Merit Pay for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers: Background Discussion and Analysis of Issues

0 0 z ?& Congressional Research Service The Library of Congress Washmgton. D.C. 20540 MERIT PAY FOR ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS: BACKGROUND DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF ISSUES K. F o r b i s J o r d a n Senior S p e c i a l i s t i n Education O f f i c e of S e n i o r S p e c i a l i s t s and Nancy B. Borkow Research A s s i s t a n t Office of Senior Specialists COMPLIMENTS O F Gene Snyder J u l y 2 7 , 1983 R e v i s e d September 1 4 , 1983 ABSTRACT Considerable national interest has centered on merit pay for elementary and secondary school teachers since the recent release of the educational reform reports. This merit pay paper contains a background discussion, description of alternatives, summary of current and proposed programs, and analysis of evaluation and implementation implications. CONTENTS ................................................... 2 ORGANIZATIONAL POSITIONS ..................................................... 4 BACKGROUND ................................................................... 5 HIGHER EDUCATION EXPERIENCES ................................................. 8 "MERIT PAY" ALTERNATIVES ..................................................... 9 Incentive Pay ................................................................ 10 Teacher Excellence Awards .................................................... 13 Master Teacher ............................................................... 14 Merit Pay ...................................................................21 FEDERAL ROLE ................................................................. 25 ISSUES ....................................................................... 27 Evaluation Procedures ........................................................27 Program Implementation and Administration .................................... 30 ATTITUDES TOWARD MERIT PAY ...................................................................33 B ................................................................... 39 APPENDIX A APPENDIX MERIT PAY FOR ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS: BACKGROUND DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF ISSUES Merit pay f o r t e a c h e r s i s not a new concept t o e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y education. N e i t h e r i s t h e c u r r e n t d e b a t e r e g a r d i n g t h e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n - t a g e s of t h e concept and r e l a t e d implementation i s s u e s . What i s new, though, i s t h e n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n t h a t s u d d e n l y h a s been f o c u s e d on t h e somewhat c o n t r o - - v e r s i a l t o p i c of m e r i t pay. l / Much o f t h e renewed i n t e r e s t can b e a t t r i b u t e d - t o t h r e e r e c e n t l y completed major r e p o r t s o n t h e s t a t u s o f American e d u c a t i o n . 21 Each o f t h e s e s t u d i e s d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y h a s s u p p o r t e d t h e m e r i t pay c o n c e p t by recommending t h a t t e a c h e r s be p a i d f o r r e c o g n i z e d performance r a t h e r t h a n - s o l e l y on t h e b a s i s of y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e and academic c r e d e n t i a l s . 3/ The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s i s s u e f o r e d u c a t o r s and p o l i c y makers a l i k e , and t h e long h i s t o r y of disagreement between and among t h e s e g r o u p s r e g a r d i n g t h e v i a b i l i t y o f such programs, s u g g e s t a c l o s e r l o o k a t t h e i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e 1/ For i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g c u r r e n t l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l s b e f o r e t h e c o n g r e s s , s e e E d u c a t i o n i n America: Report on i t s C o n d i t i o n and Recommendat i o n s f o r Change. CRS . I s s u e b r i e f 83106 [ b y ] James B. Stedman. p. 21. 2/ E d u c a t i o n Commission o f t h e S t a t e s (ECS). Task F o r c e o n E d u c a t i o n f o r ~ c o n o ~ Growth: ic Action f o r E x c e l l e n c e . Denver. ECS, 1983. 50 pp. ; T w e n t i e t h Century Fund. Report o f t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y Fund Task F o r c e on F e d e r a l Element a r y and Secondary Education P o l i c y . New York. The Fund, 1983. 21 pp.; and N a t i o n a l Commission on E x c e l l e n c e i n E d u c a t i o n . A N a t i o n a t R i s k : The Imperat i v e of E d u c a t i o n a l Reform. A Report t o t h e N a t i o n and t h e S e c r e t a r y o f Educat i o n Department o f Education. Washington, 1983. 65 pp. 3/ I n t h e f o l l o w i n g background d i s c u s s i o n , t h e t e r m " m e r i t payt' w i l l b e used y n a g e n e r i c s e n s e t o encompass t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f f i n a n c i a l reward p l a n s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s p a p e r . When t h e d i s c u s s i o n r e f e r s t o a p a r t i c u l a r p l a n o r prop o s a l , i t w i l l be s o s t a t e d . merit pay debate. The purpose of this paper is to provide background information about representative proposals and to examine some issues that have been associated with this topic. ATTITUDES TOWARD MERIT PAY Recent national surveys sponsored by three organizations indicate that over 60 percent of the respondents favored basing teacher pay on performance or the consideration of performance as one of the criteria to be utilized. Responses from the 15th Annual Gallup Poll indicate that 61 percent of those interviewed in a nationally representative sample agreed that "each teacher (should) be paid on the basis of the quality of his or her work," but 31 percent favored using a "standard-scale" as the basis for teacher salary schedules. This pattern was not greatly different from the responses in 1970 when 58 percent favored basing teacher pay on the quality of work and 36 percent favored using a "standard scale." The 1983 responses from parents of school children were similar to those for the total group, but those interviewees familiar with the report from the Excellence Commission were "more strongly in favor of merit pay, voting 71 percent to 25 percent in favor of it." kl A similar pattern of responses was received in the national survey of a randomly selected sample of approximately 7,300 teachers conducted by the National School Boards Association (NSBA). 5-/ tary and secondary school teachers. Responses were received from 1,261 elemenRespondent patterns were analyzed on the 41 Gallup, George. The 15th Annual Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes ~ o w a r zthe Public Schools. Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 65, no. 1. September, 1983. p. 45. 5 / Rist, Marilee. Our Nationwide Poll: Most Teachers Endorse the Merit Pay concept. The American School Board Journal, vol. 170, no. 9. September, 1983. p. 23-27. on t h e b a s i s of y e a r s i n t e a c h i n g , t e n u r e s t a t u s , s c h o o l t y p e , community t y p e , s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and membership i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , r e s p o n s e s from t h e s u r v e y were c o n s i d e r e d t o be " s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " of t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e N a t i o n ' s t e a c h e r s . Survey r e s u l t s in- d i c a t e d t h a t NSBA found t h a t 62.7 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a g r e e d t h a t " t e a c h e r s who a r e more e f f e c t i v e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m should r e c e i v e l a r g e r s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s t h a n t e a c h e r s who a r e l e s s e f f e c t i v e . " This study a l s o indicated t h a t 17.6 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r r e s p o n d e n t s s u p p o r t e d l i n k i n g s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s s t r i c t l y t o s e n i o r i t y and academic c r e d e n t i a l s ( e x p e r i e n c e and t r a i n i n g ) , b u t o n l y 3 . 1 p e r c e n t favored "classroom e f f e c t i v e n e s s " b e i n g t h e s o l e c r i t e r i o n f o r salary increases. The i n c l u s i o n o f "classroom e f f e c t i v e n e s s " a s a f a c t o r w i t h e q u a l weight t o t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s was f a vored by 41 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . I n r e s p o n d i n g t o "who s h o u l d e v a l u a t e c l a s s r o o m performance," 39 p e r c e n t of t h e r e s p o n d i n g t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e e v a l u a t i o n s should b e conducted by p r i n c i p a l s , 25 p e r c e n t f a v o r e d e v a l u a t i o n s by o t h e r t e a c h e r s , 15 p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d department h e a d s , and 12 p e r c e n t f a v o r e d e v a l u a t i o n s conducted by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and p e e r s . Another s e c t i o n o f t h e NSBA s u r v e y sought t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s toward t h e payment o f bonuses t o t e a c h e r s i n u n d e r s t a f f e d , o r s h o r t a g e , a r e a s ( s u c h a s s c i ence and m a t h e m a t i c s ) . Less t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e t o t a l r e s p o n d e n t s ( 3 1 . 6 per- c e n t ) t h o u g h t t h a t such payments were j u s t i f i e d ; however, over 60 p e r c e n t of t h e responding math and s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s s u p p o r t e d t h e concept o f bonuses i n shortage areas. -61 61 But U.S. Teachers Oppose S c a r c i t y Bonuses. The American School Board ~ o u r n a l ,v o l . 170, no. 9 . Sepetember, 1983. p. 25. Similar f i n d i n g s on t h e m e r i t pay i s s u e were r e p o r t e d from a consumer opinion survey conducted by The Gallup Organization f o r t h e Chamber of Commerce of the United S t a t e s . Results o f face-to-face interviews with 1,558 persons i n a n a t i o n a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample i n d i c a t e d t h a t 66 percent o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s thought t h a t " t e a c h e r s ' pay should be determined by how well t h e y teach" r a t h e r 7/ t h a n "being based i n l a r g e p a r t on s e n i o r i t y . " ORGANIZATIONAL POSITIONS H i s t o r i c a l l y , most t e a c h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s have had r e s e r v a t i o n s about m e r i t pay proposals because of (1) t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e base s a l a r y f o r t e a c h e r s i s too low and t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t need i s t o r a i s e the base s a l a r y f o r a l l t e a c h e r s ; ( 2 ) t h e f e a r t h a t m e r i t pay proposals r e p r e s e n t an e f f o r t t o keep school expendit u r e s and t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s low b y providing pay i n c r e a s e s t o o n l y a m i n o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s ; ( 3 ) t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t had been experienced i n achieving t h e g o a l of a s i n g l e s a l a r y schedule r a t h e r than having d i f f e r ' e n t l e v e l s o f pay f o r element a r y and secondary t e a c h e r s o r f o r male and female t e a c h e r s ; and ( 4 ) r e s e r v a t i o n s concerning the a b i l i t y o f l o c a l school d i s t r i c t s t o d e s i g n and implement a cons i s t e n t and e q u i t a b l e m e r i t pay t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n program. Within the past few months, t h e major teacher o r g a n i z a t i o n s appear t o have adopted a p o s i t i o n o f being w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i s c u s s i o n s about m e r i t pay, but contend t h a t d e c i s i o n s about t e a c h e r s a l a r y s t r u c t u r e s o r procedures should b e made a t e i t h e r t h e S t a t e o r l o c a l l e v e l and t h a t t h e a f f e c t e d t e a c h e r s should be involved. 