Land Disposal Policies of the Principal Federal Land Management Agencies

LC /4.2/~:8) 45b E N R APR 1 2 '1983 Report No. 81-156 ENR LAND DISPOSAL POLICIES OF THE PRINCIPAL FEDERAL LAND MANAGEMENT AGENCIES by Cynthia E. Huston Analyst in Natural Resources Policy Environment and Natural Resources Policy Division July 1, 1981 T h e Congressional Research Service works exclusively for the Congress, conducting research, analyzing legislation, and providing information at the request of committees, Members, and their staffs. The Service makes such research available, without partisan bias, in many forms including studies, reports, compilations, digests, and background briefings. Upon request, CRS assists committees in analyzing legdative proposals and issues, and in assessing the possible effects of these proposals and their alternatives. T h e Service's senior specialists and subject analysts are also available for personal consultations in their respective fields of expertise. ABSTRACT While t h e heyday o f l a r g e - s c a l e d i s p o s a l o f F e d e r a l p u b l i c l a n d i s l o n g p a s t , i n t e r e s t on t h e p a r t of c i t i z e n s and l o c a l and s t a t e governments i n g a i n i n g t i t l e t o such l a n d s c o n t i n u e s , and p r o v i s i o n s s t i l l e x i s t i n l a w f o r t r a n s f e r o f t i t l e t o some F e d e r a l p u b l i c l a n d . The r e p o r t r e v i e w s t h e h i s t o r y of p u b l i c l a n d d i s p o s a l a n d t h e l o c a t i o n a n d u s e s o f p r e s e n t F e d e r a l p u b l i c lands. Land d i s p o s a l p o l i c i e s a n d p r a c t i c e s o f a g e n c i e s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l u t u r e , D e f e n s e a n d t h e I n t e r i o r , a n d o f t h e G e n e r a l S e r v i c e s Administ r a t i o n a r e discussed. An Appendix p r o v i d e s a d d r e s s e s o f B u r e a u o f Land Management S t a t e o f f i c e s , a n d F o r e s t S e r v i c e a n d G e n e r a l S e r v i c e s Administ r a t i o n Regional o f f i c e s . CONTENTS ................................................................. iii SUMMARY ................................................................... v i i INTRODUCTION .............................................................. 1 I. BACKGROUND .......................................................... 5 A . H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e on P u b l i c Land D i s p o s a l .................. 5 B . L o c a t i o n and Use of P u b l i c Lands ................................ 12 ABSTRACT I1 DISPOSAL OF FEDERAL LAND BY AGENCIES WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR A Bureau o f Land Management 1 P r i n c i p a l D i s p o s a l P r o v i s i o n s o f t h e F e d e r a l Land P o l i c y and Management A c t 2 O t h e r Laws T h a t P e r t a i n t o t h e D i s p o s a l of P u b l i c Lands 3 Mining Claims a n d P a t e n t s A Note About A l a s k a 4 B Bureau of R e c l a m a t i o n C National Park Service D F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e . . . . I11 . . . . . ............................................................ ....................................... .......................................... ..... ................................... ..................................... .......................................... ........................................... ....................................... DISPOSAL OF FEDERAL LAND BY THE U.S. FOREST SERVICE WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE A Exchanges and S a l e s B Mining i n t h e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s ......................................... ............................................. .................................. IV. DISPOSAL OF FEDERAL LAND BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ............... V. DISPOSAL OF SURPLUS PROPERTY BY THE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION . . . APPENDIX: TABLES : A d d r e s s e s o f B u r e a u of Land Management S t a t e O f f i c e s . F o r e s t S e r v i c e and General S e r v i c e s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Regional O f f i c e s . . TABLE 1 TABLE 2 TABLE 3 . ... D i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e O r i g i n a l P u b l i c Domain (1781-1979) A c r e a g e o f BLM a n d F o r e s t S e r v i c e H o l d i n g s i n t h e Western S t a t e s Department o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s Land D i s p o s a l Programs i n A l a s k a ..................................... ...................................... 19 19 19 23 29 34 39 41 41 43 44 47 51 53 55 6 14 38 SUMMARY The d a y s i n which t h e F e d e r a l Government p r o v i d e d c h e a p l a n d f o r t h e t a k i n g a r e gone. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n t e r e s t i n o b t a i n i n g F e d e r a l l a n d s rem a i n s h i g h , a n d i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n p a r c e l s o f p u b l i c l a n d s und e r c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The l a n d d i s p o s a l p r a c t i c e s o f t h e p r i n c i p a l F e d e r a l l a n d management a g e n c i e s a r e summarized below. Department of t h e I n t e r i o r Bureau o f Land Management (BLM). As a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f more t h a n 400 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f p u b l i c l a n d , BLM i s t h e o n l y F e d e r a l a g e n c y which makes p u b l i c domain l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r s a l e o r o t h e r d i s p o s a l o n a r e l a t i v e l y frequent basis. C r i t e r i a f o r s a l e s a n d e x c h a n g e s of BLM l a n d a r e p r o v i d e d i n T i t l e I1 o f t h e F e d e r a l Land P o l i c y a n d Management A c t of 1976 (FLPMA), P.L. 94-579. T h i s m a j o r p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n r e p e a l e d most p r i o r l a w p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s a l e o r d i s p o s a l of t h e p u b l i c l a n d s a n d e s t a b l i s h e d new l a n d s a l e s p r o c e d u r e s . Most f i n a l r e g u l a t i o n s t o implement t h e s a l e o f p u b l i c l a n d s u n d e r FLPMA h a v e now b e e n p u b l i s h e d . The r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e s a l e prov i s i o n of FLPMA a l s o p r o v i d e a way f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o recommend t h a t s p e c i f i c t r a c t s of l a n d be o f f e r e d f o r s a l e . I n g e n e r a l , t h e s a l e s t a k e p l a c e a t p u b l i c a u c t i o n a n d a r e c o n d u c t e d t h r o u g h t h e S t a t e BLM o f f i c e s . The s a l e o f a t r a c t o f p u b l i c l a n d i s t o b e made a t n o t l e s s t h a n f a i r m a r k e t v a l u e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e F e d e r a l Land P o l i c y a n d Management A c t , p u b l i c l a n d w i l l c o n t i n u e t o b e a v a i l a b l e u n d e r c e r t a i n o t h e r l a w s . Some i r r i g a b l e a r i d a n d s e m i - a r i d l a n d s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r s e l e c t i o n u n d e r t h e D e s e r t Land A c t . S i m i l a r l a n d s may become a v a i l a b l e i n S t a t e s t h a t a r e s t i l l e l i g i b l e t o p a t e n t l a n d t o s e t t l e r s under t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h e Carey A c t . P e r s o n s h o l d i n g a v a l i d m i n i n g c l a i m u n d e r t h e 1872 Mining A c t may a l s o b e e l i g i b l e t o r e c e i v e t i t l e t o t h e l a n d s u n d e r c l a i m . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e are s e v e r a l o t h e r l a w s o n t h e books t h a t a u t h o r i z e t h e c o n v e y a n c e o f l a n d t o S t a t e s a n d l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s as w e l l a s p r i v a t e p a r t i e s u n d e r c e r t a i n circumstances. R e p e a l o f t h e Homestead Act o f 1862 by FLPMA went i n t o e f f e c t immedia t e l y i n a l l S t a t e s e x c e p t A l a s k a , where t h e e f f e c t i v e d a t e of t h e r e p e a l w i l l be delayed u n t i l October 1986. For r e a s o n s e x p l a i n e d i n t h e main t e x t o f t h i s r e p o r t , however, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t many h o m e s t e a d i n g g r a n t s c a n be made i n A l a s k a d u r i n g t h i s i n t e r i m . Bureau o f R e c l a m a t i o n . The B u r e a u , which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 6 . 6 m i l l i o n a c r e s i n 17 W e s t e r n S t a t e s , h a s a p o l i c y o f r e t a i n i n g o n l y t h o s e l a n d s which a r e deemed n e c e s s a r y f o r r e c l a m a t i o n p r o j e c t p u r p o s e s . Once p a r c e l s of land are identified as unneeded, they are either sold by the Bureau of Reclamation or turned over to the BLM or the General Services Administration, depending upon whether the land was originally withdrawn, acquired, exchanged or donated. Sales, however, have dwindled over the last several years because of the reduction in irrigation projects. On occasion, the Bureau exchanges unneeded lands on which there are facilities which interfere with a project. Exchanges are also possible under FLPMA. National Park Service. Land in the National Park System is not available for sale or exchange for all practical purposes. Occasionally, however, the Federal Government will authorize an exchange of private land within the boundaries of National Parks for cther Federal lands (generally BLM lands) outside of the Park boundaries. Fish and Wildlife Service. Land in the National Wildlife Refuge System, administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is not available for sale. At times, exchanges of land within the System may be undertaken for private lands of greater value for wildlife. The exchange mechanism is used strictly as a tool to improve or upgrade the refuge system. Forest Service. For all practical purposes, National Forest System lands are not available for sale. The Forest Service is authorized to conduct land exchanges, however, if such exchanges would further the public interest. The decision to dispose of land is entirely discretionary on the part of the Service and the Secretary of Agriculture. Persons seeking further information should contact the supervisor of the unit of the National Forest in which the land of interest is located, or the appropriate regional office. It should also be noted that approximately 85 percent of the National Forest System is open to mineral exploration and development. Department of Defense (DOD) The DOD regularly reviews Federal land under its jurisdiction (24.5 million acres at present) to identify lands which it no longer needs. If the land thus identified was originally part of the public domain, it goes to BLM for disposal or transfer; acquired land is subject to the surplus property disposal procedures of the General Services Administration. The Defense Department also has authority to exchange lands, but exchanges rarely materialize. General Services Administration (GSA) The GSA may, from time to time, sell lands that have been acquired by any of the the Federal Government if those lands are no longer needed by Federal agencies. Surplus property offered for sale to private parties is ordinarily handled by a GSA regional office on a competitive bid basis. Scheduled sales are widely publicized. INTRODUCTION On October 21, 1976, President Ford signed P.L. 94-579, the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA), which in essence provides the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) of the Department of the Interior with its first mandate to manage the public lands for permanent Federal ownership. Among other things, the Act removed from the books numerous nineteenth and early twentieth century laws authorizing the conveyance of Federal lands into private ownership and established new land sale procedures. One of the laws repealed by FLPMA was the Homestead Act of 1862 which had come to symbolize an entire era in American history -- extending from the 1860s to the 1970s -- in which land for farming could be obtained free of charge from the Federal Government. 11 The repeal of the Homestead Act, however, was really little more than a formality -- the days had long since disappeared when Federal land suitable for farming or settlement purposes was in plentiful supply. In the spring of 1977, the Bureau of Land Management announced a freeze on further public land sales while regulations to implement FLPMA were being established. The recent publication of final regulations can be considered a major step forward in the processing of public land sales. In addition, the Secretary of the Interior, James Watt, has announced that the identification and transfer of public land parcels for community needs will be a continuing priority of his Department. In February 1981, Secretary Watt asked 1/ The Homestead Act will remain in effect in Alaska until 1986. However, for reasons described on pp. 34-38, it is unlikely that much homesteading will occur even in that State. Western governors to identify small parcels of Federally administered lands which local governments wish to acquire to meet community needs for schools, hospitals, parks, and other public purposes. Watt further indicted that op- portunities for land transfer will not be restricted only to those which can be accomplished under existing authorities (i.e., he is prepared to pursue legislative and regulatory changes, if necessary, to meet identified State and local needs). Soon after his confirmation, Watt initiated a moratorium on Federal land acquisition to provide time for a review of acquisition policy and boundaries of existing park areas, and for the planning of an aggressive exchange program to round out the Federal estate. The policy was expressed in the Office of Management