A Glossary of Selected Telecommunications Terms

The following glossary provides short definitions and descriptions of selected telecommunications terminology, agencies, and organizations, as well as a listing of key laws and Federal Communications Commission regulations and decisions.

Report No. 84-3 S P A GLOSSARY OF SELECTED TELECOMMUNICATIONS TERMS Jane Bortnick S p e c i a l i s t i n I n f o r m a t i o n Science and Technology S c i e n c e P o l i c y Research D i v i s i o n Angele G i l r o y S p e c i a l i s t i n I n d u s t r i a l Organization Economics D i v i s i o n and David S i d d a l l L e g i s l a t i v e Attorney American Law D i v i s i o n J a n u a r y 1, 1984 The Congressional Research Service works exclusively for the Congress, conducting research, analyzing legislation, and providing information at the request of committees, Members, and their staffs. The Service makes such research available, without partisan bias, in many forms including studies, reports, compilations, digests, and background briefings. Upon request, CRS assists committees in analyzing legislative proposals and issues, and in assessing the possible effects of these proposals and their alternatives. The Service's senior specialists and subject analysts are also available for personal consultations in their respective fields of expertise. ABSTRACT The following glossary provides short definitions and descriptions of selected telecomunications terminology, agencies, and organizations, as well as a listing of key laws and Federal Communications Commission regulations and decisions. PREFACE This glossary has been prepared to assist the lay person to obtain a working knowledge in the telecommunications field. It is not an exhaustive listing of telecommunications terminology, but rather is intended as an aid to provide a short definition of the more common economic, technical, and regulatory terms found in the broadcast, cable, and telecommunications common carrier fields. A listing of key laws and Federal Communications Commission regulations and decisions as well as selected agencies and organizations active in telecommunications is also included. Jane Bortnick, Specialist in Information Science and Technology, Science Policy Research Division; Angele Gilroy, Specialist in Industrial Organization, Economics Division; and David Siddall, Legislative Attorney, American Law Division; were responsible for the selection and definition of these terms. Mark Jickling, Research Assistant, Economics Division; and David Anapolle, Student Intern, Science Policy Research Division; provided invaluable assistance. A wide variety of telecommunications dictionaries, glossaries, and textbooks were used as reference aids in the compilation of these definitions. CONTENTS ABSWCT.......... PREFACE. I. . 11. 111. ...... DEFINITIONS ....................................................... iii .................................................. .......................................................... KEY TELECOMMUNICATIONS LAWS AND FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION DECISIONS AND REGULATIONS.... v 1 ............................. 17 ........ 25 SELECTED TELECOMMUNICATIONS AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS I. DEFINITIONS ACCESS a charge to cover local exchange costs directly associated with -- --- - -CHARGE: -- -the origination and termination of interexchange services. For example, these costs could be recovered through a fee to be levied directly on subscribers (see *customer access line charge) and/or on *interexchange carriers. (See Access Charge Decision in Section 11.) . ALLOCATION (of the ---- *radio frequency spectrum): the designation of particular parts of the *radio frequency spectrum for specific types of service or services. For example, 535 to 1605 kilohertz (see *hertz) is allocated to the broadcasting service where it is used for *amplitude modulation (AM) radio. ALLOTMENTS: the table of allotments shows which *FM and TV broadcasting channels can be used in each city. -- RADIO: - audio transmission utilizing *frequencies AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM) from 535 to 1605-kilohertz. (See *hertz. ) AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND DECREE: a judicial settlement -- ----- TELEGRAPH - .- - -- -. 1956 CONSENT - -- -ending the Federal Government's 1949 antitrust suit against AT&T and Western Electric. Among the provisions was a restriction that the *Bell System engage only in the manufacture of equipment and the provision of services related to regulated *common carrier telecommunications services and those services incidental to the provision of such service. AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND 1982 CONSENT (also called modification - -TELEGRAPH -- .- -- --- DECREE: -of final judgment--MFJ) a judicial settlement ending the Federal Government's 1974 antitrust suit against AT&T, Bell Labs, and Western Electric. Among the provisions agreed to were the divestiture of the local *exchange service and access functions of the 22 *Bell operating companies as well as the modification of the *AT&T 1956 Consent Decree so that the remaining *Bell System may enter into unregulated markets (e.g. *data processing). (See section 11.) ANALOG DATA: information represented in the form of continuously variable elements. The normal mode of transmitting telephone or voice signals has been analog, although increasingly digital encoding is taking place. -- ASCERTAINMENT: the *Federal Communications Commission policy which requires broadcast stations to determine the needs of communities served and provide programming to address those needs. ASSIGNMENT (ofa radio --- - -- frequency): the authorization or licensing of a particular station to use a specific frequency (or channel) under specified conditions. ATTENUATION: the loss in signal power between transmission and reception points. .- - - - . - -- DATA --- PROCESSING - ------ (ADP): - -- AUTOMATIC The processing of information by computers. * An asterisk preceeding a term indicates that the term is defined elsewhere in the glossary. BANDWIDTH: - -- ---- t h e *frequency w i d t h u s e d by a communication's * s i g n a l . a r e specified i n *hertz. Bandwidths BASIC CABLE -- -. SERVICE: ---t h e package of * c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n programming made ( S e e *pay c a b l e . ) a v a i l a b l e t o a l l s u b s c r i b e r s f o r t h e minimum monthly f e e . ------ .SERVICE: t h e * F e d e r a l Communications Commission d e f i n i BASIC-TELECOMMUNICATION t i o n of *common c a r r i e r t r a n s m i s s i o n s e r v i c e s which r e s u l t o n l y i n t h e movement of i n f o r u a t i o n and do n o t i n v o l v e t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n , r e s t r u c t u r i n g , o r s t o r i n g of such information. ( S e e *enhanced t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s e r v i c e s . ) BELL OPERATING COMPANIES (BOC's): t h e p r e d i v e s t i t u r e 22 wholly-owned t e l e p h o n e companies which were p a r t of t h e * B e l l System p r o v i d i n g l o c a l and i n t r a s t a t e t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e . Under t h e t e r m s of t h e *American Telephone and T e l e g r a p h 1982 Consent Decree t h e s e 22 companies and t h e i r "exchange s e r v i c e and *exchange a c c e s s f u n c t i o n s were d i v e s t e d from t h e * B e l l System and r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o 7 r e g i o n a l h o l d i n g companies ( A m e r i t e c h , B e l l A t l a n t i c , B e l l S o u t h , NYNEX, P a c i f i c T e l e s i s , S o u t h w e s t e r n 8 e l P Corp., and U.So West.) The s e v e n r e g i o n a l h o l d i n g companies e a c h own a one-seventh i n t e r e s t i n a C e n t r a l S e r v i c e s O r g a n i z a t i o n (CSO). The o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' major f u n c t i o n s a r e t h e f u r n i s h i n g of t e c h n i c a l ass i s t a n c e and s e r v i n g a s a c e n t r a l c o n t a c t p o i n t f o r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , emergency p r e p a r e d n e s s , and n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s . The d i v e s t i t u r e t o o k p l a c e J a n u a r y 1, 1 9 8 4 , BELL SYSTEM: t h e p r e - d i v e s t i t u r e s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of American Telephone and T e l e g r a p h Company and i t s s u b s i d i a r i e s . The *AT&T 1982 Consent Decree c a l l e d f o r d i v e s t i t u r e of t h e exchange s e r v i c e and a c c e s s f u n c t i o n s , t h e y e l l o w page d i r e c t o r y , and t h e * c e l l u l a r m o b i l e r a d i o p a r t s of t h e B e l l System. a u n i t of i n f o r m a t i o n . The word i t s e l f i s a c o n t r a c t i o n of t h e words I n f o r m a t i o n i n d i g i t a l computers i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n b i n a r y form A bit r e f e r s t o e a c h b i n a r y s e q u e n c e * (0, j BIT: binary d i g i t . - BROADCASTING SATELLITE SERVICE (BSS): -- -- a radiocoinmunications s e r v i c e i n which " s i g n a l s t r a n s m i t t e d o r r e t r a n s m i t t e d by s p a c e s t a t i o n s a r e i n t e n d e d f o r d i r e c t r e c e p t i o n by t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . T h i s s e r v i c e may i n c l u d e sound t r a n s m i s s i o n s and t e l e v i s i o n t r a n s m i s s i o n , and i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s g e n e r a l l y r e f e r s t o *direct broadcast s a t e l l i t e service. BROADCASTS: o v e r - t h e - a i r t r a n s m i s s i o n s conveying programs i n t e n d e d t o be r e c e i v e d by t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c ( i n c o n t r a s t t o t r a n s m i s s i o n s i n t e n d e d o n l y f o r s p e c i f i c a d d r e s s e e s , s u c h a s p o i n t - t o - p o i n t *common c a r r i e r t r a n s m i s s i o n s ) . BUNDLED RATES: r a t e s i n which t h e v a r i o u s r a t e e l e m e n t s which comprise t h e s e r v i c e a r e c o n s o l i d a t e d t h e r e b y making them i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . (See *unbundled r a t e s . ) BYTE: a u n i t of computer memory t y p i c a l l y c o n s i s t i n g of e i g h t * b i t s and --e q u a l l i n g enough i n f o r m a t i o n t o d e s c r i b e one l e t t e r , number, o r c h a r a c t e r . CRS - 3 CABLECASTS: --. -- t r a n s m i s s i o n s conveying programs i n t e n d e d t o be r e c e i v e d o n l y by c a b l e s u b s c r i b e r s and which a r e c o n t a i n e d s o l e l y w i t h i n t h e c a b l e ( i n c o n t r a s t t o over-the-air *broadcasts). CABLE FEES: a y e a r l y c h a r g e p a i d by t h e *cable f r a n c h i s e o p e r a t o r t o t h e l o c a l government which r e p r e s e n t s t h e f r a n c h i s e d a r e a of o p e r a t i o n . The amount i s u s u a l l y a p e r c e n t a g e of t h e * c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n o p e r a t o r ' s y e a r l y g r o s s revenues and i s a g r e e d upon by t h e c a b l e o p e r a t o r and t h e l o c a l community, b u t s u b j e c t t o s t a n d a r d s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e *Federal Communications Commission, 47 C.F.R. $76.31. FRANCHISE: -CABLE ---- an