The Availability of Nonfuel Minerals on Federal Lands: Background on the Issue

The following report reviews the laws and practices that govern the extraction of non-fuel minerals from federal lands, and the restrict ions against such extract ions. Moreover, the federal land management agencies that regulate such activities are identified, and their responsibilities discussed.

Report No. 82-18 S THE AVAILABILITY OF NONmreL MINERALS ON FEDERAL LANDS; Background on the Ieeue by Jane Powers Office of Senior Specialists January 18, 1982 T h e Congressional Research Service works exclusivelv for the Congress, conducting research, analyzing legslation, and p r o ~ i d i n ginformation at the request of committees, Mernhers. and their staffs. T h e Service makes such research available, without partisan bias, in many forms including studies, reports, compilations, digests, and background briefings. Cpon request, CRS assists committees in analyzing legislati~eproposals and issues, and in assessing the possible effects of these proposals and their alternatikes. T h e Service's senior specialists and subject anal) sts are also a\ ailable for personal consultations in their respecti\e fields of expertise. ABSTRACT The following report reviews the laws and p r a c t i c e s t h a t govern the extract ion of non-fuel minerals from federal lands, and the r e s t r i c t ions against such extract i o n s . Moreover, the federal land management agencies that regulate such a c t i v i t e s are i d e n t i f i e d , and t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s discussed. CRS- V CONTENTS ABSTRACT ...........,..,,,..,..,...~.....~~.,......,~........,.~.............i~i INTRODUCTION ............................................................... 1 ... 2 THE IMPORTANCE OF FEDERAL LANDS FOR MINERAL SUPPLY--MINING AS A LAND USE ........................................... 3 RESTRICTIONS TO MINERAL ACTIVITIES ON FEDERAL LANDS ........................ 6 Wilderness Designations ............................................... 11 BLM Wilderness ........................................................ 15 LAWS GOVERNING MINERAL DEVELOPMENT ON FEDERAL LANDS ........................ 16 FEDERAL LAND MANAGEMENT AGENCIES The The The The The General Mining Law of 1872 Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands of 1947 Surface Resources Act (Common Varieties) of 1955 President's Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1946 .................... 18 A SPECIAL CASE--ALASKA LAND DISPOSAL AND CLASSIFICATION The Alaska Statehood Act of 1958 The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971; d-1, d-2 withdrawals The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 ......................... 2 1 LAWS AFFECTING MINERAL ACTIVITIES ON FEDERAL LANDS The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 The American Antiquities Act of 1906 The Mining in the Parks Act of 1976 The National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968 The Endangered Species Act of 1973 National Recreation Areas The Defense Withdrawal Act of 1958 (Engle Act) ............................................................... 26 ............................................................. 28 BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 - Table 4 - - ...............................4 Federal Land-Management Agencies Comparison of Federal Land Inventories..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Availability of Federal Onshore Land for Development of. Hardrock Minerals Wilderness Designations .............................................10 .......................................1 2 INTRODUCTION A m e r i c a ' s s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g and economic w e l f a r e a r e b a s e d , among o t h e r t h i n g s , upon t h e u t i l i z a t i o n of m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s . Although t h e U.S. b a s an a d e q u a t e s u p p l y of most m i n e r a l s , i t c u r r e n t l y i m p o r t s 50 p e r c e n t o r more of i t s consumption of 25 of t h e m a j o r m i n e r a l commodities. While t h i s r e l i a n c e does not n e c e s s a r i l y denote a v u l n e r a b i l i t y , concern over s e c u r e access t o f o r e i g n s o u r c e s of t h e s e m i n e r a l s i s h e i g h t e n e d by t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e U.S.S.R. and s e v e r a l s o u t h e r n A f r i c a n n a t i o n s a r e e i t h e r t h e main s u p p l i e r s o r p o s s e s s a l a r g e p o r t i o n of t h e known r e s e r v e b a s e o f some of t h e s e m i n e r a l s , e s p e c i a l l y c o b a l t , chromium, manganese, vanadium, and t h e platinum-group metals. T h e r e i s growing c o n c e r n among t h e American p u b l i c , t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y , and t h e F e d e r a l Government t h a t U.S. dependence on f o r e i g n m i n e r a l s o u r c e s c o u l d l e a d t o a s i t u a t i o n f o r m i n e r a l s s i m i l a r t o t h e o i l embargo of 1973-74. S e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e s h a v e been p r o p o s e d f o r r e d u c i n g t h i s d e p e n d e n c e , i n c l u d i n g development of d o m e s t i c m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s , b u i l d - u p o f t h e N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e S t o c k p i l e , development of s u b s t i t u t e s , and i n c r e a s e d r e c y c l i n g . Exploration and development of d o m e s t i c m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s i s viewed a s o n e of t h e n a t i o n ' s most v i a b l e o p t i o n s . Federally-owned l a n d s c o n t a i n t h e l a r g e s t p o t e n t i a l d o m e s t i c s o u r c e of m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s , w i t h more t h a n 770 m i l l i o n a c r e s of s u r f a c e and more t h a n 800 m i l l i o n a c r e s of s u b s u r f a c e m i n e r a l r i g h t s owned by t h e F e d e r a l Government. These l a n d s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d between p u b l i c domain ( l a n d s i n F e d e r a l o w n e r s h i p s i n c e o r i g i n a l a c q u i s i t i o n ) and a c q u i r e d l a n d s (which a r e o b t a i n e d from a S t a t e o r a p r i v a t e owner t h r o u g h p u r c h a s e , g i f t , o r condemnation f o r a p a r t i c u l a r F e d e r a l p u r p o s e , such a s n a t i o n a l f o r e s t l a n d s ) . I n i t i a l l y , government p c l i c i e s e n c o u r a g e d a c c e s s t o t h e v a s t F e d e r a l p u b l i c domain f o r s e t t l e m e n t and r e s o u r c e CRS- 2 d e v e l o p m e n t . However, an i n v e n t o r y by t h e O f f i c e of Technology Assessment (OTA) u s i n g 1975 d a t a , showed t h a t m i l l i o n s of a c r e s t o t a l l i n g 40 p e r c e n t of F e d e r a l l a n d s a r e formally c l o s e d o r h i g h l y r e s t r i c t e d t o mining f o r hardrock m i n e r a l s , mainly f o r m i l i t a r y , resource-conservation and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n p u r p o s e s . F e d e r a l l a n d managers a r e f a c e d w i t h t h e dilemma of how t o b a l a n c e d e c i s i o n s between t h e c o n f l i c t i n g need t o p r e s e r v e some nonmineral r e s o u r c e s ( s u c h a s t i m b e r , w a t e r s h e d , w i l d e r n e s s , and f i s h and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t ) and t h e need t o d e v e l o p t h e N a t i o n ' s m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s . Those i n t e r e s t e d i n a t t a i n i n g t h e maximum p u b l i c b e n e f i t from F e d e r a l l a n d s a r e f a c e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n s o f : --how much l a n d t o a l l o c a t e among c o n f l i c t i n g u s e s when m u l t i p l e - u s e management i s i m p o s s i b l e ; and --which l a n d s a r e t h e most v a l u a b l e f o r e a c h of t h e con£l i c t i n g u s e s . IMPORTANCE OF FEDERAL LANDS FOR MINERAL SUPPLY--MINING F e d e r a l l a n d s a r e t h e l a r g e s t p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e of U.S. supply. AS A LAND USE f u t u r e mineral P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r ' s Nonfuel M i n e r a l s P o l i c y Review e s t i m a t e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d of a l l m e t a l l i c and n o n