Closing a Congressional Office: A Brief Overview

This paper sets forth questions that a congressional office needs to consider in the process of closing down. These include statutory and non-statutory matters such as staff, the franking privilege, retirement benefits for Members and staff, allowances, and the disposition of congressional papers, and other office items.

CLOSING A CONGP?SSIONAL OFFICE: A BRIEF OVERVIEW Judy Carlilt Analyst in American National G o v e r m n t Government. Division 1______1______ G.S. DEFOSiTORY MATERIAL ~ g y [ $ pEN'[ > ~ C()C!jFi?f.td'S CC:IIECi'!ON Hav 18. 19Pl Tlrc Congressional Rescatch Senicc workr cxc\r~sive\yfor tllc Congress. conduct~ngresearch. analyzing Icpjslalion. and providing information at the rrques! o r Committees. Members and their staffs. Tlre S c r v i c ~makes such t r s c x c h ;~valf;lble.without partiwr. bias, in m.my forms including siudies, rcpnrts, compiLtions, digests, and background bricring. U p w request. l i e CRS assists Cornmitlccs in anllyzinp 1egisl;;tive proposals and issue5. and In assessing thc posibie ciicrt5 of tl~csepropauls and their altcmativcs. T t ~ eService's senior ipcci~llstsand subject analysts art also available for peno:lal consultations in their r c s p c c . t ~fi-lds of experliw. The Congrrssional Research Service works exclusively for the C o n g m s , conducting research, ana!yzing legislation, and providing information at the request o f C n m i t t e c s , Members and their staffs. The Service makes such rcsearc1~'avail;lble.without p a t i s a n b i s . in m a y forms including studis:repo:ts, compi:ations, digests. 2nd background bricfinps. Upon request. the CRS assists Committees in analyzing legislative propcsals and issues, 2nd In assessing the possible efiects of these proposals and their 2;iernaiives. The Service's senior specialists and subject analysts are ulso available for personal consu1:ztions in ' their respective fields of expcrtisc. This paper s e t s forth qoestiona that a congressional o f f i c e needs to consider in th+ proceas of closing down. There iaclude statutory and norrstatutory Y t t e r s ouch ao s t a f f , t h e franking privilege, retirement benefits for Hcnbcrr aad s t a f f , allowances, and tbe dioporitlm of congresalorml papers, and other o f f i c e it-. This report i s based upon a report originally prepared by Narc Packer, Octobtt 10, 1978. .. ABSTWCI ...........*r.........r.r.*r.........r...\.................* iii ....................................*........*.........*..1 ................................................................. 1 gETIE32ZST FOB HDfBER ......*...*........*.......... 3 PELfFILECE...*.....*.....*.*........*......*...*.......... 4 INTROD~CTIOI STALOP BEZEFITS AND S m IRE FRJmcmC .............................................................. 8 CCKEEPO.t3EL!~................................... 10 CO!?Gr~SSIO:~-r~LttTEP Pk.Frn&.* ........................................ 10 ..................................... 11 POSITION P>ZERS.* ...................................................... 11 CASWOFX SSHSITIVL! RECORDS AIZI O T E Z YihTIlRTA 1u.D WPGSFOilDZn'CT! CLOSING A CONGRZSSIONM. OFFICE: A BRIEF OVERVIEW A t ooec p o i n t , every congres8fop.l o f f i c e =st L/ be clomed down. Bowever, t h e s ~ o r m tof p r e p a r a t o r y r i m a v a i l a b l e t o s t o f f and #anbar meaged i n t h i s a c t i v i t y v a r i e s from -re than ample (in t h e use of an a r m o u n c e d , r e t i r c c c n t ) t o v i r t u a l l y none ( i n t h e event of a h n b e r ' s death). There a r e many a s p e c t s of a c o n g r e r r i o u a l o f f i c e o p e r a t i o n , and each i s s u b j e c t t o d i f f e r e n t s t a t u t o r y and i n t c r n a l provfsionn i n t h e course of c l o s i e q down an o f f i c e . Such r e g u l a t i o n s are discussed by category belov. The s t a f f of a Repreeentativc who e i t h e r r e 6 f g n ~i n m i d - t e n o r d i e s i n o f f i c e w i l l be n a i n t a i n e d a t f u l l s a l e r y l e v e l under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e Clerk of t h e House m t i l a auccresor i s named, i n accordsnce with 2 U.S.C. 92b, as follows: ... i n c a s e of t h e death o r r e s i g n a t i o n of a Member of t h e Rouse d u r i n g his t e r n of o f f i c e , t h e c l e r i c a l a s s i s t a n t s designated by h i n and borne cpon t h e d a r k h i r e pay r o l l s of t h e Ilouse of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on t h e d a t e of such death o r r e s i g n a t i o n s h e l l be continued upon such pay r o l l s a t t h p l r r e ~ p e c t i v es a l a r i o s u n t i l t h e successor t o such Xember of t h e Rouse is e l e c t e d t o f i l l t h e vacsncy. 