R e p o r t No. 81-5 GOV
A SELECTED ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
A n a l y s t i n American N a t i o n a l Government
Government D i v i s i o n
J u l y 1 4 , 1981
The Congressional Research Service works exclusively for
the Congress, conducting research, analyzing legislation, and
providing information at the request of committees, Members, and their staffs.
The Service makes such research available, without partisan bias, in many forms including studies, reports, compilations, digests, and background briefings. Upon request, CRS
assists committees in analyzing legislative proposals and
issues, and in assessing the possible effects of these proposals
and their alternatives. The Service's senior specialists and
subject analysts are also available for personal consultations
in their respective fields of expertise.
T h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y p r o v i d e s t h e r e a d e r a n overview of t h e growth, development,
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and d u t i e s of p e r s o n a l s t a f f s of S e n a t o r s a n d R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s
and t h e s t a f f s of c o n g r e s s i o n a l committees, a s s e e n and s t u d i e d by a c a d e m i c i a n s ,
j o u r n a l i s t s , former Members of t h e House and S e n a t e , a n d former s t a f f members.
S a r a h P l i t c h e l l and Daphne Lee of t h e Government D i v i s i o n a s s i s t e d i n t h e
p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y .
A SELECTED ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
The Appropriations Act of August 18, 1856, authorized the hiring of a
clerk for the Senate Committee on Finance, a clerk for the Senate Committee
on Printing a clerk for the House Committee of Claims, and a clerk for the
House Committee of Ways and Means. 1/
This Act is believed to have been the
first to authorize.the employment of staff for Congressional Committees.
It was not until 1885, however, that each Senator was authorized to hire
a clerk, when Congress was in session, at no more than $6 per day.
the House first authorized a clerk for its Members at a salary of $100 per
Even though the number of Members of Congress has remained substantially
the same since the turn of the century, the increase in population, legislative
work, and constituency service programs have lengthened their workday, limited
allocation of their time, and required greater levels of staff assistance.
Due to the facilities of modern transportation and communication, there
is more personal contact between a Member of Congress and his or her constituents
than ever before.
People come to Washington from the district or State to
11 Stat. 103
21 Guide to the Congress.
Quarterly, Inc., 1976. p. 463
Washington, D.C. Congressional
consult with the Member, or visit the District or State offices.
greater frequency, constituents also telephone, telegraph, and write.
is no possible way the Member can personally handle all of the visitors, phone
calls, telegrams and the mail.
Consequently, the congressimnal staff is an
important link between the congressional office and outside groups or
At the same time, the complexity of public policy issues has
enhanced the expert staffs of congressional committees and of the agencies
which assist the Congress.
This selected annotated bibliography on congressional staffing is intended
to acquaint the reader with major contemporary studies, articles, and books, as
well as with earlier works on the subject.
Earlier books and articles,
especially those written before the enactment of the Legislative Reorganization
Act of 1970, the Commmittee Reform Amendments of 1974, and the Senate Committee
System Reorganization Amendments of 1977, could not take into consideration the
effects that these measures have had on the staffing of committees in the Senate
and the House of Representatives; nor could they deal with other changes that
have increased the number and responsibilities of personal office staff.
Citations in this bibliography cover the growth, development,
responsibilities, and duties of personal staffs of Senators and Representatives
and the staffs of congressional committees as seen and studied by academicians,
journalists, former Members of the House and Senate, and former staff members.
No bibliography in a subject area as broad and diverse as congressional
staffing can be all inclusive. Most of the books listed and some other items
cited contain extensive bibliographies of their own.
For a l l books i n c l u d e d i n t h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y , L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s c a l l
numbers h a v e b e e n p r o v i d e d .
Congressional o f f i c e s seeking items i n t h i s
b i b l i o g r a p h y s h o u l d c a l l t h e C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e a t 287-5700.
A SELECTED ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
On Capitol Hill: studies in the
Bihby, John F . , and Roger H. Davidson.
legislative process. 2d ed. Hinsdale, Ill., Dsyden Press, 1972. 300 p.
This work examines Congress through a number of studies including
ones on campaigning, the job of the Member, the Member's office staff,
casework, constituency and press relations, the committee system,
committee staff, the Legislative Reorganization A c t n f I970 and
Power in the House.
New York, Dutton.
 291 p.
Congressman Bolling's book traces the historical development of the
House from its inception through the 90th Congress and argues that
congressional reform is both necessary and possible today. He mentions
the need for adequate staffing of committees, especially minority and
non-partisian staff positions.
This book was reprinted in 1974 by Capricorn Books.
Brownson, Charles B . , ed.
Congressional staff directory. Mount Vernon, Va.
Congressional Staff Directory, 1980, 1067 p.
This volume is prepared annually by Brownson, a former Member of
Congress (1951-591, and contains biographical information for
Representatives and Senators, committee assignments, selected personal
and committee staff, titles of staff members, room and telephone numbers,
and other information on Members of Congress and their staffs.
Co~litteefor Economic Development. Making Congress more effective.
New York, Research and Policy Committee of the Committee for Economic
Development, 1971. 7 5 p.
This pamphlet contains recommendations that Congress strengthen
its staff resources by recruitment of highly qualified spccialists, that
resources in certain cases be pooled where every committee would have
access to "the best technical and analytical service," and that Congress
provide for adequate minority staffing, as well an professional staff
training and development. (This publication is available from t h e Committee
for Economic Development, 1700 K St., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20006)
Congressional Yellow Book.
Buhler, Michaela and Dorothy Lee Jackson, eds.
Washington, Washington Monitor, 1981. 1 v. (loose leaf)
A loose leaf directory of Congress, its committees and its staff.
Completely updated four times every year. Also includes information on
Members of Congress, their personal staffs, an3 the nearly 300 congressional
committees and subcommittees and their staffs and jurisdictions.
In the Senate: amidst the cnnflict and the turmoil.
New York, Dodd, Mead, 1978. 239 p.
The author, a former Representative for eight years and a Senator
for twenty years, recalls the changes in the Congress during his tenure.
He discusses the function and growth of personal and committee Senatorial
staffs, some of the reasons for such growth, including the expansion of
Federal programs, casework, the increase of congressional mail, and the
introduction of more legislation.
Congress against itself.
Davidson, Roger H., and Walter J. Oleszek.
