Report No. 82-143 L
SALANCING THE BUDGET AND LllvIITING FEDERAL SPENDING:
A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Library Services Division
April 6, 1979
Revised November 25, 1981
Revised August 23, 1982
W 8045 U.S.
T h e Congressional Research Service works exclusively for
the Congress, conducting research, analyzing legislation, and
providing information at the request of committees, Members, and their staffs.
T h e Service makes such research available, without partisan bias, in many forms including studies, reports, compilations, digests, and background briefings. Upon request, CRS
assists committees in analyzing legislative proposals and
issues, and in assessing the possible effects of these proposals
and their alternatives. T h e Service's senior specialists and
subject analysts are also available for personal consultations
in their respective fields of expertise.
This selected bibliography lists articles and books o n various issues
concerning legislation to limit Federal spending and proposed constitutional
amendments requiring a balanced budget, especially economic issues. The bibliography focuses mainly on literature of recent years.
E f f o r t s t o s e c u r e a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r u l e t o r e q u i r e a b a l a n c e d F e d e r a l budand
t o l i m i t t h e growth of F e d e r a l spending have i n t e n s i f i e d a s t h e F e d e r a l
Government's p e r s i s t e n t f a i l u r e t o b a l a n c e i t s budget h a s produced a p u b l i c d e b t
s u r p a s s i n g $1 t r i l l i o n and a s t h e F e d e r a l s h a r e o f t h e economy h a s c o n t i n u e d t o
i n c r e a s e . Many b e l i e v e t h a t , i n l a r g e measure, t h e n a t i o n ' s economic problems
a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e s e f a c t o r s . Due t o such c o n c e r n s , t h e r e have been e f f o r t s
i n Congress t o r e e s t a b l i s h l i m i t a t i o n s upon F e d e r a l spending and d e f i c i t p r a c t i c e s
t h a t e x i s t e d i n e a r l i e r y e a r s through an a r r a y o f formal and i n f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s
which have been eroded over t h e c o u r s e o f r e c e n t y e a r s . S i n c e t h e 8 4 t h Congress'
o u t s e t i n 1955, an average of f o u r amendments t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n t o r e q u i r e
a balanced F e d e r a l budget have been proposed d u r i n g each Congress. I n t h e c u r r e n t
9 7 t h Congress, over 80 c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments have been proposed t o r e q u i r e
a balanced F e d e r a l budget o r t o impose F e d e r a l spending o r revenue l i m i t a t i o n s .
On August 4 , 1982, t h e S e n a t e , w i t h a v o t e o f 69-31, passed S . J . Res. 5 8 , a
proposed c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment r e q u i r i n g a balanced F e d e r a l b u d g e t . However,
t o become p a r t o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , two-thirds o f t h e House must approve i t and
i t must be r a t i f i e d by a t l e a s t 38 s t a t e s .
Most o f t h e c i t a t i o n s i n t h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y were s e l e c t e d from t h e computeri z e d b i b l i o g r a p h i c d a t a b a s e c r e a t e d by t h e L i b r a r y S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n o f t h e
C o n g r e s s i o n a l Research S e r v i c e . T h i s c o r e o f l i t e r a t u r e was supplemented by
s e a r c h e s i n o t h e r i n d e x e s and computerized b i b l i o g r a p h i c r e t r i e v a l systems.
C i t a t i o n s t o i t e m s which a r e i n t h e c l a s s i f i e d c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e L i b r a r y o f
Congress i n c l u d e t h e L i b r a r y ' s c a l l number. J o u r n a l a r t i c l e s a r e provided w i t h
t h e c a l l number f o r t h e bound volumes r e g a r d l e s s of whether t h e i s s u e s have been
bound a t t h i s time. Recent a r t i c l e s may b e found i n t h e Newspaper and C u r r e n t
P e r i o d i c a l Room and i t e m s w i t h t h e d e s i g n a t i o n "LAW" may be found i n t h e Law
L i b r a r y o f t h e L i b r a r y of Congress.
BALANCING THE BUDGET AND LIMITING FEDERAL SPENDING: A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Taxpayers' revolt: are constitutional limits desiraAlexander, Lee, and others.
ble? [Washington, American Enterprise Institute, 19781 46 p. (AEI forum 20)
This is an edited transcript of a televised AEI Public Policy Forum held
on July 12, 1978, examining the issues surrounding the widespread demands for
changes in taxes at all levels of government and for constitutional limits
on government spending.
Balancing the budget. American opinion, v. 25, June 1982: 1-2,
5-6, 85-87, 89, 91-94.
AP2.04732, V. 25
Examines the current state of the budget and identifies "what concerned
Americans might do to limit spending and taxes as a means of putting an end
to escalating deficits."
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.
Proposals for a constitutional convention to require a balanced Federal budget. Washington [I9791
38 p. (Its Legislative analysis, 96th Cong., no. 3 )
Anderson, John W., Carrie Johnson, and James E. Clayton.
The budget and the Constitution. Washington post, Feb. 12, 1979: A19; Feb. 14: A23; Feb. 16: A15.
Series of three articles on the implications of a constitutional amendment to require a balanced Federal budget.
Association of the Bar of the City of New York. Committee on Federal Legislation.
Budget-balancing by constitutional amendment. Record of the Association of
the Bar of the City of New York, v. 34, May-June 1979: 428-440.
The committee report discusses whether the Constitution should be amended
to require the Federal Government to balance its budget.
Balanced budget amendment. New York, W ~ ~ ~ I T h i r t e e1982.