1/ G t h o u g h t h e o p e c i c i c r e f e r c n c e s i n t h i s r e p o r t a r e i n many C A E ~t o~ embers of t h e House r a t h e r than t h e Senste, t h e procedures o u t l i n e d i n t h e psper are a p p i i c ~ b l et o tic=:;-ra of both Eouscs. The prozedurcs e r e zleo a p p l i c a b l e t o fle-bcrs of C o f s r c s o ~ h ohave experienced a n e l e c t o r a l ' d e f e s t . --- T h i s o r i g i n a l langurlgr was c o n t a i n e d i n H.J.R+s. approved August 21, 1935. 189 (49 S t a t . 6 7 9 , 6 8 0 ) , and On October 2, 1980 t h e Bnttse passed Ll.ace. 804, which broadened t h e above language t o i n c l u d e : ... any terminatiorr of s e r v i c e d u r i n g a term of o f f i c e of a Member of t h e House that l o n o t d e e c r i b e d i n t h e f i r s t e e c t i o n of such j o i n t r e s o l u t i o n s h a l l be t r e ~ t e das i f such t e r m l n a t i o n were d e s c r i b e d i n oach section... The purpoee of t h e r e s o l u t i o n was t o a l l o w c o z t i n u e d l i n i t e d c o n s t i t u e n t e e r v i c e s t o a M a b e t ' s d i e t r i c r a f t e r h i s e z p u l e i o n , by paying t h e aosiatants t o c o ~ l p l e t et h e u n f i n i r h e d work. These ~ ~ O V ~ S ~ aOpU p lSy Yeshington and i n t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l d i s t r i c t . U.S.C. 92e, e t a f f a r s i e t a n t s ' s h a l l t o s t a f f both in I n the S e u t e , p u r r a u n t t o 2 be c o n t i n u e d on such pay r o l l s ic t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t l o n o and be paid f o r a p e r i o d n o t t o ezceed e i r t y days.' All such stoff p e r s o n s i n t h e Ifouse a r e under t h e e t l p o m i e i o n *f the C l e r k of t h e Bouse acc? no 1o~g:;- wor!c f o r t h e N e = h r . t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e S r n z t e . d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , i s t o cor.p;ete Member. The S e c a t ~e t i i f f a zre under The strff'n rr~poneibilliy, u o f i n i a h e d work a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f o r z e r The s t e r u t o r y language scants t h e Clerk of t h e EIou6;c and t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e S e n a t e t h e a u t h o r i t y t o remove such t : t s f f f o r f a i l u r e t c perfor;: t h e i r duties . S t a f f menbcrs of r e t i r i n p , , e x p e l l e d , de-eased o r d e f e a t e d Menbero of Congress have c e r t a i n r e - r z p l o p e n t Pursuanc t o 5 U.S.C. r i g h t s i n t h e competitive c i v i l service; 3 3 0 r ( ( c ) , t h e P . j ~ p s p e c t Act, c o n g r e e s i o n a l s t a f f n e n b e r s who have l o s t t h e i r j o b & i n v r l u n t a r i l y c a n a p p l y f o r c o ~ p a r h b l ep o s i t i o n s i n \ t h e Federal Competitive S e r v i c e i f t n e y n e e t she f o l l c v i n g c r i t e r i a : three yeare eaployment fn the legislative branch (doe. not need to be continuous); gocid employment record; have been released or will be teleaaed froa staff poeition becauee of death, defeat or resignation of Umber, lack .of work, or office reor~anizrtion;and staff nrJmber mast locato a competitive position within 1 year of involuntcry separetion. Both Civfl Service Applicatioa and Raarspack Act Application forms ehould be flled with the agency in which eaploynmt ir desired. a written ezanincttioa. S a r e pooitionc requtre The test ie given by the Office of Pernonnel Huragemutt on a nou-c~~petitive hsis, but a passing grade is required. The OPX also