and environment--including the kepone pesticide incident in Hopewell, Virginia, the contamination of the Hudson and other waterways by PCB, and the threat of stratospheric ozone depletion from chloroflurocarbon emissions--together vith more exact assessments of the costs of imposing toxic substances controls--opened the way for final passage of the legislation, and President Ford signed the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), (P.L. 94-469) into law on October 11, 1976. TSCA was designed to provide EPA vith broad authority to: (a) induce testing of existing chemicals, those currently in commercial production or use (Section 4); (b) prevent future chemical risks through premarket screening and regulatory tracking of new chemical products (section 5); (c) control unreasonable risks of chemicals already kn-~n or as they are discovered (Section 6); and ( d ) g a t h e r and d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t c h e m i c a l p r o d u c t i o n , u s e , and p o s s i b l e a d v e r s e e f f e c t s t o human h e a l t h and t h e environment ( S e c t i o n 8 ) . TESTING OF CHEMICALS Many c h e m i c a l s , even some i n w i d e s p r e a d u s e , a r e n o t w e l l c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s t o t h e i r p o t e n t i a l h e a l t h and e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s . One o f t h e major g o a l s of TSCA was t o induce t h e development of t e s t d a t a by p r o d u c e r s of c h e m i c a l s i n commerce. S e c t i o n 4 of TSCA g i v e s EPA t h e a u t h o r i t y t o r e q u i r e t h e development of t e s t d a t a on e x i s t i n g c h e m i c a l s . TWO broad r e g u l a t o r y t h r e s h o l d s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n TSCA: "may p r e s e n t a n u n r e a s o n a b l e r i s k " ; 1 ) t h e chemical o r 2 ) t h e c h e m i c a l i s produced i n v e r y l a r g e volume ( w i t h p o t e n t i a l v i d e e x p o s u r e a s a r e s u l t ) . t i o n , EPA must f u r t h e r d e t e r m i n e b o t h : Under e i t h e r condi- a) existing data i s insufficient to r e s o l v e t h e q u e s t i o n of s a f e t y ; and b ) t e s t i n g i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p t h e data. To h e l p EPA w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n of which c h e m i c a l s s h o u l d f i r s t b e c o n s i d e r e d f o r t e s t i n g , and t o c o o r d i n a t e t e s t i n g n e e d s and e f f o r t s a c r o s s government a g e n c i e s , TSCA c r e a t e d a n I n t e r a g e n c y T e s t i n g Committee ( I T C ) . The ITC c a n recommend c h e m i c a l s e v e r y s i x months t o b e c o n s i d e r e d by EPA f o r h a v i n g a t e s t r u l e promulgated. 50 c h e m i c a l s a t any t i m e . The "ITC l i s t " c a n c o n t a i n no more t h a n According t o TSCA, EPA must w i t h i n one y e a r e i t h e r i s s u e a t e s t p r o p o s a l o r a n o t i c e e x p l a i n i n g why no t e s t i n g i s needed. The I T C t h u s makes a n i n i t i a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p r i o r i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r EPA c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The ITC u s e s v a r i o u s s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a and c o n d u c t s a q u i c k l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w t o h e l p make i t s recommendations. ITC had recommended 7 5 c h e m i c a l s on 1 3 l i s t s . Through 1983 t h e PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATLION The most i n n o v a t i v e a s p e c t o f TSCA i s S e c t i o n 5 , which r e q u i r e s a p r e m a n u f a c t u r e s c r e e n of new c h e m i c a l p r o d u c t s . Such s c r e e n i n g s h o u l d prevent f u t u r e widespread contamination of t h e environment. The i d e a i s t o have a p r e m a n u f a c t u r e review a s s u r e t h a t p o t e n t i a l "bad a c t o r c h e m i c a l s " a r e i d e n t i f i e d and c o n t r o l l e d b e f o r e t h e i r u s e becomes w i d e s p r e a d . The l e g i s l a t i v e h i s t o r y i n c l u d e s a p r e s u m p t i o n t h a t t e s t i n g o f new p r o d u c t s would t a k e p l a c e b e f o r e b e i n g w i d e l y u s e d , e i t h e r a s t h e c h e m i c a l was d e v e l o p e d , o r a s i t s m a r k e t s grew. A t t h e same t i m e , TSCA f o r b i d s b l a n k e t t e s t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a l l new c h e m i c a l s i n o r d e r t o a v o i d s t i f f l i n g innovation i n t h e chemical i n d u s t r y . EPA h a s t o d e c i d e w h a t c h e m i c a l s , o r which c a t e g o r i