Bloomington, Indiana University Press, c1977. 306 p.
The authors, political scientists and former staff members on the
House Select Committee on Committees, examine the political and
institutional forces involved in the passage of 1974 House Committee
Reform Amendments. The role of committee staffs is also discussed.
Dodd, Lawrence C., and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, eds. Congress reconsidered.
New York, Praeger I19771 315 p. (Praeger university series); 2d ed.,
Washington, Congressional Quarterly Inc. .
Contents.--The changing Senate: from the 1950s to the
1970s, by N.J. Ornstein, R.L.Peabody, and D.W. Rohde.
The House in transition, by L.C. Dodd, and B.I. Oppenheimer.
Congressional dynamics and the decline of competitive
congressional elections, by A.D. Cover, and D. R. Nayhew.
The conservative coalition in Congress, by J.F. Manley.
The Rules Committee: New arm of leadership in a decentralized
House, by B.I. Oppenheimer. Committee reform and the revenue
process by C.E. Rudder. Congress in organizational perspective,
by J. Cooper. The new congressional budget process: the hows
and whys of House-Senate differences, by J. W. Ellwood, and
J.A. Thurber. Congress and the intelligence community, by
J.T. Elleff. Congressional oversight: structures and incentives,
by M.S. Ogul. Congress and the President: enemies or partners?,
by J.R. Sundquist. Will reform change Congress?, by C.O. Jones.
Strengthening a congressional strength, by R.F. Fenno, Jr.
Congress and the quest for power, by L.C. Dodd. The second edition
contains revisions of earlier articles, and new material on changes
in the Congress since 1977.
Fenno, Richard F.
Congressmen in committees. Boston, Little, Brown, c1973.
302 p. (The Study of Congress series)
Fenno examines committee differences, comparing six House
committees with their Senate counterparts. In making the comparisons,
he utilizes such performance variables as Member goals, environmental
constraints, strategic premises, and decisionmaking processes. He
also briefly discusses committee staffing in the congressional committee
Home style: House Members in their districts. Boston, Little,
Brown, c1978. 304 p.
The author accompanied eighteen House Members to their districts to
examine the components of Members' relationships to their constituency.
These data were gathered from the early to mid-1970s. He finds that the
Members' home styles differ according to Member personality, the Member's
explanation of his Washington activities, and the Member's allocation of
personal time and office resources to the District. Among the factors
appearing to influence the allocation of a Member's time and the amount
of staff assigned to the district are personal goals, family residence,
distance from Washington, established constituent expectations and the
desire of Members to be responsive to constituent concerns.
Fiorina, Morris P.
Congress; keystone of the Washington establishment.
New Haven, Yale University Press, 1977. 105 p. (A Yale fastback book;
Fiorina suggests that more Federal programs and regulations increase
citizen needs for help and special interest demands for support. Larger
congressional staffs and proliferating subcommittees enable Congressmen to
respond to both, and to benefit accordingly at the polls. According to
the author, larger and more professional congressional staffs in Washington
and in the District provide better constituency services, and assist the
Member in making effective public policy decisions through the economic,
technological and social science expertise of their staffs.
Congressional staffs: the
Fox, Harrison W., Jr., and Susan Webb Hammond.
invisible force in American lawmaking. New York, Free Press, c1977.
This book discusses the origins and growth of congressional staffs,
the personal attributes of staff members (education, training, previous
employment, etc.), recruitment and tenure, patterns of staff organization,
the variety of staff activities, communication channels and information
resources, the four congressional support agencies, other support
activities provided by informal and outside groups, and the ways in which
congressional staffs affect policy and the institution. A number of
appendices provide considerable survey data.
Galloway, George B.
Congress at the crossroads. New York, Crowell [I9461
Galloway discusses congressional, personal and committee staffing,
and the composition, function and operation of the Congress. Although
the book is dated, the appended tables [congressional staff as of June
1944 and the staff of Congress in the 79th Congress, 1st Session (1945)l
could be useful for comparative purposes.
Goodwin, George, Jr.
The little legislatures; committees of Congress
[Amherst] University of Massachusetts Press, 1970. 284 p.
In his examination of the congressional conmittee system, Goodwin
inclu+s an analysis of committee staffing. He looks at the function,
appointment, influence, partisanship, roles, size, and operating styles of
committee staff personnel.
Green, Mark J * , and others.
Who runs Congress? New York, Viking Press,
c1979. 3 4 3 p.
This book was a product of Ralph Nader's Congress Project. The
authors discuss the internal organization and operation of the Congress
and its relevant problems. They also discuss the work of the Members,
the demands upon their time, constituent services, legislation and
voting, and how their staff personnel function in these areas.
Congress: its contemporary role.
Griffith, Ernest S., and Francis R. Valeo.
5th ed. New York. New York University Press, 1975. 268 p.
This updated version of Griffith's book notes new developments and
significant changes in the structure, mood and role of Congress. The
authors also discuss the effect of staffing upon the total role of
Members of Congress, as well as the roles of the legislative, comnittee,
temporary and investigative staffs.
To be a Congressman: the
Groennings, Sven, and Jonathan P. Hawley, eds.
promise and the power. Washington, Acropolis Books, 1973. 258 p.
This book contains articles by eleven contributors who discuss the
involvement of a Congressman in organizing and directing an office and
staff, communicating with the public, and responding to its many needs.
Other aspects of working with colleagues on committees and in informal
groups, policies, power and leadership, are also discussed.
Heaphey, James J., and Alan P. Balutis, eds.
Legislative staffing: a
comparative perspective. Beverly Hills, Sage Publications, New York,
distributed by Halsted Press, ~1975. 244 p.
This book is a compilation of ten in-depth studies of legislative
staffing in the U.S. Congress, five States and three developing countries.
Legislative and personal congressional staffs, their roles, behavior,
structure, workload, resource utilization and characteristics are examined
and compared. Tables showing results of comparative studies are also
Unused power; the work of the Senate Committee on
Appropriations. Washington, Brookings Institution, 1970. 285 p.
The author, a former Senate legislative assistant, examines the
Senate Committee on Appropriation's role of gathering and imparting
information, making judgments and implementing the Senatets will, as it
was in the 89th Congress (1965-1966), and recommends certain changes.