evaluates the applicant's qualiflcationr and determine8 whether or not the applicont'reeete the requiretents of the poaition fer which applicant is being considered. hpplieations for Civil Service posftions c p n be made 90 days prior to anticipated deto of tcr-Lnntioa of poaition. Hmbere of Congrc~sare included In the E n i l Service Retireneat on a voluntary basin. Steff rcenbcrs r h o have elected to participate contribute seven and one-half psrcent cf their salery while serving. A staff enplcpee musc havs at least five yeara of creditable Pcdeial civilian service, end must have htd retireo~entcontributi~nsvithhald. Participants m y retire on an imediate annuity if they meet one of the following criteria: 1) age 55 a d 30 years of e e ~ ; l c a ; 2) age 60 with 20 years of service; or 3) ege 62 wFth five years of service- I f the cause of retirement is involuntary (for exasplc, death or reriptition of the employ-c), $mediate anmitics a r e nlco p a j d persons vbo ere 50 pears or older with 20 years of Federal service or at any age with 25 years of service. In the latter case, there will be an annuity reduction of 2 percent per year for each rear the retiree is under age 55. eliminated'vhen the annuitant rcncheg age 5 5 . The reduction is THE FRAE?:I?:S PRIVILEGE In addition to Membtrs and office8 of Congrees, the franking privilege is also extended (with qualificatfono) to retired Members of Cangrees (39 3210 b U.S.C. 2) and to the sur~tvingspouse of died while serving in Congress (39 U.S.C. a Member of Congre~mwho 3218). -Hcnberr who have retired are entitled to uac their frank for 90 days following the date on which thcy l e a p office. Rovcver, this privilege csrries v l t h it the following prohibitions (P.L. 94-17?): a retired Hember of Congress resy not use his rrank for postal peiron rzilinco, for netraletters, questionnaires or sinLlzr Entters, or m y other UGS miilirig~unless thcy are in direct response to inquiries or requcsta f r o 3 persocs to vhom the metter is miled. Representctives uhc retire in mfd-iex, responses to nev correspondence received after the date of resignation (but before n successor is evorn in) ore sent under the frank of the Clerk of the House, as ie pending bueiness that extends beyond the 90-day period. Ln the case of sumiving npoua%n, the statute provides that their franking privilege shall be for "correepondence relating to the dcath of the Ilember,' a provision which is construed by House authorLties to inclcde all pending matters. Clerk. S2c, Such mail is also sent under the frank of. the Pursuant to the Secretary of -tire Senate's responsibility ixnder U.S.C. mail relating to closing a Senator's office will be nailrc under the Sec.rztary's frank. In the event of s Member's death, resignation or defeat, the Mc~ber's allowance for official expenses ceases. The Clerk ~f the House assumes responafbility for the total operation of the Mc=Ser'u office, and all expenses necessary for the diochurge of duties aooocfated v+th the office are borne by the Clerk out of the contingent fund. N l debt8 incurred by the office before the reeigaetion, death or defeat ere paid oat of the former Member's allowsnces. In the Senate, the neccsesry expenses are w i d out of the cwtingent f u n d of the Senate by the Secretary of the Senate. A n ~ & r of other =ttero not governed by regulation alao need to be consiZcred when d o s i n g down a congressional office. In the w u r e e of a congrescfoual career, each Hecber will accu~itletaa large quantity of filed aterial. The first decision to be made is whether o z not to archive thece records and papers. Some factors t o be considered are: the lenzth of aervice, the interests and contributions of the Conpecsaan or Senator, the cornittee assfgrinento (Cheitnzn or r~nkingMinority member), service on a C o d t t e e or J O ~ O LCom..itee of interest to :he 21 depository. If the decision has been made to archive the records and papers, a depository is then chosen; for e ~ n ? l e : 2 1 It should be noted, however, that the Rules of * .e Rouse and Senate requiye that the files of comittess be kept scparnte o ~ ddistinct f r ~ mthe congressional office