m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s produced i n t h e U.S. i n 1977 came from former and p r e s e n t F e d e r a l l a n d s ; f o r c o p p e r and s i l v e r , c u r r e n t and p r e v i o u s F e d e r a l l a n d s p r o v i d e d 94 and 9 3 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y , of t h e t o t a l U.S. p r o d u c t i o n i n 1977. I n t h a t year, t h e value of n o n f u e l m i n e r a l s o t h e r t h a n sand and g r a v e l produced from p u b l i c l a n d s was 30 p e r c e n t of t h e t o t a l v a l u e o f d o m e s t i c m i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n , o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y $4 billion. The G e n e r a l A c c o u n t i n g O f f i c e (GAO) h a s s t a t e d t h a t " e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e b e s t f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e on r e l a t i v e amounts of l a n d a r e a a l l o c a t e d t o t h e v a r i o u s CRS- 3 11 uses reveals that mining is among the less extensive land uses nationally." The total amount and location of all Federal lands currently used for mineral exploration and development is not precisely known. However, in 1974, the Bureau of Mines estimated that mining involved less than one percent of the total U.S. land base. 1 FEDERAL LAND MANAGEMENT AGENCIES Of the 2.3 billion acres making up the surface area of the U.S., approx:mately 770 million acres, or one-third, are owned by the Federal Government, vith about 680 million acres of public domain and 60 million acres of acquired lands. Almost one-half of the Federally-owned lands are located in Alaska, while most of the remainder are in the coterminous 11 western States of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. About 516 million acres of Federal land are under the jurisdiction of the Department of the Interior (~01). The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has responsibility for about 400 million of these acres, or about 52 percent of - total Federal land; 31 approximately half of this area is in Alaska. BLM is responsible for maintaining public land records and records of mining claims, and is responsible for the leasing or sale of all Federal lands. PIN has recently created a new energy and minerals program with two priorities: 1/ GAO, Minerals management at the Department of the Interior needs coordiTation and organization. EMD-81-53. June 5, 1981, p. 9. 21 U.S. Bureau of Mines, Land utilization and reclamation in the mining industry, 1930-1971. IC 8642. 1974, p. 10. 31 Federal lands administered by BLM, both public domain and acquired, except Outer Continental Shelf and Indian, Aleut, and Eskimo lands, are defined as "public lands'' by the 1976 Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA). 1 ) s t r e a m l i n i n g e x i s t i n g l e a s i n g programs, and 2 ) s t r e s s i n g t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f F e d e r a l p u b l i c l a n d s f o r e x p l o r a t i o n and development a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e f i e l d of s t r a t e g i c and c r i t i c a l m i n e r a l s and o i l and gas resources. The main F e d e r a l land-management Table 1 AGENCY a g e n c i e s a r e shown below: 41 ACREAGE ( i n m i l l i o n s ) Department of t h e I n t e r i o r Bureau o f Land Management National Park Service F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e Bureau of R e c l a m a t i o n Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Forest Service 188 30 Department of Defense Department of Energy 1.6 Tennessee V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y Other Although D O 1 c o n t r o l s most of t h e p u b l i c domain, t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e c o n t r o l s t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e of t o t a l a c q u i r e d l a n d s . ment d i f f e r on p u b l i c domain and a c q u i r e d l a n d s . M i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and developM i n e r a l s on p u b l i c domain a r e d i s p o s e d o f by a c l a i m l p a t e n t s y s t e m , l e a s e , o r s a l e . minerals are "locatable" Generally, hardrock ( a c q u i r e d by c l a i m s and p a t e n t s ) , w h i l e f u e l and s p e c i f i e d n o n f u e l m i n e r a l compounds a r e " l e a s a b l e " . On most F e d e r a l l a n d s , c e r t a i n "common v a r i e t i e s " of s a n d , s t o n e , g r a v e l , and o t h e r s a r e " s a l e a b l e " . A l l m i n e r a l s on a c q u i r e d l a n d s a r e l e a s a b l e . 4/ - BLM, P u b l i c Land S t a t i s t i c s , 1979. CRS- 5 The Secretary of the Interior retains final decision-making responsibilities for administering the mining and mineral leasing laws on all Federally-owned land, although most of this responsibility has been delegated to the Director of BLM, who has further delegated many technical functions to the surface-. management agencies such as the Park Service. This situation has created problems of coordination both within DO1 and between it and the other surfacemanagement agencies. GAO recently reported that "many of these agencies' mineral responsibilities have been created ad hoc, are entirely decentralized, and are not directed by a structured, standardized national management policy for Federal mineral resources." A/ Land management tools include land-use planning and regulations to protect surface (nomineral) resources during exploration, mining, and reclamation activities. Both the Forest Service and BLM have promulgated surface-protection regulations. The Forest Service's regulations, effective September 1974, apply to locatable minerals on National Forest System public domain land that is open to operation under the mining laws (approximately 140 million acres); they also apply to mineral-related activities in wilderness and primitive areas. The regulations have no effect on minerals that are subject to the mineral leasing laws or "common variety" minerals. The Secretary of the - Interior is required by the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 19/6 (FLPMA) to prevent, by regulation or otherwise, unnecessary and undue degradation to the public land from mining operations. These regulations, effective November 1980, affect exploration and development of minerals that are subject to disposition under the mining laws. 51 GAO, Minerals management at the Department of the Interior needs coordTnation and organization. EMD-81-53. June 5, 1981, p. 5. CRS- 6 Both the Forest Service and BLM have been directed by law to manage their lands under the multiple-use/sustained-yield principle in a manner that will achieve a balance between uses, conservation, and environmental protection. A comprehensive system of land and resource management planning was established for National Forest lands by the National Forest Management Act of 1976. In that same year, FLPMA authorized the Secretary of the Interior to develop, maintain, and revise land-use plans for public lands. Both agencies place the major responsibility for management and planning at the local level. A resource inventory is made by each agency to estimate land use capabilities; these are then combined with an assessment of the demands for various resources in the area to produce a land-use plan. Eventually, a full environmental impact statement, complete with examination of alternatives, must be prepared by the appropriate agency under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. RESTRICTIONS TO MINERAL ACTIVITIES ON FEDERAL LANDS The mining and leasing laws do not operate unilaterally on Federal lands because these lands contain both important mineral and nonmineral resources, and surface-management policies also exist to preserve, protect, or enhance those nonmineral resources, such as forage, scenic beauty, and recreation areas. A 1 so, reservations of land for resource conservation (such as the petroleum and o il shale reserves), military use, Indian and Alaska Native c laims, and State claims have formally closed much Federal land to mining and leasing activities. Historically, mineral uses seem to have been preferred over nonmineral uses of Federal land, and mineral rights, once acquired, have tended to have priority over nonmineral resource values. Because the mining laws inherently lack mechanisms to ensure balancing of mineral and nonmineral resource values, CRS- 7 increasing amounts