The MacNeil/Lehrer Report, July 27, 1982.
Televised interview with Sen. Richard Lugar of Indiana, Rep. Peter
Rodino of New York, State Rep. Mike Fox of Ohio, and State Sen., Harry Meshel
Balanced budget: political scramble, convention drive.
weekly report, v. 37, Feb. 17, 1979: 267-279.
JKl.Cl5, V. 37
Bergner, Jeffrey T.
Federal spending limitations: an idea whose time has come?
Policy review, no. 8, spring 1979: 41-51.
Discusses pro and con arguments relating to Federal spending limitations
tied to the nation's gross national product.
Federal fiscal control. Washington, Editorial Research Reports,
Boorstin, b avid.
1975. 23-40 p. (Editorial research reports, 1975, v. 1, no. 2)
Contents.--Options to stabilize the economy.--Operation of Federal budget
system.--Future of fiscal reforms in Congress.
Brimmer, Andrew I?.
The p o l i t i c a l economy o f l i m i t a t i o n s on F e d e r a l spending.
C h a l l e n g e , v. 23, Mar.-Apr. 1980: 6-11.
HC101.N533, v. 23
"A c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment t o b a l a n c e t h e f e d e r a l budget would make i t
h a r d e r f o r t h e government t o s t a b i l i z e t h e economy, hamper i t s e f f o r t s t o
c o u n t e r r e c e s s i o n , and r e s t r i c t i t s spending f l e x i b i l i t y . "
Would a budget amendment work? Wall S t r e e t j o u r n a l , Apr. 4 ,
Bork, Robert H.
"This s p e n d i n g - l i m i t amendment d e s e r v e s s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The
c a s e f o r i t i s compelling. It i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e c a s e a g a i n s t i t
seems h a r d l y l e s s so."
D e f i c i t s a r e d r a i n i n g s t r e n g t h from t h e economy.
v. 2, Apr. 1978: 13-14.
D e f i c i t s and t h e economy.
Bryan, W i l l i a m R .
J u l y 1977: 7-11.
I l l i n o i s b u s i n e s s review, v. 34,
HC107.13155, v. 34
Buchanan, James M., and Richard E. Wagner. Democracy i n d e f i c i t : t h e p o l i t i c a l
l e g a c y o f Lord Keynes. New York, Academic P r e s s , c1977. 195 p.
P a r t i a l contents.--The old-time f i s c a l religion.--Money-financed
defic i t s and p o l i t i c a l d e m o c r a c y . - - I n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s and p o l i t i c a l
c h o i c e . - - A l t e r n a t i v e budgetary rules.--A r e t u r n t o f i s c a l p r i n c i p l e .
Burkhead, J e s s e .
Balance t h e F e d e r a l budget? P u b l i c a f f a i r s comment, v. 25,
May 1979: 1-7.
"The campaign t o r e q u i r e a balanced f e d e r a l budget by way of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment r a i s e s a number o f i n t e r e s t i n g l e g a l i s s u e s , p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s , and, of c o u r s e , economic i s s u e s c e n t e r i n g on t h e n a t u r e o f
t h e c u r r e n t i n f l a t i o n and t h e e f f i c a c y of t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n t o o l s t h a t a r e
a v a i l a b l e t o d e a l w i t h it."
The n o b l e experiment i n c o n g r e s s i o n a l budget d i s c i p l i n e .
Cameron, J u a n .
F o r t u n e , v. 93, May 1976: 206-120, 214, 218.
HF5001.F7, v . 9 3
"The new procedure f o r r e l a t i n g spending t o revenues could s e t t h o s e
d e f i c i t s under b e t t e r c o n t r o l and a l t e r power r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Washington-i f i t lasts."
Waking up t o t h e budget menace.
Fortune, v. 9 7 , J u l y 3 , 1978: 50-54, 56.
HF5001.F7, v . 97
"A f l o u r i s h i n g economy was supposed t o wipe o u t t h o s e towering d e f i c i t s .
I n s t e a d , t h e d e f i c i t s a r e t h r e a t e n i n g t h e economy."
Large F e d e r a l budget d e f i c i t s : p e r s p e c t i v e s and p r o s p e c t s .
C a r l s o n , K e i t h M.
F e d e r a l Reserve Bank of S t . Louis r e v i e w , v. 58, Oct. 1976: 2-7.
HG107.A22A2, v. 58
"To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e a c t i v e p a r t o f t h e d e f i c i t remains, t h e d e f i c i t poses an i n f l a t i o n a r y t h r e a t a s t h e r e c o v e r y c o n t i n u e s and t h e economy
moves back toward h i g h employment. Consequently, t h e s i z e o f t h e budget
d e f i c i t c a r r i e s l i t t l e meaning by i t s e l f u n l e s s i t i s analyzed i n terms o f
i t s a c t i v e and p a s s i v e elements."
It% back to the drawing board for congressional budget
Clark, Timothy B.
cutters. National. journal, v. 11, Dec. 22, 1979: 2148-2151,
JKl.l-428, v. 11
"Frustration with the long struggle to adopt a fiscal 1980 budget and
dismay over the size of that budget's deficit have won converts to the
balanced budget cause."
Trying to kick the spending habit. National journal, v. 11,
Cohen, Richard E.
JKl.NZ8, v. 11
Apr. 21, 1979: 642-636.