agreement by which a l o c a l government u n i t c o n t r a c t s w i t h a *cable t e l e v i s i o n company f o r t h e r i g h t t o p r o v i d e c a b l e s e r v i c e s t o t h e community . CABLE PENETRATION: t h e number of homes i n an a r e a which have o p t e d t o be equipped t o r e c e i v e * c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n a s a p e r c e n t a g e of a l l households w i t h television. POLE ATTACHMENT: -CABLE ---- -- -- t h e a t t a c h m e n t o f , o r t h e l a y i n g of " c o a x i a l c a b l e t o u t i l i t y p o l e s o r r i g h t s - -of-way owned o r c o n t r o l l e d by u t i l i t y companies t o e n a b l e t h e p r o v i s i o n of * c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n s e r v i c e . The c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n company pays a charge f o r t h i s a c c e s s , and i n t h e absence of S t a t e r e g u l a t i o n , t h e * F e d e r a l Communications Commission r e g u l a t e s p o l e a t t a c h m e n t r a t e s , t e r m s and c o n d i t i o n s , 47 U .S .C. $224. CABLE RATES: for the payments made by c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n s u b s c r i b e r s t o t h e c a b l e company of * c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n s e r v i c e . CABLE SUPERSTATION: -a t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t s t a t i o n whose * s i g n a l i s r e t r a n s m i t t e d t o * c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n systems v i a " s a t e l l i t e . CABLE - TELEVISION: a system t h a t d e l i v e r s m u l t i p l e c h a n n e l s of v i d e o programming t o s u b s c r i b e r s through a * c o a x i a l c a b l e . Cable p r o v i d e r s a r e l o c a l l y f r a n c h i s e d , but a r e a l s o r e g u l a t e d on t h e F e d e r a l l e v e l and may be r e g u l a t e d on t h e S t a t e l e v e l a s well. CANDIDATE ACCESS STATUTE: s e e s e c t i o n 11. CARRIER'S CARRIER: - i n *telecommunications, a p r o v i d e r of telecommunications s e r v i c e s t o o t h e r c a r r i e r s , who t h e n p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s t o customers. CATHODE RAY -TUBE (CRT): -- a n electron-beam t u b e such a s t h e p i c t u r e t u b e i n a television receiver. t h e name f o r t h e 4-6 GHz ( s e e * h e r t z ) f r e q u e n c y bands t h a t a r e used f o r * s a t e l l i t e communications and a r e s h a r e d w i t h common c a r r i e r t e r r e s t r i a l microwave systems. C-BAND: - MOBILE -CELLULAR -- -. ---- - --RADIO: --- a f o r m of p o r t a b l e t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e which a l l o w s m o b i l e r a d i o t e l e p h o n e s t o b o t h i n i t i a t e and r e c e i v e c a l l s w i t h p r i v a t e l i n e q u a l i t y . A m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a i s d i v i d e d i n t o " c e l l s " e a c h s e r v e d by a low power r a d i o . a s t a t e t a r i f f e d telephone service p r i n c i p a l l y o f f e r e d t o l a r g e u s e r s ( e . g . Government a g e n c i e s and l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) - w h i c h p r o v i d e s s e r v i c e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e of a * p r i v a t e a u t o m a t i c b r a n c h exchange ( e . g . i n t e r c o m , and c o n f e r e n c e c a l l i n g ) , b u t which r e q u i r e s a s e p a r a t e l o o p from t h e c e n t r a l o f f i c e s w i t c h t o e a c h of t h e s u b s c r i b e r ' s s t a t i o n s . CENTREX CENTRAL OFFICE (CENTREXCO): --- ---. - - - -- - - - - SERVICE - --- C I R C U IT: a two-way communications p a t h . COAXIAL CABLE: a c a b l e composed of a n i n n e r w i r e c o n d u c t o r s u r r o u n d e d by a h o l l o w c y l i n d r i c a l c o n d u c t o r w i t h l a y e r s of i n s u l a t i o n between them. * S i g n a l s t r a v e l between t h e i n n e r w i r e and t h e o u t e r c y l i n d e r and do n o t r a d i a t e o u t s i d e the cable. COMMON CARRIER (COMMUNICATIONS): i n * t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , a s u p p l i e r t h a t prov i d e s communications s e r v i c e s f o r h i r e t o t h e p u b l i c , s u b j e c t t o S t a t e and * F e d e r a l Communications Commission r e g u l a t i o n . COMMON CONTROL -- SWITCHING ARRANGEMENT ----(CCSA): a s e r v i c e o f f e r e d by * e s t a b l i s h e d common c a r r i e r s which p r o v i d e s s u b s c r i b e r s w i t h a n i n t e r c i t y * p r i v a t e l i n e s w i t c h i n g network. CCSA s e r v i c e i s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e e x c l u s i v e u s e of t h e customer and i t s a u t h o r i z a t e d u s e r s . COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE: a r e l a y s t a t i o n t h a t r e c e i v e s v i d e o , a u d i o , d a t a and o t h e r t r a n s m i s s i o n s from * u p l i n k s and r e t r a n s m i t s them t o *downlinks. -(CATV): -COMMUNITY ANTENNA TELEVISION t h e o r i g i n a l name f o r * c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n when s e r v i c e c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y of t r a n s m i t t i n g o v e r - t h e - a i r " b r o a d c a s t s i g n a l s i n a r e a s of p o o r r e c e p t i o n . t h e p r o c e s s by which t h e * F e d e r a l Communications Commiss i o n c o n s i d e r s t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of a n a p p l i c a n t w i s h i n g t o renew a b r o a d c a s t l i c e n s e r e l a t i v e t o t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of competing a p p l i c a n t s . COMPARATIVE RENEWAL: -- COMPUTER -- HARDWARE: t h e m e c h a n i c a l , m a g n e t i c , e l e c t r i c a l and e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e s .-o r components of a computer. COMPUTER SOFTWARE: of a computer. t h e sequence of i n s t r u c t i o n s needed t o g u i d e t h e o p e r a t i o n s CROSS SUBSIDIZATION: ----- -. t h e u s e of r e v e n u e s o r f a c i l i t i e s of one p r o d u c t o r s e r v i c e t o a l l a y t h e c o s t s of a n o t h e r p r o d u c t o r s e r v i c e . CUSTOMER ACCESS LINE CHARGE (CALCJ: a *FCC p r o p o s e d c h a r g e t o b e l e v i e d on a l l telephone s u b s c r i b e r s t o cover c e r t a i n i n t e r s t a t e *non-traffic s e n s i t i v e c o s t s p r e v i o u s l y n o t i n c l u d e d i n l o c a l s e r v i c e r a t e s i n c u r r e d by t h e l o c a l * e s t a b l i s h e d c a r r i e r f o r connecting a s u b s c r i b e r t o t h e l o c a l c e n t r a l o f f i c e . ( S e e Access Charge D e c i s i o n i n S e c t i o n 1 1 . ) equipment l o c a t e d on a c u s t o m e r ' s p r e m i s e s CUSTOMER - PREMISES--EQUIPMENT - - --- (CPE): -- which i s c o n n e c t e d t o t e l e p h o n e company f a c i l i t i e s t o t e r m i n a t e o r a d a p t t h a t f a c i l i t y f o r customer u s e ( e . g . a word p r o c e s s o r o r t e l e p h o n e r e c e i v e r ) . DATA PROCESSING: m e c h a n i c a l o r e l e c t r i c a l h a n d l i n g of d a t a ; s o r t i n g , c o l l a t i n g , performing mathematical s t e p s , s t o r i n g , e r a s i n g , o r p r i n t i n g . DECODER: --- a d e v i c e u s e d t o unscramble p u r p o s e l y scrambled t e l e v i s i o n s i g n a l s s o t h a t a p r o p e r p i c t u r e i s d i s p l a y e d on a t e l e v i s i o n s e t . DIGITAL DATA: i n f o r m a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by a code c o n s i s t i n g of a s e q u e n c e of d i s c r e t e elements. DIGITAL SYSTEM - --TERMINATION i n g two-way (DTS): a *microwave l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e m p r o v i d -t r a n s m i s s i o n of h i g h s p e e d * d i g i t a l * e l e c t r o n i c message s y s t e m s . a h i g h power * s a t e l l i t e i n t h e * b r o a d c a s t i n g DIRECT BROADCAST SATELLITE (DBS): s a t e l l i t e s e r v i c e which t r a n s m i t s programming d i r e c t l y t o community r e c e i v e r s o r t o i n d i v i d u a l home r e c e i v e r s t h e r e b y e l i m i n a t i n g t h e n e e d t o r e l a y t h e program over cable o r broadcast s t a t i o n s . DISTANTSIGNAL: a b r o a d c a s t * s i g n a l g e n e r a l l y o r i g i n a t i n g t o o f a r away t o b e d i r e c t l y r e c e i v e d o v e r - t h e - a i r i n t h e community of c o n c e r n . C a b l e companies may r e l a y s u c h a s i g n a l i n t o t h e i r s e r v i c e a r e a f o r c a r r i a g e on o n e of t h e i r cable channels. DISTANT SIGNAL RULE: - s e e s e c t i o n 11. DIVISION OF REVENUE: t h e p r e d i v e s t i t u r e p r o c e s s by which r e v e n u e s f r o m i n t e r s t a t e t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e a r e s h a r e d among t h e * B e l l System Companies i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o v i s i o n of t h a t s e r v i c e . (See * s e t t l e m e n t s . ) DOMESTIC SATELLITE-- CARRIER: a c a r r i e r which p r o v i d e s i n t e r c i t y communications s e r v i c e s w i t h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s v i a a d o m e s t i c *communications s a t e l l i t e . DOMSAT: - a d o m e s t i c (U.S.) *communications s a t e l l i t e . DOWNLINK: a u n i d i r e c t i o n a l t r a n s m i s s i o n p a t h from a *communications s a t e l l i t e t o a n *Earth s t a t i o n . ( O p p o s i t e of * u p l i n k . ) EARTH STATION: a n a n t e n n a , o f t e n s a u c e r s h a p e d , e l e c t r o n i c a l l y e q u i p p e d e i t h e r t o r e c e i v e * s i g n a l s from * s a t e l l i t e s , t o t r a n s m i t s i g n a l s b a c k , o r t o do b o t h . T e l e v i s i o n R e c e i v e r Only (TVRO) s a t e l l i t e d i s h e s , which o n l y r e c e i v e s i g n a l s , a r e u s e d commonly by c a b l e companies, a n d i n c r e a s i n g l y by i n d i v i d u a l homeowners. also referred to as electronic message ELECTRONIC MESSAGE SYSTEM (EMS).: service, any computer-based message system, such as electronic mail or electronic funds transfer. -the *Federal Communication Commission ENHANCED TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICES: definition of *common carrier transmission services which involve the manipulation, or alteration of *basic telecommunications service offerings (e.g., *data processing services). EOUAL TIME: see section 11. EQUIPMENT REGISTRATION PROGRAM: a *Federal Communications Commission (FCC) program initiated in 1977 which permits the connection of any supplier's terminal equipment directly to the *telecommunications network once it has been registered and meets FCC technical standards, set out at 47 C.F.R. $68. ESTABLISHED CARRIERS: -the *common carrier firms which provide the Nation's *telecommunications transmission services under regulation, AT&T Communications the *Bell Operating Companies, and the *Independent telephone companies. -EXCHANGE ---- ACCESS: the connection of *interexchange carriers to the *exchange carriers' local *telecommunications network. EXCHANGE CARRIER: a provider of *telecommunications "exchange service. - NETWORK FACILITIES -FOR INTERSTATE ACCESS (ENFIA) AGREEMENTS: *Federal EXCHANGE Communications Commission approved contractually negotiated agreements between the *established carriers and *other common