of Federal land have been withdrawn from operation of the mining laws, to protect nonmineral resource values, thus precluding most miners, activities (even exploration) on these lands. Because mineral leasing is discretionary, substantially fewer acres have been formally withdrawn from operation of the mineral leasing laws. Technically, land is segregated (i.e. temporarily set aside during the administrative process) or closed to operation of the mining and mineral leasing laws in three ways: 1) classification, which designates land for retention or disposit~on under a particular statute, and may limit disposition under other statutes; 2 ) withdrawal, which renders particular public land laws inapplicable to a parcel of land, and reserves the land for specified useis); or 3 ) agency regulations, policies, and practices that bar or severely restrict mineral exploration and development ("de facto" withdrawals). -- Public domain closures or restrictions can be either de jure (by law), or they may be de facto (through exercised power, administrative policy or action, or even inaction). Exploration for and development of leasable minerals can be restricted through the discretionary power of the Secretary of the Interior to deny leasing or establish strict leasing terms. Further, on acquired land, the Interior Secretary must obtain the consent of the land management-agency prior to issuing a mineral lease. Mining exploration and locations, in turn, are a statutory (nondiscretionary) right on public domain (but not acquired) land that is not formally withdrawn or segregated from mining. Some restriction can be effected, however, through regulation of mining activities to protect surface resources, i.e. r e s t r i c t i n g s u r f a c e a c c e s s t o a mining s i t e , c o n t r o l l i n g a c c e s s o v e r a d j o i n i n g l a n d s , o r through d e l a y s o r r e f u s a l s t o g r a n t permits for mining-related facilities. The e s t i m a t e s of t h e t o t a l l a n d t h a t i s c l o s e d t o m i n e r a l a c t i v i t i e s depend upon which l a n d s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n v e n t o r y and what c a t e g o r i e s of r e s t r i c t i o n a r e used. T w F e d e r a l l a n d i n v e n t o r i e s , p r e p a r e d by DO1 ( 1 9 7 4 ) and OTA ( 1 9 7 5 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y , show t h a t between 5 0 and 60 p e r c e n t of F e d e r a l l a n d i n t h e " f o r m a l l y c l o s e d " c a t e g o r y i s withdrawn from h a r d r o c k mining f o r u s e s o t h e r than environmental p r o t e c t i o n ( i . e . , resource conservation uses). for military or Although t h e t o t a l p e r c e n t a g e s a r e s i m i l a r , d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r i n t h e " h i g h l y r e s t r i c t e d " c a t e g o r y (16.2% v s . 6.5%) and t h e " m o d e r a t e l y r e s t r i c t e d " c a t e g o r y (10.4% v s . 19.6%) b e c a u s e a s s i g n m e n t of l a n d s t o t h e s e two c a t e g o r i e s i s o f t e n a m a t t e r o f judgment. (See Table 2 ) I t may b e , however, t h a t some of t h e s e f i g u r e s a r e m i s l e a d i n g . They, l i k e o t h e r r e l a t e d s t u d y f i g u r e s t o d a t e , s t e m from g r o s s r a t h e r t h a n n e t w i t h d r a w a l and r e s t r i c t i o n a c r e a g e f i g u r e s . O v e r l a p p i n g w i t h d r a w a l s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e a common o c c u r r e n c e , o f t e n r e s u l t i n g i n d o u b l e and t r i p l e c o u n t i n g . 61 A n o t h e r OTA r e p o r t ( 1 9 7 9 ) i n v e n t o r i e d F e d e r a l l a n d s u n d e r t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ( s e e Table 3 ) : 1) formally closed t o mineral a c t i v i t y , 2) highly r e s t r i c t e d , o r 3 ) s u b j e c t t o m o d e r a t e o r s l i g h t r e s t r i c t i o n . The " f o r m a l l y c l o s e d " c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s l a n d t h a t i s e x p l i c i t l y c l o s e d t o m i n e r a l a c t i v i t i e s by s t a t u t e ( a l m o s t a l l n a t i o n a l p a r k s ) , o r by p u b l i s h e d S e c r e t a r i a l l a n d o r d e r ( o i l s h a l e l a n d ) . 61 - BLM, p e r s o n a l comment, S e p t . 1981. CRS- 9 T a b l e 2. Comparison of Federal Land Inventories Prepared by the ~ e ~ d r t r n e nof t the Interior and Office of Technology Assessment ' (percent of iota1 applicable Federal Lands) ' Closed . 001 OTA Mining Law Non-ANSCA ANSCA Totd Highly Restrided DO1 OTA Moderaiety Restricted Slight or N o Resiriciion DO1 OTA DO1 OTA 10.4 30.0 1.8 31.8 32.6 1.4 34.0 32.1 36.6 1.2 37.8 14.7 27.2 41.9 13.1 26.8 39.9 23 13.9 16.2 5.3 12 6.5 - 10.4 12.8 6.8 19.6 8.2 30.4 38.6 10.9 27.4 38.3 15.8 6.9 22.7 9.3 1O . 10.3 5.0 1.6 6.6 12.7 IO . 13.7 Mineral Leasing Laws Non-ANSCA ANSCA Total - A 32.1 ' ' Miniaq and Min.als Policy: Annual Report of tho Suretarv of the Interior U n d w the Mingnq a d M i ~ r a l sP o l i q A c t of 1970, 1976. Sumrentendent of Dorurnents, U.S. Govarmno9t Printirg Office, Washinqton, D C., p. 8 5 4 6 Mineral A c c e ~ s i b i l i *on ~ F d e r a l Lands: Interim Report. OHica of Technologv Assmwmmt. United States b n g r e s i , March, 1916. pp. 3-1 t o 3-5, Data for Mipino Law b a l d on Octebmr. 1976, r r i s i o n . Source: U.S. Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r , F i n a l r e p o r t o f t h e T a s k F o r c e on the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f F e d e r a l l y owned m i n e r a l la,,ds, 1977, p . 50. CRS- 10 Table 3. Availability of Federal onshore land (both public domain and acquired) for development of hardrock minerals Status in 1975* (Millions of acres) Des~gnateduse Military . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indian fnonreservation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N a t ~ o n aparks, l etc. ....................... National recreation areas .................. Historic and archeologic.. ................. Fish and wildlife. ......................... Endanaeredsoecies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National forest w~lderness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National forest w~ldernessstudy . . . . . . . . . . . . N a t ~ o n aforest l roadless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ELM roadiess ............................. Wlid and scenic r~vers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . Stockra~s~n and g agricultural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water supply and control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Powersites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P ~ p e l ~ corridors. ne ........................ ERDA and TVA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petroleum snd 311shale reserves . . . . . . . . . . . . Geothermal. . . . . . . . . . . . . .: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface occupa?cy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statew~dewithd,awals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forest Serv~cegeneral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E L M general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... -~ u b t o t a l n o n - .~. .~. ~. .~. .4-Alaska Native selectlons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alaska Statc: selecttons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANCSA d-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANCSA d-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subtotal ANCSA.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total. ................................. Formally closed 22.9( 2.9% 0.9( 0.1%) Highly restricted - 17.5 ( 2.2% 1.4( 0.29'0) ? 30.0 ( 3.8%) ? 7.1 ( 0.9%) 0.2 ( 0.0%) ? 1.3 ( 0.296'~ ? 11.6( 1.596) 15.2 ( 1.936) 0.1 ( 0.0%) 0.9 I 0.1 '6) 2.0 ( 0.236) 0.1 ( 0.096) - 7.8 ( l.Ooh) 2.9 ( 3.0 ( 27.4( 1.1 ( 5.4 ( 0.4( 0.496) 0.496) 3.4%) 0.196) 0.796) O.OYc) - 0.6 ( 0.1 '1') 127.2(is.