7 1 Consumer Opinion Survey. o f th; United S t a t e s . Survey Research Center, Chamber o f Commerce Washington, August 1983. p. 2 , 1 0 . Other educational o r g a n i z a t i o n s appear t o b e i n g e n e r a l agreement t h a t some a c t i o n needs t o be taken t o a t t r a c t and r e t a i n good t e a c h e r s by providing them with f i n a n c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n c e n t i v e s . (See Appendix B f o r a summary s t a t e - ment of t h e p o s i t i o n s o f s e l e c t e d n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . ) BACKGROUND The pros and cons o f m e r i t pay f o r t e a c h e r s have been a s u b j e c t o f i n t e r e s t f o r over 50 y e a r s . E a r l y i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , so-called m e r i t pay schedules were a c t u a l l y t h e norm, r a t h e r than t h e e x c e p t i o n t h e y a r e today. I n t h e 1920s, though, " i n an e f f o r t t o end t h e d i s p a r i t y i n s a l a r i e s between elementary and secondary school t e a c h e r s (and males and f e m a l e s ) , school systems began t o adopt ' s i n g l e s a l a r y schedules' which rewarded e q u a l l y a l l t e a c h e r s w i t h t h e same ex- - p e r i e n c e and l e v e l of t r a i n i n g . " 8 1 To t h i s day, t h i s procedure--rewarding t e a c h e r s on t h e b a s i s o f academic t r a i n i n g and y e a r s i n t h e system--is s t i l l the most commonly p r a c t i c e d method of s a l a r y reimbursement. The Educational Research S e r v i c e (ERS) h a s r e c e n t l y completed a n a t i o n a l survey o f 11,500 school d i s t r i c t s i n t h e 1977-78 academic school y e a r . Detailed information concerning c u r r e n t and p a s t p r a c t i c e s i n t h e use o f m e r i t pay f o r t e a c h e r s was analyzed i n the r e p o r t . -91 8/ Toch, Thomas. ~ e r i Pay t I s s u e s Dominate School Refom Debate. t i o n Week, v o l . 11, no. 38. June 15, 1983. p. 1 4 . 9 / Education Research S e r v i c e . ~ r l i n ~ t o nVa. , 1979. Merit Pay f o r Teachers. Educa- ERS Report, The ERS s u r v e y found t h a t o n l y 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e responding d i s t r i c t s were - c u r r e n t l y u s i n g m e r i t payment p l a n s f o r t e a c h e r s . 10/ Another 4 p e r c e n t were c o n s i d e r i n g implementation o f a m e r i t pay program and 8 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y h a d , a t one t i m e , t r i e d a m e r i t program, b u t had s i n c e abandoned i t . Q/ Reasons g i v e n b y r e s p o n d e n t s f o r abandoning m e r i t pay programs i n c l u d e (1) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems ( r e p o r t e d by 40 p e r c e n t ) , ( 2 ) p e r s o n n e l problems such a s t h e plan b e i n g d i s l i k e d by t e a c h e r s , having damaged m o r a l e , o r c a u s i n g s t a f f d i s s e n s i o n ( r e p o r t e d by 3 8 p e r c e n t ) ; ( 3 ) c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ( r e p o r t e d b y 18 p e r c e n t ) ; and ( 4 ) f i n a n c i a l problems ( r e p o r t e d by 17 p e r c e n t ) . S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e ERS r e v i e w o f p r i o r r e s e a r c h o n m e r i t pay prograats. Teacher e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a r e c i t e d a s t h e major r e a s o n s why m e r i t pay programs have no& s u r v i v e d . The most f r e q u e n t l y l i s t e d e v a l u a t i o n problems a r e d i f f i c u l t y i n d e t e r m i n i n g who d e s e r v e s e x t r a pay, no a s s u r a n c e s t h a t r a t i n g s were a c c u r a t e , and s u b j e c t i v i t y and i n c o n s i s t e n c y among e v a l u a t o r s . C i t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems i n c l u d e t h e i n c r e a s e d r e c o r d keeping r e q u i r e m e n t s , e x c e s s i v e burden on a l i m i t e d number o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and p a r e n t a l c o m p l a i n t s ( i . e . , p a r e n t s wanting t h e i r c h i l d t a u g h t by " s u p e r i o r " t e a c h e r s ) . lems i n c l u d e s t a f f d i s s e n s i o n , a r t i f i c i a l c u t o f f r e s t r i c t i o n s ( i . e . Other prob- , reduced op- p o r t u n i t i e s f o r younger t e a c h e r s because o f q u o t a s ) , e x c l u s i o n o f t e a c h e r s from program p l a n n i n g and development p h a s e s , and i n a d e q u a t e f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s (i.e., l a c k o f f u n d s , i n c e n t i v e s t o o low t o make p l a n work). 101 - The o v e r a l l response r a t e was 24.8 p e r c e n t . 111 Robinson, Glen. ~ r l i G t o n ' ,Va, May 1983. Concerns i n E d u c a t i o n . p. 3. Education Research S e r v i c e . / ' The f i n d i n g s from t h e ERS r e p o r t i n d i c a t e t h a t s e v e r a l c r i t e r i a a r e con- - s i d e r e d t o be c r u c i a l t o t h e development of a s u c c e s s f u l m e r i t pay program. 121 1. E f f e c t i v e teacher e v a l u a t i o n procedures ; 2. T r a i n i n g programs f o r management and s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f t o admini s t e r the plan; 3. School board and management commitment ; 4. S t a f f involvement i n program development; 5. Teacher acceptance o r s a t i s f a c t i o n with program; 6. Adequate f i n a n c i n g ; 7. Rewards f o r a l l q u a l i f i e d persons; 8. Performance c r i t e r i a t h a t a r e p l a u s i b l e , f a i r , and e q u i t a b l e ; 9. Valid measures of r e s u l t s ; 10. Objective and c o n s i s t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n of assessment measures; and 11. Increases i n student learning. Even i f t h e s e c r i t e r i a can be met, a d d i t i o n a l problems may be encountered i n t h o s e l o c a l school d i s t r i c t s involved i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g w i t h t h e i r teachers. Of t h e 92 school d i s t r i c t s i n t h e ERS s t u d y t h a t had d i s c o n t i n u e d t h e i r m e r i t pay programs, 43 i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g had been a factor in the decision. In 22 d i s t r i c t s , t h e process of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g " i n general" was given a s t h e reason f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g m e r i t pay programs. In another 19 d i s t r i c t s , t h e response was t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s had n e g o t i a t e d t h e - plan out of t h e c o n t r a c t . 131 Experience with m e r i t pay programs appears t o suggest t h a t e f f o r t s t o have a m e r i t pay program work b e s t when t h e following c o n d i t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t : 121 13/ - I b i d . , p. 5. I b i d . , p. 42. 1. Merit pay supplements a r e i n a d d i t i o n t o r e a s o n a b l e pay i n c r e a s e s ; 2. The amount of t h e m e r i t pay supplement i s s u f f i c i e n t t o make t h e program a t t r a c t i v e t o t e a c h e r s ; and 3. E v a l u a t i o n s a r e based on agreed-upon c r i t e r i a t h a t a r e a s s e s s e d i n a f a i r and c o n s i s t e n t manner. 141 - HIGHER EDUCATION EXPERIENCES I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e somewhat s t a n d a r d use of t e a c h e r s a l a r y s c h e d u l e s based on t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e i n e l e m e n t a r y and secondary s c h o o l s , some form o f m e r i t pay a p p e a r s t o be t h e norm i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . Typically, entering s a l - a r i e s a r e i n d i v i d u a l l y determined and annual increments a r e based on i n s t i t u t i o n a l a s s e s s m e n t s of performance. Notable e x c e p t i o n s may be found i n a few i n s t i t u t i o n s o r systems o f i n s t i t u t i o n s where f a c u l t i e s have o r g a n i z e d f o r purposes of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and have o b t a i n e d a s a l a r y s c h e d u l e based on f a c u l t y r a n k and l o n g e v i t y . Even i n t h e s e c a s e s , a s s e s s m e n t s o f performance ( n o t l o n g e v i t y ) n o r m a l l y a r e used i n awarding f a c u l t y r a n k . Rather t h a n r e l y i n g s o l e l y on l o n g e v i t y and l e v e l o f t r a i n i n g , t h e performance measures t y p i c a l l y , u s e d by h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l u d e s t u d e n t r a t i n g s on c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g , number and t y p e o f p u b l i c a t i o n s , i n c i d e n c e and q u a l i t y of p u b l i c s e r v i c e and p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and i n t r a - i n s t i t u t i o n a l activities. Higher e d u c a t i o n s a l a r i e s a l s o a r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s u p p l y and demand i n a n academic a r e a a s w e l l a s t h e p o t e n t i a l s a l a r y t h a t a n i n d i v i d u a l o r c l a s s of academicians may e a r n i n o t h e r s e c t o r s . 141 Cramer, Jerome. Yes-Merit Pay Can be a H o r r o r , But a Few School s y s t e Z Have Done It Right. The American School Board J o u r n a l , v o l . 170, no. 9. September, 1983. p. 33; and Heed These Voices of Merit Pay E x p e r i e n c e . The American School Board J o u r n a l , v o l . 170, no. 9. September, 1983. p. 35. Faculty governance and "peer review" t y p i c a l l y a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e higher education reward system ( i n c l u d i n g both f a c u l t y rank and p a y ) , but i n s t i t u t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and governing bodies u s u a l l y r e t a i n t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f making t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n . Even though t h e system i s commonly used among h i g h e r education i n s t i t u t i o n s , c e r t a i n problems have been a s s o c i a t e d with t h e r e s u l t s of i t s usage. 151 For example, t h e system appears t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t o l d e r f a c u l t y members because of t h e i r lower e n t e r i n g s a l a r i e s . Other concerns a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e amount of f a c u l t y time s p e n t i n p r e p a r i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e review and a l s o i n t h e a c t u a l review process. I s s u e s a l s o have been r a i s e d about t h e degree t o which emphasis i s placed on q u a n t i t y r a t h e r t h a n q u a l i t y of a c t i v i t i e s . Even with t h e s e r e s e r v a t i o n s , t h e system appears t o have been r e t a i n e d because of t h e f l e x i b i l i t y afforded t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s . "MERIT PAY" ALTERNATIVES Over t h e y e a r s and most r e c e n t l y , "merit pay" h a s been r a t h e r l o o s e l y used t o d e s c r i b e a v a r i e t y of f i n a n c i a l reward programs. P a r t of t h e c o n f u s i o n as- s o c i a t e d with t h i s i s s u e comes from t h e f a c t t h a t d i s c u s s i o n s on "merit pay" oft e n r e f e r t o many d i f f e r e n t kinds of programs a s i f t h e y were t h e same. Merit - pay has been used t o r e f e r t o p a t t e r n s of i n c e n t i v e pay t o r e s o l v e school d i s t r i c t s t a f f i n g and assignment problems, master t e a c h e r proposals t h a t may repres e n t changes i n S t a t e c e r t i f i c a t i o n programs and t h e r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t e a c h e r s a s w e l l a s changes i n t e a c h e r pay p o l i c i e s , and t r a d i t i o n a l m e r i t pay programs - t h a t have involved t h e s y s t e m a t i c and p e r i o d i c e v a l u a t i o n of t h e classroom and school performance of t e a c h e r s , and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s a l a r y a t 151 Dennis, Lawrence J . Why Not Merit Pay. v o l . 