e s o f c h e m i c a l s , d e s e r v e p r e m a r k e t t e s t i n g . TSCA a l s o p r o v i d e s a u t h o r i t y f o r EPA t o r e q u i r e a l a t e r r e n o t i f i c a t i o n t h a t a c h e m i c a l ' s u s e s a r e e x p a n d i n g , i n a r e a s o f " s i g n i f i c a n t new u s e , " and a l l o w s EPA t o r e q u i r e t e s t i n g a t t h i s p o i n t . The i d e a i s t h a t t h e m a r k e t f o r a c h e m i c a l may grow t o i n c l u d e u s e s which p r e s e n t a g r e a t e r r i s k . For example, t h e i n i t i a l m a r k e t f o r a c a u s t i c d e t e r g e n t a d d i t i v e may be i n d u s t r i a l u s e s , and l a t e r t h e market may i n c l u d e consumer u s e s . EPA c a n a l l o w t h e i n i t i a l u s e w i t h a r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e y b e n o t i f i e d o f t h e second u s e , and a t t h a t t i m e some f u r t h e r t e s t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s may b e imposed. REGULATORY CONTROLS The most g e n e r a l a u t h o r i t y t o r e g u l a t e c h e m i c a l h a z a r d s i s c o n t a i n e d i n S e c t i o n 6 of TSCA. EPA i s g i v e n h i g h l y f l e x i b l e p m e r s t o c o n t r o l "an u n r e a s o n a b l e r i s k of i n j u r y t o h e a l t h o r t h e environment." u n r e a s o n a b l e r i s k s EPA c a n : To e l i m i n a t e -- p r o h i b i t t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o r c e r t a i n u s e s of a c h e m i c a l ; -- r e q u i r e l a b e l i n g ; -- l i m i t t h e volume of p r o d u c t i o n o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n ; -- r e q u i r e record-keeping about production; -- c o n t r o l d i s p o s a l methods; -- r e q u i r e n o t i f i c a t i o n o f consumers; o r -- r e q u i r e r e p l a c e m e n t of r e p u r c h a s e of p r o d u c t s . EPA a l s o h a s t h e f l e x i b i l i t y t o impose any o f t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n c o m b i n a t i o n o r by r e g i o n . A t t h e same t i m e , EPA i s r e q u i r e d t o u s e t h e " l e a s t burdensomett r e g u l a t o r y a p p r o a c h even i n c o n t r o l l i n g u n r e a s o n a b l e r i s k s . S e c t i o n 6 ( e ) a l s o d i r e c t s EPA t o t a k e s p e c i f i c measures t o c o n t r o l t h e r i s k s from p o l y c h l o r i n a t e d b i p h e n y l s (PcBs). INFORMATION-GATHERING S e c t i o n 8 of TSCA p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n - g a t h e r i n g a u t h o r i t y t o EPA. It a l l o w s EPA a c c e s s t o d a t a a b o u t t h e chemical i n d u s t r y ' s o p e r a t i o n s , p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s , and m a r k e t s . S e c t i o n 8 a l s o p r o v i d e s a u t h o r i t y f o r EPA t o r e q u i r e c l o s e m o n i t o r i n g o f p r o d u c t i o n and e x p o s u r e t o t h e v a r i e t y of c h e m i c a l s used i n t h e w o r k p l a c e o r consumer u s e s . EPAts i n i t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t was t o e s t a b l i s h t h e "Inventory"--a c o m p i l a t i o n o f a l l e x i s t i n g c h e m i c a l s i n commerce a s o f 1979. a base a g a i n s t This established t o compare new chemical n o t i c e s ; a 1 1 c h e m i c a l s n o t on t h e I n v e n t o r y a r e by d e f i n i t i o n new. identified first-time Approximately 55,000 c h e m i c a l s w e r e . Other p r o v i s i o n s of S e c t i o n 8 provide t h e a u t h o r i t y t o g a t h e r production volume d a t a , a s w e l l a s any h e a l t h and s a f e t y d a t a d e v e l o p e d by o r known t o c h e m i c a l p r o d u c e r s and p r o c e s s o r s . EPA c a n a l s o r e q u i r e t h a t employee h e a l t h records a n d / o r a l l e g e d adverse h e a l t h e f f e c t s d a t a be k e p t f o r a period of 30 y e a r s . OTHER SECTIONS Imminent Hazards S e c t i o n 7 p r o v i d e s EPA a u t h o r i t y t o t a k e emergency a c t i o n s immediately a g a i n s t a c h e m i c a l s u b s t a n c e o r m i x t u r e which p r e s e n t s a n imminent and u n r e a sonable r i s k of s e r i o u s widespread i n j u r y t o h e a l t h o r t h e environment. R e l a t i o n t o O t h e r Laws S e c t i o n 9 a l L m s EPA t o r e f e r c a s e s o f c h e m i c a l r i s k t o o t h e r F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s i f t h e o t h e r agency h a s a u t h o r i t y t o p r e v e n t o r r e d u c e t h e r i s k . s t a t u t e s under EPA's For j u r i s d i c t i o n , TSCA g i v e s t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r d i s c r e t i o n t o d e c i d e i f a r i s k c a n