Horn discusses the committee membership, operating structure, subcommittee
and staff system and the hearing and decisionmaking process. He includes
the function of committee staff, operating problems, and role of the staff
House Republican Task Force on Congressional Reform and Minority Staffing.
We propose: a modern Congress. New York, McGraw-Hill  338 p.
This study is a compilation of works by Members of Congress.
Among the articles related to congressional staffing generally
are former Representative James C. Cleveland's article on minority
party committee staffing, former Representative Donald Rumsfeld's
article on congressional office operations, and an article by
Representative James Broyhill on reforms in the congressional
Jewell, Ma- -elm E., and Samuel C. Patterson.
The legislative process in
the r-ited States. 3d ed. New York, Random House, c1977. 527 p.
KF4933. J4 1977
The authors examine the structure and functions of the Congress
in comparison with those of State legislatures, including committee
staffs, types of legislative staffs, individual Members' staffs,
and the role of the staff in the legislator-constituent relationship.
Jones, Rochelle, and Peter Woll.
The private world of Congress. New York,
Free Press, ~ 1 9 7 9 . 264 p.
In this book, the authors explain the power incentive of Members of
Congress and congressional staffs. Based upon personal interviews and
their experience on Capitol Hill, the authors assert that the dispersion
of power is growing in Congress. They discuss how Members of Congress
try to obtain the symbols of power--committee chairmanships, assignments
to prestigious committees, large and expert staffs, legislative victories,
and special perquisites. They also discuss how "Staffs: the Surrogates
of Power," use their positions, their bosses and their expertise to
advance their own policy preferences.
Congressional commmittee staffing since 1946.
Rammerer, Gladys M.
Lexington, Bureau of Government Research, 1951. 65 p.
The author reviews the actions of Congress to implement the mandate
of the 1946 Legislative Reorganization Act to provide congressional
committees with competent professional staff. The author describes
the backgrounds of the professional staff members of each of the
committees of Congress from 1946 to 1950, thus nroviding information of
comparative or historical interest.
The American legislative process:
Meefe, William J., and Morris S. Ogul.
Congress and the States. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, N. J. PrenticeJK1001.K4 1981
Hall, ~ 1 9 8 1 . 495 p.
This work examines the congressional committee system, the
legislative process, oversight, and executive-judicial relations.
Included are discussions on the costs of congressional offices and
congressional and committee staff personnel in both Congress and State
Congressmen's voting decisions. New York, Harper & Row,
Kingdon, John W.
1973. 313 p.
Based primarily on interviews with a cross section of Congressmen
in the 91st Congress (1969), this book reports the results of a study
exploring how Members of the House reach their decisions when voting on
the House floor. Kingdon discusses the overall importance of the
constituency, the staff, and staff activities as contributions to a final
Professional staffs of Congress. 3d ed. West Lafzyette,
Ind. Purdue University Press, 1977. 282 p.
Kofmehl's book is a comprehensive history and analysis of committee
staffing procedures in the House and Senate. Revisions for the th5r3
edition include a discussion of committee staff growth, the expa2;ion of
permanent committee staff in the House, efforts to increase minority
party staffing, and the establishment of committee-related Senate personal
Legislatures in developmental
Kornberg, Allan, and Lloyd D. Musolf, eds.
perspective. Durham, N.C., Duke University Press, 1970. 590 p.
This book is a collection of fifteen articles by international
political scholars on comparative legislative systems. The development,
role and function of the British, Canadian, Chilean, Lebanese, Kenyan and
Philippine political systems are discussed, as well as the American
Congress political system. Included are chapters on staffing the
legislature and committee professional staffing.
Malbin, Michael J.
Unelected representatives: congressional staff and the
future of representative government. New York, Basic Books, cE980. 282 p.
This work examines the expansion and new roles of congressional
staffs, with emphasis on committee staffs. The author discusses the effect
staffs have on the legislative process, including how they negotiate and
act on behalf of the Members, and the effect they have on Congress'
ability to act as a legislative body. The author also examines, in a series
of case studies, the actual operations of committee and subcommittee staffs
(House, Senate, and Joint) in specific legislative oversight situations.
He presents detailed examinations of the role of the Senate staff in the
1978 "Sunset" legislation; the negotiation process between House and Senate
staff on the "phantom conference" on the 1977 Veteran's Educational Benefits
hill; the two House Commerce Subcommittees on Oversight and Investigation
and Energy and Power; as well as the nonpartisan staffs of the Joint
Taxation and House Budget Committees.
The politics of finance: the House Committee on Ways and
Manley, John F.
Means. Boston, Little, Brown, 1970. 395 p.
This work provides a comprehensive view of the committee by examining
the leadership roles within the committee, the significant role played
by its senior members, some views of the staff members, and the role the
committee then exercised in the House leadership machinery.
Matthews, Donald R.
U.S. Senators and their world. New York, Norton
 303 p.
This study attempts to explain how Senators act and why by focusing
on the behavioral aspect of the Senate Chamber. Based largely upon
interviews with Senators, their staffs, and journalists, this work covers
various phases of life in the Senate.
Congress oversees the bureaucracy: studies in legislative
Ogul, Morris S.
supervision. Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1976. 237 p.
Ogul offers some general observations about the potential for
effective legislative oversight. Defining oversight as "behavior by
legislators and their staffs, individually or collectively, which results
in an impact, intended or not, on bureaucratic behavior," Ogul then, in a
series of case studies of various House committees, evaluates the
achicvements of the Congress in legislative review.
Ornstein, Norman J . , ed.
Changing Congress: the committee system.
Philadelphia, American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1974.
176 p. (American Academy of Political Social Science, Philadelphia.
Annals, v. 411.)
Hl.A4, v. 411/JK1029
Contents. Committees in the House, by R. Bolling. Committees
in the Senate, by B. Brock. Evolution of the Senate's committee
system by W. Kravitz. Committee reforming the House of
Representatives and the subcommittee bill of rights, by D. W. Rhode.
Representation and congressional committees, by R. H. Davidson.
Committees and the norm of specialization, by H. B. Asher. HouseSenate relationships: comity and conflict by W. J. Oleszek. Committee
conflict in the congressional arena, by P. Brenner. Congress, the
executive and the budget, by L. Fisher. The press and the committee
system, by M. Russell. Assessing the congressional committee system:
contributions from a comparative perspective, by G. Nelson. Committees
from the leadership perspective, by R. L. Peabody. Towards restructuring
the congressional committee system, by N. J. Ornstein. Between party
battalions and committee suzerainty, by C. 0. Jones. Restructuring the
House of Representatives, by J. W. Gardner.