carriers (e.g., MCI) in which the other common carrier agrees to pay an approved *access charge to the established carrier to obtain access to the local network for the provision of end-to-end service. EXCHANGE SERVICE: telephone service within a geographic area established by a regulated body which provides customers with the ability to originate calls within that local area, receive incoming calls, and obtain access to the *message toll network. Under the *AT&T 1982 Consent Decree service provided by a divested *Bell operating company which remains within a *local access and transport area. a system that transmits original documents, including graphic repre-FACSIMILE: --sentations, electronically to distant locations using a *telecommunications network. The document is scanned at the transmitter, reconstructed at the receiving station, and duplicated on some form of paper. "Digital facsimile machines are faster than their *analog counterparts. FAIRNESS --DOCTRINE: -- - - ---- see section 11. t h e technology f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g l i g h t i n t h i n g l a s s f i b e r s . It FIBER OPTICS: -c a n be u s e d t o c a r r y r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e amounts of i n f o r m a t i o n l o n g d i s t a n c e s . FINANCIAL INTEREST RULE: --. -- - s e e s e c t i o n 11. FIXED SATELLITE SERVICE (FSS): - a radiocommunication s e r v i c e between f i x e d * E a r t h s t a t i o n s a t s p e c i f i e d p o i n t s when one o r more * s a t e l l i t e s a r e u s e d ; g e n e r a l l y r e f e r s t o *communications s a t e l l i t e s e r v i c e . t h e a r e a on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e upon which a p a r t i c u l a r * s a t e l l i t e ' s FOOTPRINT: -s i g n a l c a n be r e c e i v e d . -- EXCHANGE SERVICES (FX): -FOREIGN --- a t y p e of t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e whereby a s u b s c r i b e r f o r a f e e c a n r e c e i v e *exchange t y p e s e r v i c e i n a n exchange o t h e r t h a n t h e one i n which t h a t s u b s c r i b e r i s l o c a t e d . FREQUENCY: a measure of t h e number of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves t h a t p a s s a g i v e n p o i n t i n a g i v e n t i m e p e r i o d . Frequency i s e q u a l t o t h e s p e e d of l i g h t d i v i d e d by w a v e l e n g t h and i s e x p r e s s e d i n c y c l e s p e r second o r * h e r t z . A s h o r t wavel e n g t h i s equivalent t o a high frequency. FREQUENCY ALLOCATION TABLE (NATIONAL): a t a b l e d e v e l o p e d j o i n t l y by t h e * F e d e r a l Communications Commission a n d t h e * N a t i o n a l Telecommunications and I n f o r m a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n which s e t s f o r t h t h e d i v i s i o n of " f r e q u e n c i e s i n t h e u s a b l e p o r t i o n of t h e * r a d i o f r e q u e n c y s p e c t r u m among d o m e s t i c radiocommunication s e r v i c e s . MODULATION -----(FM) RADIO: FREQUENCY t o 108 megahertz. (See *hertz.) audio t r a n s m i s s i o n u s i n g *frequencies from 88 GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT: a n o r b i t a l p a t h i n t h e p l a n e of t h e E a r t h ' s e q u a t o r . A - .--- - -" s a t e l l i t e i n g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t t h e r e f o r e remains f i x e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e E a r t h . . --a n o r b i t a l p a t h a t a n a l t i t u d e of 22,300 m i l e s above t h e GEOSYNCHRONOUS ORBIT: E a r t h ' s e q u a t o r . A * s a t e l l i t e i n geosynchronous o r b i t c o m p l e t e s one r e v o l u t i o n of t h e E a r t h a t p r e c i s e l y t h e same r a t e as t h e E a r t h makes o n e r e v o l u t i o n on i t s a x i s , t h e r e b y s t a y i n g e s s e n t i a l l y a t t h e same p o i n t r e l a t i v e t o a n y p o i n t on t h e E a r t h a t a l l t i m e s . HERTZ: a measureuent of * f r e q u e n c y e q u a l t o one c y c l e p e r s e c o n d . One k i l o h e r t z i s 1 , 0 0 0 h e r t z ; one megahertz i s one m i l l i o n h e r t z ; one g i g a h e r t z i s one b i l l i o n h e r t z . HIGH DEFINITION TELEVISION (HDTV): a t e l e v i s i o n s y s t e m t h a t u t i l i z e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d numbers of s c a n n i n g l i n e s on a s c r e e n compared t o conv e n t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n t r a n s m i s s i o n methods. HDTV p r o v i d e s improved c o l o r f i d e l i t y and r e s o l u t i o n a s w e l l a s s t e r e o p h o n i c sound. - INDEPENDENT TELEPHONE a f i r m which i s n o t a f f i l i a t e d w i t h AT&T o r t h e - COMPANY: * B e l l O p e r a t i n g Companies b u t i s t h e d e s i g n a t e d * e s t a b l i s h e d c a r r i e r f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n of * t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s *common c a r r i e r s e r v i c e i n a s p e c i f i c geog r a p h i c a r e a . T h e r e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 , 5 0 0 s u c h companies i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s which p r o v i d e 20 p e r c e n t of t h e N a t i o n ' s t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e . INDEPENDENT TELEVISION STATION: a commercial t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n which i s n o t a f f i l i a t e d w i t h one of t h e t h r e e major t e l e v i s i o n networks (ABC, CBS, o r NBC). INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FIXED SERVICE (ITFS): a t e l e v i s i o n *microwave s y s t e m s e t a s i d e f o r e d u c a t i o n a i u s e , which e n a b l e s t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l programming. T h e s e c h a n n e l s a r e r e s e r v e d f o r n o n - p r o f i t e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . INTEGMTED CIRCUIT: a s i n g l e p i e c e of s i l i c o n on which any number of * t r a n s i s t o r s a r e d i r e c t l y e t c h e d a l o n g w i t h t h e c o n n e c t i o n s between them. T h i s a l l o w s f o r whole s e c t i o n s of a computer, s u c h a s l o g i c o r memory components, t o b e c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n one c h i p . INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN): a c o n c e p t f o r a g e n e r a l purpose network i n which a wide r a n g e of telecommunications s e r v i c e s c a n b e conveyed u s i n g common d i g i t a l c o n n e c t i o n s . INTERACTIVE CABLE SYSTEM: a * c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n system c a p a b l e o f t r a n s m i t t i n g * s i g n a l s i n both d i r e c t i o n s , thereby allowing viewer response o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . INTEREXCHANGE CARRIER: service. a p r o v i d e r of *telecommunications " i n t e r e x c h a n g e INTEREXCHANGE - SERVICE: t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e between a p o i n t o r p o i n t s l o c a t e d i n o n e exchange a r e a and a p o i n t o r p o i n t s l o c a t e d i n a n o t h e r o r m u l t i p l e exchange a r e a s . Under t h e *AT&T 1982 Consent Decree s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d between * l o c a l a c c e s s and t r a n s p o r t a r e a s o r s e r v i c e between a l o c a l a c c e s s and t r a n s p o r t a r e a and a p o i n t o u t s i d e t h a t l o c a l a c c e s s and t r a n s p o r t a r e a . ( S e e *exchange service. ) INTERNATIONAL RECORD CARRIER (IRC): a c a r r i e r which f o r m e r l y p r o v i d e d o n l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l *telecommunications s e r v i c e s o t h e r t h a n v o i c e communications ( e . g . , d a t a , t e l e x and f a c s i m i l e ) . The * F e d e r a l Communications Commission however, i n 1983 ended r e s t r i c t i o n s l i m i t i n g t h e I R C ' s t o p r o v i s i o n o f r e c o r d s e r v i c e s and allowed them t o o f f e r v o i c e communications a s w e l l . T h i s d e c i s i o n ( t h e *Overseas Communications S e r v i c e s d e c i s i o n ) , a l s o removed t h e l i m i t a t i o n on AT&T t o p r o v i d e o n l y v o i c e t r a n s m i s s i o n , e n a b l i n g them t o o f f e r d a t a s e r v i c e s also Ka-BAND: t h e name f o r t h e 20-30 GHz ( s e e * h e r t z ) frequency bands. a r e c u r r e n t l y being used on a n e x p e r i m e n t a l b a s i s . p - These bands Thus, KILOBYTE: one thousand *bytes of computer memory commonly a b b r e v i a t e d K. 64K d e s c r i b e s a computer w i t h 64 thousand * b y t e s ( o r 64 k i l o b y t e s ) of memory. KINGSBURY COMMITMENT: t h e December 1913 agreement between AT&T and t h e U.S. Department of J u s t i c e , witnessed by a l e t t e r from AT&T1s Vice P r e s i d e n t Kingsbury ( r a t h e r than a formal consent d e c r e e ) by which t h e company a g r e e d t o : ( 1 ) d i s pose of i t s Western Union t e l e g r a p h s t o c k , ( 2 ) permit i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i n dependent t e l e p h o n e companies, and ( 3 ) r e f r a i n from a c t i v e l y a c q u i r i n g more d i r e c t l y competing t e l e p h o n e companies. This agreement i s g e n e r a l l y c r e d i t e d w i t h having prevented a F e d e r a l a n t i t r u s t s u i t a g a i n s t AT&T1s c o n t r o l of t h e t e l e p h o n e system. Ku-BAND: t h e name f o r t h e 12-14 GHz ( * s e e h e r t z ) frequency bands. * d i r e c t b r o a d c a s t s a t e l l i t e s e r v i c e s w i l l o p e r a t e i n t h e s e bands. Proposed LASER: a t i g h t l y packed, narrow beam of l i g h t formed by t h e e m i s s i o n of h i g h light a m p l i f i c a t i o n by stimulated e m i s s i o n of energy molecules. Acronym f o r r-a d i a t i o n . LOCAL ACCESS AhD TRANSPORT AREAS (LATA'S): g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s which r e p r e s e n t t h e p o s t - d i v e s t i t u r e s e r v i c e a r e a s of t h e 22 *Bell o p e r a t i n g companies. A l l t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e w i t h i n a LATA i s d e f i n e d a s *exchange s e r v i c e , w h i l e s e r v i c e between LATA1s i s d e f i n e d a s * i n t e r e x c h a n g e s e r v i c e . LOCAL BYPASS: r e f e r s t o t h e use of a n a l t e r n a t i v e telecommunications system t o t h a t of t h e l o c a l * e s t a b l i s h e d c a r r i e r ' s t o g a i n d i r e c t a c c e s s t o customers i n s i d e a l o c a l exchange a r e a . LOCAL LOOP: a * c i r c u i t c o n n e c t i n g equipment t o a s w i t c h i n g f a c i l i t y o r distribution point. LOW-POWER TELEVISION (LPTV): a t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g s e r v i c e i n which s t a t i o n s t e l e v i s e programs w i t h l e s s power t h a n t r a d i t i o n a l s t a t i o n s . It i s designed t o r e a c h a s m a l l geographic a r e a , having a t y p i c a l s t a t i o n coverage a r e a of 1 2 t o 1 5 m i l e s . (See s e c t i o n I1 a l s o . ) MASTER ANTENNA TELEVISION (MATV): a system c o n s i s t i n g of a t e l e v i s i o n a n t e n n a and w i r i n g which i s s h a r e d by m u l t i p l e t e l e v i s i o n r e c e i v e r s f o r t h e purpose of c l e a r l y r e c e i v i n g b r o a d c a s t s i g n a l s . Such systems t y p i c a l l y s e r v e an