and Budget's spending proposed report released in conjunction with President Reagan's State of the Union message on February 18, 1981 (as reported in Environmental Study Conference Fact Sheet, February 18, 1981, pp. 2-3). Since interest in obtaining public land remains high, it is the purpose of this report to describe the various means by which Federal land is disposed. The body of the report consists of five chapters. The immediately following chapter provides background information on the location and use of the public domain and a brief history of Federal land disposal. Chapter I1 describes the land disposal policies of the Department of the Interior. The focus of the discussion is on the Bureau of Land Management, the only Federal agency which routinely sells public domain land as provided for by the procedures of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act. Land disposal policies of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Park Service and the Bureau of Reclamation are also discussed. For the convenience of readers with questions specifically on Alaskan land disposal, a separate section has been included. Chapter 111 describes the land exchange and sale policies of the U.S. Forest Service as well as mining in the National forests. A brief description of disposal of Federal land by the Department of ~efensecan be found in the fourth chapter, and of the surplus property sales procedures of the General Services Administration in the fifth chapter. One should keep in mind that the backdrop for future land disposal by the Federal Government is colored by an assortment of issues, many of which are competing and few of which can be ignored. Land prices continue to rise rapidly -- according to the National Association of Hornebuilders, land prices have risen 1,275 percent since 1949. The average price of U.S. farmland has doubled in the last 5 years. 21 The States with the largest public land holdings comprise the country's fastest growing region. "During the past decade, the population of the West- ern Sunbelt States (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas and Utah) swelled by 25 percent, compared with 11 percent for the entire nation. The headcount jumped 64 percent in Nevada, 53 percent in Arizona and 38 percent in Utah." 3/ This burgeoning growth is placing new and stronger demands on the public lands and their resources. Cities are now rivals of traditional users of the public land resources. The Reagan Administration has announced a policy to expand energy and mineral development of the West's Federal lands, an action which many fear will aggravate what already is becoming an increasingly cruel competition for the region's limited water supply. 2/ The Federal Drive to Acquire Private Lands Should be Reassessed. washington, D.C., The General Accounting Office, December 14, 1979. p. 10. (CED-80-14). 3/ Mosher, Lawrence. Reagan and the GOP are Riding the Sagebrush Rebellion - But for How Long? National Journal, V. 13, March 21, 1981: 4 7 7 . land (including grazing and mining interest) are yet to be fully determined. The deployment of the proposed $50 billion MX missile system in Nevada and Utah could require as much as 10,000 miles of new highway and railroad lines, 25 square miles of land for missile sites, and bring an estimated 100,000 new residents to the area during the construction period. Because of the limited private lands in the area, public lands will be needed to deal with the MX growth. However, the effects of such a transfer on present users of the land (including grazing and mining interests) are yet to be fully determined. Last, but in the eyes of many Westerners not least of the issues relevant to future land disposal, is the so-called Sagebrush Rebellion, the present attempt by numerous States, organizations, individuals and public representatives to reduce the Federal Government's public land ownership, influence and control in the West by transfering over 540 million acres of public land to the States. The "rebellion" represents a combination of forces including interests that want Federally owned land for commercial development, ranchers who want to be free of restrictions on grazing the Federal lands, and oil and mining interests that want more access to the mineral and petroleum resources they believe to be on and under Federally owned Western lands. Other factors contributing to the fracas include alleged Government insensitivity and overregulation, poor channels of communication, home rule sentiments, hostility to the Federal Government and suspicion among Westerners that they have been used by the East. I. BACKGROUND A. Historical Perspective on Public Land Disposal As early as 1780 the original 13 States began assigning their lands be- yond the Appalachian Mountains to the new Nation in an effort to settle disputes over conflicting colonial grants and for use, in part, as a revenue source. More than ten percent of the Nation's land at that time was included in the State cessions which were completed by 1802. During the next 70 years further public domain land was acquired through purchase, annexation and foreign cession. As a result, by the middle of the 19th century, the Federal Government held title to nearly 80 percent of the total land area of the United States. For the most part, public policy during the 1800s was clearly directed toward transferring Federal land to private owners and/or States. The 11 Western States, commonly known as the "public land states," as well as 19 other Midwestern and Southern States, were carved from land which was once 4/ the public domain. - The massive disposal policy was conditioned also by the Federal Government's need for money, and much of the public domain land was sold for cash to private individuals. Other large amounts, as indicated by Table 1, were given as payments for military service or as grants to encourage settlement, farming, transportation systems, mineral development, etc. 41 As areas gained in population they could apply for a change in status from Territory to State at which point they would be admitted to the Union. For an overview of State admissions, see U.S. General Accounting Office. Experiences of Past Territories Can Assist Puerto Rico Status Deliberations; Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States. GGO80-26, March 7, 1980. Washington, 1980: pp. 3-21. TABLE 1. Disposition of the Original Public Domain 1781-1979 Million Acres Original Public Domain 1,837 .O Disposed of to Private Interests: Confirmed as Private Land Claims Granted to Veterans as Military Bounties Granted or Sold to Homesteaders Sold Under Timber and Stone Act Granted or Sold Under Timber Culture Act Sold Under Desert Land Act Granted to Railroad Corporations Disposed of by Methods not Classified elsewhere 11 34 .O 61 .O 287.5 13.9 10.9 10.7 94.4 303.5 Total 815.9 Granted to States for: Support of Common Schools 77.6 2/ Reclamation of Swamp Lands 64.9 Construction of Railroads 37.1 Support of Miscellaneous Institutions and Other Schools 21.7 Canals and Rivers 6.1 Construction of Wagon Roads 3.4 31 Purposes not Classified Elsewhere 117.6 Total Total Disposition Area of Original Public Domain Remaining in Federal Ownership 328.6 1144.5 692 .O I/ Chiefly, by public, private and pre-emption sales, but also through mineral ent ires, scrip locations, and sales of townsites and townlots . 