Congressional behavior. New York, Random House
Polsby, Nelson W., comp.
This collection includes material on constituency influence,
role of congressional staff, leadership, committee assignments, the
seniority system, and the Democratic Study Group.
How Congress works. New York, New American Library, 1976.
(A Signet book)
Radler, a congressional committee consultant and writer, explains,
this book aims at an understanding of how representative democracy
works, how that affects you - and how you can affect it." He discusses
congressional leaders; committees; how a bill becomes a law; casework:
helping people; staff work: helping Members of Congress; congressional
ethics; and the ongoing process of congressional reform.
". . .
Inside the House: an irreverent guided tour through the
House of Representatives, from the days of Adam Clayton Powell to those
of Peter Rodino. Chicago, Follett Pub. Co. [I9751 260 p e
As a reporter for the United Press International, the author covered
the House from 1963-1974. He describes the House in terns of
"individuals and events rather than an 'institution,' as a flesh and
He writes about the role
blood community instead of an abstract entity."
of the staff in the Member's offices, the committee staffs and other
personnel in the House.
The dance of legislation. New York, Simon and Schuster
119731 319 p.
This book, written by a former Senate staff member, describes the
role and activities of Senate staff members in the operation of the Senate.
The author presents a case study of the legislative process in the Senate,
from the introduction of a bill to its becoming a public law, and the
problems encountered along the way.
Reid, T. R.
Congressional odyssey: the saga of a Senate bill. San Francisco,
W. H. Freeman, c1980. 140 p.
This reporter-author tracked the almost two-year journey of a somewhat
obscure peice of legislation, the Inland Waterways Bill, from introduction
to enactment into law during the 95th Congress. This case study includes
all aspects of the legislative process--personal, procedural, staff work,
political, and passage--to present a clear picture of the intricacies
involved in getting a bill through Congress.
Riegle, Donald W. Jr.
New York, Doubleday, 1972- 295 P O
Taken from a personal one-year diary, the Michigan Senator describes
the life of a Member of the House, the inner workings of the Congress, the
relationship of a Member with colleagues, his personal staff and their
duties, some necessary attributes of a good staff, and the resultant
Congress: process and policy. New York, Norton,
Ripley, Randall B.
c1978. 425 p.
Ripley analyzes Congress as an institution, its congressional
relations with key portions of its environment, and the importance of
Congress as a policymaker. He discusses congressional and committee staffs,
the functions and organization of personal staffs and the legislative impact
of the staff on the operations of Congress.
Schwarz, John E., and L. Earl Shaw.
The United States Congress in comparative
Hindale, Ill., Dryden Press, ~ 1 9 7 6 . 421 p.
This book analyzes the United States Congress and three Western
European legislatures (Great Britain, France, and West Germany) with the
principal focus on the American Congress. The authors discuss the
differences, the structures and the effectiveness of the four legislatures
in representing citizen opinion and in the decisionmaking process.
They also compare committee staffing and staff work in the casework and
constituent service functions.
Tacheron, Donald G., and Morris K. Udall.
The job of the Congressman. 2d ed.
Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, c1970. 461 p.
This book provides basic information, some of it now dated, about
operating problems of particular concern to the newly elected Member of
the House of Representatives, as well as to his or her staff, including
managing and staffing a congressional office, conducting legislative business,
and serving and informing constituents.
The Congress and America's future. 2d ed. Inglewood
Prentice-Hall, c1973. 216 p. (A Spectrum Book)
In this collection of essays, legislative oversight, constituent
services and constituent influence, power in the House and Senate,
economic policy and congressional staffing are among the topics considered.
The final chapter deals with prospects for changes in Congress. The
essays in the 1965 edition of this book were designed as "background
reading for the 26th American Assembly at Arden House, Oct. 29 to Nov. 1,
1964, and for other sessions of the American AssemD?y." This edition has
been revised and updated by the authors.
Truman, David B . ,
Vital statistics on Congress, 1980.
By John F. Bibby, Thomas E . Mann, Norman
3 . Ornstein. Washington, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy
Research, 113 p. (American Enterprise Institute Studies in Political and
JK1041 . B 5 3
Statistics have been compiled in this book on congressional. elections,
committees, committee staffs, congressional staffs, congressional mailings,
workloads, expenses, campaign finance, and voting patterns. "Each seetion
of the book contains an Introductory essay, prepared by the editors, which
highlights the most salient facts and trends pertaining to these aspects of
Weaver, Warren, Jr.
Both your Houses; the truth about Congress. New York,
Praeger, 1972. 307 p.
Weaver examines the legislative process of Congress from a
journalistic viewpoint, including the committee system, the role of the
staff in congressional offices, and the official life on Capitol Hill.
He also suggests ways in which the inadequacies of the legislative
branch might be improved.
The pact of the two Henrys. New York times
Jan. 5, 1975: 16-17, 20, 24, 26, 28-31, 34.
In a legislative history of the trade bill and Soviet
agreement, the author provides an insight into the role of
compromise and that of congressional staffs in influencing
The last plantation: will employment reform come to Capitol
Hill? Catholic University law review, v. 28, winter 1979: 271-311.
This article examines the exclusion of congressional employees from
fair employment laws, and the problems of employment discrimination on
Capitol Hill, focusing upon alternatives which would afford congressional
imployees greater employment protection. Doctrines of separation of
powers, legislative immunity, the speech and debate and the equal protection
clauses are also discussed.
Bowlin, Samuel W.
A look at the Congressional Fellowship Program. GAO review,
winter 1973: 12-18
Bowlin summarizes the reactions and experiences of GAO's first fellows
participating in the Congressional fellowship Program, to provide an
opportunity to study and learn how the Congress functions, how it is
organized, and how it relates to activities of the executive branch.
In the shadows -- jobs on Capitol Hill. Democratic review,
v. 1, Apr./May 1975. 52-57
JK2311,D48, v. 1
A former staff member of the Senate and House discusses job
opportunities, working conditions, and the technicalities of finding and
keeping a job on Capitol Hill.
Brunetti, Louis Leo.
