Balancing the Budget and Limiting Federal Spending: A Selected Bibliography

This selected bibliography lists articles and books on various issues concerning legislation to limit Federal spending and proposed constitutional amendments requiring a balanced budget, especially economic issues. The bibliography focuses mainly on literature of recent years.

Report No. 82-143 L SALANCING THE BUDGET AND LllvIITING FEDERAL SPENDING: A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY by Felix Chin Senior Bibliographer Library Services Division COMPLIMENTS OF April 6, 1979 Revised November 25, 1981 Revised August 23, 1982 W 8045 U.S. T h e Congressional Research Service works exclusively for the Congress, conducting research, analyzing legislation, and providing information at the request of committees, Members, and their staffs. T h e Service makes such research available, without partisan bias, in many forms including studies, reports, compilations, digests, and background briefings. Upon request, CRS assists committees in analyzing legislative proposals and issues, and in assessing the possible effects of these proposals and their alternatives. T h e Service's senior specialists and subject analysts are also available for personal consultations in their respective fields of expertise. ABSTRACT This selected bibliography lists articles and books o n various issues concerning legislation to limit Federal spending and proposed constitutional amendments requiring a balanced budget, especially economic issues. The bibliography focuses mainly on literature of recent years. INTRODUCTION E f f o r t s t o s e c u r e a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r u l e t o r e q u i r e a b a l a n c e d F e d e r a l budand t o l i m i t t h e growth of F e d e r a l spending have i n t e n s i f i e d a s t h e F e d e r a l get Government's p e r s i s t e n t f a i l u r e t o b a l a n c e i t s budget h a s produced a p u b l i c d e b t s u r p a s s i n g $1 t r i l l i o n and a s t h e F e d e r a l s h a r e o f t h e economy h a s c o n t i n u e d t o i n c r e a s e . Many b e l i e v e t h a t , i n l a r g e measure, t h e n a t i o n ' s economic problems a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e s e f a c t o r s . Due t o such c o n c e r n s , t h e r e have been e f f o r t s i n Congress t o r e e s t a b l i s h l i m i t a t i o n s upon F e d e r a l spending and d e f i c i t p r a c t i c e s t h a t e x i s t e d i n e a r l i e r y e a r s through an a r r a y o f formal and i n f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s which have been eroded over t h e c o u r s e o f r e c e n t y e a r s . S i n c e t h e 8 4 t h Congress' o u t s e t i n 1955, an average of f o u r amendments t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n t o r e q u i r e a balanced F e d e r a l budget have been proposed d u r i n g each Congress. I n t h e c u r r e n t 9 7 t h Congress, over 80 c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments have been proposed t o r e q u i r e a balanced F e d e r a l budget o r t o impose F e d e r a l spending o r revenue l i m i t a t i o n s . On August 4 , 1982, t h e S e n a t e , w i t h a v o t e o f 69-31, passed S . J . Res. 5 8 , a proposed c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment r e q u i r i n g a balanced F e d e r a l b u d g e t . However, t o become p a r t o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , two-thirds o f t h e House must approve i t and i t must be r a t i f i e d by a t l e a s t 38 s t a t e s . Most o f t h e c i t a t i o n s i n t h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y were s e l e c t e d from t h e computeri z e d b i b l i o g r a p h i c d a t a b a s e c r e a t e d by t h e L i b r a r y S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n o f t h e C o n g r e s s i o n a l Research S e r v i c e . T h i s c o r e o f l i t e r a t u r e was supplemented by s e a r c h e s i n o t h e r i n d e x e s and computerized b i b l i o g r a p h i c r e t r i e v a l systems. C i t a t i o n s t o i t e m s which a r e i n t h e c l a s s i f i e d c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e L i b r a r y o f Congress i n c l u d e t h e L i b r a r y ' s c a l l number. J o u r n a l a r t i c l e s a r e provided w i t h t h e c a l l number f o r t h e bound volumes r e g a r d l e s s of whether t h e i s s u e s have been bound a t t h i s time. Recent a r t i c l e s may b e found i n t h e Newspaper and C u r r e n t P e r i o d i c a l Room and i t e m s w i t h t h e d e s i g n a t i o n "LAW" may be found i n t h e Law L i b r a r y o f t h e L i b r a r y of Congress. BALANCING THE BUDGET AND LIMITING FEDERAL SPENDING: A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Taxpayers' revolt: are constitutional limits desiraAlexander, Lee, and others. ble? [Washington, American Enterprise Institute, 19781 46 p. (AEI forum 20) This is an edited transcript of a televised AEI Public Policy Forum held on July 12, 1978, examining the issues surrounding the widespread demands for changes in taxes at all levels of government and for constitutional limits on government spending. Allen, Gary. Balancing the budget. American opinion, v. 25, June 1982: 1-2, 5-6, 85-87, 89, 91-94. AP2.04732, V. 25 Examines the current state of the budget and identifies "what concerned Americans might do to limit spending and taxes as a means of putting an end to escalating deficits." American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Proposals for a constitutional convention to require a balanced Federal budget. Washington [I9791 38 p. (Its Legislative analysis, 96th Cong., no. 3 ) Anderson, John W., Carrie Johnson, and James E. Clayton. The budget and the Constitution. Washington post, Feb. 12, 1979: A19; Feb. 14: A23; Feb. 16: A15. Newsp Series of three articles on the implications of a constitutional amendment to require a balanced Federal budget. Association of the Bar of the City of New York. Committee on Federal Legislation. Budget-balancing by constitutional amendment. Record of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, v. 34, May-June 1979: 428-440. LAW The committee report discusses whether the Constitution should be amended to require the Federal Government to balance its budget. 