54, no. 1 , F a l l 1982. pp. 18-21. Contemporary Education, the local school d i s t r i c t l e v e l . I n t h e following d i s c u s s i o n , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e t h r e e forms of t e a c h e r compensation a r e e x p l a i n e d . I n c e n t i v e Pay Under t h i s program, a d d i t i o n a l s a l a r y supplements a r e used by s c h o o l s y s tems t o reward a l l t e a c h e r s who t e a c h under s p e c i f i c , predetermined c o n d i t i o n s . These p l a n s , sometimes r e f e r r e d t o a s " i n c e n t i v e " o r " d i f f e r e n t i a l " pay sche- d u l e s , p r o v i d e f o r bonus payments t o t h o s e who t e a c h i n economically disadvantaged schools, shortage a r e a s ( i . e . , mathematics and t h e p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s ) , o r l a r g e r c l a s s e s , o r t o t h o s e t e a c h e r s who have l i m i t e d a b s e n c e s o r a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d t o t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l assignment. Unlike "merit pay" o r "master t e a c h e r t t programs, " i n c e n t i v e pay" p l a n s r e ward t e a c h e r s f o r t h e c o n d i t i o n s under which t h e y t e a c h , not how t h e y t e a c h a n d / o r t h e amount of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h e y have been g i v e n . These p l a n s f o c u s on e f f e c t i n g change i n t h e s u p p l y , t u r n o v e r , and d i s t r i b u t i o n of t e a c h e r s , w h i l e "merit pay" and "master t e a c h e r " programs a r e focused on improving t h e q u a l i t y of t e a c h i n g and, i n the' c a s e o f m a s t e r t e a c h e r programs, a r e d e s i g n e d a l s o t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. B a s i c a l l y , b o t h t h e "merit pay" and " i n c e n t i v e pay" c o n c e p t s have t h e same p r e m i s e - - f i n a n c i a l used t o produce d e s i r e d outcomes. i n c e n t i v e s c a n be D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e i r s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s and g o a l s , not t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g themes. Houston. - The Houston, Texas " i n c e n t i v e pay" p l a n 161 i s o f t e n used a s an example o f an o p e r a t i o n a l program. The Houston P l a n o f f e r s h i g h e r s a l a r i e s f o r 16/ The Houston Plan a l s o p r o v i d e s bonus payments t o t e a c h e r s f o r s u p e r i o r p e r f o g a n c e . The f o c u s of t h e Houston P l a n i s on t h e "what" and "where" of teaching--not t h e "how" and, t h e r e f o r e , i t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d an "incent i v e pay" program. A c t u a l programs may r e f l e c t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s , a s d e f i n e d i n t h i s p a p e r , o f more t h a n one s p e c i f i c program t y p e . - CRS- 11 math and s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s , h i g h t e a c h e r a t t e n d a n c e , and t e a c h i n g i n d i s a d v a n t a g e d areas. Under t h i s p l a n , Houston t e a c h e r s could add a s much a s $5,700 t o t h e i r annual s a l a r i e s . I n t h e 1979-1980 academic y e a r , t h e bonus p l a n " c o s t t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t about $6 m i l l i o n of i t s $400 m i l l i o n - p l u s budget .... . . . (received) p e r c e n t ." 171 t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e d i s t r i c t ' s 10,400 t e a c h e r s and t h e a v e r a g e s a l a r y i n c r e a s e was 6 Florida. One-half e x t r a money to ... - I n 1983, t h e F l o r i d a l e g i s l a t u r e e n a c t e d a s t a t u t e 181 a u t h o r i z i n g l o c a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t o p r o v i d e s a l a r y i n c e n t i v e s f o r one o r more o f t h e f o l lowing c a t e g o r i e s - - o u t s t a n d i n g a t t e n d a n c e of t h e t e a c h e r , employment i n a c r i t i - c a l shortage subject area, superior evaluation r e s u l t s , higher than predicted s t u d e n t achievement g a i n , o r o t h e r S t a t e p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e legislature. The l e g i s l a t i o n d i d n o t c o n t a i n p r o v i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e amount o f s a l a r y i n c e n t i v e t h a t could be provided t o t h e a f f e c t e d t e a c h e r s . To be e l i g i b l e f o r t h e s e payments, F l o r i d a t e a c h e r s must have one y e a r o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , b e a f u l l - t i m e employee, h o l d a r e g u l a r c e r t i f i c a t e i n t h e f i e l d of asssignrnent, have a s a t i s f a c t o r y performance a s s e s s m e n t , and have comp l e t e d 10 s e m e s t e r h o u r s o f p o s t g r a d u a t e work o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t . Comments. I n c e n t i v e pay p r o p o s a l s appear t o have been f o r m u l a t e d under t h e f o l l o w i n g s e t o f premises o r assumptions: 1. F i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s have a p o s i t i v e impact on t h e s u p p l y , t u r n o v e r , and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t e a c h e r s ; 2. I n c e n t i v e pay w i l l have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o n s t u d e n t performance ; and - 171 Teacher S h o r t a g e R a i s e s I s s u e s o f Pay D i f f e r e n t i a l s . v o l . 15, no. 131, J u l y 9 , 1982. p. 3 . Education Daily, 18/ Memorandum and c o p i e s of SB 38B (1983 Regular S e s s i o n o f t h e F l o r i d a ~ e ~ i s G t u r eand ) SB 2C (1983 S p e c i a l S e s s i o n ) from Neal H. B e r g e r , L e g i s l a t i v e A n a l y s t , F l o r i d a House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . August 4 , 1983. 3. I n c e n t i v e pay w i l l have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on t e a c h e r morale and per formance . Various p o s i t i o n s have been expressed concerning the i n c e n t i v e pay c o n c e p t . Empirical evidence s u g g e s t s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l " i n c e n t i v e pay" p l a n s have had a p o s i t i v e impact on the supply, t u r n o v e r , and d i s t r i b u t i o n of t e a c h e r s . One o f t h e p r i n c i p a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r i n c e n t i v e pay proposals i s t h a t school systems need a mechanism t o encourage t e a c h e r s t o teach under l e s s d e s i r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s such a s i n n e r c i t y schools o r i n t e a c h e r shortage a r e a s such a s math and s c i e n c e . C r i t i c s o f i n c e n t i v e pay suggest t h a t t h e program w i l l l e a d t o " e l i t i s t " a t t i t u d e s on t h e p a r t o f t e a c h e r s who a r e rewarded f o r teaching i n a s p e c i f i c discipline. An a d d i t i o n a l point i s t h a t paying some t e a c h e r s more than o t h e r s on t h e b a s i s o f "where" and "what" t h e y t e a c h , v i o l a t e s t h e concept o f "equal pay f o r equal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s " a s well a s suggesting t h a t public p o l i c y p l a c e s g r e a t e r v a l u e on some s u b j e c t s ( i . e . , mathematics and t h e physical s c i e n c e s ) than o t h e r s ( i . e . , h i s t o r y and the h u m a n i t i e s ) . A f u r t h e r c o n t e n t i o n h a s been t h a t t h o s e school systems t h a t do n o t allow t h e i r t e a c h e r s t o choose where t h e y t e a c h w i l l be denying some t e a c h e r s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e c e i v e a bonus f o r teaching i n poor a r e a s . Rather than providing a s o l u t i o n f o r what some c o n s i d e r t o b e a g e n e r a l problem o f "inadequate" compensation f o r t e a c h e r s , i n c e n t i v e pay h a s been used t o address s t a f f i n g problems i n p a r t i c u l a r school d i s t r i c t s , neighborhoods, and teaching a r e a s . Teacher o r g a n i z a t i o n s appear t o have been g e n e r a l l y i n support of t h e s e programs, b u t t h e amount o f i n c e n t i v e pay per teacher t y p i c a l l y h a s been r e l a t i v e l y low i n terms o f t h e t o t a l s a l a r y . Teacher Excellence Awards Even though t h e programs f a i l t o meet many c r i t e r i a normally a s s o c i a t e d with m e r i t pay, r e c o g n i t i o n programs f o r " ~ u t s t a n d i n go~r ~ " e x c e l l e n t " t e a c h e r s have been proposed a s one approach t h a t might be used t o encourage persons t o e n t e r and s t a y i n t h e teaching p r o f e s s i o n . I n some c a s e s , t h e i n t e n t has been merely t o provide public r e c o g n i t i o n f o r "a job well done." Examples i n c l u d e "outstand- ing t e a c h e r of t h e year" awards made by b u s i n e s s o r community o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n an e f f o r t t o recognize i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s f o r e x c e l l e n c e i n t h e i r f i e l d . Award amounts vary and, i n some i n s t a n c e s , a r e somewhat token when compared t o t h e t o t a l s a l a r y of the r e c i p i e n t t e a c h e r . T y p i c a l l y , t h e s e programs have been sup- ported from p r i v a t e sources o r with p u b l i c funds from o u t s i d e of t h e l o c a l school district. Minnesota. An example of t h i s type of t e a c h e r r e c o g n i t i o n i s a program - r e c e n t l y i n i t i a t e d by Minnesota businessmen. 19/ The Minnesota Business Founda- t i o n f o r Excellence i n Education awards $4,000 t o each of up t o 8 t e a c h e r s per year. Nominations f o r t h e awards can come from anyone ( i . e . , parents, students, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , o t h e r t e a c h e r s ) and must be accompanied by supporting s t a t e m e n t s from a t l e a s t t h r e e school-felated groups. Rewards a r e given on t h e b a s i s of seven c r i t e r i a , including enthusiasm, c r e a t i v e n e s s , knowledge of s u b j e c t a r e a , and use of innovative ctirriculum o r m a t e r i a l s . F i n a l s e l e c t i o n of award r e c i p - i e n t s i s made by a panel of business people and t e a c h e r s . Comments. Teacher e x c e l l e n c e awards appear t o have been formulated under t h e following s e t of assumptions: 191 Krupey; Joyce. May 1 3 2 . pp. 10-12. Practices: A G i f t f o r Excellence. American Education, 1. P u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n of a l i m i t e d number of o u t s t a n d i n g t e a c h e r s w i l l have a p o s i t i v e impact on t h e morale and performance of s c h o o l s and t h e i r t e a c h i n g s t a f f s ; 2. P r i v a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s e programs w i l l i n c r e a s e t h e l e v e l of p u b l i c s u p p o r t f o r t h e s c h o o l s ; and 3. O b j e c t i v e and e q u i t a b l e p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e award r e c i p i e n t s can b e developed and implemented. Advocates f o r t h e development of t e a c h e r r e c o g n i t i o n programs contend t h a t t h e w o r k , o f t e a c h e r s o f t e n i s "taken f o r g r a n t e d t ' and goes unrecognized u n l e s s an o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t is made t o p r o v i d e some e x p r e s s i o n o f p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n and