~~) 49.2 ( 6.2%) - 30.0 ( 3.7") 65.0( 8.1%) 144.2(18.046) 271.4 (33.9%) - 1.5 ( 0.296) 15.2a ( 1.946) - 0:5( 0 1%) - - 48.4 ( 6.1 '10) - - 48.4 ( 6.1 '10) Moderate or s l ~ g h t restrtction 0.4 ( 0.096) - - 42.5 ( 5.39:) 22.8 ( 2.9?b) - 41.9 ( 5.2%) - 2.4 ( 0.396) - 0.3 ( 0 0'6, - - 0.6 ( 0.1 "6) 104.6(13.1°i') -- 136.9(17.1?6) 352.4 '44 096) 30.8 ( 3.946) 55.5 ( 6.996) 41.4 ( 5.246) - 127.7 (16.0°b) 480.1 (60.0%) The Alaska seluatton was changed In late 1978 by rnalor new executive withdrawals tnal according l o rough eslmates provloeo to O T A by !he BLhl s Alaska Nalwe C l a m s Olllce resulted an a net Increase (over prlor ANCSA wlthorawals noled In lhls table) 01 approllrnately 13 m#lllOnacres (I6 O . I In the land formally closed to harorock mmeral a c t w l y See sectton 0 o l tnls appendla a9 Ooverlaps strlcler ANCSA wthdrawals and IS no1 tncludea In IotalS Source:- OT,A, Management of fuel and nonfuel minerals in Federal land, 1979, p. 337. CRS- 1 1 The " h i g h l y r e s t r i c t e d 1 ' c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s l a n d which, w h i l e f o r m a l l y open t o m i n e r a l a c t i v i t i e s , i s n e v e r t h e l e s s r e s t r i c t e d by s t a t u t o r y c o n d i t i o n s (power s i t e s ) , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n d i t i o n s (BLM's p r i m i t i v e and n a t u r a l a r e a s ) , o r b o t h ( w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s and c e r t a i n r e c l a m a t i o n p r o j e c t s ) ; s u c h r e s t r i c t i o n s c a u s e m i n e r a l a c t i v i t y t o be g r e a t l y d i s c o u r a g e d , a l t h o u g h i t sometimes o c c u r s . The "moderate t o s l i g h t r e s t r i c t i o n " c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s a l l o t h e r F e d e r a l o n s h o r e l a n d which i s g e n e r a l l y open t o m i n e r a l a c t i v i t i e s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e w i l l u s u a l l y b e some r e q u i r e m e n t t o m i t i g a t e t h e impact of m i n e r a l a c t i v i t i e s on t h e s u r f a c e r e s o u r c e s of t h e l a n d . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s e t h r e e i n v e n t o r i e s p o i n t up t h e need f o r t h e F e d e r a l G o v e t w e n t t o d e v e l o p a comprehensive and p e r i o d i c land-use i n v e n t o r y o f F e d e r a l l a n d t o e n s u r e t h a t informed governmental land-use d e c i s i o n s a r e made. Wilderness Designations A m a j o r withdrawal p o l i c y which a f f e c t s m i n e r a l s p o l i c y g o a l s i s t h e d e s i g - nation of Federal lands a s wilderness areas. The W i l d e r n e s s Act o f 1964 c r e a t e d t h e N a t i o n a l W i l d e r n e s s P r e s e r v a t i o n System, c o n s i s t i n g o f l a n d s i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s , f o r e s t s , w i l d l i f e r e f u g e s , and game r a n g e s . a c r e s a s t h e i n i t i a l components; a c r e s i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s system. Congress d e s i g n a t e d 9:l million p r e s e n t l y t h e r e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 m i l l i o n (See Table 4 ) The Act r e q u i r e s t h a t a l l a r e a s d e s i g n a t e d by Congress a s w i l d e r n e s s be a d m i n i s t e r e d s o a s t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r wilderness character, unless otherwise specified. T h i s d e s i g n a t i o n adds a n o t h e r dimension t o t h e p r o t e c t i o n t h a t a l r e a d y e x i s t s on t h e s e l a n d s . The Act r e q u i r e s t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i o r t o r e v i e w n a t i o n a l p a r k and w i l d l i f e r e f u g e u n i t s , and t h e S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e t o r e v i e w F o r e s t S e r v i c e l a n d s previously c l a s s i f i e d a s "primitive", f o r a d d i t i o n t o t h e w i l d e r n e s s system. CRS- 12 T a b l e 4. Wilderness Designations ( A s o f 12/31/80) N a t i o n a l W i l d e r n e s s P r e s e r v a t i o n System F o r e s t S e r v i c e , USDA Units Federal acres* Percentage 158 25,132,725 31.5 N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e , USDI 34 ( a ) 3 5 , 3 3 4 , 4 8 2 (b) 44.3 F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e , USDI 71 19,331,328 24.2 Bureau o f Land Management, USDI (4) (c) Grand T o t a l 26 3 -- 12,206 (d) 79,810,741 , 100.0 *Some a c r e a g e e s t i m a t e d p e n d i n g f i n a l map c o m p i l a t i o n . ( a ) Does n o t d o u b l e c o u n t I n d i a n P e a k s W i l d e r n e s s w i t h t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e . ( b ) I n c l u d e s NPS p o r t i o n ( 2 , 9 2 2 a c r e s ) o f I n d i a n P e a k s W i l d e r n e s s . (c) Does n o t d o u b l e c o u n t S a n t a L u c i a , Weminuche, M i l d Rogue W i l d e r n e s s e s w i t h t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e , a n d Oregon I s l a n d s W i l d e r n e s s w i t h t h e F i s h a n d Wildlife Service. ( d ) I n c l u d e s BLM p o r t i o n o f S a n t a ~ u c i a( 1 , 7 3 3 a c r e s ) , Weminuche ( 2 0 0 a c r e s ) , Wild W g u e ( 1 0 , 1 6 0 a c r e s ) a n d Oregon I s l a n d s ( 1 1 3 a c r e s ) W i l d e r n e s s e s . Source: R e c r e a t i o n Management S t a f f , F o r e s t S e r v i c e , USDA. CRS- 1 3 The Act p r o v i d e s t h a t t h e mining and m i n e r a l l e a s i n g laws s h a l l , t o t h e same e x t e n t a s a p p l i c a b l e p r i o r t o t h e e f f e c t i v e d a t e o f t h e a c t , e x t e n d t o t h o s e n a t i o n a l f o r e s t l a n d s d e s i g n a t e d by t h i s Act a s w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s u n t i l Dec. 31, 1983; b u t no new mining l o c a t i o n s may b e made n o r m i n e r a l prospecting permits o r leases issued a f t e r t h a t date. [Legislation introduced i n t h e 9 7 t h Congress would e x t e n d t h e Dec. 31, 1983 d e a d l i n e . ] Subsequent a c t s d e s i g n a t i n g a d d i t i o n a l w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s g e n e r a l l y c o n t a i n some s t a t e m e n t t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e s e a r e a s a r e s u b j e c t t o p r o v i s i o n s of t h e W i l d e r n e s s Act. A l s o , e f f e c t i v e on t h e d a t e of e n a c t m e n t , a l l p a t e n t s i s s u e d u n d e r t h e Mining Law of 1872 on t h e s e w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s s h a l l r e s e r v e s u r f a c e t i t l e t o t h e United - S t a t e s . 71 Both m i n e r a l development on any v a l i d c l a i m l o c a t e d p r i o r t o J a n . 1, 1984, and m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g p r o s p e c t i n g ) may p r o c e e d beyond 1983, a l t h o u g h e x e r c i s e of t h e s e e x i s t i n g r i g h t s may b e r e g u l a t e d by t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e t o p r e s e r v e t h e w i l d e r n e s s c h a r a c t e r s t i c s of t h e a r e a . of t h e I n t e r i o r i s a l s o a u t h o r i z e d t o d i r e c t t h e U.S. U.S. The S e c r e t a r y Bureau o f Mines and t h e G e o l o g i c a l Survey (USGS) t o d e v e l o p and c o n d u c t m i n e r a l s u r v e y s on such w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s s o a s t o d e t e r m i n e i f any m n e r a l v a l u e s a r e p r e s e n t . [However, t h e r e a r e q u e s t i o n s a s t o whether USGS c a n do a n e f f e c t i v e j o b on s u c h l a r g e a c r e a g e s w i t h i t s p r e s e n t s t a f f , and whether t h e s e i n v e n t o r i e s a r e d e t a i l e d enough t o be u s e f u l t o t h e mining i n d u s t r y . ] The Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e ' s F o r e s t S e r v i c e began a s t u d y i n 1972 o f a l l n a t i o n a l f o r e s t a r e a s ( i n c l u d i n g A l a s k a ) i n i t s R o a d l e s s Area Review and E v a l u a t i o n program (RARE I ) . I n 1979, a new, expanded r e v i e w , RARE 11, was concluded by a l l o c a t i n g 62 m i l l i o n a c r e s of r o a d l e s s and undeveloped F o r e s t 71 p . 347. OTA, Management of f u e l and n o n f u e l m i n e r a l s i n F e d e r a l l a n d s , 1979, CRS- 1 4 S e r v i c e System l a n d s t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . The a c r e a g e f i g u r e s were r e v i s e d i n F e b r u a r y 1981 : 1 ) Out of 15.4 m i l l i o n a c r e s recommended by t h e S e c r e t a r y o f I n t e r i o r f o r w i l d e r n e s s d e s i g n a t i o n , 8 . 5 were s o d e s i g n a t e d by C o n g r e s s and 6 . 9 were s t i l l t o be a c t e d on by C o n g r e s s ; 2 ) Held f o r f u r t h e r p l a n n i n g were 8 . 