8 p. Balanced budget amendment. New York, W ~ ~ ~ I T h i r t e e1982. n, The MacNeil/Lehrer Report, July 27, 1982. Televised interview with Sen. Richard Lugar of Indiana, Rep. Peter Rodino of New York, State Rep. Mike Fox of Ohio, and State Sen., Harry Meshel of Ohio. Balanced budget: political scramble, convention drive. weekly report, v. 37, Feb. 17, 1979: 267-279. Congressional quarterly JKl.Cl5, V. 37 Bergner, Jeffrey T. Federal spending limitations: an idea whose time has come? Policy review, no. 8, spring 1979: 41-51. Hl .P69 Discusses pro and con arguments relating to Federal spending limitations tied to the nation's gross national product. Federal fiscal control. Washington, Editorial Research Reports, Boorstin, b avid. 1975. 23-40 p. (Editorial research reports, 1975, v. 1, no. 2) H35. E35 Contents.--Options to stabilize the economy.--Operation of Federal budget system.--Future of fiscal reforms in Congress. Brimmer, Andrew I?. The p o l i t i c a l economy o f l i m i t a t i o n s on F e d e r a l spending. C h a l l e n g e , v. 23, Mar.-Apr. 1980: 6-11. HC101.N533, v. 23 "A c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment t o b a l a n c e t h e f e d e r a l budget would make i t h a r d e r f o r t h e government t o s t a b i l i z e t h e economy, hamper i t s e f f o r t s t o c o u n t e r r e c e s s i o n , and r e s t r i c t i t s spending f l e x i b i l i t y . " Would a budget amendment work? Wall S t r e e t j o u r n a l , Apr. 4 , Bork, Robert H. 1979: 20. Xewsp "This s p e n d i n g - l i m i t amendment d e s e r v e s s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The c a s e f o r i t i s compelling. It i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e c a s e a g a i n s t i t seems h a r d l y l e s s so." Brozen, Yale. D e f i c i t s a r e d r a i n i n g s t r e n g t h from t h e economy. v. 2, Apr. 1978: 13-14. D e f i c i t s and t h e economy. Bryan, W i l l i a m R . J u l y 1977: 7-11. Enterprise, I l l i n o i s b u s i n e s s review, v. 34, HC107.13155, v. 34 Buchanan, James M., and Richard E. Wagner. Democracy i n d e f i c i t : t h e p o l i t i c a l l e g a c y o f Lord Keynes. New York, Academic P r e s s , c1977. 195 p. P a r t i a l contents.--The old-time f i s c a l religion.--Money-financed defic i t s and p o l i t i c a l d e m o c r a c y . - - I n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s and p o l i t i c a l c h o i c e . - - A l t e r n a t i v e budgetary rules.--A r e t u r n t o f i s c a l p r i n c i p l e . Burkhead, J e s s e . Balance t h e F e d e r a l budget? P u b l i c a f f a i r s comment, v. 25, May 1979: 1-7. "The campaign t o r e q u i r e a balanced f e d e r a l budget by way of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment r a i s e s a number o f i n t e r e s t i n g l e g a l i s s u e s , p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s , and, of c o u r s e , economic i s s u e s c e n t e r i n g on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c u r r e n t i n f l a t i o n and t h e e f f i c a c y of t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n t o o l s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e t o d e a l w i t h it." The n o b l e experiment i n c o n g r e s s i o n a l budget d i s c i p l i n e . Cameron, J u a n . F o r t u n e , v. 93, May 1976: 206-120, 214, 218. HF5001.F7, v . 9 3 "The new procedure f o r r e l a t i n g spending t o revenues could s e t t h o s e d e f i c i t s under b e t t e r c o n t r o l and a l t e r power r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Washington-i f i t lasts." ----- Waking up t o t h e budget menace. Fortune, v. 9 7 , J u l y 3 , 1978: 50-54, 56. HF5001.F7, v . 97 "A f l o u r i s h i n g economy was supposed t o wipe o u t t h o s e towering d e f i c i t s . I n s t e a d , t h e d e f i c i t s a r e t h r e a t e n i n g t h e economy." Large F e d e r a l budget d e f i c i t s : p e r s p e c t i v e s and p r o s p e c t s . C a r l s o n , K e i t h M. F e d e r a l Reserve Bank of S t . Louis r e v i e w , v. 58, Oct. 1976: 2-7. HG107.A22A2, v. 58 "To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e a c t i v e p a r t o f t h e d e f i c i t remains, t h e d e f i c i t poses an i n f l a t i o n a r y t h r e a t a s t h e r e c o v e r y c o n t i n u e s and t h e economy moves back toward h i g h employment. Consequently, t h e s i z e o f t h e budget d e f i c i t c a r r i e s l i t t l e meaning by i t s e l f u n l e s s i t i s analyzed i n terms o f i t s a c t i v e and p a s s i v e elements." It% back to the drawing board for congressional budget Clark, Timothy B. cutters. National. journal, v. 11, Dec. 22, 1979: 2148-2151, JKl.l-428, v. 11 "Frustration with the long struggle to adopt a fiscal 1980 budget and dismay over the size of that budget's deficit have won converts to the balanced budget cause." Trying to kick the spending habit. National journal, v. 11, Cohen, Richard E. JKl.NZ8, v. 11 Apr. 21, 1979: 642-636. "Nearly ev'&cyone is endorsing a balancing budget as a goal, but it remains to be seen whether Congress can find a workable formula for forcing an end to deficits." Says that "though a constitutional amendment forbidding deficits seems unlikely, a statutory requirement--albeit one with an escape hatch--seems a distinct possibility, given Congress' current