"Nearly ev'&cyone is endorsing a balancing budget as a goal, but it
remains to be seen whether Congress can find a workable formula for forcing
an end to deficits." Says that "though a constitutional amendment forbidding
deficits seems unlikely, a statutory requirement--albeit one with an escape
hatch--seems a distinct possibility, given Congress' current mood,"
Balanced budget: political scramble; Congress seeks
Conte, Christopher R.
handle on spending restraint issue. Congressional quarterly weekly report,
v. 37, Feb. 17, 1979: 267-270.
Drive for balanced budget amendment gaining ground.
Congressional quarterly weekly report, v. 40, Mar. 27, 1982: 659-662.
JKl.Cl5, v. 40
Reviews efforts in Congress to propose a constitutional amendment,
and in state legislatures to call a Federal constitutional convention, to
mandate a balanced Federal budget and prohibit routine deficit spending,
and outlines the roles of the National Taxpayers Union and National Tax
Limitation Committee in lobbying for these measures.
The Constitution and the budget: are constitutional limits on tax, spending, and
budget power desirable at the Federal level? W. S. Moore and Rudolph G.
Penner, editors, Washington, American Enterprise Institute for Public
Policy Research  155 p. (AEI symposia, 80B)
HJ205 2. C646
Contents.--Amending the Constitution by convention.--The effects of
constitutional restraints on economic policy making.--Constitutional restrictions on the power of the purse and the theory of public choice,--A
roundup of the policy issues raised by proposals for constitutional limits.
Controlling Federal Government expenditures: the roles of Congress and the administration; CED symposium. New York, Committee for Economic Development,
1973. 21 p.
Contents.--Establishing a congressional budget, by A. Ul1man.--Presidential budgetary reform, by R. Ash.--The shortcomings in congressional budget
making, by M. Weidenbaum.--Precedents for impoundment, by R. Davenport.
Controversy over proposed mandatory balancing of the Federal budget; pro & con.
Congressional digest, v. 55, Mar. 1976: whole issue.
JKl.C65, v. 55
Partial contents.--The Federal balance sheet since 1789.--Present procedures for considering the budget.--Current budgetary practices and constraints in the states.--Actions to date in the 94th Congress.--Pros & cons.
Constitutional limitation of the Federal budget. Federal
Cox, William N.
Reserve Bank of Atlanta economic review, v. 64, May-June 1979: 73-76.
HC107.AlOA2, v. 64
Outlines the probable economic consequences of mandatory balanced
budgets, revenue caps, and spending limits.
Davenport, John A .
Amending t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i s a dubious way t o c u r b F e d e r a l
HF5001.F7, v. 99
spending. F o r t u n e , v. 9 9 , Mar. 22, 1979: 114-116.
"The o b j e c t i v e i s f i n e , b u t e f f o r t s t o r e a c h i t by t h e amendment r o u t e
r u n i n t o s e r i o u s l e g a l and economic d i f f c u l t i e s . "
- - - --
The U.S. r e d i s c o v e r s t h e economics o f supply. F o r t u n e , v. 9 8 , - O c t . 23,
HF5001 .F7, v . 98
"While t h e g r e a t t a x r e v o l t h a s been making t h e h e a d l i n e s , s u p p o r t
h a s a l s o been b u i l d i n g f o r an a s s a u l t on f e d e r a l spending. Some c h e r i s h e d
economic t h e o r i e s a r e t o p p l i n g . "
Davidson, James Dale.
The balanced budget amendment: an end t o t h e "good-will"
t h e o r y o f government. Taxing & spending, v. 2 , no. 4 , 1979: 42-47.
HJ2381.F67, v. 2
The chairman o f t h e N a t i o n a l Taxpayers Union e x p l a i n s why i t i s
n e c e s s a r y t o have a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment t h a t r e q u i r e s a balanced
The TRA--Taxpayers1 R i g h t s Amendment. Across t h e Board, v . 1 6 , Feb. 1979:
HC101.C64, V . 16
"A p r o p o s a l f o r a C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Amendment r e q u i r i n g t h a t t h e F e d e r a l
budget be b a l a n c e d . Already 22 s t a t e s have informed Congress o f t h e i r
d e s i r e f o r a c o n v e n t i o n t o s t a r t t o do j u s t t h a t . "
Democratic Research O r g a n i z a t i o n . Committee t o I n v e s t i g a t e a Balanced F e d e r a l
I n Remarks o f Richard C . White. Congressional r e c o r d ,
v, 124, Aug. 1 6 , 1978: 26510-26518
J l l . R 5 , v. 124
Examines t h e e f f e c t s o f F e d e r a l d e f i c i t s . Contends t h a t F e d e r a l
d e f i c i t s a r e "harmful" i n t h a t t h e y c a u s e i n f l a t i o n which i n t u r n c a u s e s
unemployment. Recommends t h a t a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment be adopted which
e l i m i n a t e s d i s c r e t i o n a r y d e f i c i t s and t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l d e b t be reduced
by F e d e r a l Reserve monetary p o l i c y .
Can Congreat? c o n t r o l spending? P o l i c y review, no. 1 4 , f a l l
"A spending l i d would e n a b l e t h e Congress t o s a y 'no' i n a manner t h a t
i t s members can s u p p o r t . "
I n f l a t i o n , c a p i t a l , and d e f i c i t f i n a n c e . J o u r n a l of money,
c r e d i t , and banking, v. 9 , Feb. 1977: 141-150.