a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h o s e t e a c h e r s whose performance i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e exemplary. An a d d i t i o n a l c o n t e n t i o n i s t h a t p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n t o t h e " o u t s t a n d i n g " t e a c h e r a c t u a l l y b e n e f i t s a l l t e a c h e r s because of t h e a t t e n t i o n drawn t o t h e s c h o o l s . C r i t i c s of t e a c h e r r e c o g n i t i o n programs view such programs a s p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s gimmicks t h a t may b e n e f i t t h e agency o r p e r s o n making t h e reward more t h a n t h e r e c i p i e n t o r the school. An a d d i t i o n a l concern i s t h a t t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s - may be based more on p o p u l a r i t y t h a n e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t h e c l a s s r o m . Master Teacher P r o p o s a l s f o r "master t e a c h e r " programs have been p r e s e n t e d f o r e n t i r e S t a t e s and a l s o f o r i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . These programs p r o v i d e opportun- i t i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d pay s c a l e s and a l s o f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . S t a t e w i d e p r o p o s a l s t y p i c a l l y have c a l l e d f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n t e a c h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n programs. Most p r o p o s a l s would r e v i s e t h e pay s t a t u s c a t e g o r i e s , o r s a l a r y schedules, f o r teachers. P r o p o s a l s g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e f o r l i m i t s on t h e number of nersons i n d i f f e r e n t s a l a r y c a t e g o r i e s , o r i n t h e l e v e l s o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n . I f no l i m i t s a r e placed on t h e number of p e r s o n s t o r e c e i v e t h e s t a t u s , a d j u s t m e n t s may be made i n t h e s a l a r y supplements because of l i m i t e d f u n d s . CRS- 15 Recently, much attention has been given to the master teacher concept and the development of both statewide and local master teacher programs. Examples - are the programs recently enacted by the California 201 and Florida 211 legislatures and the Tennessee "Better Schools Program," a proposal for the revision certification and teacher pay schedule by Governor Alexander. 221 (See Appendix A for a side-by-side comparison of the California and Florida statutes with the Tennessee proposal.) An example of program a developed at the local level is the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Teacher Career Development Program developed by the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools (CMS), Charlotte, North Carolina. 23/ 7 California. Under the California statute, up to 5 percent of the teaching staff in a local school district may be designated as "mentor" teachers. Selec- tion criteria include permanent status as a credentialed classroom teacher, substantial recent experience in the classroom, and exemplary teaching ability. Each local school district is required to appoint a local district selection committee, the majority of whose membership is to be certified teachers selected by other certified teachers, with the remainder being school administrators chosen by other school administrators. Provisions are to be made for classroom observations by staff members of the local school district. 20/ Article 4 (California Mentor Teacher Program). S e s s i G of the California Legislature. Chapter 498. 1983 21/ Memorandum and SB 38B (1983 Regular Session of the Florida Legislature) and S ~ Z C(1983 Special Session) from Neal H. Berger, Legislative Analyst, Florida House of Representatives. August 4, 1983. 221 The Tennessee Master Teacher Plan is part of a comprehensive statewide " ~ e t t GSchools Program" proposed in 1983 by Governor Lamar Alexander of Tennessee. 23/ Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools. The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Teacher ~ a r e e F ~ e v e l o ~ m ePlan n t (Plan Outline). Charlotte, North Carolina. 1983. Following nomination of c a n d i d a t e s by t h e s e l e c t i o n committee, f i n a l design a t i o n o f mentor t e a c h e r s i s by a c t i o n o f t h e governing board o f t h e l o c a l school district. The term of t h e d e s i g n a t i o n a s a mentor teacher i s t o b e f o r a period of three years. A mentor t e a c h e r may r e q u e s t t h a t t h e s t a t u s b e reviewed and can be renominated f o r a d d i t i o n a l terms. Each y e a r , t h e l o c a l school d i s t r i c t i s t o a l l o t a t l e a s t $4,000 t o each mentor t e a c h e r , and t h e funds may b e used f o r a s a l a r y supplement, r e l e a s e d time, o r p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. The S t a t e i s t o pro- v i d e t h e l o c a l school d i s t r i c t with funds s u f f i c i e n t t o reimburse t h e d i s t r i c t f o r t h e c o s t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e program including t h e c o s t s o f s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h e r s and t h e c o s t s o f administering t h e program. The primary f u n c t i o n s of mentor t e a c h e r s a r e t o provide a s s i s t a n c e t o beginning t e a c h e r s and then t o a s s i s t more experienced t e a c h e r s , a s s i s t i n s t a f f .developnent, and develop s p e c i a l c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s . However, "on t h e average," 60 percent o f t h e time o f each mentor t e a c h e r i s t o be s p e n t i n t h e d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n of p u p i l s . Mentor t e a c h e r s a r e e x p r e s s l y p r o h i b i t e d from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e evaluation of other teachers. The F l o t i d a Merit Compensation Program provides f o r t h e designa- Florida. t i o n o f a s s o c i a t e master t e a c h e r s and master t e a c h e r s , s t a r t i n g with t h e 1984-85 school y e a r . Each l o c a l school d i s t r i c t has t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o d e s i g n i t s program, and no limits a r e placed on t h e number of persons who may b e designated a s e i t h e r a s s o c i a t e master o r master t e a c h e r s . The S t a t e Board of Education i s t o adopt r u l e s concerning t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e program, e l i g i b i l i t y f o r awards, and award amounts. To r e c e i v e t h e d e s i g n a t i o n a s an a s s o c i a t e master t e a c h e r , a person must have four y e a r s o f teaching experience ( a t l e a s t two of which must have been i n Florida) tract , hold ," have a " p r o f e s s i o n a l service'' c e r t i f i c a t e o r be on a "continuing con- a s u p e r i o r performance e v a l u a t i o n , have documentable o u t s t a n d i n g a t t e n d a n c e , and pass a s u b j e c t a r e a t e s t . Master t e a c h e r s must have seven y e a r s teaching experience ( a t l e a s t f i v e o f which must have been i n F l o r i d a ) " p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e t t c e r t i f i c a t e o r "continuing c o n t r q c t ,'I , hold a have a t l e a s t t h r e e years experience a s an a s s o c i a t e master t e a c h e r , have 15 hours o f gradua t e work beyond t h a t r e q u i r e d f o r t h e a s s o c i a t e master t e a c h e r , and c o n t i n u e t o meet t h e o t h e r requirements o f t h e a s s o c i a t e master t e a c h e r . Documentation of s u p e r i o r performance i s t o b e made by a three-member d i s t r i c t l e v e l e v a l u a t i o n team--consisting of one p r i n c i p a l , one t e a c h e r , and a t h i r d person n o t employed by t h e school d i s t r i c t . T h i s l a t t e r person i s r e q u i r e d t o have s p e c i a l knowledge o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s s u b j e c t a r e a . Documentation o f a t e a c h e r meeting t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s s h a l l be approved by t h e l o c a l school b o a r d , with t h e Commissioner o f Education having r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e f i n a l review and approval o r d i s a p p r o v a l . The term o f d e s i g n a t i o n i n e i t h e r c a t e g o r y i s f o r a period of t h r e e y e a r s , c o n t i n q e n t upon s a t i s f a c t o r y performance and continued meeting of t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a . Amounts of s t i p e n d s and t h e l e v e l s o f S t a t e support a r e t o b e determined f o r review, a p p r o v a l , and d i s a p p r o v a l . The F l o r i d a l e g i s l a t u r e h a s a p p r o p r i a t e d - $80,000,000 f o r t h i s program and an extended school day program i n t h e 1984-85 school year. Tennessee. The proposed Tennessee Master Teacher Program provides f o r a four-stage c a r e e r development program f o r t e a c h e r s . Under t h e Tennessee P l a n , a t e a c h e r would begin a s an " a p p r e n t i c e t e a c h e r , " progress on t o a " p r o f e s s i o n a l teacher," then t o a "senior teacher," and t h e n f i n a l l y t o a "master t e a c h e r . " As p r e s e n t l y designed, a person would be r e q u i r e d t o t e a c h f o r a minimum o f 11 y e a r s b e f o r e a t t a i n i n g "master teacher" s t a t u s . The c u r r e n t v e r s i o n o f t h e Tennessee plan would p l a c e a 15 p e r c e n t l i m i t on t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f a l l t e a c h e r s who could acheive master t e a c h e r s t a t u s and a 25 percent l i m i t on t h e proportion who could achieve s e n i o r teacher s t a t u s . No l i m i t would be placed on t h e proportion who could receive t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l teacher status. A person must s e r v e a s an a p p r e n t i c e teacher f o r a t l e a s t t h r e e years before being e l i g i b l e f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r change t o p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r s t a t u s , s e r v e a s a p r o f e s s i o n a l teacher a t l e a s t t h r e e years before being considered f o r s e n i o r t e a c h e r , and serve a s a s e n i o r teacher a t l e a s t f i v e years before being considered f o r master t e a c h e r s t a t u s . Many d e t a i l s of t h e Tennessee program's f i n a l t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n plan have not been developed, but some p o i n t s do appear t o be agreed upon. For example, The classroom observations would be made by a team of t h r e e o r four t r a i n e d evaluators ( i . e . , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s from o u t s i d e t h e t e a c h e r ' s own school system) would, along with input from school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( i . e . , - pal and/or s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ) . 241 school p r i n c i - On t h e b a s i s of t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h e evalua- t i o n team then would make the f i n a l recommendations t o t h e proposed a p p r o p r i a t e r e g i o n a l o r s t a t e w i d e Master Teacher C e r t i f i c a t i o n Commission. Teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s , or t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e t e a c h e r s f o r t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s , would be made by t h e S t a t e Board of Education on t h e b a s i s of recommendations made by t h e Master Teacher C e r t i f i c a t i o n Commission. Recommen- d a t i o n s t o t h e f i r s t t h r e e l e v e l s would be made by r e g i o n a l conmissions, but recommendations f o r master t e a c h e r s would be made by t h e f u l l s t a t e w i d e commission. The r e g i o n a l conrmissions would c o n s i s t of a five-pereon e x e c u t i v e board and a l l of t h e master t e a c h e r s i n t h e region. S t a t e c e r t i f i c a t i o n a t each of t h e four l e v e l s would be f o r a period of f i v e y e a r s , and could be renewed f o r -: 1 but the a p p r e n t i c e t e a c h e r . 