mood," Balanced budget: political scramble; Congress seeks Conte, Christopher R. handle on spending restraint issue. Congressional quarterly weekly report, JKl.Cl5, v.37 v. 37, Feb. 17, 1979: 267-270. Drive for balanced budget amendment gaining ground. Cohodas, Nadine. Congressional quarterly weekly report, v. 40, Mar. 27, 1982: 659-662. JKl.Cl5, v. 40 Reviews efforts in Congress to propose a constitutional amendment, and in state legislatures to call a Federal constitutional convention, to mandate a balanced Federal budget and prohibit routine deficit spending, and outlines the roles of the National Taxpayers Union and National Tax Limitation Committee in lobbying for these measures. The Constitution and the budget: are constitutional limits on tax, spending, and budget power desirable at the Federal level? W. S. Moore and Rudolph G. Penner, editors, Washington, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research [1980] 155 p. (AEI symposia, 80B) HJ205 2. C646 Contents.--Amending the Constitution by convention.--The effects of constitutional restraints on economic policy making.--Constitutional restrictions on the power of the purse and the theory of public choice,--A roundup of the policy issues raised by proposals for constitutional limits. Controlling Federal Government expenditures: the roles of Congress and the administration; CED symposium. New York, Committee for Economic Development, HJ7539.C67 1973. 21 p. Contents.--Establishing a congressional budget, by A. Ul1man.--Presidential budgetary reform, by R. Ash.--The shortcomings in congressional budget making, by M. Weidenbaum.--Precedents for impoundment, by R. Davenport. Controversy over proposed mandatory balancing of the Federal budget; pro & con. Congressional digest, v. 55, Mar. 1976: whole issue. JKl.C65, v. 55 Partial contents.--The Federal balance sheet since 1789.--Present procedures for considering the budget.--Current budgetary practices and constraints in the states.--Actions to date in the 94th Congress.--Pros & cons. Constitutional limitation of the Federal budget. Federal Cox, William N. Reserve Bank of Atlanta economic review, v. 64, May-June 1979: 73-76. HC107.AlOA2, v. 64 Outlines the probable economic consequences of mandatory balanced budgets, revenue caps, and spending limits. Davenport, John A . Amending t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i s a dubious way t o c u r b F e d e r a l HF5001.F7, v. 99 spending. F o r t u n e , v. 9 9 , Mar. 22, 1979: 114-116. "The o b j e c t i v e i s f i n e , b u t e f f o r t s t o r e a c h i t by t h e amendment r o u t e r u n i n t o s e r i o u s l e g a l and economic d i f f c u l t i e s . " - - - -- The U.S. r e d i s c o v e r s t h e economics o f supply. F o r t u n e , v. 9 8 , - O c t . 23, 1978: 46-48. HF5001 .F7, v . 98 "While t h e g r e a t t a x r e v o l t h a s been making t h e h e a d l i n e s , s u p p o r t h a s a l s o been b u i l d i n g f o r an a s s a u l t on f e d e r a l spending. Some c h e r i s h e d economic t h e o r i e s a r e t o p p l i n g . " Davidson, James Dale. The balanced budget amendment: an end t o t h e "good-will" t h e o r y o f government. Taxing & spending, v. 2 , no. 4 , 1979: 42-47. HJ2381.F67, v. 2 The chairman o f t h e N a t i o n a l Taxpayers Union e x p l a i n s why i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment t h a t r e q u i r e s a balanced Federal budget. ----- The TRA--Taxpayers1 R i g h t s Amendment. Across t h e Board, v . 1 6 , Feb. 1979: 12-13, 77-78. HC101.C64, V . 16 "A p r o p o s a l f o r a C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Amendment r e q u i r i n g t h a t t h e F e d e r a l budget be b a l a n c e d . Already 22 s t a t e s have informed Congress o f t h e i r d e s i r e f o r a c o n v e n t i o n t o s t a r t t o do j u s t t h a t . " Democratic Research O r g a n i z a t i o n . Committee t o I n v e s t i g a t e a Balanced F e d e r a l Budget. Report. I n Remarks o f Richard C . White. Congressional r e c o r d , v, 124, Aug. 1 6 , 1978: 26510-26518 J l l . R 5 , v. 124 Examines t h e e f f e c t s o f F e d e r a l d e f i c i t s . Contends t h a t F e d e r a l d e f i c i t s a r e "harmful" i n t h a t t h e y c a u s e i n f l a t i o n which i n t u r n c a u s e s unemployment. Recommends t h a t a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment be adopted which e l i m i n a t e s d i s c r e t i o n a r y d e f i c i t s and t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l d e b t be reduced by F e d e r a l Reserve monetary p o l i c y . Domenici, Pete. Can Congreat? c o n t r o l spending? P o l i c y review, no. 1 4 , f a l l 1980: 49-65. H1. P69 "A spending l i d would e n a b l e t h e Congress t o s a y 'no' i n a manner t h a t i t s members can s u p p o r t . " Dornbusch, Rudiger. I n f l a t i o n , c a p i t a l , and d e f i c i t f i n a n c e . J o u r n a l of money, c r e d i t , and banking, v. 9 , Feb. 1977: 141-150. HG201.J6, v. 9 F i s c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l democracy, e d i t e d by James M. Buchanan and Richard E . Wagner. Leiden, Boston, Martinus Nijhoff S o c i a l S c i e n c e s D i v i s i o n ; Hingham, Mass. [ d i s t r i b u t e d by] Kluwer Boston, 1978. 