HG201.J6, v. 9
F i s c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l democracy, e d i t e d by James M. Buchanan
and Richard E . Wagner. Leiden, Boston, Martinus Nijhoff S o c i a l S c i e n c e s
D i v i s i o n ; Hingham, Mass. [ d i s t r i b u t e d by] Kluwer Boston, 1978. 180 p.
( S t u d i e s i n p u b l i c c h o i c e , v. 1 )
P a p e r s p r e s e n t e d a t a c o n f e r e n c e on F e d e r a l f i s c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y h e l d
a t Hot S p r i n g s , Va., March 26-27, 1976. I n c l u d e s b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l r e f e r e n c e s .
Fisher, Louis, Congressional budget reform: ths first two years. Harvard
journal on legislation, v. 14, Apr. 1977: 413-457.
The article describes the first two years of practice under the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974, It explores the
budgetary process in Congress and concludes that "the new budget and
impoundment processes have made some improvements in congressional control
over federal spending, but Congress has yet to demonstrate that it can
markedly adjust the President's budget." Recommends that Congress develop
a budget strategy of its own if it is to effectively challenge the
Floyd, John E., and J. Allan Hynes. Deficit finance and "first-round" crowding
out: a clarification. Canadian journal of economics, v. 11, Feb.,1978:
HClll.C225, v. 11
Crowding out or crowding in? Economic consequences of
Friedman, Benjamin K.
financing Government deficits. Brookings papers on economic activity,
no. 2, 1978: 593-654.
Stopping the Leviathan: the case for constitutional limits
on taxing and spending. New guard, v. 18, winter ,1978: 20-23.
HC101.B785, v. 18
Unbalancing the Constitution. Nation, v. 228, Apr. 28,
Gross, Bertram M.
AP2.N2, v. 228
Presents arguments against a mandatory balanced Federal budget and a
constitutional convention to achieve it.
Gunther, Gerald, Constitutional brinkmanship: stumbling toward a convention.
American Bar Association journal, v, 65, July 1979: 1045-1049,
"State legislatures are calling for a constitutional convention without comprehending the full dimensions of the risks." Discueses some of the
issues which may be topics of such a convention, particularly a balanced
Hamovitch, William, ed.
The Federal deficit: fiscal imprudence or policy
weapon? Boston, Heath [I9651 148 p. (Studies in economics)
"Suggestions for additional reading": p. 148.
Heller, Walter W.
Balanced budget fallacies. Wall Street journal, Mar. 16,
"Taking the very stuff of democratic self-determination out of the hands
of legislative bodies and freezing them into the Constitution would dilute
and cheapen the fundamental law of the land."
Tax revolt: the lady or the tiger? By Walter Helber and Arthur Burns.
Public opinion, v. 1, July-Aug. 1978: 9-14, 59-60.
HM261.AlP8, v. 1
Transcript of a June 27, 1978 interview with Heller and Burns on
implications of Proposition 13. Among other points, Burns suggests that
restraints on Federal deficit spending would be desirable.
Herber, Bernard P.
Fiscal policy norms. In his Modern public finance: the
study of public sector economics. Homewood, Ill., Richard D. Irwin, 1971.
HJ141 .H4 1971
Hucker, Charles W.
Balanced budget: convention drive; constitutional convention poses questions. Congressional quarterly weekly report, v. 37, Feb. 17,
1979: 273-276, 279.
JKl.Cl5, v. 37
Is deficitus fiscalis an endangered species? Citibank monthly letter, Mar. 1979:
"The cry for fiscal responsibility by amendment is getting louder--and
the proposals for writing it into law are proliferating. Whatever happens,
the end result will be a rein on federal spending."
Kaus, Robert M.
Power to the people: making the Constitution work again.
Washington monthly, v. 11, Oct. 1979: 51-58.
E838.W37, v. 11
"Sometime in the next year the 34th state may call for a constitutional
convention to balance the budget. It is a prospect that scares many of us-not so much the balanced budget as the idea of the convention itself, and
the possibility that it could open up our founding document for a general
revision. If the balanced budget drive fails, or even if it succeeds without producing 'Con Con 11,' we will breathe a collective sigh of relief.''
Asserts that "the truth is that our constitution was not designed to allow
the government to act quickly on the wishes of the majority. It was designed
to frustrate that action, The exaggerated power of 'special interests,' the
debilitating stalemates between the president and Congress, are neither accidental nor necessary features of our politics."
Klein, Michael A.
Money financed deficit spending: a reinterpretation.
Southern economic journal, v. 45, Oct. 1978: 447-457.
HC107.Al3A67, v. 45
A balanced Federal budget and constitutional convention controKnapp, Elaine S.
versy. State government, v. 52, spring 1979: 58-64.
JK2403.S7, v. 52
Summarizes economic arguments on balancing the budget and the controversy
on calling a constitutional convention.
Balancing the budget--does it matter? Journal of the Institute
Lee, L. Douglas.
for Socioeconomic Studies, v. 5, winter 1980: 25-35.
HV95.I49a, v. 5
Argues that "over the long term, a balanced budget can make an important
contribution to a healthier economy and a rising standard of living. This
goal is too important to be abandoned simply because tough political decisions
do not help to win elections."
Calls for constitutional conventions. Washington, Editorial
Research Reports, 1979. 187-203 p. (Editorial research reports, 1979,
v . 1, no. 10)
Contents.--Budget and abortion issues.--Constitution's amending process.-Barriers to another convention.
Proposals to limit Federal spending and balance the budget.
MacLaury, Bruce K.
In Pechman, Joseph A,, ed. Setting national priorities: the 1980 budget.