24/ One of the a c t i v i t i e s proposed under t h e "Better Schools Program" i s t h e d z e l o p m e n t of a ~rincipal/Administrator/Teacher Academy which would t r a i n school s t a f f i n t h e a r t of classroom e v a l u a t i o n . Under the present plan, the supplement for each professional teacher would be $1,000; for each senior teacher would be $2,000 for those on a 10-month contract, and $4,000 for those on an 11-month contract; and for each master teacher would be $3,000 if on a 10-month contract, $5,000 if on an 11-month contract, and $7,000 if on a 12-month contract. The State is to provide funds for the program, and the projected annual cost is $116,000,000. Exact duties of the master and senior teachers would be defined at the local district level, but they would "ordinarily" include responsibility for counseling, training, or evaluating other teachers and involvement in systemwide supervisory and curriculum activities. Master teachers are not to be out of the classroom for more than 10 days per year, and senior teachers are not to be out of the classroom for more than five days per year. Charlotte-Mecklenburg. In contrast to the previously discussed programs that are for entire States, the planned Charlotte-Mecklenburg program is for a single local school district. with six distinct levels. At present, the plan calls for a career ladder Movement up the ladder would be based on teacher per- formance (on still to be determined criteria) and on the willingness of the teacher to assume greater responsibilities. It is expected that as teachers progress to higher levels, they will maintain high quality performance in the classroom and "will also contribute directly to the overall quality of education 25/ in their school system." -To encourage progression from one level to another, the CMS program would provide a comprehensive tleacher training plan tied to the CMS performance standards and career structure. The teacher evaluations would be based on "multiple evaluations conducted by numerous individuals using multiple criteria over a 251 - Charlotte-Mecklertburg Schools, p. 2. s u s t a i n e d p e r i o d o f time." 261 - Tenure would b e awarded a t t h e end of t h e f o u r t h , f i f t h , o r s i x t h y e a r of t e a c h i n g i n t h e C M S program and, once r e c e i v e d , t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c a r e e r l a d d e r would be v o l u n t a r y . A s p r e s e n t l y proposed, t h e maximum s a l a r y f o r a t e a c h e r who s u c c e s s f u l l y p r o g r e s s e s t h r o u g h t h e s i x car e e r s t a g e s would be a p p r o x i m a t e l y $36,000, a s c o n t r a s t e d t o t h e c u r r e n t maximum s a l a r y of a p p r o x i m a t e l y $24,000. However, c u r r e n t v e r s i o n s of t h e p l a n a l s o a s - sume t h a t s a l a r i e s f o r b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s would p r o b a b l y b e somewhat l e s s t h a n under t h e p r e s e n t s a l a r y s t r u c t u r e . Comments. 271 - Master t e a c h e r p r o p o s a l s appear t o be based on t h e f o l l o w i n g s e t of premises: 1. Teachers d e s e r v e a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l rewards ; 2. E x c e l l e n c e i n t e a c h i n g performance can b e measured; and 3. O v e r a l l s t u d e n t performance can be r a i s e d by a program of d i f f e r e n t i a t e d pay i n which "master t e a c h e r s " have respons i b i l i t y f o r e v a l u a t i n g and a s s i s t i n g o t h e r t ~ e a c h e r s . Advocates contend t h a t f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s c a n b e used t o a t t r a c t good t e a c h e r s , b u t t h a t money a l o n e w i l l n o t keep them i n t h e s c h o o l s . They s u g g e s t t h a t , i f s c h o o l s a r e t o a t t r a c t and r e t a i n good t e a c h e r s , e f f o r t s w i l l have t o be made t o p r o v i d e b o t h f i n a n c i a l rewards and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n c r e a s e d amounts of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and p r o f e s s i o n a l development. T h i s l a t t e r g o a l c a n be accom- p l i s h e d by having t h e m a s t e r t e a c h e r s spend p o r t i o n s o f t h e i r time working w i t h 281 o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n a c t i v i t i e s t o improve c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n . - 26/ 271 - In contrast Ibid. Ibid. 281 C u r r e n t p r o p o s a l s i n d i c a t e t h a t m a s t e r t e a c h e r s might p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p f o r i n - s e r v i c e programs, e v a l u a t e and c o u n s e l a p p r e n t i c e t e a c h e r s , assume respons i b i l i t y f o r c u r r i c u l u m l e a d e r s h i p a c t i v i t i e s , o r s e r v e a s system-wide s u p e r v i s o r s or curriculum s p e c i a l i s t s . to the merit pay option, the financial and professional status of master teachers would appear to have more stability rather than being subject to the uncertainty of an annual determination of a merit allowance. Opponents of the master teacher proposal contend that not all good teachers want additional responsibility and/or greater job diversification. The contention has been that teachers should not be penalized (denied financial rewards) if they perform exceptionally well in the classroom yet, at the same time, do not wish to take on additional responsibilities. Even those who react positively to the proposal have concerns about provisions that place quotas on the number of persons who may be designated as master teachers or receive other types of recognition, especially if the same proportional quota is applied to all school districts in a State. Critics also contend that good teachers should stay in the classroom and not be given responsibilities that take them away from their primary job--classroom teaching. Merit Pay Recently, merit pay has been used to refer to a variety of plans for changing current methods for paying teachers. The traditional definition of merit pay refers to a system under which a teacher receives additional funds on the basis of systematic and periodic evaluation of his or her performance in the classroom and/or school. Current discussions of the concept appear to be baaed on the following premises: 1. Teachers should be individually recognized for excellence in performance ; 2. Techniques can be devised to measure differences in levels of performance ; and 3. Financial incentives based on teacher performance can be used to improve the quality of teachers and classroom instruction. Merit Pay Schedule. Local s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s have i n i t i a t e d and s u p p o r t e d m e r i t pay s a l a r y s c h e d u l e s a s a supplement f o r t h e " s i n g l e s a l a r y schedule" a l ready i n place i n t h e school o r a s the s o l e schedule. This t y p e of p l a n u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l t e a c h e r s i n a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l system; howe v e r , some p l a n s i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s f o r v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . One o f t h e o l d e s t l o c a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t m e r i t pay programs i n c o n t i n u o u s o p e r a t i o n i s i n Ladue, M i s s o u r i ( a h i g h income suburb of S t . L o u i s ) . With an a v e r a g e t e a c h e r s a l a r y of $28,000 and a t o p pay o f approximately $40,000, Ladue h a s had a m e r i t pay system f o r 30 y e a r s . The m e r i t pay allowances a r e based on e v a l u a t i o n p o i n t s a s s i g n e d by p r i n c i p a l s , a l t h o u g h a t e a c h e r committee d o e s have a v o i c e i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e program. Teachers may r e c e i v e up t o 15 p o i n t s a n n u a l l y w i t h e a c h p o i n t having a v a l u e of $300. 291 D a l t o n , Georgia, h a s had' a m e r i t pay program f o r 20 y e a r s . e r s a r e p l a c e d on t h e S t a t e s a l a r y s c h e d u l e . plement t h e S t a t e s c h e d u l e . tion. The m e r i t awards a r e used t o sup- Supplements r a n g e from $2,000 t o $3,000 per y e a r t o t h o s e t e a c h e r s r e c e i v i n g t h e m e r i t awards. been developed 1ocally;with I n i t i a l l y , teach- S p e c i f i c performance c r i t e r i a have t e a c h e r s having a major v o i c e i n t h e i r determina- E v a l u a t i o n s a r e made by t h e t e a c h e r ' s p r i n c i p a l and reviewed by t h e super- intendent. Two c r i t i c a l a s p e c t s of t h e Dalton program appear t o be t h a t m e r i t pay d e c i s i o n s may be appealed by t h e t e a c h e r and t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s who a r e per- - forming up t o e x p e c t a t i o n s r e c e i v e t h e m e r i t awards. 30/ 291 Tursman, Cindy. Merit Pay R e v i s i t e d . The School A d m i n i s t r a t o r , v o l . 40, no. 8. September, 1983. p. 23; and Cramer, Jerome. Yes--Merit Pay Can be a H o r r o r , But a Few School Systems Have Done i t R i g h t . The American School Board J o u r n a l , v o l . 170, no. 9. September, 1983. p. 33-34. 301 - Cramer , p. 33. Other examples i n c l u d e a small r u r a l school d i s t r i c t i n C a l i f o r n i a and a sub- - urban school d i s t r i c t i n Arizona. 311 Each program h a s a d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n . In t h e C a l i f o r n i a school d i s t r i c t , t h e l o c a l school board develops annual guidel i n e s , and t h e a c t u a l program i s conducted through a l o c a l m e r i t pay committee. Each t e a c h e r c r e a t e s an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d m e r i t pay program w i t h p o i n t s being awarded f o r i n d i v i d u a l and group a c t i v i t i e s . Building p r i n c i p a l s ' e v a l u a t i o n s account f o r o n l y 3.5 of t h e p o s s i b l e t o t a l of 10 m e r i t p o i n t s . The amount o f annual m e r i t pay t h a t may b e r e c e i v e d by a t e a c h e r ranges from $140 t o $2,800. I n t h e Arizona school d i s t r i c t , t h e approach i s based on r e s e a r c h which ind i c a t e s t h a t money alone i s n o t an e f f e c t i v e m o t i v a t o r , b u t t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n f o r performance and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r growth and advancement a r e e f f e c t i v e motivators. However, procedurally , the approach i s somewhat t r a d i t i o n a l i n t h e r e 1 i- ance on b u i l d i n g p r i n c i p a l s ; t h e c o n t e n t i o n i s t h a t p r i n c i p a l s a r e l e g a l 1 y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r and c a p a b l e o f e v a l u a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Under t h e program, a t e a c h e r ' s e x c e l l e n c e i n working with s t u d e n t s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s i s t h e primary c r i t e r i o n t o b e considered by p r i n c i p a l s i n recommending t h o s e t e a c h e r s t o r e c e i v e the m e r i t awards. t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s performance. The amount o f t h e award v a r i e s commensurate with Rather t h a n r e c e i v i n g t h e award a s a s a l a r y s u p plement, some t e a c h e r s have chosen t o have t h e funds used t o d e f r a y c o s t o f a t t e n d a n c e a t p r o f e s s i o n a l meetings o r purchase i n s t r u c t i o n a l equipaent and materials. Awards have ranged from $80 t o $1,000 per t e a c h e r . 