1 m i l l i o n a c r e s , p l u s 4.4 m i l l i o n a c r e s which were d e s i g n a t e d by C o n g r e s s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y ; 3 ) The r e m a i n i n g a c r e s were e i t h e r a l l o c a t e d t o m u l t i p l e u s e s o t h e r t h a n w i l d e r n e s s , o r h e l d f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y i f t h e r e was no r e l e a s e language i n the b i l l . 8/ - The Department of t h e I n t e r i o r was d i r e c t e d by t h e W i l d e r n e s s Act t o c o n d u c t a r e v i e w w i t h i n t e n y e a r s of a l l r o a d l e s s a r e a s of a t l e a s t 5 , 0 0 0 c o n t i g u o u s a c r e s w i t h i n t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k System o r t h e N a t i o n a l W i l d l i f e Refuge System, and a l l r o a d l e s s i s l a n d s w i t h i n t h e N a t i o n a l W i l d l i f e Refuge System. Neither t h e mining provisions nor the requirement f o r mineral surveys of t h e W i l d e r n e s s Act a p p l y t o w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s d e s i g n a t e d w i t h i n t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k System and t h e N a t i o n a l W i l d l i f e Refuge System; upon d e s i g n a t i o n by Congress w i t h i n t h e system, t h e s e a r e a s , u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d , a r e i m m e d i a t e l y c l o s e d t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of any new m i n e r a l development r i g h t s . 8/ - F o r e s t S e r v i c e , p e r s o n a l comment, S e p t . 1981. 91 OTA, Management of f u e l and n o n f u e l m i n e r a l s i n F e d e r a l l a n d , 1979, p . 34T. z/ CRS- 15 BLM Wilderness Section 603 of FLPMA authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to review within 15 years those roadless areas of 5,000 acres or more and roadiess islands of the public lands identified during the inventory (required in Sec. 201 of FLPMA) as having wilderness characteristics. Twenty-five million acres (not including Alaska) have been identified as wilderness study areas and BLM must analyze the resources to determine the suitability or nonsuitability of each such area or island for preservation as wilderness, and to make such recommendations to the President. Prior to any recommendation for wilderness designation, any such area or island must be surveyed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and USGS to determine its mineral values. During the review period, and until Congress has determined otherwise, existing mining and leasing shall continue in the same manner and degree as existed prior to approval of the act. Any claims made or permits or leases issued after passage of FLPMA are subject to restrictions made so as to prevent impairment of wilderness suitability. 101 - Once an area has been designated by Congress as wilderness, the provisions of the Wilderness Act shall apply with respect to admininstration and use of such designated areas, including mineral development. 101 - BLM, personal comment, Sept. 1981. CRS- 16 LAWS GOVERNING MINERAL DEVELOPMENT ON FEDERAL LANDS F o l l o w i n g t h e C a l i f o r n i a g o l d r u s h of t h e 1 8 4 0 ' s and 5 0 ' s , C o n g r e s s d e b a t e d F e d e r a l m i n e r a l l a n d p o l i c y , and i n 1866, a m i n i n g law was e n a c t e d d e c l a r i n g " t h e m i n e r a l l a n d s o f t h e p u b l i c domain. . . to be f r e e and open t o e x p l o r a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n " s u b j e c t t o government r e g u l a t i o n and t o t h e l o c a l customs o r r u l e s of t h e m i n i n g d i s t r i c t s . 111 - S u b s e q u e n t l y , s e v e r a l o t h e r m i n i n g l a w s were p a s s e d , and i n 1872 C o n g r e s s e n a c t e d t h e G e n e r a l Mining Law. These mining laws have governed e x p l o r a t i o n and m i n i n g of s u c h "hardrock" m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s a s g o l d , s i l v e r , i r o n , c o p p e r , l e a d and z i n c i n t h e p u b l i c domain. P r o s p e c t i n g f o r m i n e r a l s c o v e r e d by t h e m i n i n g l a w s i s a s t a t u t o r y r i g h t on any p u b l i c domain l a n d t h a t h a s n o t been withdrawn from o p e r a t i o n of t h e m i n i n g laws by c o n g r e s s i o n a l o r e x e c u t i v e a c t ion. Upon d i s c o v e r y of a " v a l u a b l e m i n e r a l d e p o s i t ' ' and p h y s i c a l " l o c a t i o n " ( s t a k i n g ) o f a m i n i n g c l a i m encompassing t h e d e p o s i t , a p r a s p e c t o r h a s a s t a t u t o r y r i g h t t o d e v e l o p , m i n e , and s e l l t h e m i n e r a l w i t h o u t o b t a i n i n g a p p r o v a l from, o r p a y i n g r o y a l t i e s o r f e e s t o , t h e F e d e r a l Government. Complete f e e t i t l e ( o w n e r s h i p ) t o t h e s u r f a c e and s u b s u r f a c e c a n b e o b t a i n e d by p a y i n g a f e e f o r a t i t l e document known a s a " p a t e n t " . (Under FLPMA, a l l p a t e n t s i s s u e d i n w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s a f t e r 1976 r e s e r v e d s u r f a c e t i t l e t o t h e U.S.) For p r o t e c t i o n d u r i n g p r o s p e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l sampling o r e x c a v a t i o n , p r o v i s i o n s were made t o p r o t e c t t h e l o c a t o r a g a i n s t o t h e r p r o s p e c t o r s ( b u t n o t a g a i n s t n o n m i n e r a l e n t r y o r t h e F e d e r a l Government) u n t i l a v a l i d d i s c o v e r y h a s b e e n made. 111 p. 81. 121 - 121 OTA, Management of f u e l and n o n f u e l m i n e r a l s i n F e d e r a l l a n d s , 1979, I b i d , p. 81-82. CRS- 17 The Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 regulates exploration, development and production of the so-called "leasable" minerals on the public domain--except for lands withdrawn or reserved for certain Federal uses or purposes. The Act removed all deposits of coal, oil, oil shale, gas, native asphalt, solid and semisolid bitumen, phosphate, sulfur (in specified states), sodium and potassium, and the public domain land containing such deposits, from operation of the mining law and made them subject to disposal only through discretionary prospecting permits and/or leases. and surface rights. The U.S., in such cases, retains title to the deposits The Act authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to issue prospecting permits for minerals on lands not known to contain these minerals. If a valuable deposit is discovered, the permittee is entitled to a preference right lease for development and production of the mineral. Land known to contain mineral deposits can be leased through competitive bidding. The Secretary is also authorized to establish rentals, royalties, and other conditions to ensure competition, diligent development, highest use of the land, and a fair return to the public for the use of its mineral resources. Minerals on acquired lands are governed by two Acts. 131 The Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands of 1947 makes the fossil fuel, fertilizer, and chemical minerals in acquired lands subject to permit and lease by the Secretary of the Interior under the provisions of the above-mentioned Mineral Leasing Act of 1920. However, permits and leases can be issued only with the consent of the surface-management agency, and must ensure adequate utilization of the land for the purposes for which it was acquired or is being administered. The President's Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1946 authorizes the Secretary of 131 - Ibid, p. 87. CRS- 18 t h e I n t e r i o r t o l e a s e , s u b j e c t t o c o n s e n t of t h e S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , t h e h a r d r o c k m i n e r a l s i n a c q u i r e d n a t i o n a l f o r e s t l a n d and g r a s s l a n d by 141 noncompetitive bidding. Under t h e terms of t h e M a t e r i a l s S a l e s Act o f 1947 and t h e S u r f a c e R e s o u r c e s Act o f 1955, (Common V a r i e t i e s A c t ) , c e r t a i n "common v a r i e t i e s ' ' of m i n e r a l s were removed from o p e r a t i o n of t h e mining law. These laws p r o v i d e f o r s a l e ( s u b s u r f a c e o n l y ) o f common v a r i e t i e s of s a n d , s t o n e , g r a v e l , pumice, p u m i c i t e , o r c i n d e r s , t o g e t h e r w i t h common v a r i e t i e s of c