Washington, Brookings Institution, 1979. p. 213-223. HJ2051.S47
"A good case can in fact be made for further strengthening controls
over the federal budget. The risk, however, is that some of the proposed
cures are far worse than the present disease."
Malbin, Michael J. Huge budget deficit projections fuel drive for balanced
budget amendment. National journal, v. 14, May 1, 1982: 757-762.
JKl.NZ8, v. 14
Congressional Republicans in particular are eyeing a constitutional
amendment as a way to show their constituents that they really do take
budget deficits seriously."
Rewriting the Constitution. Harper's magazine, v. 259, Sept. 1979:
AP2.H3, v. 259
"Another convention would force Americans to recall the values of the
first Constitution and consider how we have changed as a nation. It would
allow a recalculation of the costs of dependence upon government and the
benefits of individual responsibility and voluntary public spirit. Another
convention could offer perhaps a last chance to make sure we have the government we deserve."
Balanced budgets, spending limitations, and the economy.
McAllister, Eugene J.
Washington, Heritage Foundation, 1979. 11 p. (Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. Backgrounder no. 80)
The balanced budget amendment: an economic and constitutional review, by
Eugene J. McAllister and Thomas R. Ascik. Washington, Heritage Foundation,
1980. 16 p. (Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. Issue bulletin no. 59)
This paper includes two separate critiques of the balanced budget
amendment: one from an economic view (The political economics of a balanced
amendment, by E. McAllister), and one from a constitutional view (Does a
balanced budget fit into the American Constitutional scheme? by T. Ascik).
McCracken, Paul W.
What's behind expenditure limitations. Commonsense, v. 1,
fall 1978: 37-43.
JK2351,C63, v. 1
Calls for a balanced Federal budget and believes that periodic rejustification of programs would be helpful.
Meiselman, David I., and Paul Craig Roberts.
The political economy of the Congressional Budget Of fice. In Remarks of S. I, Hayakawa. Congressional record
[daily ed.] v. 124, June 13, 1978: S9122-S9128.
Jll.R7, v. 124
The authors criticize CBO for econometric analysis which focuses on the
short term and which is biased against saving.
Neil, Herbert E.
The impact of the Federal budget on economic performance.
Business economics, v. 12, May 1977: 26-34.
HC101.B88, v. 12
Controlling the growth of government: the constitutional
amendment approach. St. Louis, Center for the Study of American Business,
Washington University, 1979. 18 p. (washington University, St. Louis.
Center for the Study of American Business: Whittemore House series)
Discusses the current status of the tax limitation movement, focusing
on the National Tax Limitation Committee which promotes constitutional tax
or spending limitation amendments at the state and Federal levels.
A friendly case against the balanced budget amendment. Taxing & spending,
v. 3, spring 1980: 41-47.
HJ2381.F67, v, 3
Examines the relationship of Federal spending, money growth, and inflation to the Federal deficit. Contends that a balanced budget is "neither
necessary nor sufficienttt to constrain the rate of growth of Federal
Spending, the money supply, or the inflation rate.
Ott, David J., and Attiat F. Ott.
Federal budget policy. 3d ed. Washington,
Brookings Institution, c1977. 178 p. (Studies in government finance.
Partial contents.--The Federal budget: concepts and cses.--The record:
Federal spending and taxes.--Federal budget policy and the economy.--Fiscal
policy and the national debt.--Determining the level of Federal spending.
Bibliography: p. 166-173,
Patel, Kant, Denny Pilant, and Gary Rose.
Born-again Christians in the Bible
Belt: a study in religion, politics, and ideology. American politics
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JKl,A48, v. 10
From a 1980 eurvey, compares and contrasts the attitudes of born-again
Christians in Greene County (Springfield) Mo., with those of the not
born-again, on a balanced Federal budget and other issues.
Pozdena, Randall Johnston.
Controlling government budgets. Menlo Park, Calif.,
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Raneon, R. David.
Toward a broader picture of the budget deficit. Policy review,
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Examines total public sector liabilities in the U.S. and notes the
unfavorable effect on capital investments of these large and rapidly growing
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47, 49, 51, 53, 55-56.
"An exclusive interview with the founder of the National Taxpayers
Union on how to balance the budget and control spending" through a
constitutional amendment proposed by a specially called convention.
Affairs of state. New Yorker, v. 55, Mar. 19, 1979: 136-138,
AP2.W6772, v. 55
"According to the National Taxpayer's Union twenty-eight state legislatures, six short of the required two-thirds, have passed resolutions--or
'applications,' to use the language of Article V of the Constitution-petitioning Congress to call a convention for the purpose of proposing and
ratifying a constitutional amendment that would mandate a balanced federal
Samuelson, Paul. A.
That constitutional budget amendment--'tremendous potential
for harm.' Across the Board, v. 16, July 1979: 4-5, 77.
HC101.C64, v. 16
A balanced F e d e r a l budget: a n a l y s i s o f s t a t e
Scheu, J i l l , and Lew S h u s t e r .
I n Remarks o f Edmund S.
a p p l i c a t i o n s and S e n a t e l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l s .
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Memo by Senate Budget Committee s t a f f members " c a t e g o r i z e s and summarizes
t h e c o n s t i t i t i o n a l convention a p p l i c a t i o n s from t h e s t a t e s f o r a b a l a n c e d
f e d e r a l budget and t h e l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l s f o r b u d g e t a r y b a l a n c e i n t r o d u c e d
i n t h e S e n a t e i n t h e 9 6 t h Congress. C a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s based p r i m a r i l y on t h e
FOP each c a t e g o r y t h e r e i s a b r i e f
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A t head of t i t l e : Committee p r i n t .