2/ Approximately 600,000 acres of land are still due some States including ~rizona,California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming, under terms of their individual Statehood acts. Several recent regulatory changes by BLM will make it easier for certain States to obtain land from the Federal Government to compensate for base land lost earlier due to delays in Federal surveys and reservations. The rulemaking would provide for any land selected by a State to be segregated from acquisition by any other party for up to two years while the State's application is being processed by BLM. Dept. of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management. State Grants; Amendments to the State Indemnity Selections Regulations. Federal Register, v. 46, no. 82, April 29, 1981, pp. 24135-24139. 3/ For construction of various public improvement, reclamation of desert lands, construction of water reservoirs, etc. Source: Bureau of Land Management, Public Land Statistics -- 1979. A few of the laws that authorized the transfer of Western land to individuals, businesses and States, include the Swamp and Overflow Act of 1850, the Homestead Act of 1862, the General Mining Law of 1872, the Desert Land Entry Act of 1877, the Timber and Stone Act of 1878, and the Land Grant Act of 1887. As the 19th century came to a close, the policy of rampant land disposal gradually ended. Of the public land which remained, millions of acres were eventually reserved for special purposes. In 1891, for example, Congress enacted a system for reserving forest land from the public domain for permanent Federal ownership (16 U.S.C. 471) (since repealed). Reservation of the national forests was due in part to a need for watershed protection for western agriculture, and for maintenance of stable prices for forest pro5/ The withdrawal of mineral lands, on the other hand, was designed ducts. to foster mineral use and to prevent agricultural development from thwarting such use. 6/ The concept of preservation, which developed more slowly in the West with major debates over Yosemite and Yellowstone, was not a key aspect of the early reservation and withdrawal policy. 5 / During the 1900s as many deletions were made from the National Forest System as additions. After the lands judged to be agricultural lands had been homesteaded, it frequently turned out that they were not viable for continued agricultural use. Consequently, during the 1930s several million of these acres were purchased from private owners or acquired at the behest of counties by the Forest Service because they were tax delinquent. As a result of this and similar instances, a common but inaccurate local view developed that public lands were taken from local lands. This still clouds the current debate over Western public lands. 6/ It should be noted that while the "withdrawal" policies were aimed mainly at retention of water and mineral resource potential, their ultimate direction was toward private development of these resources under permit or lease. Also, the land acquired by the States under the numerous school and transportation land grants was used as capital to provide essential public services and was for local as well as national development. The Withdrawal Act of 1910, also known as the Pickett Act (36 Stat. 847) broadened and made firm the President's power to withdraw public lands from entry and reserve them for "water-power sites, irrigation, classification of lands, and/or other public purposes to be specified in the orders of withdrawal." A year later the Weeks Act (36 Stat. 961), among other things, sym- bolized the reversal of the former policy of disposing of Federal land and provided for the acquisition of land by the Federal Government. Homesteading, however, was still a means by which considerable amounts of Federal land passed into private ownership until the 1930s when President Franklin Roosevelt withdrew the remaining public domain until it could be properly classified. This move, intended as a temporary measure, had the effect of closing the public domain to further large scale disposal. As far back as 1812, Congress had established the General Land Office (GLO) to administer the public lands. This move consolidated individual district land offices that had been created in 1800 to handle the Government's land sales and to keep records. Initially part of the Treasury Department, GLO was transferred to the Department of the Interior in 1849. As the first custodian of the public domain, GLO made little attempt to manage the public land. 7/ In fact, a program of active management of public domain lands was not provided until enactment in 1934 of the Taylor Grazing Act (48 Stat. 1269). This act authorized the Secretary of the Interior to create not more than 80 million acres of grazing districts on Federal land which was not already 7 1 Many people believed that the land eventually would pass into private ownership (giving little reason to invest in improvements). The assumption rested in large part on agrarian philosophy, the Jefferson/Lincoln concept that there should be many owners of small amounts of land, the view that irrigation would turn desert into viable lands, and the concept that every acre had a potential for effective private ownership and development which would be in the public interest. committed to another public use and to make rules and regulations for their occupancy. In addition, the act established the U.S. Grazing Service within the Interior Department for administrative purposes and provided GLO with the authority to classify public domain land, an action which signaled the end of the Federal Government's overall policy of disposal. While management of the public domain had improved under the direction of the Grazing Service, operations were still considered to be less than effective due in part to insufficient funding and in part to a fundamental objection by western ranchers to regulation and fees on what was hitherto unregulated and free. In 1946, however, management of the public domain entered a new era with the merger of GLO and the Grazing Service to create the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), still within the Department of the Interior. The trend toward growing public investment in improving and managing the public lands, begun with the Taylor Grazing Act, was accompanied by an increase in the public's stake and interest in the land. 81 tern By the 1960s, con- for environmental values and open space had begun to compete with develop- ment and increased production. In 1964, not surprisingly, Congress passed three laws which enunciated a policy of Federal retention of unappropriated public lands. 