180 p. ( S t u d i e s i n p u b l i c c h o i c e , v. 1 ) HJ8119.F57 P a p e r s p r e s e n t e d a t a c o n f e r e n c e on F e d e r a l f i s c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y h e l d a t Hot S p r i n g s , Va., March 26-27, 1976. I n c l u d e s b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l r e f e r e n c e s . Fisher, Louis, Congressional budget reform: ths first two years. Harvard LAW journal on legislation, v. 14, Apr. 1977: 413-457. The article describes the first two years of practice under the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974, It explores the budgetary process in Congress and concludes that "the new budget and impoundment processes have made some improvements in congressional control over federal spending, but Congress has yet to demonstrate that it can markedly adjust the President's budget." Recommends that Congress develop a budget strategy of its own if it is to effectively challenge the President's budget. Floyd, John E., and J. Allan Hynes. Deficit finance and "first-round" crowding out: a clarification. Canadian journal of economics, v. 11, Feb.,1978: 97-105. HClll.C225, v. 11 Crowding out or crowding in? Economic consequences of Friedman, Benjamin K. financing Government deficits. Brookings papers on economic activity, no. 2, 1978: 593-654. HC101 .B785 Gegenheimer, Greg. Stopping the Leviathan: the case for constitutional limits on taxing and spending. New guard, v. 18, winter ,1978: 20-23. HC101.B785, v. 18 Unbalancing the Constitution. Nation, v. 228, Apr. 28, Gross, Bertram M. AP2.N2, v. 228 1979: 449-468. Presents arguments against a mandatory balanced Federal budget and a constitutional convention to achieve it. Gunther, Gerald, Constitutional brinkmanship: stumbling toward a convention. American Bar Association journal, v, 65, July 1979: 1045-1049, LAW "State legislatures are calling for a constitutional convention without comprehending the full dimensions of the risks." Discueses some of the issues which may be topics of such a convention, particularly a balanced budget. Hamovitch, William, ed. The Federal deficit: fiscal imprudence or policy weapon? Boston, Heath [I9651 148 p. (Studies in economics) HJ257 .Hz8 "Suggestions for additional reading": p. 148. Heller, Walter W. Balanced budget fallacies. Wall Street journal, Mar. 16, 1979: 22. Newsp "Taking the very stuff of democratic self-determination out of the hands of legislative bodies and freezing them into the Constitution would dilute and cheapen the fundamental law of the land." ----- Tax revolt: the lady or the tiger? By Walter Helber and Arthur Burns. Public opinion, v. 1, July-Aug. 1978: 9-14, 59-60. HM261.AlP8, v. 1 Transcript of a June 27, 1978 interview with Heller and Burns on implications of Proposition 13. Among other points, Burns suggests that restraints on Federal deficit spending would be desirable. Herber, Bernard P. Fiscal policy norms. In his Modern public finance: the study of public sector economics. Homewood, Ill., Richard D. Irwin, 1971. p. 507-536. HJ141 .H4 1971 Hucker, Charles W. Balanced budget: convention drive; constitutional convention poses questions. Congressional quarterly weekly report, v. 37, Feb. 17, 1979: 273-276, 279. JKl.Cl5, v. 37 Is deficitus fiscalis an endangered species? Citibank monthly letter, Mar. 1979: 6-9. HC1066.F52 "The cry for fiscal responsibility by amendment is getting louder--and the proposals for writing it into law are proliferating. Whatever happens, the end result will be a rein on federal spending." Kaus, Robert M. Power to the people: making the Constitution work again. Washington monthly, v. 11, Oct. 1979: 51-58. E838.W37, v. 11 "Sometime in the next year the 34th state may call for a constitutional convention to balance the budget. It is a prospect that scares many of us-not so much the balanced budget as the idea of the convention itself, and the possibility that it could open up our founding document for a general revision. If the balanced budget drive fails, or even if it succeeds without producing 'Con Con 11,' we will breathe a collective sigh of relief.'' Asserts that "the truth is that our constitution was not designed to allow the government to act quickly on the wishes of the majority. It was designed to frustrate that action, The exaggerated power of 'special interests,' the debilitating stalemates between the president and Congress, are neither accidental nor necessary features of our politics." Klein, Michael A. Money financed deficit spending: a reinterpretation. Southern economic journal, v. 45, Oct. 1978: 447-457. HC107.Al3A67, v. 45 A balanced Federal budget and constitutional convention controKnapp, Elaine S. versy. State government, v. 52, spring 1979: 58-64. JK2403.S7, v. 52 Summarizes economic arguments on balancing the budget and the controversy on calling a constitutional convention. Balancing the budget--does it matter? Journal of the Institute Lee, L. Douglas. for Socioeconomic Studies, v. 5, winter 1980: 25-35. HV95.I49a, v. 5 Argues that "over the long term, a balanced budget can make an important contribution to a healthier economy and a rising standard of living. This goal is too important to be abandoned simply because tough political decisions do not help to win elections." Leepson, Marc. Calls for constitutional conventions. Washington, Editorial Research Reports, 1979. 187-203 p. (Editorial research reports, 1979, v . 1, no. 10) H35.E35 Contents.--Budget and abortion issues.--Constitution's amending process.-Barriers to another convention. Proposals to limit Federal spending and balance the budget. MacLaury, Bruce K. In Pechman, Joseph A,, ed. Setting national priorities: the 1980 budget. Washington, Brookings Institution, 1979. p. 213-223. HJ2051.S47 "A good case can in fact be made for further strengthening controls over the federal budget. The risk, however, is that some of the proposed cures are far worse than the present disease." CRS- 7 Malbin, Michael J. Huge budget deficit projections fuel drive for balanced budget amendment. National journal, v. 14, May 1, 1982: 757-762. JKl.NZ8, v. 14 it Congressional Republicans in particular are eyeing a constitutional amendment as a way to show their constituents that they really do take budget deficits seriously." Rewriting the Constitution. Harper's magazine, v. 259, Sept. 1979: Martin, Ben. AP2.H3, v. 259 26-28, 32. "Another convention would force Americans to recall the values of the first Constitution and consider how we have changed as a nation. It would allow a recalculation of the costs of dependence upon government and the benefits of individual responsibility and voluntary public spirit. Another convention could offer perhaps a last chance to make sure we have the government we deserve." Balanced budgets, spending limitations, and the economy. McAllister, Eugene J. Washington, Heritage Foundation, 1979. 