records of the Representative or Senator serving ss Ch=irr.a;;. Camittee records rerzin thn, prcpCrty of the clianbsr. -Peroonai -Local library library -University --State Archives o r S t a t e l i b r a r p --Research -State o r College l i b r a r y Institution R i s t o r i c a l Society -Presidentifil library --Ina:itution(~) o r Groop(r) i f i which t h e Hcabrr h a s had a n a c t i v e interest A s soor. a e a O e p o s i t o r y IIM been d e o i g n a t e d , a deed of g i f t Purt bs rude. 3 J I f t h e r e a r e any r e s t r i c t i o m (mch as c e r t a i n r e c o r d s a r e n o t t o be opened u n t i l a f t e r t h e d e e t h of t h e Hm*:cr) t o be pLaced on t h e papers chap ohould be s p e c i f i e d i n t h e deed. I f t h e r e c o r d s end papers a r e t o be a r c h i v e d , work should be i n i t i a t e d as s m n ae poasihle. An in:eres:ed u n i v e r s i t y n i g h t want t o d c s l p a c c a n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y teem (a l i b r a r i a n , an a r c h i v l e t , a p o l i t i c a l e c i c ~ i t i s t ,a n a h i n i s t r a t o r ) . t o work w i t h the c o n ~ r e a s i o n n lo f f i c e i n a l i a j . s o n capacity-. All p a r t i e s 1nvolveJ should be c o ~ n i z a n tof t h e s i z e of t h e c70nation and t h e e s t i m a t e d space t h e ins:i:uticn has t o o f f e r a o t h e nuzber of i t e m s i n v o l v e d a- can be reduced, i f c e c e s a n r y , t o br co=;latible w i t h t h e l i b r a r y ' s f a c i l i t i e s . A f e v i n s t i t u t i o n s hcve e x p r e s s e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r n i c r o f i l ~ e dm t e r i d , which would minimize space p r o b l e n s . -3/ reFort. For e r a r p l e , i f casework f i l e s were separately An e x a z p l e of suc11 a deec! of g i f t i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e appendix t o t h i s f i l m e d i n t h e beginning they c o u l d be removed without e d i t i n g y e a r s of f i l m . Menbets s e e k i n g a d v i c e about t h e d i s p o s i t i o n of t h e i r p a p e r s may wish t o c o n s u l t w i t h t h e c h i e f of t h e H a n u s c r i p t D i v i s i o n of t h e L i b r a r y of Coagress. The S e n a t c H i s t o r i a n ' s o f f i c e v i l l a l s o provide c o n s u l t a t i o n about t h e p r o c e s e i n g and d i s p o s i t i o n of S e n a t o r s ' p a p e r s and r e c o r d s . I n any c a s e , t h e o f f i c e and :he d e p o s i t o r y shotlld a g r e e on what w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n , both i n te\ms of q u a n t i t y and c o n t e n t . Whatever i s d e c i d z z upon, t h e o f f i c e w i l l have t h e u s e of t h e f r a n k i a g p r i v F l e g t f o r 90 d a y s a f t e r l e a v i n g o f f i c e f o r t h e t r a n s f e r of f l l e s , r e c o r d s , p a p e r s , e t c . In a d d i t i o n Eouse Members may s h i p r e c o r d s and o t h e r paperr. by t h e most econcwtical 1297, 95th Congress. means a v a i l a b l e , p r u s u a n t t o H.Res. Expenses i n c u r r e d f o r t h i s purpose v l l l be r e f ~ b u r s e dfrom t h e c o n t i n g e n t fund upon au'ci\orization of t h e C l e r k of the House. I f r e c o r d s a r e t o be shipped t o a d e p o n i t o r y i n a Eenber's D i c t r i c t , t h e C l e r k of t h e Elouse can a r r a n g e fcr t r a n s p c r t a t i o n by freight. The Property Suppl k c p a i r S e r v i c e O f f i c e , under t h e C l e r g , rill assist o f f i c e s i n s h i p p i n g r e c o r d s by f r e i g h t . The S e n a t e H i s t o r i a n has i n f o r n a t i o n on t h e a d v a c t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s of sending S e n a t e r e c o r d s by f r e i g h t , U.S. P o s t a l Service, o r c o m e r c i a 1 parcel ecrvice. Host d e p o r r i t o r i e ~recornend forwarding r e c o r d s t h a t w i l l document t h e s t r u c t u r e , managemzt, a c t i v i r i e s , snd i n t e r r e l a t i o n s of t h e Hcrnber's o f f i c e and s t a f f ; t h e Xcrcber's r o l e i n t h e l e , o i r l e t i v e process; t h e r o l e and importance