P a r t i a l contents.--Congressional c o n t r o l of t h e budget.--Instruments o f
budgetary control.--Toward more e f f e c t i v e c o n g r e s s i o n a l c o n t r o l o f t h e budget.
S c h u l t z e , C h a r l e s L.
The p o l i t i c s and economics o f p u b l i c spending. Washington,
Brookings I n s t i t u t i o n [c1968] 1 4 3 p. (The H , Rowan G a i t h e r l e c t u r e s i n
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Shades of t h e founding f a t h e r e ; t h e d r i v e f o r a new c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n .
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AP2.T33, v . 113
"Wanted: s t a t e s m a n l i k e f i g u r e b e a r i n g c l o s e resemblance t o James Madison
t o d i r e c t p o s s i b l e second C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Convention devoted t o b a l a n c i n g
budget and perhaps o t h e r m a t t e r s
Shannon, John, and Bruce Wallin.
R e s t r a i n i n g t h e F e d e r a l budget: a l t e r n a t i v e
p o l i c i e s and s t r a t e g i e s . Intergoverruaental p e r s p e c t i v e , v. 5 , s p r i n g 1979:
JK325.157, v . 5
P o i n t o u t t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f t a x c u t s , spending l i d s , and
balanced budget c o n t r o l s and of f o u r p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s which may be employed i n implementation: c u r r e n t ad hoc p o l i c y , i n d i r e c t s t a t u t o r y c o n t r o l s ,
d i r e c t s t a t u t o r y c o n t r o l s and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r o l s .
Sharp, Ansel M., and P h y l l i s Smith F l e n n i k a n ,
Budget d e f i c i t s : a major c a u s e
o f i n f l a t i o n ? P u b l i c f i n a n c e q u a r t e r l y , v. 6 , J a n . 1978: 115-127.
HJl101.P83, v , 6
F e d e r a l t a x and spending reform. Federal Reserve Bank o f
Smith, W. Stephen.
Chicago economic p e r s p e c t i v e s , May-June 1981: 13-19.
"In an e f f o r t t o d e a l with widely f e l t economic p a i n , t h e Congress
h a s c o n s i d e r e d s e v e r a l economic reform p r o p o s a l s t o l i m i t a n d / o r r e d u c e t h e
r o l e o f t h e f e d e r a l government i n t h e economy.''
Sommers, A l b e r t T.
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(The Conference Board. I n f o r m a t i o n
b u l l e t i n no. 36)
"The important t h i n g o u r budget e x p e r i e n c e i s t e l l i n g u s i s n o t t h a t
d e f i c i t s a r e good, o r t h a t they a r e i n e v i t a b l e , b u t r a t h e r t h a t we a r e i n
need of a new concordance between ends and means."
Stockman, David A.
Administration firm in support of balanced budget amendment.
Human events, v. 42, June 26, 1982: 10-12.
D410.H8, v. 4 2
Testimony by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget before
the House Subcomnittee on Monopolies and Commercial Law of the Judiciary
Committee in support of the balanced budget constitutional amendment.
Tax Foundation, New York.
Spending control and the House committee structure;
supplementary report. [New York, 19741 7 p.
Supplements two studies published by the Foundation in 1973: Spending
control issues and the U.S. budget, and Congress and the Federal budget.
Thompson, Frank, Jr., and Daniel H. Pollite.
A new constitutional convention?
Harnessing the tiger. Christianity and crisis, v. 39, Apr. 16, 1979: 82-85.
BR1 .C64l7, v. 39
The authors discuss constitutional concerns raised by a balanced budget
The Federal budget and the Constitution. Taxing & spending, v. 2,
no. 4, 1979: 27-36.
HJ2381.F67, v. 2
Examines proposed constitutional amendments to restrain the Federal
budget. Opposes all on aesthetic, political, technical and economic
grounds. Contends that "no direct link exists between budget and inflation."
Believes that the national mood and the congressional budget process are
already slowing down government spending.
Tribe, Laurence H.
Issues raised by requesting Congress to call a constitutional
convention to propose a balanced budget amendment. Pacific law journal,
v. 10, July 1979: 627-640.
Truluck, Phillip N., ed.
Balancing the budget: should the Constitution be amended?
[Washington] Heritage Foundation [I9791 23 p.
Papers from a Heritage Foundaton seminar held Apr. 10, 1979 for Members
of Congress and their staffs,
Contents.--The balanced budget approach, by A. Rabushka.--The spending
limitation approach, by A. Me1tzer.--Against a constitutional convention, by
C. Wiggins.--Toward an open constitutional convention, by L. Silberman.
The dangerous fallacies of a balanced-budget convention. American
federationist, v. 86, Apr. 1979: 1-7.
HD8055.A5A2, v. 86
Federal spending limit amendment: a stitch in time. Taxing &
Unler, Lewis K.
spending, v. 2, no. 4, 1979: 48-53.
HJ2381.F67, v. 2
The president of the National Tax Limitation Committee explains why a
constitutional amendment to limit Federal spending is needed and discusses
the provisions of such an amendment.
Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations.
Federal expenditures. Hearings, 83rd Cong., 2d sess., on H.R. 2 and H.J.
Res. 22. Apr. 13, 1953. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1953. 124 p.