apartment b u i l d i n g o r complex. CRS- 10 MEASURED LOCAL SERVICE: a method of pricing local telephone service based on the number, the duration, the time of day, and the distance of calls within the local exchange area instead of by a flat all inclusive rate. MESSAGE SWITCHING: the technique of receiving a message, storing it until the proper outgoing line is available, and then transmitting it. MESSAGE TOLL SERVICE (MTS): a non-*private line intrastate and interstate long distance telephone service which permits local subscribers to establish two-way service on a message-by-message basis. MICROCOMPUTER: usually a 8 or 16-*bit computer which can be used on a stand-alone basis or as an intelligent terminal; contains at least one *microprocessor plus other suporting circuitry. MICROPROCESSOR: an *integrated circuit chip which contains the electronics of a central processor unit. MICROWAVE: a short electromagnetic wave in the *radio-frequency spectrum at 1,000 megahertz or greater. Any form of *signals can be transmitted at these *frequencies between two line-of-sight points. MIGRATION STRATEGY: a marketing policy which encourages customers to replace their installed equipment with upgraded alternative (e.g., the purchase of electronic switching equipment to replace older, less versatile electro-mechanical equipment). MINICOMPUTER: usually a 32- *bit computer typically used for dedicated applications and distributed *data processing. MULTICHANNEL MULTIPOINT DISTRIBUTING SERVICE (MMDS): a *multipoint distribution service in which each service provider can offer up to four channels. MULTIPLE SYSTEM OPERATOR (MSO): system. the owner of more than one *cable television MULTIPLEXING: the division of the transmission *Bandwidth for use by two or more *signais, either by splitting the frequency band transmitted by the common channel into narrower bands, each of which is used to constitute a distinct channel (frequency-division multiplex), or by allotting the common channel to several different signals, one at a time (time-division multiplexing). MULTIPOINT DISTRIBUTION SERVICE (MDS): over-the-air, line-of-sight transmission of information such as video programs by "microwave to subscribers with specially equipped receivers. MUST CARRY RULE: see section 11. NARROWCASTING: programming targeted to appeal to specific demographic or special interest audiences, as opposed to mass audiences. CRS- 11 NATURAL MONOPOLY: a marketing s i t u a t i o n i n which i t e f f i c i e n t a n d e o n o m i c a l f o r a product o r s e r v i c e t o f i r m under r e g u l a t i o n , t h a n by two o r more competing t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e s was o r i g i n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be a situation. i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be more be p r o v i d e d by a sing3.e f i r m s . The p r o v i s i o n of n a t u r a l monopoly market NETWORK AFFILIATED TELEVISION STATION: a commercial t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n which i s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h one of t h e t h r e e major t e l e v i s i o n networks (ABC, CBS, o r NBC), and w h i l e n o t r e q u i r e d , b r o a d c a s t s programming and commercials p r o v i d e d by t h e network. N-E WORK OWNED AND OPERATED TELEVISION STATION -(-0 & 0 ) : a commercial t e l e v i s i o n -T -s t a t i o n which i s t o t a l l y owned and o p e r a t e d by one of t h e t h r e e n a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n networks (ABC, NBC, o r CBS). Each t e l e v i s i o n network p r e s e n t l y owns f i v e *VHF s t a t i o n s , t h e maximum number of VHF s t a t i o n s allowed. (See *Seven-SevenSeven Rule. ) NETWORK SYNDICATION RULE: s e e s e c t i o n 11. c o s t s which do n o t v a r y w i t h usage. I n t h e NON-TRAFFIC SENSITIVE COSTS ( N x : p r o v i s i o n of t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e , f a c i l i t i e s s u c h a s t h e * l o c a l l o o p , i n s i d e w i r i n g and *customer premises equipment a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be n o n - t r a f f i c s e n s i tive. ( O p p o s i t e of * t r a f f i c s e n s i t v e c o s t s . ) -ONE-TO-A-MARKET -RULE: - s e e s e c t i o n 11. OFF-NETWORK PROGRAMMING: - t e l e v i s i o n programming which h a s p r e v i o u s l y appeared on network s t a t i o n s and i s now a v a i l a b l e f o r * s y n d i c a t i o n . OTHER COMMON CARRIER (OCC): any c a r r i e r a u t h o r i z e d by t h e * F e d e r a l Communicat i o n s Commission t o p r o v i d e *telecommunications s e r v i c e s i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e " e s t a b l i s h e d c a r r i e r s ( e . g . , *domestic s a t e l l i t e c a r r i e r s and * s p e c i a l i z e d common c a r r i e r s ) . PACKET SWITCHING: a d a t a communications s w i t c h i n g and t r a n s m i s s i o n system whereby a n i n p u t d a t a s t r e a m i s broken i n t o uniform " p a c k e t s " t o which i s appended a d d r e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , sequence c o u n t s , and e r r o r c o n t r o l s . Each packet i s t r a n s m i t t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y through t h e network s o a s t o maximize t h e u t i l i z a t i o n of t r a n s m i s s i o n f a c i l i t i e s , and a t t h e r e c e i v i n g end t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a c k e t s a r e resequenced and combined a s n e c e s s a r y i n t o t h e o u t p u t d a t a s t r e a m . PAYCABLE: c a b l e programming, n o t p a r t of t h e * b a s i c c a b l e package, a v a i l a b l e t o *cable t e l e v i s i o n s u b s c r i b e r s f o r a n a d d i t i o n a l monthly c h a r g e . CRS- 1 2 PAY-PER-VIEW-TELEVISION: a *pay t e l e v i s i o n s e r v i c e f o r which s u b s c r i b e r s pay on a per-program b a s i s ; t h a t i s , t h e s u b s c r i b e r s e l e c t s t h e d e s i r e d programs and pays on a pay-as-you-watch b a s i s r a t h e r t h a n on a monthly s u b s c r i p t i o n b a s i s . PAY TELEVISION: t e l e v i s i o n s e r v i c e which i s s u p p o r t e d by d i r e c t payment by t h e v i e w e r s , v e r s u s commercial ( a d v e r t i s e r s u p p o r t e d ) t e l e v i s i o n , o r * p u b l i c t e l e v i s i o n . I n c l u d e d i n t h e pay t e l e v i s i o n c a t e g o r y a r e * m u l t i p o i n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s e r v i c e , * p a y c a b l e , * s a t e l l i t e m a s t e r a n t e n n a t e l e v i s i o n and * s u b c r i p t i o n television. p a PERSONAL ATTACK RULE: s e e s e c t i o n 11. PETITION TO DENY: a p e t i t i o n f i l e d by a n i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n w i t h t h e * F e d e r a l Communications Commission r e q u e s t i n g t h a t a n a p p l i c a t i o n b e f o r e t h e Commission n o t be g r a n t e d . S e c t i o n 3 0 9 ( d ) of t h e Communications Act of 1 9 3 4 , a s amended, 4 7 U.S.C. § 3 0 9 ( d ) . POSTAL, TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH (PTT) AUTHORITY: t h e t e r m g e n e r a l l y u s e d t o d e s c r i b e f o r e i g n telecommunications a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . P T T t s a r e o f t e n b o t h t h e r e g u l a t o r s and p r o v i d e r s of most *telecommunications s e r v i c e s and r e p r e s e n t t h e i r governments i n n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h f o r e i g n c a r r i e r s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e l e communcations o r g a n i z a t i o n s . PRIME TIME ACCESS RULE: - s e e s e c t i o n 11. PRIVATE AUTOMATIC BRANCH --- EXCHANGE (PBX): a p r i v a t e a u t o m a t i c t e l e p h o n e exchange t h a t p r o v i d e s f o r t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n of c a l l s t o and from t h e p u b l i c t e l e p h o n e network. Some PBX's now c o n t a i n * m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s which make p o s s i b l e such s e r v i c e s a s d i r e c t - a c c e s s inward d i a l i n g , a u t o m a t i c l e a s t - c o s t r o u t i n g , speed c a l l i n g , c o n f e r e n c e c a l l i n g , and a u t o m a t i c r i n g i n g . a *telecommunications s e r v i c e u s e d by h i g h volume PRIVATE LINE SERVICE (PLS): o r s p e c i a l needs c u s t o m e r s which o f f e r s a l i n k between s p e c i f i c p o i n t s s o l e l y f o r t h a t c u s t o m e r ' s p r i v a t e u s e d u r i n g s p e c i f i c time p e r i o d s . PUBLIC -- RADIO: noncommercial r a d i o programming b r o a d c a s t by s t a t i o n s which a r e s u p p o r t e d by government f u n d i n g , c o r p o r a t e and p r i v a t e d o n a t i o n s , and o t h e r revenue sources. PUBLIC TELEVISION: - noncommercial t e l e v i s i o n programming b r o a d c a s t by s t a t i o n s which a r e s u p p o r t e d by Government f u n d i n g , c o r p o r a t e and p r i v a t e d o n a t i o n s , and o t h e r revenue sources. RADIO FRJ3QUENCY SPECTRUM: t h o s e * f r e q u e n c i e s between t h e a u d i o and v i s u a l r a n g e s of t h e spectrum i n which e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c i m p u l s e s c a n be r a d i a t e d t h r o u g h s p a c e . T h i s r a n g e i s u t i l i z e d f o r s e r v i c e s s u c h a s two-way communications, r a d a r , E a r t h r e s o u r c e s s e n s i n g , and r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g . RESALE CARRIE: a c a r r i e r which l e a s e s * c i r c u i t s from a *telecommunications *common c a r r i e r and r e s e l l s them t o i n d i v i d u a l u s e r s f o r a p r o f i t . EARTH: a manmade o b j e c t which c i r c l e s t h e E a r t h . A - , ARTIFICIAL -number of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of a r t i f i c i a l s a t e l l i t e s a r e i n o p e r a t i o n t o d a y , i n c l u d i n g *telecommunications, b r o a d c a s t i n g , weather, g e o d e t i c , n a v i g a t i o n , r e c o n n a i s s a n c e , s e n s i n g , s c i e n t i f i c , and manned s a t e l l i t e s . SATELLITE - SATELLITE MASTER ANTENNA TELEVISION (SMATV): t e l e v i s i o n systems t h a t operate t h e same as * c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n s y s t e m s , but a r e o p e r a t e d o n l y o n p r i v a t e prope r t y s u c h as w i t h i n a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g s and m u l t i - u n i t condominiums. SMATV o p e r a t o r s c o n t r a c t w i t h p r o p e r t y owners t o s u p p l y t e l e v i s i o n programming v i a s a t e l l i t e t o homes on t h e p r o p e r t y , a s opposed t o p r o c u r i n g f r a n c h i s e s from l o c a l governments t o u s e t h e p u b l i c ways t o s u p p l y s u c h s e r v i c e t o s e p a r a t e p r i v a t e homes. SATELLITE SYSTEM: a s p a c e s y s t e m u s i n g one o r more a r t i f i c i a l E a r t h " s a t e l l i t e s . SEMICONDUCTOR: a s o l i d w i t h a n e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y t h a t l i e s between t h e h i g h c o n d u c t i v i t y of m e t a l s and t h e low c o n d u c t i v i t y of i n s u l a t o r . Semiconductors c i r c u i t elements i n c l u d e c r y s t a l diodes, * t r a n s i s t o r s , and * i n t e g r a t e d circuits. SEPARATIONS: t h e p r o c e s s by which t e l e p h o n e i n d u s t r y c o s t s a r e a l l o c a t e d between i n t e r s t a t e o p e r a t i o n s , s u b j e c t t o * F e d e r a l Communications Commission j u r i s d i c t i o n , and i n t r a s t a t e o p e r a t i o n s , s u b j e c t t o S t a t e r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t y . SETTLEMENTS: t h e p r e d i v e s t i t u r e p r o c e s s by which r e v e n u e s d e r i v e d from t h e p r o v i s i o n of j o i n t i n t e r s t a t e and i n t r a s t a t e s e r v i c e were a l l o c a t e d between t h e * B e l l System and t h e *Independent t e l e p h o n e companies. (See "division of r e v e n u e s . ) SEVEN STATION RULE: s e e s e c t i o n II. SHARED USER: one of s e v e r a l u s e r s who i n a n o n - p r o f i t a r r a n g e m e n t , c o l l e c t i v e l y s u b s c r i b e t o a " p r i v a t e l i n e s e r v i c e of a n * e s t a b l i s h e d c a r r i e r a n d i n t u r n s h a r e t h e c o s t s of o b t a i n i n g t h a t s e r v i c e . SIGNAL: -- e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c e n e r g y u s e d t o convey i n f o r m a t i o n . SPECIALIZED COMMON CARRIER (SCC): - a c a r r i e r which p r o v i d e s i n t e r c i t y * p r i v a t e l i n e s e r v i c e i n competition w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c a r r i e r s . SPECTRUM FEE: a c h a r g e p r o p o s e d t o be l e v i e d upon u s e r s of t h e * r a d i o f r e q u e n c y spectrum, e i t h e r i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e *frequency space occupied o r a percentage of p r o f i t s r e a l i z e d . P r o p o s a l s f o r u s e of such a " f e e " o r " t a x " a r e g e n e r a l l y viewed a s methods f o r r e i m b u r s i n g t h e Government f o r a s s o c i a t e d r e g u l a t o r y c o s t s andlor, f o r funding public broadcasting. SUBSCRIBER LINE USAGE (SLU): a r a t i o r e f l e c t i n g m i n u t e s of u s e of l o c a l exchange t e l e p h o n e p l a n t f o r i n t e r s t a t e c a l l s compared t o t h e t o t a l m i n u t e s of u s e of t h e same equipment. SLU i s u s e d t o d e v e l o p t h e r a t i o of i n t e r s t a t e u s a g e t o o t h e r ( i n t r a s t a t e t o l l and l o c a l ) u s a g e of l o c a l t e l e p h o n e p l a n t . The r a t i o d e v e l o p e d based on SLU i s a component of t h e * s u b s c r i b e r p l a n t f a c t o r . CRS- 14 SUBSCRIBER -PLANT FACTOR - --(SPF): t h e a l l o c a t o r t r a d i t i o n a l l y u s e d t o a s s i g n nont r a f f i c sensitive plant costs t o the interstate jurisdiction. I n most c a s e s SPF i s computed s e p a r a t e l y f o r e a c h s t u d y a r e a ( i . e . , t h e a r e a s e r v e d by a p a r t i c u l a r t e l e p h o n e company i n a p a r t i c u l a r S t a t e . ) SUBSCRIPTION TELEVISION (STV): v i d e o b r o a d c a s t i n g s e r v i c e a v a i l a b l e on c o n v e n t i o n a l , o v e r - t h e - a i r *very h i g h f r e q u e n c y o r * u l t r a High f r e q u e n c y t e l e v i s i o n c h a n n e l s w i t h s i g n a l s s c r a m b l e d s o t h a t programs may b e r e c e i v e d o n l y by s u b s c r i b e r s w i t h s p e c i a l decoding r e c e i v e r s . EXCLUSIVITY RULE: --SYNDICATED --PROGRAM -.- SYNDICATION: s e e s e c t i o n 11. t h e s a l e of e x h i b i t i o n r i g h t s of programming. TARIFF: a s t a t e m e n t f i l e d by a t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s *common c a r r i e r w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p u b l i c r e g u l a t o r y agency which d e s c r i b e s t h e s e r v i c e i t o f f e r s and l i s t s a s c h e d u l e of c h a r g e s f o r t h e u s e of t h a t r e g u l a t e d * t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s service. -- t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n of * s i g n a l s of any k i n d by w i r e , r a d i o , TELECOMIflNICATIONS: o p t i c a l , o r any o t h e r systems. TELETEX: a new w o r l d s t a n d a r d t e l e t y p e w r i t e r s e r v i c e which i s f a s t e r and more f l e x i b l e than *telex. TELETEXT: a one-way i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m i n which t e x t u a l and g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l i s g e n e r a l l y conveyed a s p a r t of t h e t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t s i g n a l o r o v e r c a b l e . TELEX: t h e s e r v i c e which u s e s t e l e t y p e w r i t e r s t o s e n d and r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n The work i s a n a b b r e v i a t i o n of -t e l e g r a p h exchange. o v e r a communications network. A TERMINAL EQUIPMENT: equipment c a p a b l e of s e n d i n g a n d / o r r e c e i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r a * t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c h a n n e l and c o n v e r t i n g t h a t c h a n n e l f o r m e c h a n i c a l o r human end u s e ( e . g . , s w i t c h b o a r d s , c o m p u t e r s ) . TRAFFIC SENSITIVE COSTS: c o s t s which v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o u s a g e . I n the provision of t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e , a n example i s t h e u s e of c e r t a i n s w i t c h e s which v a r i e s ( O p p o s i t e of * n o n - t r a f f i c s e n s i t i v e c o s t s . ) depending upon t r a f f i c l e v e l s . TRANSBORDER DATA FLOWS: t h e t e r m g e n e r a l l y r e f e r s t o t h e * t r a n s m i s s i o n of d a t a a c r o s s n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s f o r p r o c e s s i n g and s t o r a g e i n f o r e i g n computers. TRANSISTOR: a sandwich of s e m i c o n d u c t i n g m a t e r i a l s i n which c r y s t a l s a r e a r r a n g e d t o a c t a s s w i t c h e s c o n t r o l l i n g t h e f l o w of c u r r e n t s t h r o u g h o u t . C u r r e n t l y s i l i c o n c r y s t a l s a r e t h e most common m a t e r i a l s u s e d . TRANSMISSION: communications by means of a n e l e c t r o n i c s i g n a l . TRANSPONDER: t h e s a t e l l i t e component t h a t r e c e i v e s t h e * u p l i n k s i g n a l , s h i f t s i t i n f r e q u e n c y , and r e t r a n s m i t s i t back t o E a r t h v i a t h e "downlink. -H I G HFREQUENCY - (UHF): any of t h e f r e q u e n c i e s i n t h e band between 300 ULTRA and 3,000 m e g a h e r t z . (See " h e r t z . ) T e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t s on c h a n n e l s 14-83 use u l t r a high frequencies. UNBUNDLED RATES: r a t e s i n which t h e v a r i o u s r a t e e l e m e n t s which c o m p r i s e t h e s e r v i c e a r e s e p a r a t e l y s t a t e d , thereby enabling t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e c h a r g e f o r e a c h component o f t h e s e r v i c e . ( S e e *bundled r a t e s . ) UNIFORM SYSTEM ACCOUNTS: a F e d e r a l C o m u n i c a t i o n s Commission p r e s c r i b e d ---- OF-a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m encompassing b o t h b a l a n c e s h e e t and income s t a t e m e n t s a c c o u n t s , used t o r e v i e w t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f * t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s *common c a r r i e r s u n d e r i t s jurisdiction. UPLINK: a u n i d i r e c t i o n a l t r a n s m i s s i o n p a t h from a n * E a r t h s t a t i o n t o a *communications s a t e l l i t e . ( o p p o s i t e o f *downlink.) VALUE ADDED CARRIER: a c a r r i e r which l e a s e s * c i r c u i t s from * t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s *common c a r r i e r s and t h e n adds s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s , s u c h as computer o r i e n t e d s e r v i c e s , b e f o r e r e t a i l i n g t h e u s e of t h e c i r c u i t s t o a f i n a l u s e r . -H I G H FREQUENCY (VHF): any o f t h e * f r e q u e n c i e s i n t h e band between 30 and VERY 300 megahertz. ( S e e h e r t z . ) T e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t s on c h a n n e l s 2-13 u s e v e r y high frequencies. VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI): t h e p r o c e s s o f i m p r i n t i n g more t h a n 5 , 0 0 0 l o g i c * c i r c u i t s o r more t h a n 1 6 , 0 0 0 memory b i t s on a s i n g l e c h i p . VIDEODISK: a d i s k t h e s i z e o f a r e c o r d album which s t o r e s l a r g e amounts o f d a t a , a u d i o and v i d e o i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i g i t a l form. VIDEOTEX: a g e n e r i c t e r m r e f e r r i n g t o computer-based i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l s y s t e m s which d i s p l a y t e x t and g r a p h i c s on a v i d e o s c r e e n . V i d e o t e x ecompass e s t h e c o n c e p t of " t e l e t e x t (one-way r e t r i e v a l s y s t e m ) , and * v i d e o t e x t (two-way o r i n t e r a c t i v e r e t r i e v a l s y s t e m s ) . VIDEOTEXT: a two-way computer-based i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m i n which t h e u s e r i s l i n k e d t o t h e d a t a b a s e by t e l e p h o n e l i n e o r c a b l e . The s y s t e m i s i n t e r a c t i v e and u s e r s may s e n d messages o r p e r f o r m t r a n s a c t i o n s i n a d d i t i o n t o r e t r i e v i n g information. WIDE-. AREATELEPHONE ----- --SERVICE (WATS): a t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e which a l l o w s a s u b s c r i b e r t o make c a l l s t o s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s f o r a r a t e based on volume and time-of-day b u t g e n e r a l l y l e s s t h a n t h a t c h a r g e d f o r *message t o l l s e r v i c e . Customers may a l s o p u r c h a s e "800" s e r v i c e which p e r m i t s t h e s u b s c r i b e r t o r e c e i v e c a l l s p l a c e d from s p e c i f i c a r e a s w i t h no c h a r g e t o t h e c a l l e r . CRS- 17 11. KEY TELECOMMUNICATIONS LAWS AND FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION DECISIONS AND REGULATIONS 890-DECISION: -ABOVE --- t h e * F e d e r a l Communications Commission d e c i s i o n c o n c e r n i n g d o m e s t i c a l l o c a t i o n of * f r e q u e n c i e s i n t h e s p e c t r u m above 890 M e g a h e r t z , which i s g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d t o a s *microwave. The d e c i s i o n i s most o f t e n c i t e d f o r i t s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t p r i v a t e p o i n t - t o - p o i n t o p e r a t i o n s would be a l l o w e d f r e q u e n c i e s i n t h i s spectrum, thereby c r e a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e *telecommunications *common c a r r i e r s e r v i c e s t h e n a v a i l a b l e and p r o v i d i n g t h e b a s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r c o m p e t i t i o n i n l o n g d i s t a n c e t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e . A l l o c a t i o n of Microwave%g u e n c i e s Above 890 Mc., R e p o r t & O r d e r , 27 F.C.C. 359 ( 1 9 5 9 ) , r e c o n s i d e r e d , 29 F.C.C. 825 ( 1 9 6 0 ) . ACCZSS CHARGE DECISION: * F e d e r a l Communications Commission d e c i s i o n on t h e c o m p u t a t i o n a n d a s s e s s m e n t of s u b s c r i b e r a n d " c a r r i e r ' s c a r r i e r c h a r g e s t o c o v e r l o c a l exchange c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o r i g i n a t i o n a n d t e r m i n a t i o n of i n t e r e x c h a n g e s e r v i c e s . MTS and WATS Market S t r u c t u r e , T h i r d r e p o r t and O r d e r , 48 Fed.Reg. 10319 ( p u b l i s h e d March 11, 1 9 8 3 ) , r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n , 48 Fed. Reg. 42984 ( p u b l i s h e d S e p t . 