l a y and o t h e r m i n e r a l m a t e r i a l s by c o m p e t i t i v e b i d . A SPECIAL CASE--ALASKA LAND DISPOSAL AND CLASSIFICATION The F e d e r a l Government o r i g i n a l l y owned a l l of A l a s k a (365.5 m i l l i o n a c r e s ) , h a v i n g p u r c h a s e d i t from R u s s i a . By 1976, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90.6 m i l l i o n a c r e s of p u b l i c domain and 18,000 a c r e s of a c q u i r e d l a n d had been d e s i g n a t e d f o r Federal use; one m i l l i o n a c r e s had p a s s e d i n t o p r i v a t e ownership. The r e m a i n i n g 273 m i l l i o n a c r e s , a s w e l l a s some p o r t i o n s of t h e e x i s t i n g F e d e r a l r e s e r v e s , a r e t h e s u b j e c t of an e x t e n s i v e l a n d s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s u n d e r t h e 1953 A l a s k a S t a t e h o o d Act (P.L. 85-508) and t h e 1971 Alaska N a t i v e Claims S e t t l e m e n t Act (ANSCA) (P.L. 92-203). The A l a s k a S t a t e h o o d A c t , a s amended, p r o v i d e s f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 104.5 m i l l i o n a c r e s of u n r e s e r v e d F e d e r a l l a n d t o be g r a n t e d t o t h e S t a t e under v a r i o u s s e l e c t i o n s . The S t a t e h a s s o u g h t t o s e l e c t l a n d w i t h t h e h i g h e s t m i n e r a l and o t h e r r e s o u r c e p o t e n t i a l ( i t owns t h e Prudhoe Bay o i l f i e l d ) , and i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e S t a t e w i l l a l l o w development of i t s mineral resources. 151 141 - I b i d , p. 91-92, 151 - I b i d , p. 368-369. 94 CRS- 19 A t t h e end of 1975, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 m i l l i o n a c r e s were s e g r e g a t e d from a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r m i n e r a l a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t h e F e d e r a l m i n i n g laws a s a r e s u l t o f N a t i v e s e l e c t i o n s under ANCSA. Of t h e s e 8 0 m i l l i o n a c r e s , around 44 m i l l i o n w i l l e v e n t u a l l y p a s s i n t o N a t i v e o w n e r s h i p , and a l t h o u g h t h i s a c r e a g e w i l l no l o n g e r be a v a i l a b l e u n d e r F e d e r a l m i n e r a l l a w s , i t w i l l b e a v a i l a b l e f o r development o r d i s p o s a l a s t h e N a t i v e s s e e f i t . 161 The N a t i v e r e g i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s w i l l c o n t r o l t h e s u b s u r f a c e ( m i n e r a l ) r i g h t s t o 40 m i l l i o n a c r e s , with s u r f a c e r i g h t s t o only 16 m i l l i o n . Howver, some 3.5 m i l l i o n o f t h e s e a c r e s u n d e r l i e F e d e r a l s u r f a c e , and t h e r e f o r e may b e s u b j e c t t o c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s on m i n e r a l s by t h e F e d e r a l surface-management agency. The U.S. r e t a i n s t h e s u b s u r f a c e r i g h t s t o such l a n d s , b u t t h e r e g i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n i s a u t h o r i z e d t o s e l e c t in-1 i e u s u b s u r f a c e e s t a t e i n a n e q u a l a c r e a g e from o t h e r F e d e r a l l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r s e l e c t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n , i f possible. 171 S u b s e c t i o n 1 7 ( d ) ( l ) of ANCSA d i r e c t e d t h e S e c r e t a r y o f I n t e r i o r t o r e v i e w t h e p u b l i c l a n d s of A l a s k a f o r w i t h d r a w a l t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e l a n d s was p r o t e c t e d . I n 1972, S e c r e t a r y Morton w i t h d r e w a l q o s t a l l u n r e s e r v e d p u b l i c l a n d i n A l a s k a , b u t most of t h e s e "d-1" withdrawals simply backed u p o t h e r s e g r e g a t i o n s , such a s t h o s e stemming from t h e N a t i v e s e l e c t i o n . Thus, any a r e a s n o t s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n o t h e r s e l e c t i o n s remain withdrawn u n d e r d-1 a u t h o r i t y ; t h e s e l a n d s a r e withdrawn from m i n e r a l l e a s i n g b u t p e r m i t rnetalliferous location. Such w i t h d r a w a l s must be s p e c i f i c a l l y revoked by t h e S e c r e t a r y , and DO1 h a s announced p l a n s t o open 400,000 a c r e s t o mining and m i n e r a l l e a s i n g i n December 1981. 161 - I b i d , p. 365. 171 - I b i d , p. 365. CRS- 20 S u b s e c t i o n 1 7 ( d ) ( 2 ) o f ANCSA d i r e c t e d t h e S e c r e t a r y of I n t e r i o r t o w i t h d r a w a s much a s 80 m i l l i o n a c r e s of u n r e s e r v e d p u b l i c l a n d i n A l a s k a f o r i n c l u s i o n i n o n e of f o u r c o n s e r v a t i o n s y s t e m s : 1 ) N a t i o n a l P a r k s , 2 ) N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s , 3 ) N a t i o n a l W i l d l i f e R e f u g e s , o r 4 ) Wild and S c e n i c R i v e r s . The a c t r e q u i r e d t h e l a n d t o b e withdrawn from a l l forms of a p p r o p r i a t i o n u n d e r t h e p u b l i c l a n d l a w s , i n c l u d i n g t h e mining and m i n e r a l l e a s i n g laws. w i t h d r a w a l s remained i n e f f e c t u n t i l Dec. 8 , 1978. The d-2 However, i n l a t e 1978, b e c a u s e of C o n g r e s s i o n a l i n a c t i o n , S e c r e t a r y Andrus used t h e emergency w i t h d r a w a l a u t h o r i t y p r o v i d e d by FLPMA t o w i t h d r a w a p p r o x i m a t e l y 116 m i l l i o n acres for another three years. I n a d d i t i o n , P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r d e s i g n a t e d 56 m i l l i o n a c r e s a s permanent new n a t i o n a l monuments ( 5 2 . 5 m i l l i o n of which were a l r e a d y a f f e c t e d by t h e emergency w i t h d r a w a l ) . The e x e c u t i v e w i t h d r a w a l s c r e a t i n g A l a s k a n monuments and w i l d l i f e r e f u g e s were l a t e r revoked by p a s s a g e of t h e A l a s k a N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t Lands C o n s e r v a t i o n 96-487) on Dec. 2 , 1980, when t h e i s s u e of A l a s k a d-2 lands Act o f 1980 (P.L. was c l o s e d . T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d a t o t a l of 102 m i l l i o n a c r e s of new c o n s e r v a t i o n u n i t s i n c l u d i n g p a r k s , w i l d l i f e r e f u g e s , n a t i o n a l f o r e s t s , wild and s c e n i c r i v e r s , and BLM-managed recreation areas. In addition, wilderness p r o t e c t i o n was e x t e n d e d t o a b o u t 56 m i l l i o n a c r e s i n new and e x i s t i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n units. The l a w p e r m i t s development of a i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s i n s e l e c t e d a r e a s : 1 ) W i l d l i f e r e f u g e s a r e g e n e r a l l y c l o s e d t o l o c a t i o n b u t open t o l e a s i n g ; 2 ) N a t i o n a l f o r e s t s a r e open t o b o t h l o c a t i o n and l e a s i n g , w i t h c e r t a i n noted exceptions; 3 ) BLM-managed r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s a r e s u b j e c t t o land-use p l a n s and may b e open t o b o t h l o c a t i o n and l e a s i n g , and 4 ) Both n a t i o n a l p a r k s and w i l d and s c e n i c r i v e r s a r e c l o s e d t o m i n e r a l l o c a t i o n and l e a s i n g , s u b j e c t t o e x i s t i n g v a l i d r i g h t s . CRS- 2 1 A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e law d i r e c t s t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i o r t o a s s e s s t h e o i l , g a s , and o t h e r m i n e r a l p o t e n t i a l on a l l p u b l i c l a n d s ( d e f i n e d i n t h e a c t a s Federal land) i n t h e S t a t e . The l a w a l s o f i n a l i z e d S t a t e s e l e c t i o n s of 98 m i l l i o n a c r e s granted under t h e Alaska Statehood Act. 18/ LAWS AFFECTING MINERAL ACTIVITIES ON FEDERAL LANDS I n 1976, t h e F e d e r a l Land P o l i c y and Management Act (FLPMA)(P.L. 94-5791, a l s o known a s t h e BLM O r g a n i c A c t , e s t a b l i s h e d a b a s i c p o l i c y o f managing l a n d s i n F e d e r a l ownership f o r m u l t i p l e u s e and p r o v i d e d f o r s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g land-use p l a n n i n g and w i t h d r a w a l s . The a c t h a s many m i n e r a l imp1 i c a t i o n s : 1 ) I t a u t h o r i z e s t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r t o p r e p a r e and m a i n t a i n an i n v e n t o r y of a l l p u b l i c l a n d s and t h e i r r e s o u r c e s and o t h e r v a l u e s , g i v i n g p r i o r i t y t o a r e a s of c r i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n . 