b e s t b e h a n d l e d by TSCA. Chemical C a t e g o r i e s S e c t i o n 26 a l l o w s EPA t o impose r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s on c a t e g o r i e s of c h e m i c a l , r a t h e r t h a n on a case-by-case basis. However, EPA c a n n o t r e g u l a t e a group s o l e l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r b e i n g new c h e m i c a l s u b s t a n c e s . Miscellaneous TSCA i n c l u d e s o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s common t o o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a t u t e s . These i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g enforcement o f t h e A c t , imposing p e n a l t i e s , j u d i c i a l r e v i e w , c i t i z e n p e t i t i o n s , r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p m e n t , s t a t e programs, and p r o t e c t i o n o f employees who a s s i s t i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Act ( i . e . , "whistle-blowers"). NOISE CONTROL ACT OF 1972 --. With enactment of t h e Noise C o n t r o l Act o f 1972 ( P . L . 92-5741, t h e EPA was g i v e n t h e b a s i c a u t h o r i t y t o c o n t r o l n o i s e p o l l u t i o n and was d i r e c t e d t o t a k e a comprehensive a p p r o a c h . T h i s L e g i s l a t i o n a u t h o r i z e d EPA t o e s t a b l i s h n o i s e e m i s s i o n s t a n d a r d s f o r p r o d u c t s now d i s t r i b u t e d i n commerce, t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f F e d e r a l r e s e a r c h on n o i s e c o n t r o l , and t o r e q u i r e manufacturers of products e m i t t i n g n o i s e c a p a b l e of a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t i n g t h e public health o r welfare t o l a b e l t h e i r products' noise c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The Q u i e t Communities Act of 1978 ( P . L . 95-608) e x t e n d e d and made m i n o r amendments t o t h e A c t . - AIRCRAFT NOISE A p r i m a r y f o c u s of n o i s e c o n t r o l h a s b e e n on ~ r o t e c t i n gt h e p u b l i c h e a l t h and w e l f a r e from a i r c r a f t n o i s e and a i r c r a f t o p e r a t i o n s . EPA's r o l e u n d e r t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n i s t o c o n d u c t comprehensive s t u d i e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t n o i s e problem and t o p r o p o s e r e g u l a t i o n s and m e a s u r e s t o a b a t e n o i s e . These p r o p o s a l s a r e reviewed by t h e F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n A u t h o r i t y , w h i c h h a s t h e a u t h o r i t y t o a c c e p t , m o d i f y , o r r e j e c t EPA's p r o p o s a l s . for issuing a i r c r a f t noise regulations. The FAA i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e The Act p r o v i d e s f o r j u d i c i a l r e v i e w o f a l l FAA d e c i s i o n s , and u n d e r t h e c i t i z e n s u i t p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e A c t , any i n d i v i d u a l c a n b r i n g s u i t a g a i n s t t h e FAA o r EPA A d m i n i s t r a t o r s f o r f a i l u r e t o p e r f o r m any n o n d i s c r e t i o n a r y a c t o r d u t y . NOISE FROM COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS The Act a u t h o r i z e s EPA t o p r e s c r i b e s t a n d a r d s l i m i t i n g n o i s e e m i s s i o n s f o r any p r o d u c t o r c l a s s o f p r o d u c t s i d e n t i f i e d a s a major s o u r c e o f n o i s e i n the following c a t e g o r i e s : c o n s t r u c t i o n equipment, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v e h i c l e s ( i n c l u d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s ) , a n y motor o r e n g i n e , and e l e c t r i c a l o r e l e c t r o n i c equipment, The EPA was f u r t h e r d i r e c t e d t o promulgate r e g u l a t i o n s f o r s u r f a c e c a r r i e r s engaged i n i n t e r s t a t e commerce, i n c l u d i n g r a i l r o a d s , t r u c k s and b u s e s . P e n a l t i e s o f up t o 1 y e a r imprisonment and a $25,000 f i n e a r e p r o v i d e d f o r p e r s o n s c o n v i c t e d of removing n o i s e r e d u c t i o n d e v i c e s from p r o d u c t s t h a t have complied w i t h n o i s e e m i s s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s o r f o r removing n o i s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l a b e l s from p r o d u c t s b e f o r e t h e i r s a l e t o t h e u l t i m a t e p u r c h a s e r . C i v i l p e n a l t i e s w e r e added i n 1978. O t h e r p r o v i s i o n s of the l e g i s l a t i o n a u t h o r i z e t h e EPA t o r e s e a r c h t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y