311 Burke, Brian T. Merit Pay f o r Teachers: Round V a l l e y May Have t h e ~ n s w e r Phi Delta Kappan, v o l . 64, December 1982. pp. 265-266; and F r a s e , Larry E . , H e t z e l , Robert W . , and Grant, Robert T. Merit Pay: A Research-Based A l t e r n a t i v e i n Tucson. Phi Delta Kappan, v o l . 64, December 1982. pp. 266-269. Merit Pay S c h o o l s . A somewhat d i f f e r e n t approach h a s r e c e n t l y been adopted - by t h e D a l l a s (Texas) P u b l i c Schools. 321 m e r i t pay p l a n s i n two ways. T h i s approach d i f f e r s from t r a d i t i o n a l Awards a r e made t o a l l t e a c h e r s and s u p p o r t s t a f f i n a s c h o o l , and i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s a r e s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s of t h e d e g r e e t o which s t u d e n t s perform " b e t t e r t h a n expected" on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s . Decisions c o n c e r n i n g t h e s c h o o l s w i l l be based on o u t p u t s a s measured by t h e a c t u a l s t u d e n t s c o r e s on achievement t e s t s a g a i n s t t h e "expected" s c o r e s based on t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s o f t e s t r e s u l t s f o r each s t u d e n t i n t h e s c h o o l . Dallas has an unusally s o p h i s t i c a t e d d a t a b a s e on s t u d e n t t e s t s c o r e s , and, when a s t u d e n t changes s c h o o l s , t h e d a t a move w i t h t h e s t u d e n t . Awards w i l l b e made t o t h e t o p 25 per- c e n t of t h e s c h o o l s t h a t o u t p e r f o r m t h e computer p r o j e c t i o n s o f "expected performance" based on p r i o r t e s t r e s u l t s f o r t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e s c h o o l . Under t h e p l a n , no s c h o o l may be c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e bonuses w i t h o u t meeting b a s e l i n e c r i t e r i a f o r s t u d e n t a t t e n d a n c e and t e a c h e r absenteeism. I n t h e "merit schools," each t e d c h e r w i l l r e c e i v e an e x t r a $1,500 a t t h e end of t h e y e a r and each supp o r t s t a f f e r a n a d d i t i o n a l $750. The D a l l a s approach of r e c o g n i z i n g and rewarding good t e a c h i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a r e c e n t s t a t e m e n t by L e s t e r Thurow i n which he contended t h a t I t ( t ) h e r e is no such t h i n g a s a good t e a c h e r . teachers." There a r e o n l y good schools-teams o f good Thurow contended t h a t a s t e a d y sequence o f good t e a c h e r s i s what c o n t r i b u t e s t o b e t t e r t e a c h e r performance and t h a t a bonus should be p a i d t o e v e r y t e a c h e r i n t h e s c h o o l t h a t s u c c e e d s i n r a i s i n g t h e achievement l e v e l s of - s t u d e n t s . 331 321 T a y l o r , P a u l . D a l l a s School O f f i c i a l Charges i n t o Merit Pay Fray. The w=hington P o s t , September 8 , 1983. p. A 2 . 331 June Thurow, L e s t e r C . p. 15. 30, 1983. Merit Pay i s not t h e S o l u t i o n . Boston Globe, Comments. Proponents f o r m e r i t pay contend t h a t f i n a n c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n of competent performance has a p o s i t i v e impact on c u r r e n t s t a f f , improves t h e proc e s s of education, and serves a s an i n c e n t i v e f o r a b l e persons t o become teachers. One of t h e problems with t h e present pay systems ( i . e . , schedules) i s t h a t a l l teachers--good, way. single salary bad, o r i n d i f f e r e n t - - a r e t r e a t e d t h e same Proponents contend t h a t t h i s process i m p l i c i t l y rewards m e d i o c r i t y and d i s - courages t e a c h e r s from making t h e e x t r a e f f o r t r e q u i r e d t o do a b e t t e r t h a n average job. Proponents of m e r i t pay a l s o emphasize t h a t f i n a n c i a l rewards a r e used a s e f f e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . Advocates view t h e use of a m e r i t pay system f o r t e a c h e r s a s a l o g i c a l s t e p t h a t would h e l p p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e teaching. Opponents of m e r i t pay contend t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e concept of m e r i t pay is not u n i v e r s a l l y accepted i n t h e b u s i n e s s world. Some o b s e r v e r s contend t h a t , r a t h e r than improving p r o d u c t i v i t y , "merit pay ( o f t e n ) has a t b e s t - a n e u t r a l impact on p r o d u c t i v i t y , (and) a t worst a n e g a t i v e impact." 341 An ad- d i t i o n a l c o n t e n t i o n i s t h a t pay d i f f e r e n t i a l s f o r t e a c h e r s reduce morale, d i s courage j o i n t e f f o r t s , and promote competition among t e a c h e r s . Another concern i s t h a t a l l who meet t h e c r i t e r i a might not r e c e i v e t h e pay supplement because of t h e use of a system. FEDERAL ROLE Some i n t e r e s t has been expr,essed about t h e a p p r o p r i a t e Federal response t o m e r i t pay proposals a s a r e s u l t of t h e p u b l i c ' s concern about t h e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n , t h e recent proposals from s e v e r a l S t a t e s and l o c a l i t i e s , and t h e s e r i e s of r e p o r t s on t h e s t a t u s of American education. 34/ - Shanker, A. Where We Stand. In contrast t o other New York Times, A p r i l 3 , 1983. p. E - 7 . CRS-26 areas of national concern in education such as increased access for poor and minorities or the education of the disadvantaged or the handicapped, there would appear to be less agreement concerning appropriate Federal actions related to merit pay. Given the legal structure of American education and the usual con- cerns about infringement on State and local control over education, the possibility of Federal actions supporting or mandating a national merit pay or master teacher program likely would be viewed with considerable concern by State and local officials . From one perspective, options for a Federal role might be perceived as being somewhat limited because of the traditional view of State and local primacy in education. For example, minimal resistance likely would be encountered if Federal activities related to merit pay were limited to research, development, evaluation, demonstration, or dissemination. Questions would be raised about the time required before research findings of general value would be available or the limited effect that these activities would have on the great majority of the Nation's classrooms. From another perspective, the problem might be perceived as sufficiently severe that non-traditional responses would be appropriate. Even though various forces likely would resist the proposds, some interest groups might contend that the improvement of educational quality was sufficiently important to justify direct Federal funding of a merit pay program, possibly on a cost-sharing basis, or Federal requirements that States and localities implement a merit pay program as a condition of receipt of Federal funds for other programs. These options might accelerate the rate of change, but likely would be met with resistance by State and local educational interests. ISSUES Questions or issues related to the broad concept of merit pay do not appear to have changed substantially over the years. Major reservations appear to be related to the process that would be used in administering the program. In the following discussion, process issues relating to both merit pay and master teacher proposals have been divided into two broad categories-evaluation proce- dures and implementation and administrative costs in terms of time and dollars to the school district. First, the underlying premises are listed, followed by comments on these premises, and finally a list of selected pros and cons. Evaluation Procedures Premises: Comments. 1. Systems for evaluating the performance of teachers can be developed, and the results can, and should, be used in determining pay for teachers. 2. Objective and reliable systems for evaluating teachers can be developed (i.e., two evaluators should be able to use the evaluation system and arrive at relatively the same result). 3. Teacher support and participation is considered to be Teachers should participate in the planning, development, and implementation of the evaluation plan. The principal process questions include who would design the evaluation system, what elements would be included in the evaluation, who would do the actual evaluation, how frequently would the evaluation be conducted, who would supervise and have final authority for the evaluation, would a selfevaluation component be included, what provisions would be made for appeal or due process, and what use would be made of the findings? The positions of the major teacher organizations and the research suggest that the persons being evaluated should have some voice in design and implementation decisions. This involvement may also lead to the inclusion of a self-evaluation component in the evaluation process. Assuming that teacher pay will be based on performance, two major challenges are (1) to identify and weight, or rank, the teaching tasks or factors that are to be evaluated, and (2) to determine the proportion of the teacher's salary that is to be allocated on the basis of merit. input and output variables. Tasks or factors may be grouped into "Teacher input" variables might include quantity of educational training, knowledge of subject area, preparation and planning, classroom teaching techniques, attendance record, or even personal appearance. A teacher's potential for effective performance may also be affected by another set of variables that might be referred to as "environmental inputs" over which the individual teacher has little if any direct control. Examples include parental and community attitudes toward schooling, socio-economic status and initial achievement level of the students, and the learning environment that includes such elements as the range of instructional materials and equipment and the degree to which the facilities meet minimal standards. Output variables might include changes in student behavior or attitudes, changes in student achievement, classroom appearance, and student time on task. used as indicators of teacher performance. The challenge is to design an evaluation system that will measure teacher performance after due recognition has been given to the limitations or advantages accruing through "environmental inputs." A common reservation about this type of use of input and output variables in teacher evaluation is that the system may become a series of impersonal checklists and that the desire for equity and consistency in the merit pay evaluation process may result in heavy reliance on completion of a narrow range of tasks and and the excessive use of factors that can be quantified. When checklists are used, standardized reporting of information becomes more critical to ensure fairness to all parties. In the following discussion, various positions on evaluation procedures have been grouped into pros and cons: Pros 1. Teacher pay would be based on performance in the classroom. 2. Evidence from "merit pay" in business and higher education suggests that evaluation strategies can be designed that measure teacher performance both objectively and reliably. 3. Using classroom performance as a basis for determining pay and status should help to restore some of the public confidence in education. 4. The concerns about the subjectivity of the evaluation process can be overcome by the use of consistent processes for gathering and reporting the information obtained from the observations. 