81 During the decade of the fifties, however there was some pressure to dispose of additional public domain lands. This resulted in large-scale classification under the 1938 Small Tract Act which previously had been seldom used. Disposal under the act largely came to an end in the early 1960s when local governments complained to BLM about the pressures being put on them by small tract owners to make improvements on the scattered parcels. Activity under the Recreation and Public Purposes Act, which provided a means for selling public land to State and local governments at a low cost for public purposes, also increased during the 1950s. The Wilderness Act (P.L. 88-577) declared the policy of the Congress to establish a National Preservation System to be composed of Federally owned areas designated by Congress as "wilderness areas." Public Law 88-606 es- tablished the Public Land Law Review Commission to conduct a comprehensive review of existing public land laws and regulations, as well as a review of the policies and practices of the Federal land management agencies. The Commission's review would recommend modification~which in the judgement of the Commission would best serve to carry out the policy that "the public lands of the United States shall be (a) retained and managed or (b) disposed of, all in a manner to provide the maximum benefit for the general public." The Commission reported its findings to Congress in 1970 91 and made over 137 recommendations in the areas of planning future public land use, public land policy and the environment, various types of resources, outdoor recreation, occupancy uses, tax immunity, and land grants to the States. The Commission clearly decided against wholesale land disposal, since "at this time most public lands would not serve the maximum public interest in private ownership." 101 Also in 1964, the Classification and Multiple Use Act (P.L. 88-607) strengthened the power of BLM by giving it authority to classify land for retention as well as disposal. 111 Upon expiration of the act in 1970, BLM 91 Public Land Law Review Commission. One Third of the Nation's Land. ~ a s h i z ~ t o nU.S. , Govt. Print. Office, June 1970, 342 p. 101 Ibid., p. 1. 111 In the process of implementing the act, and as part of its decisionmaking process, BLM held meetings throughout the West. During this time, local officials in the West, who had initially hoped to be able to include the land in question on the county tax rolls, gradually lost interest in the struggle for disposal -- a reversal in attitude which largely grew out of fear that the tax revenues might not be as much as the funds being paid by the Federal Government in lieu of taxes. CRS- 11 had classified over 90 percent (190 million acres) of the public land for retention. This (plus the recommendation by the Public Land Law Review Commission the same year against wholesale land disposal) was widely believed to reflect a shift in the attitude of the American public to favor retention of national resource lands in Federal ownership with use by permit. Culmination of the trend was the passage of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) in 1976 (P.L. 94-579). From the time BLM was created in 1946, successive Presidents called for legislation to reform and consolidate public land laws. Three times since 1970, Congress considered, but failed to enact, legislation for a BLM organic act (i.e., an agency's basic 121 Consequently, until 1976 BLM continued to operate statutory authority). under the Taylor Grazing Act and an accumulation of several thousand land laws -- some of which were not only obsolete and conflicting, but had limited application and addressed isolated issues. FLPMA provided BLM with a compre- hesive legislative charter, outlining the agency's authority to permanently manage 450 million acres of public lands according to multiple use and sustained yield principles (i.e., the responsibility to find ways of accomodating, insofar as feasible and compatible, the full range of beneficial uses 131 of the land) and to enforce rules and regulations to accomplish these goals. - 121 Arguments in favor of passing an organic act for BLM included the theory that BLM-managed lands are an essential part of both the Nation's heritage as well as its present and future, and therefore should not be left to the exising tangle of laws. Others, however, had reservations on the basis that the act was likely to give too much authority to an agency already heavily involved in mineral leasing and therefore not committed to environmental protection. Still others argued that economic use would be restricted if BLM had more power. 131 The Act also provides: (1) guidelines for land use planning on all BLM lands; (2) a process for review of Executive "withdrawals" of Federal lands from one or more uses; (3) criteria for sales and exchange of BLM managed lands; (4) a study of grazing fees during a temporary moratorium on fee increases; and (continued) T i t l e I o f t h e a c t makes 13 d e c l a r a t i o n s of n a t i o n a l p o l i c y a b o u t t h e publ i c l a n d s , i n c l u d i n g a p o l i c y f a v o r i n g t h e r e t e n t i o n of t h e s e p u b l i c l a n d s i n F e d e r a l o w n e r s h i p , u n l e s s , a s a consequence of t h e l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e a c t , a d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s made t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t would b e s t b e s e r v e d by t h e s a l e of p a r t i c u l a r t r a c t s of l a n d . B. L o c a t i o n and Use of P u b l i c Lands The F e d e r a l Government h a s always been t h e N a t i o n ' s l a r g e s t landowner, and a t v a r i o u s t i m e s i n U.S. h i s t o r y h a s h e l d t i t l e t o a b o u t f o u r - f i f t h s of t h e Nation's gross a r e a . While a t o t a l of 1.1. b i l l i o n a c r e s of p u b l i c l a n d h a s p a s s e d o u t of F e d e r a l ownership u n d e r F e d e r a l l e g a l a u t h o r i t y g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e " l a n d l a w s , " a p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d of t h e l a n d a r e a of t h e 50 S t a t e s ( i . e . , ment. 141 770 m i l l i o n a c r e s ) s t i l l b e l o n g s t o t h e F e d e r a l Govern- Over 90 p e r c e n t of a l l F e d e r a l l a n d i s from t h e R o c k i e s w e s t -- t h e F e d e r a l Government, on t h e a v e r a g e , c o n t r o l s 50 p e r c e n t of t h e l a n d i n t h e 11 Western S t a t e s p l u s A l a s k a . 151 The p e r c e n t a g e of Federally-owned l a n d i n e a c h S t a t e i s shown i n t h e c h a r t on t h e f o l l o w i n g page. ( c o n t i n u e d ) ( 5 ) g u i d e l i n e s f o r i s s u i n g rights-of-ways a c r o s s t h e p u b l i c l a n d s . among I n a d d i t o n , P.L. 94-579 r e p e a l s hundred of o b s o l e t e p u b l i c l a n d s laws them t h e Homestead Act of 1862 which had p r o v i d e d one m i l l i o n and a h a l f s e t t l e r s with v i r t u a l l y f r e e public land. -- 1 4 1 I n a d d i t o n , t h e F e d e r a l Government h o l d s i n t r u s t , p r o p e r t i e s t o t a l i n g 5 1 . 