Congress, House. Committee on Rules. Task Force on F e d e r a l Spending
F e d e r a l spending l i m i t a t i o n p r o p o s a l s . H e a r i n g s ,
9 6 t h Cong., 2d s e s s . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1980. 586 p.
Hearings h e l d J a n . 30-Mar. 20, 1980.
Congress. House. Committee on t h e Budget.
P r o p o s a l s t o b a l a n c e t h e budg e t . H e a r i n g s , 9 6 t h Cong., 2d s e s s . Mar. 10 and 1 2 , 1980. Washington, U.S.
Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1980. 281 p.
Toward a balanced budget: r e p o r t p u r s u a n t t o P u b l i c Law 96-5.
U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1979. 102 p. ( 9 6 t h Cong., 1 s t s e s s . House. Report
Congress. House. Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . Subcommittee on Monopolies
and Commercial Law.
C o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments t o b a l a n c e t h e F e d e r a l budget,
H e a r i n g s , 9 6 t h Cong., 1 s t and 2d s e s s . Washington, U.S. Govt, P r i n t . O f f . ,
1980, 514 p.
" S e r i a l no. 67"
Hearings h e l d Mar, 27-May 1, 1980.
Congress. Senate. Committee on Government O p e r a t i o n s .
F i n a n c i a l management i n t h e F e d e r a l Government. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1961.
( 8 7 t h Cong,, 1 s t s e s s . Senate. Document no. 1 1 )
Pages 223 through 229 p r o v i d e a h i s t o r y o f l e g i s l a t i o n t o b a l a n c e t h e
badget from t h e 8 1 s t Congress t o t h e 8 6 t h Congress.
Congress. Senate. Committee on Rules and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Subcommittee on
S t a n d i n g Rules of t h e Senate.
F e d e r a l budget c o n t r o l by t h e Congress.
H e a r i n g , 93rd Cong., 2d s e s s . , on S. 1541. J a n . 1 5 , 1974. Washington, U.S.
Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1974. 261 p.
KF26 .It888 1974
Congress. S e n a t e , Committee on t h e Budget.
Budget i s s u e s ; s t a f f s t u d i e s
f o r f i s c a l 1977. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1976. 165 p.
A t head o f t i t l e : 9 4 t h Cong, 2d s e s s . Committee p r i n t .
The F e d e r a l budget and i t s problems.
Hearing, 9 4 t h Cong. 1st s e s s . ,
Albuquerque, N. Mex., A p r i l 6 , 1975. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f , ,
1975. 109 p.
KF26. B8 1975c
F i r s t c o n c u r r e n t r e s o l u t i o n on t h e b u d g e t - - f i s c a l y e a r 1980. H e a r i n g s ,
9 6 t h Cong., 1 s t s e s s . June 8 , 1979. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1979.
Vol. 111--Limiting F e d e r a l spending: Mar. 5--formula approaches t o a
balanced budget; Mar. 15--fraud and abuse i n F e d e r a l programs; Mar. 16-s t a t e and l o c a l governments: c o n g r e s s i o n a l views; Mar. 21--views o f t h e cong r e s s i o n a l J o i n t Economic Committee; Mar. 22--Save o u r Bucks Task Force and
t h e S e n a t e Human Resources Committee.
L e g i s l a t i v e approaches t o l i m i t i n g F e d e r a l spending. H e a r i n g s , 9 6 t h Cong.,
2d s e s s . J a n . 24-25, 1980. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1980.
Performance and promise--four y e a r s o f t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l budget p r o c e s s .
Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1978. 23 p.
A t head o f t i t l e : Committee p r i n t .
Examines how and why t h e budget process came i n t o b e i n g , how f i s c a l
p o l i c y i s developed f o r t h e purpose of budgeting, how spending i s c o n t r o l l e d
and how t h e p o l i t i c a l dimension e n t e r s i n t o t h e budget p r o c e s s .
Congress. Senate. Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y .
l i m i t a t i o n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment; r e p o r t on S.J. Res. 58 w i t h a d d i t i o n a l
and d i s s e n t i n g views. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1981. 83 p.
( 9 7 t h Cong., 1 s t s e s s . Senate. Report no. 97-151)
C o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment t o b a l a n c e t h e Federal budget. 'Hearings, 9 6 t h
Cong., 2d s e s s . , on S.J. Res. 126. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . ,
KF26. J 8 1980d
1980. 130 p.
Senate. Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . Subcommittee on C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Amendments.
Balanced budget--tax l i m i t a t i o n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment.
H e a r i n g s , 9 7 t h Cong., 1 s t s e s s . , on S.J. Res. 9 , S.J. Res. 43, and S.J. Res.
58. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1981. 177 p.
" S e r i a l no. 5-97-45''
Hearings h e l d Mar. 11-May 20, 1981.
Balancing t h e budget. Hearing, 9 4 t h Cong., 1st s e a s . , on S.J. Res. 55
and S.J. Res. 93. Sept. 23 and Oct. 7, 1975. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t .
KF26. J836 1975a
Off., 1975. 222 p.
C o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments; r e p o r t pursuant t o S. Res. 72, s e c t i o n 5 , 94th
Cong., 1 s t s e s s . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1976. 19 p.
( 9 4 t h Cong., 2d s e s s . Senate. Report no. 94-1373)
P r o v i d e s a background and l e g i s l a t i o n on proposed c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amerldments on b a l a n c i n g t h e F e d e r a l budget (p. 14-16).