The speech or debate clause and immunity for
congressional aides. Duquesne law review, v.11, summer 1973. 677-686.
K4.U65, v. 11
Case note observes that the "United States Supreme Court has held
that the speech or debate clause applies to congressional aides, insofar
as the aides' conduct would be a protected legislative act if performed
by the Member himself; but it does not extend immunity to the Member's
aide when testifying before a grand jury about acts done by the Member
or himself, if such inquiry does not impinge upon the legislative process,
and proves relevant to investigating possible third party crimes."
Capitol Hill's growing army of bureaucrats.
U.S. news and world report, v. 87,
Dec. 24, 1979: 52-55.
This article cltes the growth of congressional staff from 1955 to
1979. Critics charre that this growth has produced a legislative
bureaucracy that impedes Congress's pace and efficiency. The lawmakers
claim that due to today's complex issues, their workloads, and the rising
demand for services from people back home, they are forced to maintain
Cohen, Richard E .
The Senate's new staff chiefs under pressure not to mess up.
National journal, v. 13, Jan. 24, 1981. 140-145
JKl.N28, v. 13
The author presents profiles of 15 new Republican committee staff
directors their duties now as opposed to their experience on the minority
side, the operation of their committees and subcommittees, and the issues
they will deal with.
Congressional bureaucracy: growing staff system on Hill forcing changes in
Congress. Congressional quarterly weekly report, v. 37, Nov. 24, 1979:
JKl.Cl5, v. 37
"Congress today has a full-fledged bureaucracy--vastly smaller than
the executive branch's but with virtually all the elements of a complicated
infrastructure necessary to support an increasingly complicated federal
government." The main reason behind the growth is the increase of the
number of staff employed by Congress and other agencies in the Legislative
In Congressional Quarterly Inc, Guide to
Development of committee staffs.
Congress. 2d ed. Washington, Congressional Quarterly Inc., 1976.
p . 389-396.
Discusses the development and expansion of committee staffs from
the early years of Congress through 1970, including the changes under the
1946 and 1970 Legislative Reorganization Acts, Also disccssed are expansion
of committee staffs, the use of committee staff for personal work of Senators,
description of staff work, minority staffing, and staff size and
Galloway, George B.
The operation of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946.
American political science review, v. 45, Mar. 1951: 41-68.
HAl.A6, v. 46
This article reviews the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 in
terms of its own objective, "to streamline and simplify congressional
committee structure; to eliminate the use of special or select committees;
to clarify committee duties and reduce jurisdictional disputes; to
regularize and publicize committee procedures; to improve congressional
staff aides; to reduce the workload in Congress; to strengthen legislative
oversight of administration; to reinforce the power of the purse; to
regulate lobbying and to increase the compensation of Members of Congress
and provide them with retirement pay."
Gwirtzman, Milton S.
The bloated branch. New York times magazine, Iiov. 10,
1974: 30-31, 98, 100-102.
Gwirtzman notes the rapid expansion of congressional staffs, budgets,
and complex duties of Members. He argues that their increasing legislative
empires have made Congressmen busier than ever before but have also reduced
their role in actions undertaken in their name.
Hill workers push for job protections Congress denied by labor exemptions.
Congressional quarterly weekly report, v. 36, Feb. 11, 1978: 337-346.
JKl.Cl5, v. 36
This article discusses the employment practices of the House and
Senate, and cites statistics and studies that appear to show discrimination
in the pay and promotion of women and minorities.
The Capitol game. Washington post, Feb. 16, 1975: Al, A8;
Feb. 17, Al, A4; Feb. 18, Al, A12; Feb. 19, Al, A9; Feb. 20, Al, A6;
Feb. 21, Al, A6; Feb. 23, Al, A12; Feb. 24, Al, A4.
This eight-part series studies the expenses of Senate committees and
committee staff activities, charging that several committees perform tasks
other than those they were created to perform and that committees or staff
are frequently used by Senators for non-committee purposes. The final
segment of the series, written by Mary Russell, deals with the House
Johannes, John R.
The distribution of casework in the U.S. Congress: an uneven
burden. Legislative studies quarterly, v. 5, no. 4, Nov. 1980: 517-544.
JF501.L42, v. 5.
This article discusses the uneven distribution of casework from data
compiled by the author in the 95th Congress. The factors that have
independent effects on casework in the House, include: region (the East);
constituents' abilities to ask for assistance (education, concentration of
government employees in districts, and the percentage urban); and Member
salience and visibility (seniority).
In the Senate, legislative activism,
State population, and concentrations of the elderly are significantly
related to case loads. The author concludes that the uneven distribution
of casework has several implications: (1) if there is a connection between
getting reelected and doing lots of casework, some Members have advantages
over their colleagues; (2) current staffing arrangements are less than
equitable, given the different caseloads. Some need more help than others;
(3) some constituencies receive more congressional help than do others;
(4) to the extent that casework input offers opportunities or incentives
for legislation and oversight, some Senators and Representatives, with
varied committee experience, may be in a better position to follow through
to adjust agency policies and procedures, or change the public law. It
could also mean that certain types of issues from particular States and
districts will receive more attention by Members than others.
Standing staffs: the invisible empire. Government executive,
Judge, John F.
v. 6, May 1974: 67-68.
JKl.G58, v. 6
"The furious dynamics of national legislation is the business of
the staffs of the standing committees of the Senate and House of
Representatives. Working in an area filled with powerful egos, the staff
members deliberately keep out of the public eye. Constantly under
pressure, the staffers operate in antiquated facilities and carry almost
.aomis, Surdettz A .
Thc congressional office as a small ( ? ) business: new
Members szt up shop. Publius, v. 9, summer 1979: 35-55. JKl.P88
T h s ~.ithordiscusses the growth of staff in congressional offices,
decectrallszticn. s~ecialization,and organization of congressional
offices. Iqformation and data were drawn from the 70 Democratic members
of the 9 4 t h Congress. He compares congressional offices to small
businel- s ~ t s r ~ x i sin
~ sthat both are concerned with a product.
Mullen, Patrick R.
Congressional reform: minority staffing in the House of
Representatives. GAO review, v. 10, summer 1975: 32-40.
H19701.G3, v. 10
The au?hor explores "the rationale behind minority staffing reform
and the manner in which it was handled in the House of Representatives."
Patterson, Samuel C.
The professional staffs of congressional committees.