of t h e Henbrr's c o m i t t e e work; :he Member's i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h F e d e r a l e x e c u t i v e departments and a g e n c i e s ; t h e Member's i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h h i s c o n s z i t u e n t s , and w i t h l o c a l ; ~ n dr e g i o n a l c o m u ~ i t ydevelopment, econonic, t n d p u b l i c s e r v i c e activiti.es. ~ D e p o s i t o r i e s o f t e n w i l l s e e k a p p r o v a l t o remove from t h 'donated m a t e r i a l i t e m s f p r e s u ~ e dminor f d : ~ o r t z n c e ,e . g . n a t e r i s l and r m t i n e i n f o i n c t i o r i a l r e q u e s t s . d u p l i c a t e c o p i e s of any Different categories of congressional papers questions and merit individual consideration. at.d records raise different A dificussion of t h e m categoriee follovs. Casevork material consists of correupondencc vith conetituentr and govemraental departments and agencies In which Uelenberr of Congreos provided Although there f a no standard procedure for assistance to their caastftuents. the disposition of castvork files, they can generally be divided into two categories: closed and open cases. Closed coaes arc those that have been wrked on and concluded vkfle the Henber served in Congress. There is no longer any on,"oic= c-nicaticin with the constituent, and there has been some resolution in the case.. Esnentially three alternatives exist as to the disponition of closed cases. Pirat, they can he for~ardedwith other correspondenre to the institution which will house the Heaber's papcre, if the facility vnnto them. Some depositories do not want a large volu~eof pspers, while others want to keep sanpler; to illustrate the kind of work afid the constituent services a legislator-includes in his work. Second, if the closed cases are ~zrticul~r?y personal, and :he Henber (or staff of a deceased Merber) wishes to protect u constituent's privacy, the correspondence a y be retorued to the constituent. Third, if the corres~ondenceis considered personal and possibly e~barraasing, it can be destroyed. If casework correspondence is forwarded to a de~ository (other than a 1 wight Federal Agency) along vith other correspondence, soae or ~ 1 cases be designated as being of a personal natvre so as to restrict pubiic nccess t o t b e o e p a p e r s a t l e a s t f o r : s p e c i f i e d p e r l o d of ti* privacy. and t o e n s u r e t h e i r It m y be p o s s i b l e that t h e p a p e r s vould be s u b j e c t t o S t a t e l a w regarding public records a c t , t h e freedoa of information a c t , o r t h e privacy. Theoc i o u u e s s h o u l d be r e s o l v e d i n c o n s u l t o t i o n v i t h t h e i ! s t i t r t t i o n . Open c a s c o , on t h e o t h s t hand, arc t h c a e that arc n o t r e s o l v e d o r csncludcd when t h e h b e r l e a v e s t h e o f f i c e . A H u b e r has a number of o p t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d & / s h e w y p a s s a n open u e e r t o h i d h e r succeaoor, nrouring t o theme cases. t h e uucceemor i s u U l i n g , and the c o n o t i t u e n t h e g r a n t e d approval. bwemr, t h f r i r mt p o l l t i e a l l y d e r i r s b l e . Saactimas, A r e t i r i n g Efrrskr of t h e Eoura r e y traimfer open crees t o one of the S t a t e ' s S e n a t o r s , a s s m f n g a S e n a t o r is -noble. Or, rsrely, open cases mey be t r a n r f e r r c d t:, a n o t h e r HtmbCr of C o a ~ t c s aa f t e r t h e a p p r o v a l of t h e c o n s t i t u e n t invo:..cd obtained. U s d y , &~1bercldeal a j l y i n t h e caoe he6 been v i t h c a s e e fmm t h e i r ovn constitrren:s. The f i l e s nay be t u r n e d over t o a n o t h e r o f f i c e by t r a n n f e r r i n = t h e f i l e s and i n f o m t n g t h e l i e s f o n o f f i c e s vho v f l l be t a k i n g o v e r t h e C86eo. h'early a l l c o n g r e e z f o a a l l h i s o n o f f i c e s i n e x e c u t i v e a g e n c i e s w i l l a c c e p t and f o l l o v in8truc:ionr .. of thc! o u t g o f a g 15cm5er. The one e x c e p t i o n , the V e t e r a n ' s L i b i n i e t r a t F o n , w i l l auto-&tically