5. Teachers can be given the opportunity to participate in their own evaluation by including a self-evaluation component. Cons 1. Evaluation plans designed to recognize and reward teachers on the basis of their performance have been rejected in the past because of the perception that the plans resulted in rewards being based on "patronage and favor it ism. I' 2. There is not general agreement concerning the factors on which merit should be based. (One of the concerns is that factors outside of the teacher's control may influence the evaluation or reduce a teacher's potential effectiveness, i.e., previous low student test scores or availability of state-of-art instructional materials' and equipment. ) 3. Administrators often are not trained evaluators, yet typically they are the ones designated to do the teacher evaluations. 4. The quest for consistency may result in the evaluation process becoming merely a series of checklists or quantitative reports that emphasize easily quantifiable items more than other somewhat subjective factors that may be more related to teaching effectiveness and student learning. 5. If self-evaluation is to be an integral part of the process, standardized reporting may be an impossible goal because teachers at the same performance level likely will vary in their capacity and willingness to provide the self-evaluation informat ion. Program Implementation and Administration Premises: Comments. 1. A merit pay system can be designed that is affordable. 2. The benefits in terms of improved instruction in the classroom will outweigh the costs in terms of lost time by "peer" participation in the evaluations and possible negative effects on morale. 3. School staff members can implement the program without interfering with the ongoing instruction program. The implementation of a different system for compensating teach- ers will inevitably affect the operation of classrooms and schools. The use of peers as evaluators under either the master teacher programs or a merit pay structure will require that the best teachers be absent from the classroom while evaluating other teachers. Even though the change may have a positive impact on instructional opportunities for students, introduction of either program will have a cost in terms of planning time and administrative burden. One of the operational problems with merit pay programs is that a fixed amount of funds for merit awards typically has been available irrespective of the number of potentially eligible recipients. If differential merit awards are made and this constraint of limited funds is retained, some teachers may receive increases below the average irrespective of their levels of performance. An additional concern is that the introduction of either a master teacher or merit pay plan will require additional funds at a time when many school districts are facing financial crises. with the fact that Supporters of merit pay often qualify their support salaries for all teachers need to be raised in order for any "merit pay" system to produce its desired results. (Under current economic c o n d i t i o n s , s c h o o l systems may not have t h e funds needed t o c o v e r t h e c o s t s of implementing and funding a m e r i t pay program.) Another a r e a o f concern i s t h e r a n g e o f p o s s i b l e r e a c t i o n s from p a r e n t s who f i n d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d i s not p l a c e d w i t h t h e "master t e a c h e r " o r t h e t e a c h e r who r e c e i v e d t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l of m e r i t r e c o g n i t i o n . School a d m i n i s t r a t o r s may f i n d t h e m s e l v e s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a v a r i e t y of p a r e n t a l p r e s s u r e s , b u t t h e most c r i t i c a l f a c t o r may be t h e p r o c e d u r e s t h a t a r e used t o a s s i g n p u p i l s t o p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h ers. The c h a l l e n g e w i l l be t o d e v i s e an e q u i t a b l e method f o r a s s i g n i n g s t u d e n t s t o c l a s s e s and t e a c h e r s . I n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , t h e problem may n o t b e a s g r e a t because s t u d e n t s n o r m a l l y spend o n l y one p e r i o d p e r d a y w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h e r ; however, i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , p a r e n t a l i n t e r e s t and p r e s s u r e s may b e h i g h bec a u s e of t h e common use of s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s r o o m s i n which t h e s t u d e n t i s w i t h a s i n g l e t e a c h e r f o r t h e major p o r t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l day. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and adminis t r a t i o n have been grouped i n t o p r o s and cons: Pros The i n t r o d u c t i o n of systems f o r b a s i n g t e a c h e r s a l a r i e s on performance may c o n t r i b u t e t o a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e p u b l i c ' s w i l l i n g ness t o provide funding f o r education. The e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s may have a p o s i t i v e impact on performa n c e a s t e a c h e r s p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on p l a n n i n g and improvi n g s t u d e n t performance. Teacher morale should i n c r e a s e a s a r e s u l t of t h e f i n a n c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n f o r a job w e l l done. The m a s t e r t e a c h e r p r o p o s a l s p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e development o f s u p p o r t programs i n which t h e " b e t t e r " t e a c h e r s a s s i s t o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n e f f o r t s t o improve i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs. P o l i c i e s c o n c e r n i n g changes i n s a l a r y s t a t u s c o u l d b e d e f i n e d a t t h e l o c a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t l e v e l and t i e d t o l o c a l l y d e t e r mined f a c t o r s . CRS- 3 2 6. The f u t u r e c o s t s t o t h e N a t i o n ( i . e . , a p o o r l y e d u c a t e d and a t e c h n i c a l l y i l l i t e r a t e p o p u l a t i o n ) may be g r e a t e r t h a n t h e c o s t t o d e v e l o p and implement a n e f f e c t i v e m e r i t pay system. Cons The number of e v a l u a t i o n v i s i t s n e c e s s a r y t o a s s u r e a p p r o p r i a t e e v a l u a t i o n of each t e a c h e r ' s performance and t h e amount o f paper work r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n a n ongoing system may b e t o o much of a s t r a i n - - f i n a n c i a l l y and timewise--for a s c h o o l system t o manage effectively. Prior experience suggests t h a t i n order for f i n a n c i a l incentives t o work, t h e monetary rewards need t o b e , a t minimum, 10 p e r c e n t above t h e t e a c h e r s b a s e s a l a r y . School systems may n o t have t h e r e s o u r c e s t o pay t h i s c o s t t o e i t h e r a t t r a c t o r r e t a i n t h e b e s t teachers. Under t h e p r o p o s a l s , s a l a r i e s f o r a l l t e a c h e r s might not b e inc r e a s e d even though t h e g e n e r a l consensus a p p e a r s t o be t h a t t h e c u r r e n t l e v e l o f pay f o r a l l t e a c h e r s i s i n a d e q u a t e . Unless c o n t r o l s a r e imposed on t h e u s e o f "peers" a s e v a l u a t o r s , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e m e r i t pay system may r e s u l t i n t h e "best" t e a c h e r s spending e x c e s s i v e time away from t h e classroom. Teachers may be l e s s w i l l i n g t o c o o p e r a t e and be mutua'lly s u p p o r t i v e b e c a u s e of t h e importance o f t h e i r performance a s i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e m e r i t pay e v a l u a t i o n s . A p e r s o n may e x e r t e x t r a o r d i n a r y l e v e l s o f e f f o r t d u r i n g t h e e v a l u a t i o n o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s and t h e n r e v e r t t o a lower l e v e l o f e f f o r t following t h e observations. Each person seeking classification as a mentor teacher shall meet the following qualifications: credentialed classroom teacher with permanent status, substantial recent experience in classroom instruction, and exemplary teaching ability. QUALIFI- CATIONS Provisions call for the designation of up to 5 percent of teaching staff as "mentor" teachers providing that they meet the prescribed qualifications. Participation is voluntary. CAREER LEVELS California To qualify as a master teacher, a person must have seven years of teaching experience, at least five of which must have been in Florida; hold a professional service or continuing contract; have at least To qualify as an associate master teacher, a person must have four years of teaching experience, at least two of which must have been in Florida; hold a "professional service" or "continuing contract;" have completed a master's degree "in field" or the equivalent; have a superior performance evaluation; have documentable outstanding attendance; and pass a subject area test. Provisions call for a State-level career ladder with master teacher and associate master teacher levels added to the existing beginning teacher and regular certificate teacher levels. Participation at either level is voluntary. Florida Completion of a teacher training program with a bachelor's degree and specified years of experience is required for entry into the various career levels. Other factors include acceptable student performance, participation in professional growth activities, and evaluations by local supervisors and administrators. Provisions call for revision of State certification provisions to provide for four levels of teachers--apprentice, professional, senior, and master. Participation beyond the professional teacher level is voluntary. Tennessee COMPARISON OF CALIFORNIA MENTOR TEACHER LAW, FLORIDA MERIT COMPENSATION PROGRAM LAW, AND TENNESSEE MASTER TEACHER PROPOSAL APPENDIX A ID The State is to provide the local school district with $4,000 for each mentor teacher, who may constitute up to 5 percent of the teaching staff. MOUNT F STATE To implement the extended school day and the merit pay programs, the 1984-85 appropriation is $80,000,000. The State Board of Education is to adopt rules concerning administration, eligibility of awards, and award amount. Participating local school districts shall allocate at least $4,000 for each mentor teacher over and above the regular salary with the salary not being counted as salary or wages for retirement and other benefits. The mentor teacher may allocate all or a part of the stipend for professional growth or released time STIPEND FOR TEACHER . Each local school district has the responsibility to design its program. No limits are placed on the number of persons who may be designated as either associate master or master teachers, but the State funds are limited to the amount appropriated for the program. Of the number of teachers who meet the basic qualifications, the local school district may designate up to 5 percent as mentor teachers. Florida LIMITS ON NUMBER California The State would provide stipends for professional, senior, and master teachers in the amounts indicated above under "stipend for teacher." The estimated cost of implementing the program is $ll6,OOO,OOO. Each professional teacher would receive a $1,000 salary supplement, each senior teacher $2,000 if on a 10-month contract and $4,000 if on an 11-month contract, and each master teacher $3,000 if on a 13-month contract, $5,000 if on an 11-month contract, and $7,000 if on a 12-month contract. A 15 percent limit would be placed on the number of Statepaid master teacher positions and a 25 percent limit on the ber of State-paid senior teacher positions. (No limit would be placed on the number of professional teachers who could receive a supplement.) Tennessee The primary function of the men- No change in current duties or additional specifc duties are tor teacher shall be to provide mentioned in the law. assistance and guidance to new teachers and then to more experienced teachers. Mentor teachers may also provide staff development for teachers and develop special curricular materials. Each mentor teacher shall spend on