Administrstive science quarterly, v. 15, Mar. 1970: 22-37.
HD28.A25, v. 15
This essay focuses upon the professional staffs of congressional
committees and a i m to clarify four points: the development, utilization
capabilities and constraints on the performance of professional staff
members of congressional committees. The author examines major users of
committee staff personnel and the capabilities of the staff members. He
studies the principal constraints, in the congressional context, which
shape the behavior of staff personnel.
House of ill repute: making good use of the hired help.
New republic, v. 172, Mar. 8, 1975: 16-18.
AP2.N6235, v. 172
The author discusses the past organization of House staffs and
committees, pointing out problems inherent in the old system, abuses that
appeared, and changes in staff structure and leadership that are now evident.
The scandalous Senate: committee chicanery. New republic, v. 172,
Feb. 2 2 , 1 9 2 4 : 16-19.
AP2.N6235, v. 172
P i n e n s presents examples of how Senators utilize committee staff
positiocr to supplement their personal office staff.
Y > f c e , David F a
Professionals and "entrepreneurs:" staff orientatons and
policy making on three Senate committees. Journal of politics, v. 33,
May 1971: 316-336.
JAl .J6, v. 33
Price uses examples from the Senate Commerce, Finance, and Labor and
PublZc We:fare Committees during the 89th Congress to identify two types
of staff: "professionals" and "policy entrepreneurs." He points out that
the apparent basic difference between the two is that the "policy
entreprefleur" has an activist and partisanship notion of his job, whereas
expertise and legislative acumen the basic
the " ~ ~ o ~ e s s i o n aconsiders
The role of the Spanish speaking
ieveles, R o h e r t A., and Daniel Maldonado.
aide n n +5s dill. Bureaucrat, v. 2, summer 1973: 173-177.
JQ3092,ZlB86, v . 2
This article examines the activities, legislative achievements
bicultural issues, and problems of Spanish-speaking congressional employees
on Capitol Yill.
Who runs Congress? New York times magazine, Nov. 22, 1970:
52-53, 56, 60, 65-66, 68-70, 72, 78, 80, 83, 85-86, 88.
In this article, Sherrill discusses the influence exerted by
congressional and committee staff members and aides.
The hidden powers who really run Congress.
U.S. news and world report, v. 90
Mar. 9, 1981: 47-49.
This article discusses the importance of congressional staff to Members,
from drafting legislation to running their offices. Profiles of seven
key Senate aides are included.
Wolman, Harold L., and Dianne Miller Wolman.
The role of the U.S. Senate staff
in the opinion linkage process: population policy. Legislative studies
JF501.L42, v . 2
quarterly, v. 2, no. 3, Aug. 1977: 281-293.
The authors compare answers by Senators serving on a Senate committee
to a questionnaire on population and family planning policy to answers
of their staff responsible for the subject area. The authors findings
"suggest that, at least for population and family planning policy, staff
members do not appear to greatly affect either their Senator's perception
of public opinion or their Senator's personal attitudes."
Ader, Elaine R.
Membership turnover and district presence in Congress. 1980.
41 p. Paper prepared for delivery at the Annual Meeting of the American
Political Science Association, Washington, D.C., August 28-31, 1980.
This paper discusses membership turnover in the House as the result of
the 1978 election, and the effect it has on sevices to the districts, due
to changes in congressional staff size, new Member attitudes, and
Member policy preferences.
Burks, Stephen W., and Richard L. Cole.
Congressional staff personnel role
orientations: an empirical examination. 1975. 32 p. Paper prepared for
delivery a t the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association,
San Francisco, California, September 2-5, 1975.
This paper attempts to establish a link between staff role orientations
and legis-dtive behavior. Staffers were asked to indicate how much
influenst they had in four key areas of legislative work: background
research, .\-:tent and working of legislation, development of innovative
programs, and development of floor support for committee legislation.
Cranor, John D., and Joseph W. Westphal.
Congressional district offices,
Federal programs and electoral benefits: some observations on the passing
of the marginal Representative, 1974-1976. 1978. 42 p. Paper prepared for
delivery at the 1978 Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association,
Chicago, Illinois, April 20-22, 1978.
This study focuses on the activities of the Representatives in the
House who won the 1974 election by less than 55 percent of the two-party
vote (i.e., marginal Representatives) and who were successful in increasing
their electoral percentages in 1976. The authors conclude there is a
moderately strong relationship between a Member's district service
orientation (staff assistants, constituency services, frequent visits
by the Member) and his increasing electoral margins.
Congressional district offices: their staffs and functions.
1979. 59 p. Paper prepared for delivery at the Annual Meeting of the
American Political Science Association, Washington, D.C., August 31September 3, 1979.
This is a study of general political staffing by Federal, State and
local legislators in California, with a particular focus on personal field
staffs -- the aides that Congressmen and other legislators have deployed
back to their home States and districts. Macartn?y reviews 14 functions
staffs perform "(from legislative support to casekork to fending off
'nuts');" and the various arrangements incumbents c-,oosefor organizing and
deploying their staffs.
Senate personal committee staff: a first year appraisal.
Rundquist, Paul S.
1976. 27 p. Paper prepared for delivery at the Annual Meeting of the
American Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois, September 2-5, 1976.
Rundquist examines the factors leading to the 1975 passage of Senate
Resolution 60 [as modified by Senate Resolution 110], which authorized
the appointment of personal committee staff to assist Senators with their
committee-related work. He compares the qualifications, roles, legislative
policy analysis capabilities and professionalism of the new staff members
to committee and personal staff professionals.
Congressional staff turnover
Salisbury, Robert H., and Kenneth A. Shepsle.
and the ties-that-bind: Congressman as enterprise. St. Louis, Center for
the Study of American Business, Washington University. 1980. 49 p.
(Washington University, St. Louis. Center for the Study of American
Business. Working paper no. 54)
"This paper explores some of the causes and consequences of turnover
in the staffs of the United States Congress. Quantitative data from the
period 1962-1978 is brought to bear on some of the hypotheses that emerge
from the analysis. It also presents a new view of modern legislators that
emphasizes the legislator less as an atomistic individual and more as the
head of one or more enterprises (personal office, committee, subcommittee,
party grouping, special-interest caucus, etc.)"