21, 1983). P e t i t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n a r e pending b e f o r e t h e FCC, and t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n a l s o h a s been a p p e a l e d . N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of R e g u l a t o r y U t i l i t y Commissioners v . F.C.C., D. C . C i r c u i t C o u r t of Appeals ~ o c k e tNo. 83-1225. AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH 1982 CONSENT DECREE: t h e j u d i c i a l l y - a c c e p t e d m o d i f i e d f i n a l judgment a n t i t r u s t - c o n s e n t D e c r e e r e q u i r i n g AT&T d i v e s t i t u r e , s e e . U n i t e d S t a t e s v . American Telephone &--T e l e ~ r a p h , Co., 552 F.Supp. 131 (D.C.D.C.1982), a f f i r m e d , 103 S . C t . 1240 ( 1 9 8 3 1 7 The c o u r t a l s o r e v i e w e d and a c c e p t e d t h e AT&T R e o r g a n i z a t i o n P l a n , s e e U n i t e d S t a t e s v. Western E l e c t r i c Co., 569 F.Supp. 990 and 1057 (D.C.D.C.1983), a f f i r m e d , 52 USLW 3450 (Dec. 1 2 , 1983). (See a l s o s e c t i o n I . ) AUTHORIZED USER DECISION: t h e * F e d e r a l Communications Commission d e c i s i o n which removed t h e l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e *Communications S a t e l l i t e C o r p o r a t i o n (COMSAT) a s a " c a r r i e r ' s c a r r i e r " which c o u l d s u p p l y * s a t e l l i t e * c i r c u i t s o n l y t o o t h e r c a r r i e r s . COMSAT i s now a b l e t o l e a s e s a t e l l i t e c i r c u i t s d i r e c t l y t o a n y . u s e r and i s a l l o w e d t o p r o v i d e end-to-end s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h a s e p a r a t e c o r p o r a t e s u b s i d i a r y . A u t h o r i z e d User P o l i c y , R e p o r t and O r d e r , 90 F.C.C. 2d 1934 (1982). S t a y g r a n t e d p e n d i n g a p p e a l t o t h e U.S. C o u r t of A p p e a l s , D . C . Circuit. (RCA -v. FCC, Case No. 83-1241; W U I v. FCC Case No. 83-1244; ITT v. FCC, Case No. 83-1245; and TRT v . FCC, Case No. 83-1247.) CABLE COPYRIGHT LAW: p r o v i s i o n s of t h e C o p y r i g h t Act of 1976 which e s t a b l i s h e d l i m i t e d c o p y r i g h t p r o t e c t i o n f o r b r o a d c a s t programs on * d i s t a n t s i g n a l s which a r e r e t r a n s m i t t e d o v e r c a b l e . Under t h e s t a t u t e * c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n c o n c e r n s pay a n e s t a b l i s h e d r o y a l t y f e e f o r a compulsory l i c e n s e i n l i e u of p u r c h a s i n g r i g h t s t o e a c h i n d i v i d u a l program r e t r a n s m i t t e d . These f e e s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o c o p y r i g h t c l a i m a n t s by t h e *Copyright R o y a l t y T r i b u n a l . ( S e c t i o n s 1 0 6 , 111, 801 of t h e C o p y r i g h t Act of 1976, 1 7 U.S.C. § § 1 0 6 , 111, 8 0 1 . ) CANDIDATE ACCESS STATUTE: s t a t u t o r y o b l i g a t i o n wich r e q u i r e s b r o a d c a s t e r s t o afford a l l p o l i t i c a l candidates f o r Federal o f f i c e reasonable access t o t h e a i r w a v e s . S e c t i o n 3 1 2 ( a ) ( 7 ) of t h e Communications Act of 1 9 3 4 , a s amended 47 U.S .C. § 3 1 2 ( a ) ( 7 ) . CRS- 18 .CARTERFONE -- DECISION: t h e j u d i c i a l and r e g u l a t o r y d e c i s i o n which e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r i g h t of t e l e p h o n e s u b s c r i b e r s t o a t t a c h privately-owned i n s t r u m e n t s t o t e l e p h o n e company l i n e s i f t h e s y s t e m i s n o t t h e r e b y a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d . C a r t-e r v . AT&T, 365 F.2d 486 ( 5 t h C i r . 1 9 6 6 ) , d e c i s i o n upon remand, 1 3 F.C.C.2d 420 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n d e n i e d , 14 F.C.C.2d 571 ( 1 9 6 8 ) . COLUMBIA BROADCASTING SYSTEM, I N C , v. DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE ( a l s o known a s t h e Democratic N a t i o n a l Committee D e c i s io n-- ) : a 1973 Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n most o f t e n c i t e d f o r t h e C o u r t ' s h o l d i n g t h a t n e i t h e r t h e *Communications A c t n o r t h e F i r s t Amendment r e q u i r e s b r o a d c a s t e r s t o a c c e p t o r a i r p a i d e d i t o r i a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s and t h a t no p r i v a t e group o r i n d i v i d u a l h a s a r i g h t t o command u s e of b r o a d c a s t f a c i l i t i e s . Columbia B r o a d c a s t i , S y s t e m , I n c . v. Democratic -N a t i o n a l Committee, 412 U.S. 94 ( 1 9 7 3 ) . COLUMBIA BROADCASTING SYSTEM, I N C . V. FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION ( a l s o -D e c i s i o n ) : a 1981 Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n i n which known a s t h e Carter-Mondale t h e c o u r t u p h e l d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of a p r o v i s i o n of t h e *Communications Act which r e q u i r e s b r o a d c a s t s t a t i o n s t o a f f o r d r e a s o n a b l e a c c e s s t o , o r p e r m i t p u r c h a s e o f , r e a s o n a b l e amounts of a i r t i m e by a l e g a l l y q u a l i f i e d c a n d i d a t e f o r F e d e r a l o f f i c e . The C o u r t h e l d t h a t t h e s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n e n h a n c e s F i r s t Amendment p r i n c i p l e s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n of t h e d e m o c r a t i c ( s e e * = a n d i d a t e a c c e s s s t a t u t e . ) ~ o l u m b i aB r o a d c a s t i n g Systems I n c .process. d . v. F.C.C., 453 U.S. 367 (1981). COMMUNICATIONS ACT OF 1934: t h e comprehensive F e d e r a l s t a t u t e g o v e r n i n g a l l communication by w i r e and r a d i o . I t was o r i g i n a l l y e n a c t e d i n 1934; v a r i o u s p r o v i s i o n s have been amended and added s i n c e t h e n . The major s u b s t a n t i v e a u t h o r i t y i s t i t l e I1 which g o v e r n s w i r e communications, s u c h a s t e l e p h o n e and t e l e g r a p h , and economic r e g u l a t i o n of * t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s *common c a r r i e r s g e n e r a l l y (whether w i r e o r r a d i o ) and t i t l e I11 which c o n t a i n s p r o v i s i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t i n g t o u s e of t h e * r a d i o f r e q u e n c y s p e c t r u m , i n c l u d i n g b r o a d c a s t r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n . (Communications Act of 1934, a s amended, 47 e t 9) U.S.C. S § 151 COMMUNITY COMMUNICATIONS C O . , I N C . V . CITY BOULDER, COLORADO ( a l s o known as -t h e Boulder D e c i s i o n ) : a 1982 S u ~ r e m eC o u r t d e c i s i o n which h e l d t h a t l o c a l communities, when f r a n c h i s i n g * c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n o p e r a t i o n s , a r e n o t exempt f r o m t h e F e d e r a l a n t i t r u s t laws u n l e s s t h e i r a c t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s e i t h e r a c t i o n of t h e S t a t e i t s e l f i n i t s sovereign capacity o r municipal a c t i o n i n f u r t h e r a n c e o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d o r a f f i r m a t i v e l y e x p r e s s e d S t a t e p o l i c y ( r a t h e r t h a n a c t i o n merely u n d e r l o c a l a u t h o r i t y ) . Community Communications Co., I n c . v. C i t y of B o u l d e r , C o l o r a d o , 455 U.S. 4 0 ( 1 9 8 2 ) . COMPUTER I1 DECISION ( a l s o known a s t h e Second Computer I n q u i r y or-uter I n q u i r y 1 1 ) : t h e * F e d e r a l Communications Commission (FCC) r e g u l x o r y d e c i s i o n which amended t h e r e g u l a t o r y scheme g o v e r n i n g p r o v i s i o n of r e g u l a t e d telecommun i c a t i o n s s e r v i c e s . The F.C.C. abandoned i t s p r e v i o u s r e g u l a t o r y scheme, which had been based upon d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between "communications" s e r v i c e s (which a r e r e g u l a t e d ) and * " d a t a p r o c e s s i n g " s e r v i c e s (which a r e n o t r e g u l a t e d ) . The Computer I1 r e g u l a t o r y scheme, which went i n t o e f f e c t on J a n u a r y 1 , 1 9 8 3 , i s based upon d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between * " b a s i c t r a n s m i s s i o n " s e r v i c e s (which a r e r e g u l a t e d ) and *"enhancedm s e r v i c e s and *"customer p r e m i s e s equipment" (CPE), (which a r e n o t r e g u l a t e d ) . The F.C.C. r e q u i r e d CPE c h a r g e s t o be *unbundled and s o l d s e p a r a t e l y . A.T.&T., t h e dominant c a r r i e r , was p e r m i t t e d t o s e l l c o m p e t i t i v e s e r v i c e s ( s u c h a s enhanced s e r v i c e s and CPE) o n l y t h r o u g h s e p a r a t e s u b s i d i a r i e s . A l l c a r r i e r s were r e q u i r e d t o k e e p s e p a r a t e a c c o ~ n t sof t h e i r r e g u l a t e d b a s i c s e r v i c e and t h e i r c o m p e t i t i v e s e r v i c e s t o p r e v e n t * c r o s s see Second Computer I n q u i r y , s u b s i d i z a t i o n between t h e two. 47 C.F.R. $64.702, -Memorandum O p i n i o n and O r d e r , 77 F.C.C.2d 384 ( 1 9 8 0 ) , r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n , 84 F.C.C.2d 5 0 ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 88 F.C.C.2d 512 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , a f f i r m e d s u b nom. Computer & Communications I n d u s t r y A s s ' n v. F.C.C., 693 F.2d 198 (D.C.Cir.1982), c e r t . d e n i e d -s u b nom. L o u i s i a n a v . U n i t e d S t a t e s , 103 S . C t . 2109 ( 1 9 8 3 ) . DISTANT SIGNAL RULE: t h e " F e d e r a l Communications Commission r e g u l a t i o n , r e ~ e a l e di n 1980. which l i m i t e d t h e number of d i s t a n t b r o a d c a s t s i g n a l s which 47 C.F.R. $$76.59 c a b l e s y s t e m s were p e r m i t t e d t o i m p o r t i n t o major m a r k e t s . ( b ) - ( e ) , 76.61 ( b ) - ( f ) , 76.63 ( 1 9 8 0 ) , r e p e a l e d . DUOPOLY RULE: t h e * F e d e r a l Communications Commission r e g u l a t i o n which p r o h i b i t s t h e common ownership w i t h i n t h e same g e o g r a p h i c a r e a of more t h a n a s i n g l e b r o a d c a s t s t a t i o n i n t h e same s e r v i c e . 