the average, not less than 60 percent of time in the direct instruction of pupils. DUTIES (No comparable provision) Funds shall be provided to participating school districts in amounts sufficient to reimburse the costs of participating in the program, Including the costs of substitute teachers for the mentor teacher and costs of administering the program. Florida Administrative Costs California No special duties are listed for professional teachers. For the senior teacher, duties would include development of curriculum materials, team leadership, and supervision and counseling of less experienced teachers. Senior teachers are to be out of the classroom no more than five days per year. Exact duties would be defined at the district level for the master teacher, but they will "ordinarily" include responsibility for inservice education; training, evaluation, and counseling of apprentice teachers; curriculum leadership, organization and coordination of the work of other teachers; and system-wide supervisory and curriculum activity. Master teachers are to be out of the classroom no more than 10 days per year. (No comparable provision) Tennessee OLLECTIVE The s u b j e c t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n 4RGAINING t h e mentor t e a c h e r program i s n o t t o b e i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e scope of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g between s c h o o l employers and employee organizations. iTATUS (No comparable p r o v i s i o n ) The m a s t e r t e a c h e r i s r e q u i r e d t o have s e v e n y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g experi e n c e , a t l e a s t f i v e o f which must have been i n F l o r i d a . The a s s o c i a t e m a s t e r t e a c h e r i s r e q u i r e d t o have f o u r y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , a t l e a s t two of which must have been i n F l o r i d a . (No comparable p r o v i s i o n ) CHANGE IN The term o f d e s i g n a t i o n a s e i t h e r a n a s s o c i a t e master t e a c h e r o r master t e a c h e r i s f o r a p e r i o d of t h r e e y e a r s , c o n t i n g e n t upon s a t i s f a c t o r y performance of a s s i g n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and may be renewed f o r e i t h e r c a t e g o r y upon s a t i s f a c t o r y d e m o n s t r a t i o n of meeting t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a . The d e s i g n a t i o n as a mentor i s f o r a term o f t h r e e y e a r s , and t h e p e r s o n c a n have t h e s t a t u s reviewed and be renominated. TERM OF DESIGNATION (No comparable p r o v i s i o n ) The s t a t u t e p r o v i d e s t h a t mentor teachers a r e not t o participate i n the evaluation of other . teachers. Florida EVALUATION OF OTHER TEACHERS California (No comparable p r o v i s i o n ) The a p p r e n t i c e t e a c h e r i s t o s e r v e i n t h a t s t a t u s f o r a minimum o f t h r e e and a maximum o f f i v e y e a r s . The p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r may have t h e c e r t i f i c a t e renewed, and s e e k s e n i o r t e a c h e r s t a t u s a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s . The s e n i o r t e a c h e r must have a t l e a s t f i v e y e a r s as a s e n i o r teacher before seeking s t a t u s a s a master teacher. S t a t e c e r t i f i c a t i o n a t each f o r t h e f o u r l e v e l s of teachers i s f o r a period of f i v e y e a r s , and t h e c e r t i f i c a t e s may be renewed f o r a l l b u t t h e apprentice teacher. The m a s t e r t e a c h e r i s t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n of apprentice teachers. Tennessee SALARY INCENTIVES (No comparable provision) California Tennessee To'be eligible for these payments, teachers must have one year's teaching experience, be a full-time employee, hold a regular certificate, in the field of assignment, have a satisfactory performance assessment, and have completed ten semester hours of postgraduate work or its equivalent. (No comparable provision) Local school districts are authorized to provide salary incentives for one or more of the following categories-outstanding attendance by the teacher, employment in a critical shortage subject area, employment in a critical school site shortage area, superior evaluation results, higher than predicted student achievement gain, or other State policy objectives as determined by the legislature. Florida APPENDIX B ORGANIZATIONAL POSITIONS The major n a t i o n a l educational o r g a n i z a t i o n s have a v a r i e t y of p o s i t i o n s on the m e r i t pay i s s u e . The following information was secured e i t h e r through telephone i n t e r v i e w s with spokespersons f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o r from o f f i c i a l policy statements of t h e organizations. A l i s t i n g of selected organizations accompanied by a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s on m e r i t pay ( a s of J u l y 1983) f o l lows . American Association of School A d m i n i s t r a t o r s (AAsA). The AASA o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n i s i n support o f m e r i t pay f o r t e a c h e r s . This p o s i t i o n i s q u a l i f i e d , though, on t h e b a s i s o f a s e t of c o n d i t i o n s t h a t i n c l u d e t h e following: (1) p r i o r t o implementation o f a m e r i t system, a l l t e a c h e r s t s a l a r i e s i n t h e school' d i s t r i c t should be r a i s e d t o " c o m p e t i t i v e l e v e l s 1 ' ; ( 2 ) t h e r e should be agreement between t e a c h e r s , t h e community, and school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r e g a r d i n g t h e development and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e m e r i t system; and ( 3 ) school d i s t r i c t s f i r s t should c o n s i d e r "inc.entive pay" r a t h e r than "master teacher" programs. The AASA p o s i t i o n i s t h a t , once a t e a c h e r i s made a "master t e a c h e r , " he o r she no longer w i l l have t h e i n c e n t i v e t o c o n t i n u e t o perform a t t h e maximum l e v e l . The AASA spokesperson i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e A s s o c i a t i o n s u p p o r t s programs t h a t provide t e a c h e r s w i t h annual f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s . / The AASA, i n making t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , i s not using t h e terms " i n c e n t i v e pay" and "master teacher" i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s e n s e . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s not based on the t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s between t h e s e two programs, and t h i s n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l ' use o f terms could u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t i n some confus i o n a s i n d i v i d u a l s attempt t o understand t h e AASA p o s i t i o n . American F e d e r a t i o n of Teachers (AFT). The AFT i s p r e s e n t l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e adoption o f a p o l i c y concerning t h e master t e a c h e r c o n c e p t . In e a r l y J u l y 1983, t h e AFT reviewed t h e master teacher plan proposed by t h e Governor of Tennessee. This plan i s focused on a t t r a c t i n g and r e t a i n i n g good t e a c h e r s by providing t h e t e a c h e r s with f i n a n c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n c e n t i v e s . Designed a s a four-step c e r t i f i c a t i o n program, t h e plan g i v e s t e a c h e r s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r increased amounts o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and g r e a t e r job d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . One of t h e AFT'S major o b j e c t i o n t o the Tennessee plan i s t h e requirement t h a t teache r s must r e q u a l i f y f o r a teaching l i c e n s e e v e r y f i v e y e a r s . The AFT b e l i e v e s t h i s time requirement w i l l keep p o t e n t i a l l y good t e a c h e r s out o f t h e t e a c h i n g profession. Council of Chief S t a t e School O f f i c e r s (CCSSO). The CCSSO does n o t have an o f f i c i a l ~ o s i t i o nr e g a r d i n g m e r i t pay. Furthermore, t h e CCSSO b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s n o t t h e r o l e o f t h e F e d e r a l Government t o e s t a b l i s h a p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, a spokesperson f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e CCSSO would n o t oppose t h e o f f e r o f F e d e r a l d o l l a r s f o r use i n t h e l o c a l implementation o f such programs. It would a l s o b e w i l l i n g , i f encouraged by t h e membership, t o r e v i e w t h e v a r i o u s m e r i t pay o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to the States. N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Elementary School P r i n c i p a l s (NAESP). The NAESP p l a t f o r m s t a t e m e n t o n m e r i t pay s t a t e s t h a t "systems o f m e r i t pay do n o t work because o f t h e many i n e q u i t i e s and d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n e s t a b l i s h i n g , implementing, and m a i n t a i n i n g meaningful m e a s u r a b l e c r i t e r i a . " The NAESP b e l i e v e s t h a t m e r i t pay p l a n s a r e " o f t e n d i v i s i v e and c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e " and t h a t , i f t h e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e i s t o improve t e a c h e r performance, t h e n school systems should e x p l o r e " b e t t e r methods o f s e l e c t i v e r e c r u i t m e n t , probationary period(s) and a r e a s o n a b l e s a l a r y s c a l e and r e t i r e m e n t system." ... ... ... N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Secondary School P r i n c i p a l s (NASSP). The NASSP p o s i t i o n i s t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f " m e r i t pay" i s worthy o f f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . The NASSP i s connnitted t o examining and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e developnent o f d i f f e r e n t m e r i t pay systems. N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S t a t e Boards o f Education (NAsBE). The NASBE does n o t have an o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g m e r i t pay. Like t h e CCSSO, t h e spokesperson i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s d e c i s i o n should be made a t t h e S t a t e l e v e l . N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n (NEA). The NEA's p o s i t i o n i s t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s "open to" f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g m e r i t pay/master t e a c h e r p r o p o s a l s . I n The October 11, 1983, NEA news r e l e a s e , t h e NEA p r e s i d e n t Mary Hatwood F u t r e l l s t a t e d t h a t i t i s a "mistaken i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e NEA opposes What t h e NEA h a s o p m e r i t pay o r m a s t e r t e a c h e r p l a n s a c r o s s t h e board posed f o r many y e a r s a r e m e r i t pay o r m a s t e r t e a c h e r o r any o t h e r s o - c a l l e d upgrading p l a n s based on f a v o r i t i s m , t h e s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s o r abitrary standards .... ." N a t i o n a l School Boards A s s o c i a t i o n (NsBA). A t i t s 1983 annual c o n v e n t i o n , t h e NSBA adopted a r e s o l u t i o n encouraging l o c a l s c h o o l b o a r d s t o r e v i e w t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a t e a c h i n g s a l a r y system which i s " c o m p e t i t i v e , market s e n s i t i v e and The r e s o l u t i o n a l s o i n c l u d e s a p r o v i s i o n encouraging t h e performance based." r e v i e w o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s upon which such a system would be b a s e d .