The staff of independence: why Congress employs more but
legislates less. 1980, 28 p. Prepared for the Miller Center, University
This paper explores the causes for the growth of congressional staff,
concentrating on two major reasons: relations between Congress and the
President, and the distribution of power within the Congress. The author
offers several hypotheses, including Congress' striving for political
independence from the executive branch--free to make its own assumptions,
develop its own alternatives, and draw its own conclusions--and not be
dependent upon executive data or executive interpretations. He points out
that during the 1970s, Members sought independence from committee chairmen,
committee jurisdictions, and political parties. Each of these factors has
led to staff expansion.
Schotland, John A., and others.
The first weeks: from victory, through
confusion to effectiveness; a new Member's manual of introduction to the
United States House of Representatives. Washington, Georgetown University
Law Center, 1978. 112 p.
The authors of this unpublished manual provide a comprehensive
orientation for a newly elected Member of the House of Representatives.
Included are such topics as organization structure of both parties,
committee assignment procedures, hiring an office staff, administrative
information, and floor procedures.
Stenger, Thomas C.
Congressional committee staffers' policy orientations
in the hearing process. 1978. 47 p. Paper prepared for delivery at
the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago,
Illinois, April 20-22, 1978.
This is a study of policy advocacy in the hearings process by staff
directors of several House committees. Some staffers approached
their hearing responsibilities from the standpoint that policy advocacy
was a legitimate part of their participation in the hearings process.
Some chose to remain neutral. Others felt policy advocacy was not an
appropriate staff role.
U.S. Congress. House. Clerk of the House. Report of the Clerk of the House
for Jan. 1 , 1981 to Mar. 31, 1981. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
1981. 1 3 4 4 p. (97th Congress, 1st session. House. Document no. 97-52)
Includes salaries of all House personnel staff and committee staff,
as well as itemizations of all official expenses of House Members,
officers, and committees. This document is issued quarterly.
Commission on Administrative Review. Final report;
communication from the Chairman
transmitting the final report pursuant
to section 5 of House Resolution 1368, 94th Congress. Washington, U.S.
Govt. Print. Off., 1977. 2 v. (95th Congress, 1st session. House.
Document no. 95-272)
The Commission was established to study and recommend changes in the
administrative structure of the House. This volume contains an overall
summary of the work and findings of the Commission, and the results of
an extensive survey of House Members and staff on congressional operations
generally. The additional volumes listed below treat specialized
administrative or operational functions in the House.
Financial ethics; communication from the Chairman
report on financial ethics pursuant to section 5 of House Resolution 1368,
94th Congress. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1977. 49 p. (95th
Congress, 1st session. House. Document no. 95-73)
Partial contents.--Financial disclosure, Outside income, Gifts,
Unofficial office accounts, Franking privilege, Travel, Proposed Select
Committee on Ethics.
Administrative reorganization and legislative management; communication
from the Chairman
transmitting a report pursuant to section 5 of
House Resolution 1368, 94th Congress. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print.
Off., 19;7+ 2 v. (95th Congress, 1st session. House. Document no. 95-232)
Vol. 1--Administrative units; Vol. 2--Work management.
House. Commission on Information and Facilities. The
feasibility of a congressional staff journal as a "process for
communication;" communication from the Chairman. Washington, U.S. Govt.
Print. Off., 1977. 4 p. (95th Congress, 1st session. House. Document no.
The Commission, through a pilot project, discovered a significant
audience for a staff journal in the House to provide a means to share
information of professional importance to Hill employees. On the basis of
this report, the Congress initiated publication of the journal, Staff;
which is now published by the Senate Rules and Administration Committee.
A ~ S O iss~edas a committee print, 94th Congress, 2d session.
House. Commission on Information and Facilities. Task Force
on Information Resources. Inventory of information resources for the U.S.
House of Representatives, Part I; Internal Resources. Washington, U.S.
Govt. Print. Off., 1976. 64 p. (94th Congress, 2d session. House.
Document no. 94-537)
This report is an annotated inventory of all the information
resources and services then provided to the House of Representatives. "The
categories of information covered include: (1) legislation and the
legislative process; (2) management of congressional offices; and (3) the
organization and operation of Congress."
House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on
Legislative Branch Appropriations. Legislative branch appropriations for
1981. Hearings, 96th Congress, 2d session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print.
Off., 1980. 2 V. (1526 p.)
These hearings, and those from earlier years and those to come, are a
valuable resource for operational information about offices in the House.
Included in the hearings are budget justifications and operational
descriptions for the Architect of the Capitol, General Accounting Office,
Government Printing Office, House of Representatives (includes some joint
committee requests), Library of Congress, Office of Technology Assessment,
and Congressional Budget Office (see also Senate Hearings on Legislative
House. Committee on House Administration. Studies dealing
with budgetary, staffing and administrative activities of the U.S. House
of Representatives, 1946-1978. Washington. U.S. Govt Print. Off.,
1978. 81 p.
At head of title: 95th Congress, 2d session. Committee print.
Contents.--A brief guide to understanding the legislative branch budget,
by R. Keith.--Legislative branch appropriations, fiscal year 1978, by
P. Dwyer.--Annual appropriations for Member clerk-hire, U.S. House of
Representatives, fiscal year 1947-1977, by P. Dwyer.--House committee
staffing and investigations funding, 1947-1977, by P. Rundquist.-Congressional workload and activity, by A. Stevens.--Disposition of the
unused portion of a Member's clerk hire allowance and its impact on the
Federal budget and fiscal policy, by R. Keith.
U.S. Congress. Joint Committee on Printing. The official congressional
directory. 97th Congress, 1st sess. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print.
Off., 1981, 1104 p .
This directory, issued in the 1st session of each Congress (with
a subsequent, and limited, update volume issued in the 2d session) includes:
the names of administrative or legislative assistants and secretaries to
Members, biographies of Members of the current Congress, Members' committee
assignments, data on key personnel in the legislative, executive and
judicial branches and independent agencies, the names of press representatives
and services accredited to the Congress, and maps of States and congressional
House. Select Comittee on Committees. Committee organization
in the House. Panel discussions, 93rd Congress, 1st session. Washingcon,
U.S. Govt, Print. Off., 1973. 875 p.
featuring presentations by leading scholars in the field
of con!+ressso13al organization. Statements by Walter Kravitz, Kenneth
Kofmelll, John S . Saloma, and others address the role of committee staffs.