Congrc3iz l e a v e s o f f i c e , c l o s e a l l pending c a e e s vhec a Heaber of I f t h e r e are no i n o t n x t t o ~ s ,some l i a s c n o f f i c e e sill c o n t i n u e t h e c a s e with t h e occceeaing M e ~ b e rf r o n t h e S t a t e o r D i s t r i c t . Dnleos inrtruc:ed o t h e r t r i a e by t h e Mezber o t h e r l i a i e o n o f f i c e s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o w o r t on eacb c a s e t o conclusion, c o m u n i c n t f n g o n l y w i t h t h e c o n s t i t b z n t . It i s a d v i s a b l e t o check w i t h each agency l i a i s o n o f f i c e , a t which a n y c a s e s a r e p e n d i ~ g . A Eecber could t h o r e t u r n each case t o t h e c o n s t i t u e n t , v i t h a l c t L e r explsining t h a t he sr s h e i s l e e v i c g o f f i c e a n d i s no l o n g e r i n n position t o follow t h e case t o n conclusicn. SENSITIVE TSCGiZDS Mil, COBESPOXDENCE I n c l o s i n g a c o a g r e s s i o n n l o f f i c e c o n e i d e r a t i o n should be g i v e n t o t h e d i s p o s i t i o n of any e e n e i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i ~ c di n t h e k n b e r ' s r e c o r d s and papers. category. Some casework correspondence and c a s e f i l e s could be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s For exomple, rwst c o n s t i t u e n t e b e l i e v e they are p r i v a t e l y correeponding w i t h t h e Member, m d may i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e corrcspondence which could cause embarrassment o r ham t o persons o r i n s t i t u t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d t h e r e i n . Another example l a correspondence from t h e b u s h e s 8 o r t r a d e s e c t o r . The ralume of t h e r e r e c o r d s could p o s ~ i b l ydimclose t r a d e s e c r e t s o r e c o n o t i c informetion which could be d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e p a r t i e s concerned. Pereonit1 i d e n t i f i e r 8 urn be e l i m i n a t e d by m a r k i t g otit nanres, p l a c e s , e t c . i f f e o e i b l e . Members may a l e o a c q u i r e s e n s i t i v e r e c o r d 8 and papers r e l n t i e g t o c o d t t e e busLocss. Rule XI 2. (e) 2 of t h e Rowz and Pale %.I 10(s) of t h e Semte provides t h a t all " c o n a f t t e e h e a r i n g s , r e c o r d a , d a t a , c h a r t s , and f i l e s s h a l l be kept s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t f r o 3 t h e c o n g r e ~ s i o a io f f i c e recordo of t h e MenSsr nerving a s C h a i m a n of t h e c o m i t t e e . " These p a p e r s n u s t b= handled i n accorclence with t h e rules and r e g u l a t i o n s of t h e House and Senate. I n t h e coursa' of a c o n g r e s s i o n a l c a r e e r , a Member of Ccngress v i l l r e c i c v e such papers and documents a s l e t t e r s from P r e s i d e n t s , corrcspondence from c o l l e a g u e s i n Congress, and c o m m n i c a t i o o s with o t h z r p u b l i c o f r ' i c i e l s . When c l o s i n g a c o n g r e s s i o n a l o f f i c e , t h e Henber o r s t a f f n u s t r e a c h a d e c i s i o n a3 t o t h e d i s r o s a l of those Itens. I f i t has been decidrd t o a r c h i v e t h e ptperG i n a d e p o s i t o r y , i t c u s t b e d c t e m i n e d whether o r n o t t h e papers w i l l add t o t h e understanding of h i s t o i i c a l e v e n t s o r t o t h e o p e r a t i o n of a c o n g r e s s i o n a l o f f i c e , o r t o t h e i n p o r t a n c c of t h e Herbcrt8 r o l e ab a l e g i s l a t o r . T h e r e may be 6os.e docuzenta of p u b l i c i n p o r t a n c e o r documents a Henber may want t o eave f o r hie (her) heirs. These m y be kept by t h e ~ e a b e ro r p r e s e r v e d in t h e d e p o s i t o r y w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e a c c e s s requircarcnts f o r r e e e o r c h e r o . T h i s , too, should be s p e c i f i e d i n t h e deed of g i f t . In a d d i t i o n t o thoce i t e m s d i s c u s s e d above, a Hcmber of Congress w i l l have a c c u ~ u l o t e dw b a t a n t i . 