11 p. (Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. Backgrounder no. 80) ----- The balanced budget amendment: an economic and constitutional review, by Eugene J. McAllister and Thomas R. Ascik. Washington, Heritage Foundation, 1980. 16 p. (Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. Issue bulletin no. 59) This paper includes two separate critiques of the balanced budget amendment: one from an economic view (The political economics of a balanced amendment, by E. McAllister), and one from a constitutional view (Does a balanced budget fit into the American Constitutional scheme? by T. Ascik). McCracken, Paul W. What's behind expenditure limitations. Commonsense, v. 1, fall 1978: 37-43. JK2351,C63, v. 1 Calls for a balanced Federal budget and believes that periodic rejustification of programs would be helpful. Meiselman, David I., and Paul Craig Roberts. The political economy of the Congressional Budget Of fice. In Remarks of S. I, Hayakawa. Congressional record [daily ed.] v. 124, June 13, 1978: S9122-S9128. Jll.R7, v. 124 The authors criticize CBO for econometric analysis which focuses on the short term and which is biased against saving. Neil, Herbert E. The impact of the Federal budget on economic performance. Business economics, v. 12, May 1977: 26-34. HC101.B88, v. 12 Niskanen, William. Controlling the growth of government: the constitutional amendment approach. St. Louis, Center for the Study of American Business, Washington University, 1979. 18 p. (washington University, St. Louis. Center for the Study of American Business: Whittemore House series) Discusses the current status of the tax limitation movement, focusing on the National Tax Limitation Committee which promotes constitutional tax or spending limitation amendments at the state and Federal levels. ----- A friendly case against the balanced budget amendment. Taxing & spending, v. 3, spring 1980: 41-47. HJ2381.F67, v, 3 Examines the relationship of Federal spending, money growth, and inflation to the Federal deficit. Contends that a balanced budget is "neither necessary nor sufficienttt to constrain the rate of growth of Federal Spending, the money supply, or the inflation rate. Ott, David J., and Attiat F. Ott. Federal budget policy. 3d ed. Washington, Brookings Institution, c1977. 178 p. (Studies in government finance. Second series) HJ2052.08 1977 Partial contents.--The Federal budget: concepts and cses.--The record: Federal spending and taxes.--Federal budget policy and the economy.--Fiscal policy and the national debt.--Determining the level of Federal spending. Bibliography: p. 166-173, Patel, Kant, Denny Pilant, and Gary Rose. Born-again Christians in the Bible Belt: a study in religion, politics, and ideology. American politics quarterly, v. 10, Apr. 1982: 255-272. JKl,A48, v. 10 From a 1980 eurvey, compares and contrasts the attitudes of born-again Christians in Greene County (Springfield) Mo., with those of the not born-again, on a balanced Federal budget and other issues. Pozdena, Randall Johnston. Controlling government budgets. Menlo Park, Calif., SRI International, 1978. 12 p. (Business intelligence program guidelines HJ2052 .P69 no. 1038). Raneon, R. David. Toward a broader picture of the budget deficit. Policy review, H1 .P69 no. 3, winter 1978: 35-54. Examines total public sector liabilities in the U.S. and notes the unfavorable effect on capital investments of these large and rapidly growing liabilities. Rees, John. James D. Davidson. Review of the news, v. 18, Mar. 3, 1982: 45, D839.R4, v. 18 47, 49, 51, 53, 55-56. "An exclusive interview with the founder of the National Taxpayers Union on how to balance the budget and control spending" through a constitutional amendment proposed by a specially called convention. Rovere, Richard. Affairs of state. New Yorker, v. 55, Mar. 19, 1979: 136-138, 141-143. AP2.W6772, v. 55 "According to the National Taxpayer's Union twenty-eight state legislatures, six short of the required two-thirds, have passed resolutions--or 'applications,' to use the language of Article V of the Constitution-petitioning Congress to call a convention for the purpose of proposing and ratifying a constitutional amendment that would mandate a balanced federal budget. " Samuelson, Paul. A. That constitutional budget amendment--'tremendous potential for harm.' Across the Board, v. 16, July 1979: 4-5, 77. HC101.C64, v. 16 A balanced F e d e r a l budget: a n a l y s i s o f s t a t e Scheu, J i l l , and Lew S h u s t e r . I n Remarks o f Edmund S. a p p l i c a t i o n s and S e n a t e l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l s . Muskie. Congressional r e c o r d [ d a i l y ed.] v. 125, Mar, 8 , 1979: S2443-S2445. J l l . R 7 , v. 125 Memo by Senate Budget Committee s t a f f members " c a t e g o r i z e s and summarizes t h e c o n s t i t i t i o n a l convention a p p l i c a t i o n s from t h e s t a t e s f o r a b a l a n c e d f e d e r a l budget and t h e l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l s f o r b u d g e t a r y b a l a n c e i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e S e n a t e i n t h e 9 6 t h Congress. C a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s based p r i m a r i l y on t h e FOP each c a t e g o r y t h e r e i s a b r i e f formula used t o a c h i e v e a balanced budget. d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h e economic d e f e c t s . " Schick, Allen. Congress and money: b u d g e t i n g , spending, and t a x i n g . Washington, HJ2051. S34 Urban I n s t i t u t e , c1980. 