2) I t a u t h o r i z e s t h e S e c r e t a r y t o d e v e l o p , m a i n t a i n , and r e v i e w l a n d - u s e p l a n s which p r o v i d e by t r a c t s o r a r e a s f o r u s e of p u b l i c l a n d s . Once a l a n d - u s e p l a n i s approved f o r a n a r e a , i t i s open t o mining l o c a t i o n and l e a s i n g u n l e s s s p e c i f i c a l l y withdrawn from t h i s u s e by management d e c i s i o n s i s s u e d . by t h e S e c r e t a r y t o implement t h e l a n d u s e p l a n . I f t h i s withdrawal d e c i s i o n i s e f f e c t i v e f o r two o r more y e a r s , and i n v o l v e s a r e a s of 100,000 a c r e s o r more, Congress must be n o t i f i e d of t h e a c t i o n . 3 ) I t c a l l s f o r r e v i e w of any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p u b l i c l a n d s o r any l a n d u s e p l a n i n e f f e c t p r i o r t o FLPMA. Generally, these c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were a u t h o r i z e d by a c t s no l o n g e r i n e x i s t e n c e , and were made i n f o r m a l l y . The r e v i e w w i l l examine 1,227 BLM c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r 124.7 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f 181 - BLM, Alaska Program, p e r s o n a l comment, S e p t . 1981. CRS- 2 2 p u b l i c l a n d , of which a b o u t 1 . 5 m i l l i o n a c r e s a r e c l o s e d t o t h e m i n i n g and m i n e r a l l e a s i n g laws. 4) 191 The Act r e p e a l s numerous w i t h d r a w a l laws and t h e i m p l i e d E x e c u t i v e w i t h d r a w a l a u t h o r i t y , and s p e c i f i c a l l y a u t h o r i z e s t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i o r t o make, e x t e n d , o r r e v o k e w i t h d r a w a l s s u b j e c t t o l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e a c t and s p e l l s o u t t h e withdrawal a p p l i c a t i o n procedures. The S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i o r may n o t make, m o d i f y o r r e v o k e any w i t h d r a w a l s c r e a t e d by C o n g r e s s , o r m o d i f y o r r e v o k e any w i t h d r a w a l s c r e a t i n g n a t i o n a l monuments o r a d d i n g lands t o w i l d l i f e refuges. 5) The Act mandated a r e v i e w , by 1991, of e x i s t i n g w i t h d r a w a l s i n t h e 1 1 c o t e r m i n o u s w e s t e r n S t a t e s ( e x c l u d i n g A l a s k a ) of a l l Federally-owned lands, e x c e p t I n d i a n l a n d s , t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k System, t h e N a t i o n a l W i l d l i f e Refuge System, o t h e r l a n d s a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e FWS o r t h e S e c r e t a r y t h r o u g h t h e FWS, t h e N a t i o n a l Wild and S c e n i c R i v e r s System, t h e N a t i o n a l System of T r a i l s , and c e r t a i n l a n d s i n t h e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t System. review i t s wilderness land.] some 76.5 m i l l i o n g r o s s a c r e s , Approximately 6 , 3 0 0 w i t h d r a w a l s , encompassing 201 t h e s e a c r e s a r e c l o s e d t o mining. t h e withdrawals. [ I n a d d i t i o n , BLM d e c i d e d t o a r e included i n the review; about h a l f of The r e v i e w i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e need f o r S i n c e O c t o b e r 1, 1980, and d i r e c t l y a s a r e s u l t of t h i s r e v i e w program, o v e r 300 w i t h d r a w a l s have been revoked o r m o d i f i e d , a f f e c t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 m i l l i o n a c r e s . 191 - 21 BLM, p e r s o n a l comment, S e p t . 1981. 201 A g a i n , t h e s e a r e g r o s s a c r e a g e f i g u r e s , i . e . , d o u b l e o r t r i p l e Net e x i s t i n g w i t h c o u n t x g h a s o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e of o v e r l a p p i n g w i t h d r a w a l s . drawal f i g u r e s a r e u n a v a i l a b l e . 211 - BLM, p e r s o n a l comment, S e p t . 1981. CRS- 2 3 The American A n t i q u i t i e s Act of 1906 a u t h o r i z e s t h e P r e s i d e n t t o e s t a b l i s h p l a c e s of h i s t o r i c o r s c i e n t i f i c v a l u e a s n a t i o n a l monuments. T h i s Act a l s o p r o v i d e s p r o t e c t i o n t o h i s t o r i c and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s and o b j e c t s on o r adjacent t o Federal lands. N a t i o n a l p a r k s and monuments a r e g e n e r a l l y withdrawn from e n t r y under t h e m i n i n g law, e x c e p t f o r s i x u n i t s which were opened t o m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and r e c o v e r y by C o n g r e s s i o n a l a c t s ( c r a t e r Lake N a t i o n a l P a r k , M t . McKinley N a t i o n a l P a r k , Death V a l l e y N a t i o n a l Monument, Coronado N a t i o n a l Memorial, Organ P i p e C a c t u s N a t i o n a l Monument, and G l a c i e r Bay N a t i o n a l Monument.) P u b l i c Law 94-429, Mining i n t h e P a r k s A c t , approved September 28, 1976, p r o v i d e s f o r t h e r e g u l a t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g a f o u r - y e a r moratorium on m i n e r a l a c t i v i t y ) of e x i s t i n g m i n e r a l r i g h t s on p a t e n t e d o r u n p a t e n t e d mining c l a i m s w i t h i n t h e s e n a t i o n a l p a r k s and monuments, withdraws t h e s e l a n d s from any f u t u r e l o c a t i o n u n d e r t h e mining law, and e s t a b l i s h e s new r e c o r d a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m i n i n g claims. ( N a t i o n a l p a r k s and monuments have been e x c l u d e d from o p e r a t i o n of t h e M i n e r a l L e a s i n g Act of 1920 by s u b s e q u e n t amendments t o t h a t A c t . ) 221 S e v e r a l s t a t u t e s a u t h o r i z e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f N a t i o n a l W i l d l i f e Refuges. I n 1934, Congress gave t h e P r e s i d e n t g e n e r a l a u t h o r i t y t o e s t a b l i s h r e f u g e s w i t h i n n a t i o n a l f o r e s t s , and most r e f u g e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d by e x e c u t i v e a c t i o n . I n 1966, Congress e n a c t e d t h e N a t i o n a l W i l d l i f e Refuge System A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Act t o g i v e formal r e c o g n i t i o n t o t h e system under t h e U.S. F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e . The Act s t a t e s t h a t mining and m i n e r a l l e a s i n g laws s h a l l c o n t i n u e t o a p p l y t o l a n d s w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m , t o t h e same e x t e n t p r i o r t o d a t e of e n a c t m e n t , u n l e s s 221 OTA, Management of f u e l and n o n f u e l m i n e r a l s i n F e d e r a l l a n d , 1979. p. 3 3 F 3 4 0 . CRS- 24 withdrawn u n d e r o t h e r a u t h o r i t y ; however, few r e f u g e s were l e f t open t o t h e m i n i n g law upon t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t . Under F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e r e g u l a t i o n s , e s s e n t i a l l y no m i n e r a l development i s a l l o w e d , e x c e p t some o i l , g a s , and m i n e r a l leasing, subject to restrictions. 231 - The Wild and S c e n i c R i v e r s Act o f 1968 (P.L. 90-542) c r e a t e d a s y s t e m of w i l d , s c e n i c , and r e c r e a t i o n a l r i v e r s , a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e , F o r e s t S e r v i c e and t h e S t a t e s . A t p r e s e n t t h e r e a r e 61 r i v e r s w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m , 25 of which a r e i n A l a s k a ; 727,716 a c r e s . o n l y 29 r i v e r s have been s u r v e y e d , t o t a l l i n g Under t h e a c t , l a n d w i t h i n o n e - q u a r t e r m i l e of t h e bank o f any w i l d r i v e r segment i s withdrawn from l o c a t i o n and m i n e r a l l e a s i n g . Land w i t h i n o n e - q u a r t e r m i l e of t h e bank of any r i v e r d e s i g n a t e d by Congress f o r s t u d y f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e s y s t e m i s withdrawn from l o c a t i o n b u t n o t from m i n e r a l l e a s i n g , u n t i l d e s i g n a t e d by Congress o r d e t e r m i n e d t o b e u n s u i t a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e system. 