8 - T i l l i o n a c r e s . The p r i n c i p a l h o l d e r of t r u s t l a n d s i s t h e Department of t h e I n t e r i o r , m a i n l y f o r I n d i a n t r i b a l l a n d s . The t r u s t p r o p e r t i e s a r e l o c a t e d i n 28 S t a t e s and t h e D i s t r i c t of Columbia, and r a n g e i n s i z e from 80 a c r e s i n Maryland t o 1 9 . 8 m i l l i o n a c r e s i n A r i z o n a . 1 5 / The F e d e r a l Government w i l l s o o n c e d e much of i t s A l a s k a l a n d h o l d i n g s t o the S t a t e o r t o Alaskan N a t i v e s a s e x p l a i n e d i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r of t h i s r e p o r t . When i t d o e s , F e d e r a l h o l d i n g s i n A l a s k a w i l l d e c r e a s e a c c o r d i n g l y . Comp l e t i o n of t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s however may t a k e many months. CKS-13 PercentageofLand by State in Federal Ownership or Control Source: Western Coalition o n Public Lands - 1978 Note: Federal ownership in Alaska will eventually drop to approximately 60% as selections of State a n d Native entitlements a r e completed. Fifty-two percent -- 404 m i l l i o n a c r e s -- of F e d e r a l l y owned l a n d h a s n e v e r b e e n i n p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p n o r h a s i t b e e n d e s i g n a t e d by t h e Government f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose. T h e s e l a n d s , known a s t h e N a t i o n ' s u n a p p r o p r i a t e d o r n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e l a n d s , a r e managed by t h e Bureau of Land Management. I n a d d i t o n , 24 p e r c e n t o r 187 m i l l i o n a c r e s of F e d e r a l l a n d h a v e b e e n d e s i g n a t e d as n a t i o n a l f o r e s t l a n d s and a r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e U.S. F o r e s t Service. tana -- F i v e Western S t a t e s -- A l a s k a , C a l i f o r n i a , Oregon, I d a h o , and Mon- c o n t a i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e n a t i o n a l f o r e s t a c r e a g e . BLM and F o r e s t S e r v i c e h o l d i n g s i n t h e West a r e shown i n T a b l e 2. TABLE 2 . A c r e a g e of BLM and F o r e s t S e r v i c e H o l d i n g s i n t h e Western S t a t e s BLM Lands F o r e s t S e r v i c e Lands 222,235,135 20,400,620 Arizona 12,588,917 11,270,186 California 16,609,375 20,343,493 7,993,938 14,415,189 11,945,940 20,423,090 311,157 8,902,422 17,793,105 9,253,085 State 11 Alaska - Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming 11 As a r e s u l t of P.L. 96-487, BLM l a n d s i n A l a s k a w i l l e v e n t u a l l y d e c r e a s e t o 7 7 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 a c r e s and F o r e s t S e r v i c e l a n d s w i l l i n c r e a s e t o 22,000,000 a c r e s . Source: Bureau of Land Management, P u b l i c Land S t a t i s t i c s - 1979. In an effort to convey the vastness of Federally owned lands, it can be noted that the public lands in Utah alone are about equal to the total area of the state of Florida, and that the entire area of Pennsylvania is smaller than Federal public land holdings in either Wyoming or Oregon. Not all of the public lands, however, can be characterized as large, wild or semideveloped expanses. Often times BLM lands consist of relatively small tracts which are scattered among privately owned lands, a situation largely created by the permissive land selection policy which existed during the 1800s. Fur- thermore, due to the fact that at first the Government exercised relatively little control over the distribution of its land and resources in the West, the best and most productive land became private. This left in public owner- ship land with the least profitable development thus making it less suited for continued private use. Exceptions to this, of course, do exist. For example, some of the national park areas were potentially valuable not only for their scenery, but also for their commodity resource values; some of the timberlands that were placed in the national forests of the Pacific Northwest, during the early conservation period from 1891 to 1920, were recognized even then as having great commercial value. Most of the land suitable for farming and extensive livestock grazing, however, was in private ownership by the 1930s. 161 Today the public lands are managed under a multiple-use policy encompassing diverse, yet traditional, functions such as mining, grazing, logging, recreation, and watershed and wildlife protection. Since many of the unap- propriated, unreserved lands are mainly arid or semi-arid, the most 161 The large bodies of public land in the West to a certain degree reflecFthe inability of the land to attract agricultural users -- a major thrust of the disposal acts. w i d e r a n g i n g u s e of t h e s e l a n d s h a s been and c o n t i n u e s t o be f o r t h e g r a z i n g of d o m e s t i c l i v e s t o c k -- more t h a n 21,000 l i v e s t o c k o p e r a t o r s g r a z e a b o u t n i n e m i l l i o n head of c a t t l e , s h e e p , g o a t s and h o r s e s on p u b l i c l a n d s . Only a b o u t f o u r p e r c e n t of t h e N a t i o n ' s b e e f , however, i s produced on t h e s e l a n d s . Timber p r o d u c t i o n i s a n o t h e r w i d e s p r e a d u s e of p u b l i c domain l a n d s which now s u p p o r t n e a r l y o n e - t h i r d of t h e N a t i o n ' s t o t a l t i m b e r p r o d u c t i o n . About 100 m i l l i o n a c r e s , c l a s s i f i e d a s commercial f o r e s t , a r e b e i n g managed t o m a i n t a i n e d a s u s t a i n e d y i e l d of wood p r o d u c t s . nomic u s e of t h e s e l a n d s . M i n e r a l e x t r a c t i o n i s a t h i r d major eco- A s of FY 7 9 , t h e r e were 107,014 m i n e r a l l e a s e s i n e f f e c t on 96 m i l l i o n a c r e s of p u b l i c domain l a n d s . M i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n from p u b l i c domain, a c q u i r e d , and o t h e r F e d e r a l l a n d s d u r i n g t h a t y e a r i n c l u d e d 153.3 m i l l i o n b a r r e l s of p e t r o l e u m ; 1.1 b i l l i o n c u b i c f e e t of n a t u r a l g a s ; 283 m i l l i o n g a l l o n s of g a s o l i n e and l i q u i d p e t r o l e u m g a s ; and 75 s h o r t t o n s of c o a l , p o t a s h , and o t h e r m i n e r a l s . 