House. Select Committee on Committees. Final report.
Vashington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 669 p. (96th Congress, 2d sess.
House keport no. 96-866)
Peport includes surveys of earlier reorganization efforts, including
changes in House and Senate committee staffing procedures. Tables showing
growth in congressional staffing in general are included as is a
bibliography on the congressional committee system, a section of which
focuses on congressional staffing.
Senate. Commission on the Operation of the Senate.
Committees and Senate procedures; a compilation of papers. Washington,
U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1977. 201 p.
At head of title: 94th Congress, 2d. session. Committee print.
Partial contents.--Overview of the Senate committee system, by
Walter 3 . 0leszek.--An overview of Senate committee procedures, by
B. Samue1son.--Senate committee operations, by B. Samue1son.--Senate
cornrnittee personnel practices, by S. L. Walsh.
Senate administration; a compilation of papers. Washington, U.S. Govt.
Print. Off., 1976. 110p.
At head of title: 94th Congress, 2d session. Cormnittee print.
Partial contents.--Present administrative functions of the Secretary of
the Senate, Sergeant at Arms, Architect of the Capitol, and the Rules
Comanittee, by M. Brigham.--Personnel practices and policies of the
Sergeant at Arms, Secretary of the Senate, and Architect of tlle Capitol.
Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on
Legislative Branch Appropriations. Legislative branch appropriations
f o r 1981. Bearings, 96th Congress, 2d session. 2 v. Washington, U.S.
G n v t . Print. Off., 1980. 880 p.
The Senate Committee on Appropriations reviews budget requests and
justifications from those offices in the Congress jointly funded by the
House and Senate, as well as those budget requests solely for the
operation of the Senate. These volumes, and those for earlier years and
those to come, are valuable resources on the operations of the Senate
(see also House Hearings on Legislative Branch Appropriations).
Senate. Committee on Rules and Administration. Committeerelated Senate employees. Hearings, 94th Congress, 1st session, on
S. Res. 60, as modified by S. Res. 110. Apr. 30, and May 20, 1975.
Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1975. 98 p.
"Senate Resolution 60, as modified by Senate Resolution 110, would
create a new category of Senate employees--assistants to be employed
directly by a Senator and to be housed in his personal Senatorial office,
but whose functions would relate to and be confined to the work of
committees on which the Senator is a member. Such committee-related
employees would 'be accorded equitable treatment with respect to the
records of that committee. ' "
Additional Senate committee employees; report to accompany S. Res. 60.
Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., June 5, 1975. 9 p. (94th Congress,
1st session. Senate. Report no. 94-185)
Expenditure authorizations and requirements for Senate committees.
Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 85 p.
At head of title: 96th Congress, 2d session. Committee print.
"This revised committee print has been prepared by the Committee on
Rules and Administration to assist Senate committee members and staff
personnel in arriving at their budget recommendations for the next
committee funding year, and in preparing the supporting materials which
will be required by this committee. The fiscal year for expenditure
authorizations will be the 12-month period from March 1, 1981, through
February 28, 1982.
Part I of this committee print provides Senate
committees with detailed information on the requirements for expenditure
authorizations for the funding year beginning March 1, 1981.
Part I1 lists all funds authorized by the Senate from the 83d through
the 96th Congresses for inquiries and investigations by Senate committees."
Transferring unexpended balances of funds appropriated for salaries
of Senate committee employees; report to accompany S. 2018. Washington,
U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1979. 6 p. (96th Congress, 1st session. Senate.
Report no. 96-493)
This report explains the rationale behind Senate action to revise
the procedures by which committee budgets and staffing levels are approved.
Senate. Secretary of the Senate. Report of the Secretary
of the Senate from Oct. 1, 1980 to Mar. 31, 1981, Washington, U.S. Govt.
Print. Off., 1981. 2 v. (97th Congress, 1st session. Senate.
Document no. 97-4)
Includes salaries of all Senate personal staff and committee staff,
as well as itemizations of all official expenses of Senate Members,
officers, and committees. This report is issued semi-annually.
Senate. Temporary Select Committee to Study the Senate
Committee System. Second report with recommendations of the Temporary
Select Committee to Study the Senate Committee System: operation of the
Senate committee system: staffing, scheduling, communications, procedures,
and special functions. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Orf., 1977. 24 p.
At head of title: Committee print.
This volume includes a variety of proposals to change the staffing
procedures of Senate committees. These recommendations were not formally
endorsed by the Select Commmittee, but have served as the basis for
subsequent action by the Senate Rules and Administration Committee.
3,s. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. Ethics manual for
Members and employees of the U.S. House of Representatives; prepared at the
direction of The Committee on Standards of Official Conduct. 97th Congress,
1st session. [By] Jack Maskell. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1981.
This manual provides a summary of provisions of House ethics rules
applicable to Members and staff.
The Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970: summary and analysis of
provisions affecting committees and committee staffs of the House of
Representatives. [By] Walter Kravitz. Washington, 1975. 80 p.
Report no. 75-218s
This report describes and analyzes provisions of the Legislative
Reorganization Act of 1970 which made innovations in the operations and
functions of House committees, in House floor procedures, and in other
areas of interest to House committees. The subject matter is grouped
under the following headings: committee procedures; committee functions;
floor procedures; committee staff; analytical and information services
for committees; indirect sources of information for committees; and
miscellaneous provisions of interest to committees.
The legislator as user of information technology. [By] Robert L.
Chartrand. Washington, 1980. 42 p. Report no. 80-11 SPR.
"The development of improved information support services for
Congress has involved the significant employment of modern technologies-computer, telecommuncations, microform, audio, and video--for providing
relevant, reliable information in a timely manner. This report traces
the introduction and expansion of these systems, illustrates current
automated information activities, and highlights the role played by
information technology within the congressional environment."
Workshop on Congressional oversight and investigations, Washington,
1978. Proceedings of the three-day workshop
December 1, 6, and
7, 1978. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1979. 217 p. (96th
Congress, 1st session. House. Document no. 96-217)
This document provides the proceedings of a workshop on Congressional
oversight and investigations and focuses, in part, on the role of the
staff. Additional documents from the proceedings, including an oversight
manual, were prepared by the Congressional Research Service. The workshop
was sponsored under the auspices of the House bipartisan leadership.