241 The Endangered S p e c i e s Act o f 1973 may t e m p o r a r i l y o r permanently r e s t r i c t m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and development on F e d e r a l l a n d s . The Act a u t h o r i z e s t h e S e c r e t a r i e s of t h e I n t e r i o r and Commerce t o i d e n t i f y endangered o r t h r e a t e n e d s p e c i e s o f a l l a n i m a l s and p l a n t s , and d i r e c t s a l l F e d e r a l d e p a r t m e n t s and a g e n c i e s t o t a k e w h a t e v e r a c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i r programs do n o t j e o p a r d i z e t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e z c e of endangered o r t h r e a t e n e d s p e c i e s o r r e s u l t i n t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r c r i t i c a l h a b i t a t . The S e c r e t a r i e s o f t h e I n t e r i o r and Commerce have d e l e g a t e d a u t h o r i t y t o t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e and t h e N a t i o n a l Marine F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t o a d m i n i s t r a t e and implement t h e Act. The p o t e n t i a l impacts a r e t h a t t h i s 231 - I b i d , p. 343-344. 241 - N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e , p e r s o n a l comment, O c t . 1981. CRS- 2 5 Act may r e d u c e t h e t o t a l l a n d a r e a open t o m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t , o r t h a t any r e s t r i c t i o n s o r d e l a y s imposed by t h i s Act may c r e a t e u n c e r t a i n t i e s and s o i n c r e a s e t h e c o s t s of m i n e r a l l e a s i n g , e x p l o r a t i o n , and development. 251 N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n Areas (NRAs) have b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d by b o t h s t a t u t e and e x e c u t i v e a c t i o n a s u n i t s of t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k System and a l s o w i t h i n a r e a s o f t h e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t System. g e n e r a l l y d e c i d e d on a case-by-case Decisions t o permit mining a c t i v i t y a r e b a s i s a s t h e NRAs a r e c r e a t e d . The E x e c u t i v e branch h a s withdrawn l a n d t o e s t a b l i s h m i l i t a r y r e s e r v a t i o n s and b a s e s under v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s . Withdrawal A c t , t h e E n g l e A c t , (P.L. I n 1958, Congress p a s s e d t h e Defense 85-337) f o r t h e e x p r e s s p u r p o s e of m o d i f y i n g t h e a s s e r t e d n o n - s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y of t h e e x e c u t i v e t o make w i t h d r a w a l s f o r m i l i t a r y purposes. The Act r e q u i r e s t h a t a 1 1 proposed m i l i t a r y w i t h d r a w a l s of more t h a n 5,000 a c r e s be e s t a b l i s h e d o n l y t h r o u g h s p e c i f i c c o n g r e s s i o n a l a u t h o r i z a t i o n . A l l l a n d s withdrawn f o r t h e m i l i t a r y , e x c e p t n a v a l p e t r o l e u m , o i l s h a l e , o r c o a l r e s e r v e s , a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e mining and m i n e r a l l e a s i n g l a w s , u n l e s s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e m i l i t a r y u s e of t h e l a n d s s o withdrawn. The S e c r e t a r y o f Defense h a s g e n e r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d t h a t l a n d w i t h d r a y n f o r s t r i c t l y m i l i t a r y p u r p o s e s s h o u l d be c l o s e d t o m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and development f o r s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y p u r p o s e s , and i n p r a c t i c e , v e r y l i t t l e m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and development i s p e r m i t t e d . 261 251 U.S. Department of t h e I n t e r i o r , F i n a l r e p o r t of t h e Task F o r c e on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of F e d e r a l l y owned m i n e r a l l a n d s , Vol. I , 1977, p. 70. 2 6 1 OTA, Management of f u e l and n o n f u e l m i n e r a l s i n F e d e r a l l a n d s , 1979, p. 3 3 K CRS- 26 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bennethum, Gary and L. Courtland Lee. Is our account overdrawn? Mining Congress Journal, vol. 6, no. 9, Sept. 1975, pp. 33-49. Everett and Associates. Survey document: withdrawal of public lands from access to minerals and fuels. Washington, American Mining Congress: Public Lands Study Group, Sept. 1980. Various pages. Gates, Paul. W. History of public land law development. Press, 1979. 828 p. Maley, Terry S. Handbook of mineral law. revised 1979. 469 p. New York, Arno Boise, Idaho, MMRC Publications, U.S. Congress. Congressional Research Service. Land disposal policies of the principal Federal land management agencies. Rept. No. 81-156, 1981. 57 p. Prepared by Cynthia E. Huston. ---- Strategic and critical minerals: U.S. import reliance, stockpile strategy and feasibility of cartels. Rep. No. 80-171., 1980. 62 p. Prepared by James E. Mielke. U.S. Congress. General Accounting Office. Actions needed to increase Federal onshore oil and gas exploration and development. EMD-81-40. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., Feb. 11, 1981. 203 p. -----Minerals management at the Department of the Interior needs coordination and organization. EMD-81-53. Washington, U. S. Govt Print. 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CRS- 2 8 APPENDIX The F e d e r a l Land P o l i c y and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA) d e f i n e s multiple use as: t h e management of t h e p u b l i c l a n d s and t h e i r v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e v a l u e s s o t h a t t h e y a r e u t i l i z e d i n t h e c o m b i n a t i o n t h a t w i l l b e s t meet t h e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e needs of t h e American p e o p l e ; making t h e most j u d i c i o u s u s e of t h e l a n d f o r some o r a l l of t h e s e r e s o u r c e s o r r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s o v e r a r e a s l a r g e enough t o p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t l a t i t u d e f o r p e r i o d i c a d j u s t m e n t s i n u s e t o conform t o changing n e e d s and c o n d i t i o n s ; t h e u s e of some l a n d f o r l e s s t h a n a l l of t h e r e s o u r c e s ; a c o m b i n a t i o n of b a l a n c e d and d i v e r s e r e s o u r c e u s e s t h a t t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t h e long-term needs of f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s f o r r e n e w a b l e and nonrenewable r e s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g , b u t n o t l i m i t e d t o , r e c r e a t i o n , r a n g e , t i m b e r , m i n e r a l s , w a t e r s h e d , w i l d l i f e and f i s h , and n a t u r a l s c e n i c , s c i e n t i f i c and h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e s ; and harmonious and c o o r d i n a t e d management of t h e v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s w i t h o u t permanent i m p a i r m e n t of t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y of t h e l a n d and t h e q u a l i t y of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e i n g g i v e n t o t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e s of t h e r e s o u r c e s and n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t o t h e c o m b i n a t i o n of u s e s t h a t w i l l g i v e t h e g r e a t e s t economic r e t u r n o r t h e g r e a t e s t u n i t o u t p u t . " " A w i t h d r a w a l i s d e f i n e d by FLPMA a s : " w i t h h o l d i n g a n a r e a of F e d e r a l l a n d from s e t t l e m e n t , s a l e , l o c a t i o n , o r e n t r y , u n d e r some o r a l l of t h e g e n e r a l l a n d l a w s , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f l i m i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t h o s e laws i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n o t h e r public values i n the area o r reserving the area for a particular public program o r p u r p o s e . . ."