Proposed c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment t o b a l a n c e t h e F e d e r a l budget. Hearings,
9 6 t h Cong., 1 s t s e s s . , on S.J. Res, 2, 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 9 , 1 0 , 11, 1 3 , 1 6 , 19,
36, 3 8 , 4 5 , 4 6 , 56, 76, 79, 86 and 93. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f , ,
1980. 621 p.
KF26 .J8359 1979c
Senate. Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . Subcommittee on t h e
Balanced budget--tax l i m i t a t i o n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment.
H e a r i n g s , 9 7 t h Cong., 1 s t s e s s . , on S.J. Res. 9 , S.J. Res. 43, and S.J. Res.
58. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1981. 177 p.
" S e r i a l no. 5-97-45"
Hearings h e l d Mar. 11-May 20, 1981.
Balancing t h e budget. Hearing, 9 7 t h Cong., 1 s t s e s s , on S.J. Res. 58.
Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1982. 9 1 p.
Hearings h e l d Phoenix, A r i z . , May 1 9 , 1981.
" S e r i a l no. 5-97-12"
Congressional Budget Office.
Closing the fiscal policy loop: a long-run
analysis. Washington, 1977. 90 p.
Describes an analytical tool for improving the u'sefulness of long-range
projections of the Federal budget--a model designed to incorporate varying
assumptions about the behavior of nonfederal demand (consumption, investment, state and local government purchases, and net exports).
Understanding fiscal policy. Washington, For sale by the Supt, of Docs.,
U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1978. 47 p.
Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
convention applications: addressing the controversy of counting state,
applications relating to a deficit spending amendment, by David C. Huckabee.
[Washington] 1979. 3 p.
Appears in the Congressional record [daily ed.] v. 125, Mar. 6, 1979:
Jll.R7, v. 125
Constitutional limitations on the budget, by Allen Schick. [Washington]
1979. 7 p.
Appears in the Congressional record [daily ed.] v. 125, Mar. 8 , 1979:
Jll.R7, v. 125
Vatter, Harold G., and John F. Walker.
The perils of fettered government
expenditures. Challenge, v. 21, Jan.-Feb. 1979: 59-61. HC101.N533, v. 21
Balanced budget constitutional amendments. Federal Reserve
Volcker, Paul A.
HG2401.A5, v. 68
bulletin, v. 68, May 1982: 293-301.
In testimony before the Subcommittee on Monopolies and Commercial
Law of the House Judiciary Committee on May 5, 1982, the chairman of the
Fed expresses doubts on the balanced budget amendment and concludes that
"the record of the federal budget for quite a few past years, and the
critical federal deficit prospects for the future, suggest that we should
no longer dismiss out of hand a constitutional approach. But I would
continue to approach the question of a constitutional amendment with great
caution; the Constitution cannot, and should not, be changed lightly to
meet considerations or situations that are transient in nature, or to 'lock
in' a particular economic doctrine. I am not personally satisfied that
the proposal, as it stands, is fully workable. Nor do I believe that the
matter of a constitutional amendment, given the years that must elapse
before it became effective is nearly so urgent as resolving constructively
the current budgetary impasse."
Spending limitation, the Constitution and productivity: a
Wagner, Richard E.
response to James Tobin. Taxing & spending, v. 3, no. 1, 1980: 59-71.
HJ2381.F67, v. 3
Wagner criticizes Tobin's argument that there has been no substantial
increase in the relative size of government over the last two decades,
and hence no basis for the spending limitation movement. He also aruges
in favor of a constitutional budget constraint. Tobin offers a rejoinder.
Balanced budgets, fiscal responsibility, and the Constitution, by Richard
E. Walker and Robert D. Tollison. San Francisco, Cato Institute, c1980. 49 p.
(Cato public policy research monograph. Studies in law and economics, no. 1)
Includes bibliographical references.
Walker, David B.
The balanced budget movement: a political perspective. InterJK325.157, v. 5
governmental perspective, v. 5, spring 1979: 15-20.
"Implicit in current drives to put constitutional curbs on Congressional
spending and deficits, as well as requiring extraordinary majorities when
voting for an unbalanced budget, is the assumption that the restraints of the
traditional checks and balances no longer exist and are not functioning
Constitutional revision, incremental retrenchment, or real reform: an
analysis of current efforts to curb Federal growth. Bureaucrat, v. 9 ,
spring 1980: 35-47.
543092.21, v. 9
Identifies three schools of thought among those seeking to restrain the
growth of Federal spending and/or revenue: those who seek new restraints
through constitutional amendment, those who see the political process
generating pressure to retrench fiscal expansion, and those who find the
real problem to be a "fundamentally dysfunctional" intergovernmental system
in need of overhaul.
Cutting the size of big government. Commonsense, v. 1,
Weidenbaum, Murray L.
fall 1978: 57-66.
JK2351.C63, v. 1
"Fundamental reforms of government are in order, requiring spending and
Should a requirement for budgetary balance be enacted,
the result might be new pressure for tax increases on the part of the traditional proponents of big government ."
How to limit government spending: or, how a constitutional
amendment tying public spending to economic growth will decrease taxes and
lessen inflation. Berkeley, University of California Press, c1980. 197 p.
Includes bibliographical references and index,
Why amending the Constitution is essential to achieving self-control through
self-limitation of expenditure. Bureaucrat, v. 9, spring 1980: 48-53.
JQ3092.ZlB86, v. 9
Discusses "whether there are statutory alternatives, whether the expenditure limitation is fit to discuss in a constitution, and whether it embodies
fundamental and lasting considerations."