171 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e a r e a s h e l d i n f e e by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e Government a l s o owns m i n e r a l r i g h t s t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 63 m i l l i o n a c r e s of l a n d p r e v i o u s l y conveyed u n d e r v a r i o u s p u b l i c l a n d l a w s . I n many c a s e s t h e most v a l u a b l e economic u s e of t h e p u b l i c l a n d s i n c l u d e s occupancy u s e s d i c t a t e d by e s s e n t i a l human n e e d s ( e . g . , permit r i g h t s f o r o p e r a t i o n of s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s , s c h o o l s , r i g h t s of way f o r u t i l i t y t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s , and u s e of l a n d f o r u r b a n e x p a n s i o n ) . p u b l i c l a n d s a r e used f o r r e c r e a t i o n visited the public lands -- -- I n a d d i t i o n , many of t h e i n 1978 a n e s t i m a t e d 200 m i l l i o n p e o p l e and a s p r o t e c t i o n f o r w i l d l i f e -- more t h a n 200 s p e c i e s of f i s h and w i l d l i f e c l a s s i f i e d a s t h r e a t e n e d o r endangered a r e p r o v i d e d p r o t e c t i o n and h a b i t a t enhancement on t h e p u b l i c l a n d s . S i n c e many of t h e a r i d p u b l i c l a n d s c o n t a i n f r a g i l e s o i l s s u b j e c t t o e r o s i o n , management 1 7 1 Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of t h e I n t e r i o r , P u b l i c ~ a n d 7 t a t i s t i c s . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1979. p. 9 2 . of t h e s e l a n d s f o r w a t e r s h e d p r o t e c t i o n and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t p u r p o s e s i s important. Furthermore, t h e p r i n c i p a l v a l u e of many of t h e s e l a n d s l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y c o n s t i t u t e a major s o u r c e of w a t e r f o r downstream communities. 11. DISPOSAL OF FEDERAL LAND BY AGENCIES WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR A. Bureau of Land Management 1. Principal Disposal Provisions of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act. 181 The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) within the Department of the Interior is the agency within the Federal Government which is responsible for managing the Nation's unreserved, unappropriated public domain or national resource lands. As mentioned in the previous chapter, the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA) (43 U.S.C. 1701-1781) provides BLM with a comprehensive legislative charter which outlines the agency's authority to permanently manage over 400 million acres of public land according to multiple use and sustained yield principles, and to enforce rules and regulations to accomplish these goals. While this major piece of legislation repealed most prior law pertaining to disposal of the public lands, including the Homestead Act of 181 It should be noted that Section 302 of FLPMA calls for procedures to be established under which the Secretary of the Interior would regulate through easements, permits, leases or other instruments, the use, occupancy and development -- as opposed to the disposal -- of the public lands. Easements would be issued as a long-term covenant between the Federal Government and a private, State or local entity to insure that specific tracts of public lands be used for designated purposes or that certain specified uses will not occur on specified tracts; a permit with limited tenure would be issued to short-term users; and a lease would be issued for long-term or relatively permanent uses. The regulations (as found in the Federal Register, v. 46, no. 12, January 19, 1981, p. 5777-5782) make all land use authorizations subject to BLM's land use planning system and require the payment of fair market value for the use of the public lands, including provisions for the Government to recover costs for issuing authorizations for the use of public lands. The rules provide for BLM to offer permits, leases and easements on its own inititative and they categorize the major types of uses which could be authorized (residential, agricultural, industrial and commercial). Provisions are made for issuing land use authorizations on a competitive or non-competitive basis. 1 8 6 2 , and d e c l a r e d a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y f a v o r i n g t h e r e t e n t i o n of t h e r e m a i n i n g p u b l i c l a n d s i n F e d e r a l ownership ( u n l e s s i t i s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e d i s p o s a l of a g i v e n p a r c e l of l a n d would s e r v e t h e N a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t ) c r i t e r i a f o r s a l e s and exchanges of BLM-managed l a n d s a r e p r o v i d e d i n T i t l e I1 of t h e a c t , making i t p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n p u b l i c l a n d u n d e r c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The a c t ' s p r i n c i p a l d i s p o s a l p r o v i s i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d below, and t h e f i n a l and proposed r e g u l a t i o n s t o implement t h e l a w , a s p u b l i s h e d i n t h e F e d e r a l Regi s t e r , a r e r e f e r e n c e d where p o s s i b l e . Land S a l e s . Under t h e p r o v i s i o n s of FLPMA, t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r - i o r i s a u t h o r i z e d t o s e l l p u b l i c l a n d s w h e r e , a s a r e s u l t of t h e l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s r e q u i r e d by t h e a c t , i t i s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e s a l e of s u c h t r a c t m e e t s a n y o r a l l of t h r e e d i s p o s a l c r i t e r i a . 19/ The c r i t e r i a a r e : (1) s u c h t r a c t b e c a u s e of i t s l o c a t i o n o r o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s d i f f i c u l t . ~ n duneconomic t o manage a s p a r t of t h e p u b l i c l a n d s , and i s n o t s u i t a b l e f o r management by a n o t h e r F e d e r a l d e p a r t m e n t o r agency; o r (2) s u c h t r a c t was e c q u i r e d f o r a s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e and t h e t r a c t i s no l o n g e r r e q u i r e d f o r t h a t o r any o t h e r F e d e r a l p u r p o s e ; or (3) d i s p o s a l of s u c h t r a c t w i l l s e r v e i m p o r t a n t p u b l i c o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d i n g b u t t o t l i m i t e d 2 0 , e x p a n s i o n of communities and economic development, whick c a n n o t be a c h i e v e d p r u d e n t l y o r f e a s i b l y on l , ~ n do t h e r t h a n p u b l i c l a n d and which outweigh o t h e r p u b l i c o b j e c t i v e s and v a l u e s , i n c i u d i n g , b u t n o t l i m i t e d t o , r e c r e a t i o n and s c e n i c v a l u e s , which would be s e r v e d by m a i n t a i n i n g s u c h t r a c t i n F e d e r a l o w n e r s h i p . The r e g u l a t i o n s g 3 v e r n i n g t h e s a l e p r o v i s o n of FLPMA a l s o p r o v i d e d a way f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o recouuoend t h a t s p e c i f i c t r a c t s of l a n d be o f f e r e d f o r s a l e . 