1 f f l e e of r o u t i n e c o n a t i t u e a t correepannence, r e s e a r c h materials, newpaper c l i p p i n g s , etc., d u r i n g a c o n g r e s s i o n q l tzarear. I f a Kember has e l e c t e d t o d o n a t e h i s ( h e r ) p a p e r s t o a l i b r a r y o r o t h e r i n e t i t u t i o n , a d e c i s i o n razt be madL e o t o hov meny e s s e n t i a l l y r o u t i n e itcas , ere i n c l u d e d i n t h e dornrLcu. k l t h o u ~ ht h a y x y be L n d i c i t i v e of t h e q w n t l t y of work produced i n each o f f i c e , they do n o t t e c e s ~ c r i l yr e f l e c t t h e i n d i v i d u p l Nenber'e a c t i v i t y . iience, from a h i s t o r i c a l perspective, t h e s e p p ~ ms y bs of l i l n i t cd v a l u e . POSITION PMERS D i s t i n c t f r o s t h e r o u t i n e i t e m l i s t e d above e r e d o c u n c n t ~cnbodying t h e Mecber's . p o s i t i o n on l e g i a l e t i v e n a t t e r s through t h e yenrs. In t h i s c a t e g o r y would f a l l p r e s s r e l e a s e s , s p e e c h e s , b i l l s i n t r o d u c e d , a s t e r c o p i e s of "robo' l e t t e r s , a n d C a n ~ r e s s i o n z lRecord excerFts ( n o t a r t i c l e s s e n t t o t h e tiember for insertion). These can be a r r a n g e d i n any number of vcps: by s u b j s c t (houslz:, s g r i c i l l t u r e , f o r e i g n aid, e t c . ) , chronologically, by t y p t ('press z z l e a s e , I speech, etc.), o r i n any o t h e r manner which i Z l u s t r a t e s t h e I4ecber'e career. I f t h e r e a r e no s e c o ~ dc o p i e s , t h e papers t h e Member wants t o keep can be duplicated. If the Member anticipate8 reentering politics at aoae future date, this conpilatfcn vill provide a brief 'recapitulation of positions ttkea previously. Also, if the Menber plans on doing any vriting, theae pooition / papere will be ueeful as docunmtstion. In later years, position papero could prove to be among the most valuable in any rerearch undertaken on the #enrberls career. The Committee on Bouee Administration vill provide staff a e s i o - m e to Henberm needing help in disposing of their paparo and records. The Senate Rtstoricai office provides, upon request, consultation regarding the proceosing r..3 planning for the d1s;oeition of Seeitoral paperr. As is true w i t h official papera, a Eember of Congress taay wlab to ensure that those mnentocs of sn-officfnlnature Ere kept separate and not discarded. Official mzmcntoes vould include photogre?he with fnportoct persons, actual copies of bills introduced by the Henber an6 leter enacted into l a (perheps kith the signature of colleagues vha plsyed key roles in the bill's psssag-.), Presidentfal pens used in signing legislation, coulttee pictures, and, vhen the Hember has served as connittee chnirnan, gavels used during coanittee hearings. Unofficiel memenroes would IncluiC, among other things, plaques end awsrds presented by constituent groups, and particulirly meanfngful letters fron constituente- Most such nerentoes would also add to any display (if one is contemplated) that would accczpcny thr collection of materials at a librsry or other depository. S o ~ einstitutions also seek license plates, plaques, carnpsign leaflets and other ~zrmrabilia. Aa with poaition papers, some of these ntnteatoes might be useful if the Member plans any future politjcal activity. Pot e-ple, photographs with famous persons can be used in the future, and Presidential pens can be cited as recognition of prior legiolativc accastplich~cnto. It is iaportant to distinguish between official and unofficial mencntoes. Official ~~~~izintoes arc entitled to be franked, while personal itess, m d Daaorabi1i.a not related to the perfornance of the Member's duties, must be shfpped at the Hetber'~ or the depo~itory'e expense. Goode bought vith such g o v e m = n t funds as congrcsoional allovnncc~ady renrrfn the property oil the Covcr?zsent. In closing a congressional ofLice, it i3 advfsrble to seek the counetl of the C o d t t e e on House h&nis:rctlcn the Seaate Conittee on Rules and P.&fnlstration disposal of ouch itens. disposed of at will. or for guidance as to the! Itens bought vith ptrsocd funds may, of course, be