47 C.F.R. $73.35 (AM r a d i o ) , 73.240 (FM r a d i o ) , 73 636 ( t e l e v i s i o n ) . DOMSAT DECISION ( a l s o known a s t h e Open S k i e s D e c i s i o n ) : t h e *Federal Communications Commission d e c i s i o n which a l l o w e d any non-Federal Government e n t i t y , i n c l u d i n g t h e *Communications S a t e l l i t e C o r p o r a t i o n , * o t h e r common c a r r i e r s , and n o n c a r r i e r s t o c o n s t r u c t and o p e r a t e e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l l y o r j o i n t l y *communications s a t e l l i t e f a c i l i t i e s f o r d o m e s t i c u s e . Domestic CommunicationS a t e l l i t e F a c i l i t i e s , F i r s t R e p o r t & O r d e r , 22 F.C.C. 2d 8 6 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Second R e p o r t & O r d e r , 3 5 F.C.C.2d 844 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , m o d i f i e d , 3 8 F.C.C. 2d 665 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , EQUAL -- TIME: t h e s t a t u t o r y o b l i g a t i o n which r e q u i r e s b r o a d c a s t e r s t o a f f o r d a l l p o l i t i c a l c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e same o f f i c e e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o u s e a s t a t i o n ' s f a c i l i t i e s i f any one s u c h c a n d i d a t e i s p e r m i t t e d u s e . S e c t i o n 315 of t h e Communications Act of 1934, as amended, 47 U.S.C. $315. EXECUNET - DECISIONS: Two d e c i s i o n s of t h e D i s t r i c t of Columbia C o u r t of A p p e a l s which had t h e e f f e c t of a p p r o v i n g c o m p e t i t i o n i n t h e l o n g- d i s t a n c e t e l e p h o n e m a r k e t . I n t h e f i r s t d e c i s i o n , t h e c o u r t r e v e r s e d and remanded t h e * F e d e r a l Communications Commission's d e c i s i o n n o t t o a p p r o v e * t a r i f f s f i l e d by Microwave Communications, I n c . (MCI), f o r i t s "Execunet" s e r v i c e . "Execunet" e s s e n t i a l l y p r o v i d e d a n a l t e r n a t i v e l o n g d i s t a n c e network f o r s u b s c r i b e r s by a l l o w i n g them t o i n t e r c o n n e c t o v e r t h e t e l e p h o n e l i n e s w i t h a M C I *microwave l i n k t o a d i s t a n t c i t y , t h e n re-connect i n t o t h e t e l e p h o n e system. I n t h i s manner, t e l e phone c a l l s c o u l d be made f r o m phones i n one c i t y t o phones i n a d i s t a n t c i t y w i t h o u t u t i l i z i n g t h e l o n g d i s t a n c e l i n e s p r o v i d e d by t h e * e s t a b l i s h e d c a r r i e r s . The c o u r t i n i t s second d e c i s i o n r e q u i r e d A.T.&T. t o p r o v i d e l o c a l p h y s i c a l i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i t s network (which was e s s e n t i a l t o p r o v i s i o n of end-to-end s e r v i c e ) . M C I Telecommunications Corp. v . F.C.C., 561 F . i d 365 (D.C.Cir. ) , c e r t . d e n i e d , 434 U.S. 1040 (1977) (Execunet I ) ; M C I Telecommunications I n c . v. F.C.C., 580 F.2d (590 ( D . C . C i r . ) , c e r t . d e n i e d , 439 U.S. 980 (1978). (Execunet 1 1 ) . FAIRNESS DOCTRINE: a s e r i e s of b r o a d c a s t r e g u l a t i o n s promulgated by t h e * F e d e r a l Communications Commission which r e q u i r e s b r o a d c a s t e r s t o : ( 1 ) devote a r e a s o n a b l e amount of t h e i r programming t o c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s of p u b l i c import a n c e , and ( 2 ) p r e s e n t c o n t r a s t i n g views on s u c h i s s u e s . C o n g r e s s i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d i n S e c t i o n 3 1 5 ( a ) ( 4 ) of t h e Communication Act of 1934, a s amended, 47 U .S .C. § 3 1 5 ( a ) ( 4 ) . -FOUNDATION ( a l s o -known as the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION V . PACIFICA Seven D i r t y Words o r P a c i f i c i a D e c i s i o n ) : a 1978 Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n i n which t h e C o u r t u p h e l d s a n c t i o n s imposed by t h e * F e d e r a l Communications Commiss i o n (FCC) a g a i n s t a l i c e n s e e f o r h a v i n g b r o a d c a s t a r e c o r d e d monologue which was t i t l e d and r e p e a t e d l y u s e d " f i l t h y words." The C o u r t , t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t t h e b r o a d c a s t was a t a t i m e of day ( 2 p.m.) when c h i l d r e n c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d t o be i n t h e a u d i e n c e , u p h e l d t h e F.C.C.'s s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e a i r i n g of " i n d e c e n t " a l t h o u g h n o t "obscene" l a n g u a g e f i n d i n g i t t o b e w i t h i n t h e s t a t u t o r y p r o h i b i t i o n of "obsence, i n d e c e n t , o r p r o f a n e l a n g u a g e by means of r a d i o communication" and n o t p r o t e c t e d by t h e F i r s t Amendment. F.C.C. v. P a c i f i c i a F o u n d a t i o n , 438 U.S. 726 ( 1 9 7 8 ) . FINANCIAL INTEREST RULE: t h e * F e d e r a l Communications Commission r e g u l a t i o n which p r o h i b i t s t h e t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t networks f r o m owning any f i n a n c i a l o r p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t o r i n t e r e s t i n t h o s e t e l e v i s i o n programs which a r e w h o l l y o r p a r t i a l l y produced by a p e r s o n o t h e r t h a n t h e network i t s e l f . 47 C.F.R. §73.658(j)(ii). HUSH-A-PHONE DECISION: t h e j u d i c i a l and r e g u l a t o r y d e c i s i o n which e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r i g h t of t e l e p h o n e s u b s c r i b e r s t o u s e t h e i r t e l e p h o n e i n s t r u m e n t s i n any manner s o l o n g a s d o i n g s o i s n o t d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e t e l e p h o n e system. HushC 9 . v. U n i t e d S t a t e s , 238 F.2d 266 (D.C.Cir. 1 9 5 6 ) , d e c i s i o n upon A-Phone remand, 22 F.C.C. 112 (1957). INTERNATIONAL MARITIME SATELLITE TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT OF 1978: - the statute which a u t h o r i z e s U.S. p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a g l o b a l s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e m a r i t i m e commercial and s a f e t y n e e d s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g n a t i o n s . The s t a t u t e p r o v i d e s f o r t h e *Communications S a t e l l i t e C o r p o r a t i o n t o b e t h e U.S. ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l M a r i t i m e S a t e l l i t e Telecommunications Act of participant. 1978, 47 U.S.C. $9751 e t seq.) M I AM I HEARLD v. TORNILLO ( a l s o known as t h e T o r n i l l o D e c i s i o n : a 1974 Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n i n which t h e C o u r t s t r u c k down a S t a t e s t a t u t e which p r o v i d e d c a n d i d a t e s w i t h a r i g h t of r e p l y t o p e r s o n a l a t t a c k s p r i n t e d i n newspapers. Although t h e S t a t e s t a t u t e a p p e a r e d s i m i l a r t o b r o a d c a s t i n g ' s * F a i r n e s s Doct r i n e , which had been u p h e l d i n 1969, i n *Red L i o n B r o a d c a s t i n g Co. v . -F.C.C., t h e Supreme C o u r t h e l d t h a t s u c h a r e q u i r e m e n t a p p l i e d t o newspapers v i o l a t e d t h e F i r s t Amendment. Miami H e r a l d v . T o r n i l l o 428 U.S. 241 ( 1 9 7 4 ) . MICROWAVE- COMMUNICATIONS, I N C . (MCI) DECISION: t h e * F e d e r a l Communications Commission d e c i s i o n which g r a n t e d t h e a p p l i c ~ t i o n sof Microwave Communications I n c . (MCI) t o p r o v i d e p o i n t - t o - p o i n t communications s e r v i c e s t o s u b s c r i b e r s i n d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e * e s t a b l i s h e d c a r r i e r s . Microwave Communications, -I--n c . , D e c i s i o n , 18 F.C.C2d 953 ( 1 9 6 9 ) . CARRY -MUST -- -- RULE: -- the *Federal Communications Commission regulation which requires *cable television systems to carry the broadcast *signal which sre receivable over-the-air within the community served, 47 C.F.R. ss76.57-76.65. NATIONAL BROADCASTING CO. v. UNITED STATES ----- (also k n o w as the NBC Decision): a 1943 Supreme Court decision in which the Court held that the "public interest" standard of the *Communications Act authorized the *Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to interest itself in general broadcast program format and kinds of broadcast programs aired by its licensees, and that in doing so the FCC does not violate the First Amendment. National Broadcasting Co. v. United States, 319 U.S. 190 (1943). -NETWORK - SYNDICATION RULE: the "Federal Communications Commission regulation . which prohibits the television broadcast networks from syndicating (see *syndication) television programs within the United States for non-network television exhibition or syndicating television programs outside the United States for which the network is not the sole producer. 47 C.F.R. §73.658(J)(i). the *Federal Communications Commission regulation which ONE-TO-A-MARKET - -- - -- - -- RULE: --prohibits ownership of any commercial radio broadcast station in the same area as a commonly owned television station. 47 C.F,R. §636. -SERVICES DECISION -(also known as TAT-4 Revisited): OVERSEAS COMMUNICATIONS the *Federal Communications Commission decision which removed entirely the distinction between voice and record carriers, enabling the *international record carriers to provide voice service and ATCT to provide record services. Overseas Communications Services, Report and Order, 48 Fed. Reg. 797 (publ. Jan. 7, 1983). PERSONAL ATTACK--RULE: the "Federal Communications Commission regulation which provides that when an attack is made upon the honesty, character, integrity, or like personal qualities of an identified person or group, during presentation of views on controversial issues of public importance, broadcast licensees must, among other things, offer a reasonable opportunity to the attacked person or group to respond. 47 C.F.R. 973.1920. (See *Fairness Doctrine.) PRIME TIME ACCESS RULE: the *Federal Communications Commission rule which prohibits *network affiliated stations in the top 50 television markets from broadcasting more than three hours of network or *off-network entertainment programming during prime time. 47 C.F.R. §73.658(k). PUBLIC BROADCASTING ACT of 1967: the statute which provides for planning and construction assistance to public telecommunications facilities and demonstration projects, and established the *Corporation for Public Broadcasting to facilitate the development of public broadcasting. (Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, as amended, 47 U.S.C. §§ 390 et 3.) RADIO DEREGULATION --- DECISION: the *Federal Communications Commission decision to eliminate or amend a number of regulations applicable to commercial radio broadcasters. The Commission eliminated the formal procedures for *ascertainment of community problems, although it continued the *ascertainment requirement itself; eliminated non-entertainment programming guidelines; and deleted certain program log requirements. The Court of Appeals remanded the Commission's decision insofar as deletion of program log requirements is concerned, and affirmed the other actions. Deregulation of--Radio,Memorandum Opinion and Order, 84 F.C.C.2d 960 (1981), reconsideration denied, 87 F.C.C.2d 797 (1981), affirmed in part and remanded in part sub --nom. Office of Communications of the United Christ F.C.C., 707 F.2d 1413 (~.~.