e i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of n o i s e on human b e i n g s , a n i m a l s , and p r o p e r t y ; p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o S t a t e and l o c a l governments t o f a c i l i t a t e development and enforcement o f ambient n o i s e s t a n d a r d s ; and d i s s e m i n a t e p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n on e f f e c t s , a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s , and t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e measurements and c o n t r o l o f n o i s e . ACTIONS DURING 1981-82 The Reagan A d m i n i s t r a t i o n d e c i d e d t o t e r m i n a t e the F e d e r a l n o i s e c o n t r o l program. I n t h e judgment o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , n o i s e c o n t r o l i s one o f t h e a r e a s which p r o p e r l y s h o u l d b e r e g u l a t e d by S t a t e and l o c a l governments i n s t e a d o f t h e F e d e r a l Government. The proposed FY82 budget f o r EPA's O f f i c e of Noise Abatement and C o n t r o l was t h e r e f o r e c u t from $13 m i l l i o n proposed by t h e C a r t e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t o $2.2 m i l l i o n s u g g e s t e d by t h e Reagan Administration. The r e m a i n i n g f u n d i n g was i n t e n d e d t o b e u s e d f o r a n o r d e r l y t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e program, and f u n d i n g f o r f u t u r e y e a r s was p r o j e c t e d a t z e r o I n t h e a b s e n c e of new a u t h o r i z a t i o n b i l l s , t h e n o i s e c o n t r o l program underwent a g r a d u a l p h a s e d m n d u r i n g 1981 and 1982, f i n a l l y c e a s i n g t o e x i s t a t t h e end o f f i s c a l y e a r 1982, on September 3 0 , 1982. With t h e s h u t d o w n o f t h e O f f i c e o f Noise Abatement and C o n t r o l , EPA's r e m a i n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h i s a r e a a r e b e i n g h a n d l e d by t h e A s s i s t a n t A d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r A i r , ~ o i s e , and R a d i a t i o n . The Noise C o n t r o l Act h a s n o t b e e n r e p e a l e d , and some o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s i s s u e d u n d e r i t s a u t h o r i t y remain i n e f f e c t . commercial p r o d u c t s a r e i n t h r e e a r e a s : Remaining n o i s e r e g u l a t i o n s on (1) products; these include portable a i r c o m p r e s s o r s , t r u c k mounted s o l i d w a s t e c o m p a c t o r s ( i . e . , garbage t r u c k s ) , m o t o r c y c l e s , and medium and heavy t r u c k s , ( 2 ) h e a r i n g p r o t e c t o r s ; t h e s e must b e l a b e l l e d a s t o t h e d e g r e e o f p r o t e c t i o n t h e y p r o v i d e , and ( 3 ) i n t e r s t a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; t h i s i n c l u d e s r a i l r o a d s and i n t e r s t a t e m o t o r c a r r i e r s ( t r u c k s ) . These r e g u l a t i o n s may b e e n f o r c e d by S t a t e and l o c a l governments i f t h e y have a law o r o r d i n a n c e i d e n t i c a l t o t h e F e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s . On t h e F e d e r a l l e v e l , t h e EPA h a s e n f o r c e m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c o v e r i n g t h e f i r s t two a r e a s , w h i l e t h e Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e t a i n s t h e F e d e r a l e n f o r c e m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e t h i r d a r e a , r a i l r o a d s and i n t e r s t a t e m o t o r c a r r i e r s . ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT D e s c r i b i n g EPA's s t a t u t o r y mandate f o r r e s e a r c h and development (R&D) i s n o t s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , b o t h b e c a u s e R&D i s a b r o a d s u b j e c t and b e c a u s e t h e a g e n c y ' s R&D a u t h o r i t i e s grew p i e c e m e a l a s p a r t s oE many e n v i r o n m e n t a l prot e c t i o n l a w s , e n a c t e d and amended o v e r t h e y e a r s . U s u a l l y , R&D i s d e f i n e d q u i t e b r o a d l y , t o i n c l u d e b a s i c and a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h a s w e l l a s development and d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g i e s , p l u s m o n i t o r i n g and d i v e r s e s p e c i a l s t u d i e s . EPA's a u t h o r i t i e s f o r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s d e r i v e from v a r i o u s p r o v i s i o n s i n a t l e a s t 1 3 laws : -- t h e Clean A i r Act, e s p e c i a l l y s e c t i o n s 103, 104, 1 5 3 , and 319; -- t