604 p. ----- Congressional c o n t r o l o f e x p e n d i t u r e s , P r e p a r e d f o r t h e House Budget C o w m i t t e e , U.S. House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1977. 126 p. HJ205 2. S3 3 A t head of t i t l e : Committee p r i n t . P a r t i a l contents.--Congressional c o n t r o l of t h e budget.--Instruments o f budgetary control.--Toward more e f f e c t i v e c o n g r e s s i o n a l c o n t r o l o f t h e budget. S c h u l t z e , C h a r l e s L. The p o l i t i c s and economics o f p u b l i c spending. Washington, Brookings I n s t i t u t i o n [c1968] 1 4 3 p. (The H , Rowan G a i t h e r l e c t u r e s i n systems s c i e n c e ) MJ2052. S36 Shades of t h e founding f a t h e r e ; t h e d r i v e f o r a new c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n . Time, v. 113, Feb. 1 9 , 1979: 1 8 , 21. AP2.T33, v . 113 "Wanted: s t a t e s m a n l i k e f i g u r e b e a r i n g c l o s e resemblance t o James Madison t o d i r e c t p o s s i b l e second C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Convention devoted t o b a l a n c i n g budget and perhaps o t h e r m a t t e r s ." Shannon, John, and Bruce Wallin. R e s t r a i n i n g t h e F e d e r a l budget: a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s and s t r a t e g i e s . Intergoverruaental p e r s p e c t i v e , v. 5 , s p r i n g 1979: 8-14. JK325.157, v . 5 P o i n t o u t t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f t a x c u t s , spending l i d s , and balanced budget c o n t r o l s and of f o u r p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s which may be employed i n implementation: c u r r e n t ad hoc p o l i c y , i n d i r e c t s t a t u t o r y c o n t r o l s , d i r e c t s t a t u t o r y c o n t r o l s and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r o l s . Sharp, Ansel M., and P h y l l i s Smith F l e n n i k a n , Budget d e f i c i t s : a major c a u s e o f i n f l a t i o n ? P u b l i c f i n a n c e q u a r t e r l y , v. 6 , J a n . 1978: 115-127. HJl101.P83, v , 6 F e d e r a l t a x and spending reform. Federal Reserve Bank o f Smith, W. Stephen. Chicago economic p e r s p e c t i v e s , May-June 1981: 13-19. HCb07 .A14A2 "In an e f f o r t t o d e a l with widely f e l t economic p a i n , t h e Congress h a s c o n s i d e r e d s e v e r a l economic reform p r o p o s a l s t o l i m i t a n d / o r r e d u c e t h e r o l e o f t h e f e d e r a l government i n t h e economy.'' Sommers, A l b e r t T. The balanced F e d e r a l budget: an orthodoxy i n t r o u b l e . [New York, Conference Board] 1978. 22 p . (The Conference Board. I n f o r m a t i o n b u l l e t i n no. 36) HF2051. S65 "The important t h i n g o u r budget e x p e r i e n c e i s t e l l i n g u s i s n o t t h a t d e f i c i t s a r e good, o r t h a t they a r e i n e v i t a b l e , b u t r a t h e r t h a t we a r e i n need of a new concordance between ends and means." CRS- 10 Stockman, David A. Administration firm in support of balanced budget amendment. Human events, v. 42, June 26, 1982: 10-12. D410.H8, v. 4 2 Testimony by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget before the House Subcomnittee on Monopolies and Commercial Law of the Judiciary Committee in support of the balanced budget constitutional amendment. Tax Foundation, New York. Spending control and the House committee structure; supplementary report. [New York, 19741 7 p. HJ2052.T3 1974 Supplements two studies published by the Foundation in 1973: Spending control issues and the U.S. budget, and Congress and the Federal budget. Thompson, Frank, Jr., and Daniel H. Pollite. A new constitutional convention? Harnessing the tiger. Christianity and crisis, v. 39, Apr. 16, 1979: 82-85. BR1 .C64l7, v. 39 The authors discuss constitutional concerns raised by a balanced budget constitutional canvention. Tobin, James. The Federal budget and the Constitution. Taxing & spending, v. 2, no. 4, 1979: 27-36. HJ2381.F67, v. 2 Examines proposed constitutional amendments to restrain the Federal budget. Opposes all on aesthetic, political, technical and economic grounds. Contends that "no direct link exists between budget and inflation." Believes that the national mood and the congressional budget process are already slowing down government spending. Tribe, Laurence H. Issues raised by requesting Congress to call a constitutional convention to propose a balanced budget amendment. Pacific law journal, v. 10, July 1979: 627-640. LAW Truluck, Phillip N., ed. Balancing the budget: should the Constitution be amended? [Washington] Heritage Foundation [I9791 23 p. KF6225 .A2B34 Papers from a Heritage Foundaton seminar held Apr. 10, 1979 for Members of Congress and their staffs, Contents.--The balanced budget approach, by A. Rabushka.--The spending limitation approach, by A. Me1tzer.--Against a constitutional convention, by C. Wiggins.--Toward an open constitutional convention, by L. Silberman. Tyler, Gus. The dangerous fallacies of a balanced-budget convention. American federationist, v. 86, Apr. 1979: 1-7. HD8055.A5A2, v. 86 Federal spending limit amendment: a stitch in time. Taxing & Unler, Lewis K. spending, v. 2, no. 4, 1979: 48-53. HJ2381.F67, v. 2 The president of the National Tax Limitation Committee explains why a constitutional amendment to limit Federal spending is needed and discusses the provisions of such an amendment. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations. Limitation of Federal expenditures. Hearings, 83rd Cong., 2d sess., on H.R. 2 and H.J. Res. 22. Apr. 13, 1953. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1953. 124 p. HJ7537.A52 CRS- 11 U.S. Congress, House. Committee on Rules. Task Force on F e d e r a l Spending Limitation Proposals. F e d e r a l spending l i m i t a t i o n p r o p o s a l s . H e a r i n g s , 9 6 t h Cong., 2d s e s s . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1980. 586 p. KF27.R84 1980 Hearings h e l d J a n . 30-Mar. 20, 1980. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on t h e Budget. P r o p o s a l s t o b a l a n c e t h e budg e t . H e a r i n g s , 9 6 t h Cong., 2d s e s s . Mar. 10 and 1 2 , 1980. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1980. 281 p. KF27.B8 1980a ----- Toward a balanced budget: r e p o r t p u r s u a n t t o P u b l i c Law 96-5. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1979. 102 p. ( 9 6 t h Cong., 1 s t s e s s . House. Report no. 96-99) KF32.B8 1979 U.S. Congress. House. Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . Subcommittee on Monopolies and Commercial Law. C o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments t o b a l a n c e t h e F e d e r a l budget, H e a r i n g s , 9 6 t h Cong., 1 s t and 2d s e s s . Washington, U.S. Govt, P r i n t . O f f . , KF27.J8663 1979b 1980, 514 p. " S e r i a l no. 67" Hearings h e l d Mar, 27-May 1, 1980. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Government O p e r a t i o n s . F i n a n c i a l management i n t h e F e d e r a l Government. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1961. ( 8 7 t h Cong,, 1 s t s e s s . Senate. Document no. 1 1 ) 369 p. KF623l ,A55G6 Pages 223 through 229 p r o v i d e a h i s t o r y o f l e g i s l a t i o n t o b a l a n c e t h e badget from t h e 8 1 s t Congress t o t h e 8 6 t h Congress. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Rules and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Subcommittee on S t a n d i n g Rules of t h e Senate. F e d e r a l budget c o n t r o l by t h e Congress. H e a r i n g , 93rd Cong., 2d s e s s . , on S. 1541. J a n . 1 5 , 1974. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1974. 261 p. KF26 .It888 1974 U.S. Congress. S e n a t e , Committee on t h e Budget. Budget i s s u e s ; s t a f f s t u d i e s f o r f i s c a l 1977. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1976. 165 p. HJ2051.U53 1976a A t head o f t i t l e : 9 4 t h Cong, 2d s e s s . Committee p r i n t . ----- The F e d e r a l budget and i t s problems. Hearing, 9 4 t h Cong. 1st s e s s . , Albuquerque, N. Mex., A p r i l 6 , 1975. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f , , 1975. 109 p. KF26. B8 1975c ----- F i r s t c o n c u r r e n t r e s o l u t i o n on t h e b u d g e t - - f i s c a l y e a r 1980. H e a r i n g s , 9 6 t h Cong., 1 s t s e s s . June 8 , 1979. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1979. 882 p. KF26.B8 1979 Vol. 111--Limiting F e d e r a l spending: Mar. 5--formula approaches t o a balanced budget; Mar. 15--fraud and abuse i n F e d e r a l programs; Mar. 16-s t a t e and l o c a l governments: c o n g r e s s i o n a l views; Mar. 21--views o f t h e cong r e s s i o n a l J o i n t Economic Committee; Mar. 22--Save o u r Bucks Task Force and t h e S e n a t e Human Resources Committee. ----- L e g i s l a t i v e approaches t o l i m i t i n g F e d e r a l spending. H e a r i n g s , 9 6 t h Cong., 2d s e s s . J a n . 24-25, 1980. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1980. 207 p. KF26,B8 1980 ----- Performance and promise--four y e a r s o f t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l budget p r o c e s s . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1978. 23 p. A t head o f t i t l e : Committee p r i n t . Examines how and why t h e budget process came i n t o b e i n g , how f i s c a l p o l i c y i s developed f o r t h e purpose of budgeting, how spending i s c o n t r o l l e d and how t h e p o l i t i c a l dimension e n t e r s i n t o t h e budget p r o c e s s . U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . Balanced budget--tax l i m i t a t i o n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment; r e p o r t on S.J. Res. 58 w i t h a d d i t i o n a l and d i s s e n t i n g views. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1981. 83 p. ( 9 7 t h Cong., 1 s t s e s s . Senate. Report no. 97-151) ----- C o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment t o b a l a n c e t h e Federal budget. 'Hearings, 9 6 t h Cong., 2d s e s s . , on S.J. Res. 126. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , KF26. J 8 1980d 1980. 130 p. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . Subcommittee on C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Amendments. Balanced budget--tax l i m i t a t i o n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment. H e a r i n g s , 9 7 t h Cong., 1 s t s e s s . , on S.J. Res. 9 , S.J. Res. 43, and S.J. Res. 58. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1981. 177 p. " S e r i a l no. 5-97-45'' Hearings h e l d Mar. 11-May 20, 1981. ----- Balancing t h e budget. Hearing, 9 4 t h Cong., 1st s e a s . , on S.J. Res. 55 and S.J. Res. 93. Sept. 23 and Oct. 7, 1975. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . KF26. J836 1975a Off., 1975. 222 p. ----- C o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments; r e p o r t pursuant t o S. Res. 72, s e c t i o n 5 , 94th Cong., 1 s t s e s s . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1976. 19 p. ( 9 4 t h Cong., 2d s e s s . Senate. Report no. 94-1373) P r o v i d e s a background and l e g i s l a t i o n on proposed c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amerldments on b a l a n c i n g t h e F e d e r a l budget (p. 14-16). ---- U.S. Proposed c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment t o b a l a n c e t h e F e d e r a l budget. Hearings, 9 6 t h Cong., 1 s t s e s s . , on S.J. Res, 2, 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 9 , 1 0 , 11, 1 3 , 1 6 , 19, 36, 3 8 , 4 5 , 4 6 , 56, 76, 79, 86 and 93. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f , , 1980. 621 p. KF26 .J8359 1979c Congress. Senate. Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . Subcommittee on t h e Constitution. Balanced budget--tax l i m i t a t i o n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment. H e a r i n g s , 9 7 t h Cong., 1 s t s e s s . , on S.J. Res. 9 , S.J. Res. 43, and S.J. Res. 58. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1981. 177 p. " S e r i a l no. 5-97-45" Hearings h e l d Mar. 11-May 20, 1981. ----- Balancing t h e budget. Hearing, 9 7 t h Cong., 1 s t s e s s , on S.J. Res. 58. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1982. 9 1 p. Hearings h e l d Phoenix, A r i z . , May 1 9 , 1981. " S e r i a l no. 5-97-12" CRS- 13 U.S. Congressional Budget Office. Closing the fiscal policy loop: a long-run analysis. Washington, 1977. 90 p. HJ2052.U553 1977 Describes an analytical tool for improving the u'sefulness of long-range projections of the Federal budget--a model designed to incorporate varying assumptions about the behavior of nonfederal demand (consumption, investment, state and local government purchases, and net exports). ----- Understanding fiscal policy. Washington, For sale by the Supt, of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1978. 47 p. HJ257.2.U57 1978 U.S. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. Constitutional convention applications: addressing the controversy of counting state, applications relating to a deficit spending amendment, by David C. Huckabee. [Washington] 1979. 3 p. Appears in the Congressional record [daily ed.] v. 125, Mar. 6, 1979: E904-E906. Jll.R7, v. 125 ----- Constitutional limitations on the budget, by Allen Schick. [Washington] 1979. 7 p. Appears in the Congressional record [daily ed.] v. 125, Mar. 8 , 1979: S2445-S2451. Jll.R7, v. 125 Vatter, Harold G., and John F. Walker. The perils of fettered government expenditures. Challenge, v. 21, Jan.-Feb. 1979: 59-61. HC101.N533, v. 21 Balanced budget constitutional amendments. Federal Reserve Volcker, Paul A. HG2401.A5, v. 68 bulletin, v. 68, May 1982: 293-301. In testimony before the Subcommittee on Monopolies and Commercial Law of the House Judiciary Committee on May 5, 1982, the chairman of the Fed expresses doubts on the balanced budget amendment and concludes that "the record of the federal budget for quite a few past years, and the critical federal deficit prospects for the future, suggest that we should no longer dismiss out of hand a constitutional approach. But I would continue to approach the question of a constitutional amendment with great caution; the Constitution cannot, and should not, be changed lightly to meet considerations or situations that are transient in nature, or to 'lock in' a particular economic doctrine. I am not personally satisfied that the proposal, as it stands, is fully workable. Nor do I believe that the matter of a constitutional amendment, given the years that must elapse before it became effective is nearly so urgent as resolving constructively the current budgetary impasse." Spending limitation, the Constitution and productivity: a Wagner, Richard E. response to James Tobin. Taxing & spending, v. 3, no. 1, 1980: 59-71. HJ2381.F67, v. 3 Wagner criticizes Tobin's argument that there has been no substantial increase in the relative size of government over the last two decades, and hence no basis for the spending limitation movement. He also aruges in favor of a constitutional budget constraint. Tobin offers a rejoinder. ----- Balanced budgets, fiscal responsibility, and the Constitution, by Richard E. Walker and Robert D. Tollison. San Francisco, Cato Institute, c1980. 49 p. (Cato public policy research monograph. Studies in law and economics, no. 1) Includes bibliographical references. HC106.7.W33 Walker, David B. The balanced budget movement: a political perspective. InterJK325.157, v. 5 governmental perspective, v. 5, spring 1979: 15-20. "Implicit in current drives to put constitutional curbs on Congressional spending and deficits, as well as requiring extraordinary majorities when voting for an unbalanced budget, is the assumption that the restraints of the traditional checks and balances no longer exist and are not functioning properly ." ----- Constitutional revision, incremental retrenchment, or real reform: an analysis of current efforts to curb Federal growth. Bureaucrat, v. 9 , spring 1980: 35-47. 543092.21, v. 9 Identifies three schools of thought among those seeking to restrain the growth of Federal spending and/or revenue: those who seek new restraints through constitutional amendment, those who see the political process generating pressure to retrench fiscal expansion, and those who find the real problem to be a "fundamentally dysfunctional" intergovernmental system in need of overhaul. Cutting the size of big government. Commonsense, v. 1, Weidenbaum, Murray L. fall 1978: 57-66. JK2351.C63, v. 1 "Fundamental reforms of government are in order, requiring spending and taxing restraint Should a requirement for budgetary balance be enacted, the result might be new pressure for tax increases on the part of the traditional proponents of big government ." ... Wildavsky, Aaron. How to limit government spending: or, how a constitutional amendment tying public spending to economic growth will decrease taxes and lessen inflation. Berkeley, University of California Press, c1980. 197 p. HJ2O5l.W48 Includes bibliographical references and index, ----- Why amending the Constitution is essential to achieving self-control through self-limitation of expenditure. Bureaucrat, v. 9, spring 1980: 48-53. JQ3092.ZlB86, v. 9 Discusses "whether there are statutory alternatives, whether the expenditure limitation is fit to discuss in a constitution, and whether it embodies fundamental and lasting considerations."