~ir.1983). See -Deregula--. ---Church --- --of -- - v. tion of Radio, further notice of proposed rulemaking, 48 Fed.Reg. 33499 (publ. July 22, 1983). RECORD CARRIER COMPETITION ACT OF 1981: the statute which amended the *Communications Act of 1934 to require the *FCC to promote the development of fully competitive domestic and international markets for record ("hard copy") *common carrier service. Also requires the *FCC to forbear from regulating such carriers if warranted by increased competition in provision of the services. (Record Carrier Competition Act of 1981, 47 U.S.C. $222.) RED LION BROADCASTING CO. v. FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (also known as the Red Lion Decision: a 1969 Supreme Court decision in which the Court upheld application o? the *Fairness Doctrine, including the *personal attack rule. The Court held that the "Fairness Doctrine was within the authorized power of the *Federal Communications Commission to regulate radio in the public interest, convenience, and the necessity, a standard established in title 111 of the *Communications Act as amended, and reaffirmed by the Congress when amending Section 315 of the Act in 1959. The Court also held that the regulations enhanced First Amendment values "in view of the scarcity of broadcast "frequencies, the Government's role in allocating those frequencies, and the legit'imate claims of those unable without governmental assistance, to gain access to those frequencies for expression of their views.' RedLion Broadcasting Co. v. F.C.C., 395 U.S. 367 (1969). -- SEVEN STATION RULE (also known as the SEVEN-SEVEN-SEVEN RULE): the *Federal --- Communications Commission regulation which prohibits the common ownership within the United States of more than seven television (of which no more than five may be on the *very high frequency channels 2-13), seven AM radio, or seven FM radio stations, 47 C.F.R. §73.35(b)(l) (AM Radio), 73.240(a)(2) (FM Radio), 73.636(a)(2) (television). COMMON CARRIER DECISION: the *~ederal~~omunications Commission -SPECIALIZED --. --decision which established the policy of approving applications for provision of *telecommunications services by new carriers. The Commission announced that it would approve competitive applications, rather than approving only one applicant and thereby creating monopoly service. This policy favored entry of new carriers to provide *specialized common carrier services. Specialized C o m m m Carrier Service, First Report & Order, 29 F.C.C.2d 870 (l97'l), reconsideration -denied, 31 F.C.C.2d 1106 (1971), affirmed sub nom. Washington Utility and Transportation Comm'n v. F.C.C., 513 F.2d 1142 (9th Cir. 1975), cert. denied, m u . ~ .836.)57-91( SYNDICATED PROGRAM EXCLUSIVITY RULE: the *Federal Communications Commission regulation, repealed in 1980, which prohibited *cable television systems from retransmitting the syndicated programs carried on *distant signals which had been purchased by local broadcast stations if the local broadcast station requested deletion, 47 C.F.R. ss76.151-76-161 (1980), repealed. TRANSBORDER SATELLITE --- - VIDEO SERVICES ------DECISION: *FCC Decision to authorize bse of domestic satellites for services between the United States and Canada, Central America, and the Caribbean in cases where to allow such service would not cause *INTELSAT the economic harm contemplated in Article XIV of the *INTELSAT agreement. Transborder Satellite Video Services Memorandum Opinion, Order, and Authorization, 88 F.C.C.2d 258 (1981). UNIFORM SETTLEMENTS ON PARALLEL INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS ROUTES DECISION: -. the *Federal Communications Commission decision which requires uniform accounting and settlement rates and division of tolls by all carriers serving identical international routes. Uniform Settlement Rates on Parallel-International-Communications Routes, Memorandum opinion and Order, 84 F.C. C .2d 121 (1980). UNITED STATES v. SOUTHWESTERN CABLE CO. (also known as the Southwestern Decision)-: a 1968 Supreme Court decision in which the Court sustained the jurisdiction of the *Federal Communications Commission to regulate the *cable television industry under the *Communications Act to the extent that such regulation is "reasonably ancillary to the effective performance of the Connnission's various responsibilities for the regulation of television broadcasting." United States v. Southwestern Cable Co., 392 U.S. 157 (1968). 111. SELECTED TELECOMMUNICATIONS AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS a private corporation created by t h e *Communications S a t e l l i t e Act of 1962- COMSAT i s t h e U.S. p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e * I n t e r n a t i o n a l Telecommunications S a t e l l i t e O r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e p r o v i d e r of i n t e r n a t i o n a l * s a t e l l i t e s e r v i c e s f o r communications between t h e United S t a t e s and f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . COMSAT a l s o i s t h e U.S. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o t h e * I n t e r n a t i o n a l Maritime S a t e l l i t e O r g a i n z a t i o n and p r o v i d e s a number of domestic s a t e l l i t e communications f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s . Three o u t of f i f t e e n members of t h e Board of D i r e c t o r s a r e a p p o i n t e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t w i t h t h e a d v i c e and c o n s e n t of t h e S e n a t e . COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE CORPORATION (COMSAT): - CONFERENCE OF EUROPEAN POST AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS ADMINISTRATIONS (CEPT): - a n o r g a n i z a t i o n of 26 European p o s t a l , t e l e p h o n e , and t e l e g r a p h a u t h o r i t i e s (governed by a b i e n n i a l p l e n a r y c o n f e r e n c e ) , and two permanent commissions, one f o r p o s t a l m a t t e r s and one f o r *telecommunications m a t t e r s . COPYRIGHT OFFICE: t h e F e d e r a l body t h a t i s p a r t of t h e L i b r a r y of Congress s t a t u t o r i l y charged - w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e F e d e r a l c o p y r i g h t law. Areas of i n t e r e s t i n c l u d e *cable t e l e v i s i o n , p u b l i c b r o a d c a s t i n g , *computer s o f t w a r e , o f f - a i r r e c o r d i n g , photocopying, and motion p i c t u r e and sound recording piracy. t h e F e d e r a l body a p p o i n t e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t by and w i t h t h e a d v i c e and c o n s e n t of t h e S e n a t e s t a t u t o r i l y charged w i t h , among o t h e r d u t i e s , t h e a d j u s t m e n t of c a b l e c o p y r i g h t compulsory l i c e n s e f e e s and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of such c o l l e c t e d f e e s t o c o p y r i g h t c l a i m a n t s . COPYRIGHT ROYALTY TRIBUNAL: - CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING (CPB): a p r i v a t e independent, non-profit c o r p o r a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d p u r s u a n t t o t i t l e I1 of t h e * P u b l i c B r o a d c a s t i n g A c t of 1967 (P.L. 90-129), whose major f u n c t i o n i s t o a c t a s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t d i s t r i b u t e s F e d e r a l funds f o r p u b l i c b r o a d c a s t i n g t o a s s i s t l o c a l p u b l i c b r o a d c a s t a c t i v i t i e s . Members of t h e Board of D i r e c t o r s a r e a p p o i n t e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t w i t h t h e a d v i c e and c o n s e n t of t h e S e n a t e . FEDEW COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC): t h e F e d e r a l r e g u l a t o r y body a p p o i n t e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t by and w i t h t h e a d v i c e and c o n s e n t of t h e S e n a t e w i t h j u r i s d i c t i o n over a l l nongovernmental u s e of * r a d i o frequency s p e c t r u m ( i n c l u d i n g b r o a d c a s t r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n ) and i n t e r s t a t e o r f o r e i g n communication by w i r e ( i n c l u d i n g t e l e p h o n e and c a b l e ) . INTERDEPARTMENT RADIO ADVISORY COMMITTEE (IRAC): a committee o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from 20 F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s t h a t a s s i s t s t h e * ~ a t i o n a lTelecommunications and I n f o r mation A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e development of t h e N a t i o n a l T a b l e of *Frequency A l l o c a t i o n s , t h e assignment of * f r e q u e n c i e s t o s t a t i o n s o p e r a t e d by t h e F e d e r a l Government, and o t h e r spectrum management f u n c t i o n s . INTERNATIONAL FREQUENCY REGISTRATION BOARD: t h e permanent o r g a n of t h e * I n t e r n a t i o n a l Telecommunications Union which examines n o t i f i c a t i o n s of * f r e quency assignments from member n a t i o n s f o r conformity w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l r a d i o r e g u l a t i o n s and p r o v i d e s a d v i c e r e g a r d i n g t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s . INTERNATIONAL MARITIME -- -SATELLITE ORGANIZATION (INMARSAT): t h e g l o b a l m a r i t i m e - - -*conmunications s a t e l l i t e system e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1976. Commercial s e r v i c e began on F e b r u a r y 1, 1982. T h e r e a r e 37 members t o INMARSAT, i n c l u d i n g t h e *Cornnunications S a t e l l i t e C o r p o r a t i o n which a c t s a s t h e U.S. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . p e w - INTERNATIONAL RADIO --.-CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE (CCIR): t h e permanent o r g a n o f t h e * I n t e r n a t i o n a l Telecommunications Union i n which member n a t i o n s and r e c o g n i z e d p r i v a t e o p e r a t i n g a g e n t s f o r m u l a t e recommendations c o n c e r n i n g t e c h n i c a l and operational radio matters. INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE ORGANIZATION an -- --- --- (INTELSAT): -- - .- i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1964 which owns and o p e r a t e s t h e g l o b a l * s a t e l l i t e communications system. T o d a y ' t h e r e a r e 109 members of t h e system. A INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS U N I O N (ITU): an-'international organization which i s a s p e c i a l i z e d agency a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e U . N . r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l * t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g s p e c t r u m management. I t c u r r e n t l y h a s o v e r 150 member n a t i o n s . the INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE (CCITT): permanent o r g a n o f t h e * I n t e r n a t i o n a l Telecommunications Union where member n a t i o n s and r e c o g n i z e d o p e r a t i n g a g e n t s f o r m u l a t e recommendations c o n c e r n i n g t e c h n i c a l o p e r a t i o n a l , and * t a r i f f a s p e c t s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e l e g r a p h and telephone *telecommunications. NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION (NTIA): the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h i n t h e U.S. Department of Commerce, which s e r v e s a s t h e p r i n c i p a l a d v i s o r t o t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h on * t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s m a t t e r s . I t manages t h e s p e c t r u m a l l o c a t e d t o t h e F e d e r a l Government, f a c i l i t a t e s more e f f i c i e n t Government t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s p e n d i n g , and engages i n r e s e a r c h and p o l i c y p l a n n i n g .