h e F e d e r a l Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , e s p e c i a l l y T i t l e I , s e c t i o n s 104-116; -- t h e S a f e D r i n k i n g Water A c t , e s p e c i a l l y s e c t i o n s 1442 and 1444; -- t h e Marine P r o t e c t i o n , R e s e a r c h and S a n c t u a r i e s Act (Ocean Dumping A c t ) ; -- t h e S o l i d Waste D i s p o s a l A c t / R e s o u r c e C o n s e r v a t i o n and Recovery A c t , S u b t i t l e H , s e c t i o n s 8001-8007; -- t h e F e d e r a l I n s e c t i c i d e , F u n g i c i d e , and R o d e n t i c i d e A c t , s e c t i o n 20; -- t h e P e s t i c i d e Research Act; -- t h e Toxic Substances Control A c t , e s p e c i a l l y s e c t i o n 10; -- t h e Noise C o n t r o l A c t , s e c t i o n ?4: -- the Public Health Service Act; -- t h e N a t i o n a l Environmental P o l i c y A c t , s e c t i o n ZO4(5) ; -- t h e Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and L i a b i l i t y Act o f 1980 ( S u p e r f u n d ) ; and -- t h e Energy S e c u r i t y Act (Acid r a i n r e s e a r c h program), T i t l e V'II. I n some c a s e s , t h e s e s t a t u t e s g i v e EPA g e n e r a l R&D a u t h o r i t i e s . In o t h e r c a s e s , t h e y s p e c i f y i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l c e r t a i n p r o j e c t s EPA i s t o c a r r y out. Some of t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n s a r e f o r c o n t i n u i n g programs, o t h e r s a r e f o r one-time s t u d i e s . O r i g i n a l l y , many of t h e s e s t a t u t e s c o n t a i n e d s e p a r a t e a p p r o p r i a t i o n a u t h o r i z a t i o n s f o r funding r e s e a r c h . A t l e a s t i n t h e o r y some o r d e r and review was imposed on t h e s e d i v e r s e a u t h o r i t i e s by t h e requirement--enacted i n 1976 ( P . L . 94-475)--that R&D be s p e c i f i c a l l y a u t h o r i z e d s e p a r a t e l y on a n a n n u a l b a s i s . EPA's This require- ment f o l l o w e d t h e d e c i s i o n of t h e House t o c o n s o l i d a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l R&D i n t h e S c i e n c e and Technology Committee. However, Congress f a i l e d t o e n a c t a u t h o r i z a t i o n s f o r FY1977 and FY1982, and t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n s f o r FY1983 and FY1984 v e r e v e t o e d s u c c e s s f u l l y . The l a c k of a u t h o r i z a t i o n meant t h a t i n t h e House, b i l l s a p p r o p r i a t i n g f u n d s f o r t h o s e programs v e r e p o t e n t i a l l y open t o o b j e c t i o n a s n o t complying w i t h t h e r u l e t h a t money c a n n o t be a p p r o p r i a t e d w i t h o u t p r i o r a u t h o r i z a t i o n . But t h i s r u l e c a n b e w a i v e d , and EPA's a p p r o p r i a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g funds f o r R&D, h a v e been approved each year--although t h e funds a p p r o p r i a t e d have t y p i c a l l y been l e s s t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s sums a u t h o r i z e d . The EPA R&D a u t h o r i z i n g b i l l s t h a t have been e n a c t e d ( P . L . 94-475, P.L. 95-155, P.L. 95-477, P.L. 96-299, and P . Z . 96-569) b o t h ( 1 ) a u t h o r i z e t h e l e v e l and a l l o c a t i o n of funds f o r t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l media R&D programs, (2) also address a number of R&D policy issues, especially (a) environmental RhD planning, ( b ) coordination of environmental R&D among ~ederalagencies, and ( c ) responsibility for conducting long-term, basic research. The Environmental Research, Development, and Demonstration Authorization Act of 1981--the last one to have been signed into law--authorized to be appropriated to EPA for environmental research the sum of $364.70 million, divided as follak~s: --- under the Clean Air Act, $70,167,000; -- under the Safe Drinking Water Act, $27,447,000; -- under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, $26,446,000; -- under the Federal ~nsecticide,Fungicide, and under the Clean Water Act, $64,022,000; Rodenticide Act, $9,435,000; -- for radiation activities under the Public Health Service Act, $3,181,000; -- for interdisciplinary activities, $22,845,000; ---- under the Toxic Substances Control Act, $36,895,000; for energy activities, $107,599,000; and for program management by EPA, $4,666,000. (AS a cost-cutting measure, the Act included a provision superimposing an across-the-board authorization cap equal to $8 million less than the sum of the specified authorizations for programs under the Act.) In addition, the Act broke d m n the authorizations for many of the programs. For example, the $70,167,000 authorized under the Clean Air Act was divided into three categories; $45,243,000 for Health and Ecological ~ffects;$4,099,000 for Industrial Processes; and $20,825,000 for Monitoring and Technical Support. Other breakdmns specified certain projects. For example, of t h e S a f e D r i n k i n g Water Act f u n d s , $4 m i l l i o n may be o b l i g a t e d and expended on groundwater r e s e a r c h . F i n a l l y , t h e Act imposed l i m i t a t i o n s on EPA's a b i l i t y t o t r a n s f e r funds from one c a t e g o r y t o a n o t h e r . While t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n s r e f l e c t e d C o n g r e s s ' p o s i t i o n on a number of R&D p o l i c y i s s u e s - - f o r research--the example, t h e importance o f t h e a g e n c y ' s e n e r g y A c t s a l s o have i n c l u d e d e x p l i c i t p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s . On r e s e a r c h p l a n n i n g , P.L. 94-475 r e q u i r e d EPA t o p r e p a r e each y e a r a comprehensive 5-year e n v i r o n m e n t a l R&D p l a n , t o be s u b m i t t e d t o Congress no l a t e r t h a n two weeks a f t e r t h e P r e s i d e n t s u b m i t s h i s b u d g e t . P.L. 95-155 added t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e 5-year p l a n i n c l u d e p r o j e c t i o n s f o r no-growth, m o d e r a t e - g r m 7 t h , and high-grcwth b u d g e t s . On r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t i o n , P.L. 95-155 a s s i g n e d EPA t h e l e a d r o l e i n c o o r d i n a t i n g a l l F e d e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l R&D. The same a c t a l s o r e q u i r e d t h e Council on Environmental Q u a l i t y t o p r e p a r e a s t u d y o f t h e i s s u e . Also, t h e a c t d i r e c t e d EPA t o s t u d y and r e p o r t on i t s i n t e r n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n of r e s e a r c h w i t h i t s r e g u l a t o r y program. On b a s i c r e s e a r c h , t h e Congress h a s r e p e a t e d l y d i r e c t e d t h e agency t o m a i n t a i n d i s c r e t e programs o f c o n t i n u i n g , long-term r e s e a r c h w i t h i n each R&D a c t i v i t y ; and t o d e d i c a t e a t l e a s t 15 p e r c e n t o f a p p r o p r i a t e d funds f o r e a c h a c t i v i t y t o s u c h long-term r e s e a r c h . I n f a c t , t h e vetoed b i l l a u t h o r i z i n g funds f o r FYI982 and FY1983 would have r e q u i r e d EPA t o d e d i c a t e 20 p e r c e n t of i t s R&D f u n d s t o long-term r e s e a r c h . A l s o , i n P.L. 95-477 and P.L. 96-229, Congress e x p l i c i t l y f o r b a d e t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n from c a r r y i n g o u t a proposed t r a n s f e r s f e n e r g y - r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d by EPA t o t h e Department of Energy. To ensure the scientific quality of EPA activities, P.L. 95-155 created within the agency a Science Advisory Board. The Board has responsibilities for reviewing agency activities, including specifically the preparation of the 5-year environmental R&D plan. In addition, from time to time these enactments have specified funds for research areas that EPA has not proposed to undertake. For example, P.L. 95- 477 specified $15 million for demonstrating wastewater reuse. While these annual authorizations, when enacted, best represent the overall picture of statutory authority for environmental R&D, the provisions of the various environmental protection statutes also remain in effect. In fact, amendments to these statutes have included new RbD provisions, though usually without specific funding level authorizations. Ultimately, then, EPA's current and continuing authority for conducting R&D derives from a combination of authorizations in its basic environmental protection statutes, requirements and precedents arising from the environmental R&D authorization laws, and the actual levels of funds provided in EPA's annual appropriations bill. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT -I. STATUTORY POLICY AND PROCEDURES The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was enacted as Public Law 91-190 on January 1, 1970. The basic purposes of NEPA are spelled out in Section 2 as folla~s: -- -- 11 to declare a national policy which will encourage productive and enjoyable harmony between man and his environment; 11 to promote efforts which will prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere and stimulate the health and welfare of man; -- "to enrich the understanding of the ecological systems and natural resources important to the Nation; and -- "and to establish a Council on Environmental Quality." These purposes are followed by a "Declaration of National Environmental Policy" in Title I which commits the Federal government to work with other levels of government and other groups in order to improve environmental conditions, while Title I1 creates the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President. POLICY GOALS In order to carry out that overall policy statement, the Act further made it the "continuing responsibility" of the Federal Government to take "all practicable" steps to reach a number of so-called substantive goals that embodied nationwide improvements in environmental quality. environmental responsibility is-- Specifically, the Federal "... t o u s e a l l p r a c t i c a b l e means, c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o t h e r e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e N a t i o n may-c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of n a t i o n a l p o l i c y , ... -- f u l f i l l t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of e a c h g e n e r a t i o n a s t r u s t e e o f t h e environment f o r s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s ; -- assure, s a f e , h e a l t h f u l , productive -- attain b e n e f i c i a l u s e s o f t h e environment w i t h o u t degradation, r i s k t o health or safety, or other u n d e s i r a b l e and u n i n t e n d e d c o n s e q u e n c e s ; -- preserve important a s p e c t s of o u r n a t i o n a l h e r i t a g e , and m a i n t a i n , w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , a n environment ; which s u p p o r t s d i v e r s i t y 11 ... s u r r o u n d i n g s ; ... ... . .. -- -- a c h i e v e a b a l a n c e between p o p u l a t i o n and r e s o u r c e use and .. .; ... enhance renewable r e s o u r c e s and depletable resources. ... r e c y c l i n g of F u r t h e r , i n S e c t i o n 1 0 1 ( c ) t h e Congress a d o p t e d language r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t I1 each p e r s o n s h o u l d e n j o y a h e a l t h f u l environment and t h a t each p e r s o n h a s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o c o n t r i b u t e t o [ i t s ] p r e s e r v a t i o n and enhancement ....It, ACTION-FORCING PROCEDURES S e c t i o n 102 of NEPA s t a t e s t h a t t h e Congress " a u t h o r i z e s and d i r e c t s t h a t , t o the f u l l e s t extent possible: " ( 1 ) t h e p o l i c i e s , r e g u l a t i o n s , and p u b l i c l a w s of t h e United S t a t e s s h a l l be i n t e r p r e t e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d i n accordance w i t h t h e p o l i c i e s s e t f o r t h i n t h i s A c t ; and " ( 2 ) a l l a g e n c i e s o f t h e F e d e r a l Government s h a l l [ i n c o r p o r a t e t h e p o l i c y and g o a l s by u t i l i z i n g new methods f o r c o n s i d e r i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f ~ r m a t i o n and v a l u e s ] . Those d i r e c t i v e s t o d e v e l o p i n f o r m a t i o n , methods and p r o c e d u r e s ; t o make d e t a i l e d p u b l i c d i s c l o s u r e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s ; and t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n g l a c t i v i t i e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o b e " u s e f u l i n r e s t o r i n g , m a i n t a i n i n g , and e n h a n c i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e env i r oamen t . 'I Specifically, agencies' decisions must reflect these new dimensions: "(A) . .. a systematic interdisciplinary approach ... . . .; " ( B ) develop procedures [to ensure consideration of] unquantified environmpntal amenities and values along with economic and technical considerations; and ... ... "(C) include in [all] proposals for legislation and other major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, a detailed statement [of - by the responsible official environmental impact]*/ ...; ... "(Dl under a program of grants to States prepared by a State agency can] be legally ... ... [EIS'S ....** -/ ... ... "(El study alternatives to any proposal which involves unresolved conflicts concerning alternative uses of available resources; ... .. . lend appropriate support to maximize international cooperation in anticipating and preventing a decline in the quality of mankind's world environment;" "(F) 11. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY FUNCTIONS UNDER NEPA Under NEPA, each agency is responsible for reviewing and commenting on other agencies' ",sS's(as to the commentir:g agency's expertise), in order to assess their adequacy and to coordinate interagency decision making. The EPA - has developed procedures for preparing its review and public comments on all ?I The statement must analyze the environmental impact of the proposed action; any adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided; alternatives to the proposed action; the relationship between local short-term uses of man's environment and long-term productivity; and any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources involved in the proposed action Prior to taking an action, the responsible Federal official is required to consult any other Federal agency having jurisdiction or special expertise on the environwntal impacts, and to make the "statement and the comments and available to views of the apprnpriate Federal, State, and local agencies the President, the Council on Environmental Quality and to the public". ... .... ... ... impact statements under additional authority contained in section 309 of the Clean Air Act; the standardized procedures for E I S preparatio; and review which apply government-wide were issued by the Council on Environmental Quality on November 29, 1978 (43 FR 55978, or 40 CFR 1500). Legislation has substantially limited EPA's own impact statement preparation. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-500) specified that statements vould be required only for wastewater treatment construction grants and for the issuance of permits for pollutants from a new source. As the States assume the responsibilities for these EPA water pollution control programs as the law provides, even the two actions subject to EIS requirements are no longer Federal decisions, and NEPA is no longer applicable. These Amendments also sanction the use of EPA's water quality standards by other Federal agencies for purposes of compliance with NEPA, thereby overturning a holding of the Federal appeals court--in Calvert Cliffs' Coordinati,ng Committee v. Atomis Energy Commission, 449 F.2d 1109 (D.C. Cir. 1971)-Thich would have required water quality determinations by the Atomic Energy Commission. Further, the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-319) provided that no impact statements would be required for any actions taken by the EPA under the Clean Air Act. The following eycerpt from EPA's testimony before the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee on February 2, 1984, outlines the agency's current role in the NEPA process: "The Office of Federal Activities . .., is responsible for working with other Federal agencies to assure that they carry out their activities in an environmentally sound manner; responsibilities of the office include the Environmental Impact Statement review program, [and] NEPA compliance for EPA Programs . . .. 11 are: ... EPA h a s NEPA r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n f o u r programs o r a c t i v i t i e s . These c o n s t r u c t i o n g r a n t s , new s o u r c e NPDES ~ e r m i t s ,r e s e a r c h and development programs, and f a c i l i t y s u p p o r t a c t i v i t i e s . As p a r t o f t h e 1974 p o l i c y on NEPA c o m p l i a n c e , EPA a l s o committed t o p r e p a r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact s t a t e ments on s e l e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t o r y a c t i o n s , a l t h o u g h n o t r e q u i r e d t o do s o by l a w . The Agency b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f E I S ' S would have b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s on t h e s e l e c t e d a c t i o n s and e s t a b l i s h e d p r o c e d u r e s f o r implementing t h e p o l i c y . These s o - c a l l e d v o l u n t a r y EIS p r o c e d u r e s w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n t h e F e d e r a l R e g i s t e r i n O c t o b e r 1974. They c o v e r s p e c i f i e d a c t i o n s u n d e r t h e Clean A i r A c t , t h e N o i s e C o n t r o l A c t , t h e Atomic Energy A c t , t h e F e d e r a l I n s e c t i c i d e , R o d e n t i c i d e , and F u n g i c i d e Act , and t h e Marine P r o t e c t i o n , R e s e a r c h , and S a n c t u a r i e s A c t . I1 The second major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s EPA's management o f t h e f i l i n g p r o c e s s and r e c o r d s f o r a l l f e d e r a l E I S ' s . T h i s was o r i g i n a l l y a CEQ func- t i o n , b u t was t r a n s f e r r e d t o EPA [ R e o r g a n i z a t i o n P l a n No. 1 o f 19771 [~lhird, ... S e c t i o n ... 309 o f t h e C l e a n A i r Act and t h e CEQ r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e s EPA t o r e v i e w , and comment i n w r i t i n g on a l l m a j o r F e d e r a l a c t i o n s , posed r e g u l a t i o n s and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o p o s a l s f o r l e g i s l a t i o n . " ... pro-