1 9 / E x c e p t i o n s i n c l u d e ( 1 ) l a n d s i n u n i t s of t h e N a t i o n a l W i l d e r n e s s ~ r e s z v a t i o nSystem, N a t i c m n l Glild and S c e n i c R i v e r System, and N a t i o n a l System of T r a i l s ; ( 2 ) l a n d s w<.thin t h e O r e g o n - C a l i f c r n i a R a i l r o a d and Coos Bay Wagon Road g r a n t s which a r e more s u i t e d f o r mana.gement and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r permanent f o r e s t ~ r o t e c t i o n ; and ( 3 ) p u b l i c l a n d s c l a s s i f i e d , withdrawn, reserved o r otherwise designated a s not subject t a s a l e . In such cases, BLM officials would analyze the proposal through the agency's planning system. If the tract in question meets the Bureau's disposal and public interest criteria, a sale would be scheduled. FLPMA requires BLM to determine the size of the tract to be sold on the basis of the land use and economic capabilities as well as development requirements of the land. If the land is to be sold for agricultural purposes, for example, the unit size is to be determined according to what is needed in the specific area to support a "family farm." Factors to be considered in- clude, but are not limited to, climatic conditions, availability of irrigation, soil character, production costs, and marketability of the crop(s). Qualified conveyees of tracts of public land sold by BLM include (1) U.S. citizens who are at least 18 years of age, (2) corporations subject to the laws of any State or of the United States, (3) a State, State instrumentality or political subdivision authorized to hold property, and (4) an entity legally capable of conveying and holding lands or interest therein under the laws of the State within which the lands to be conveyed are located. The sale of a tract of public land is to be made at not less than fair market value, as determined by a Federal or independent appraiser. In general, the sale is to take place through a competitive bidding process, but appropriate BLM officials also have authority to offer land on a modified competitive or even noncompetitive basis. Factors to be considered in determining when modified procedures shall be used include the needs of a State and/or local government, adjoining landowners, historical users, and other needs for the tract. Non-competitive sales may be utilized when the public interest would best be served by a direct sale -- for example, when an existing business would be threatened if the tract were purchased by other than the authorized user. This is a modification of the more selective "preference right" provision in p r i o r l a w , which a l l o w e d a d j o i n i n g landowners t o p u r c h a s e a t r a c t of l a n d o f f e r e d t h r o u g h c o m p e t i t i v e b i d d i n g e i t h e r by p a y i n g t h r e e t i m e s t h e a s s e s s e d v a l u e , o r m e e t i n g t h e h i g h e s t o f f e r , w h i c h e v e r p r i c e was l o w e r . B e f o r e any l a n d i s s o l d , a n o t i c e i s t o b e p u b l i s h e d i n t h e F e d e r a l Regi s t e r a n d a d v e r t i s e d i n l o c a l media. N o t i c e s w i l l a l s o b e s e n t t o t h e Gover- n o r of t h e S t a t e where t h e l a n d i s l o c a t e d , t o o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e S t a t e and l o c a l o f f i c i a l s , a n d t o i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s , n o t l e s s t h a n 60 d a y s p r i o r t o the sale. The p u r p o s e of t h e n o t i f i c a t i o n i s t o g i v e t h e governments i n v o l - ved a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o amend z o n i n g o r o t h e r r e g u l a t i o n s t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e impending change i n l a n d s t a t u s . I n a d d i t i o n , FLPMA p r o h i b i t s BLM from r e q u i r i n g t e r m s o r c o n d i t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o a conveyance t h a t would v i o l a t e S t a t e o r l o c a l l a n d u s e p l a n s and programs. S a l e s of p u b l i c l a n d t h a t i n v o l v e more t h a n 2 , 5 0 0 a c r e s c a n n o t be made u n t i l t h e C o n g r e s s i s n o t i f i e d and g i v e n a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s a p p r o v e of t h e sale. The v e t o i n g p r o c e d u r e i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t s p e c i f i e d f o r w i t h d r a w a l s and f o r l a n d management d e c i s i o n s ( i . e . , C o n g r e s s must b e g i v e n 90 l e g i s l a t i v e d a y s t o a d o p t a r e s o l u t i o n of d i s a p p r o v a l ; s u c h r e s o l u t i o n c a n be d i s c h a r g e d from a committee t o which i t h a s been r e f e r r e d i f t h e committee h a s n o t r e p o r t e d t h e r e s o l u t i o n w i t h i n 30 c a l e n d a r d a y s ; and i f t h e C o n g r e s s a d o p t s t h e r e s o l u t i o n , t h e p r o p o s e d s a l e must b e c a n c e l l e d ) . Land Exchanges. The F e d e r a l Land P o l i c y and Management Act a u t h o r i z e s t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i o r t o d i s p o s e of p u b l i c l a n d by exchange f o r nonF e d e r a l l a n d i f (1) t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t would b e w e l l s e r v e d by t h e e x c h a n g e , ( 2 ) t h e l a n d h a s been deemed s u i t a b l e f o r exchange u n d e r t h e l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , a n d ( 3 ) t h e l a n d i s l o c a t e d i n t h e same S t a t e a s t h e n o n - f e d e r a l t o be acquired. ;.and According t o t h e l a w , i n a s s e s s i n g t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , t h e S e c r e t a r y i s t o g i v e f u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o " b e t t e r F e d e r a l l a n d management and t h e needs of S t a t e and l o c a l p e o p l e , i n c l u d i n g n e e d s f o r l a n d s f o r t h e economy, community e x p a n s i o n , r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s , f o o d , f i b e r , m i n e r a l s , a n d f i s h and w i l d l i f e . " The p r o c e d u r e s t o be u s e d by t h e S e c r e t a r y i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h e e x c h a n g e a u t h o r i t y g r a n t e d by S e c t i o n 206 o f FLPMA w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n t h e F e d e r a l R e g i s t e r of - J a n u a r y 1 6 , 1 9 8 1 , a n d became e f f e c t i v e o n A p r i l 1 5 , 1981. 20/ P u b l i c l a n d c a n b e exchanged o n l y f o r n o n - F e d e r a l same S t a t e . lands located i n the The l a n d s i n v o l v e d a r e t o b e o f e q u i v a l e n t v a l u e a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e S e c r e t a r y . However, t h e r e g u l a t i o n s p e r m i t a money payment f o r e q u a l - i z a t i o n of v a l u e n o t t o e x c e e d 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e p u b l i c l a n d s o r i n t e r e s t s b e i n g conveyed. N o t i c e of r e a l t y a c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . A t t h e end of t h e p e r i o d provided i n t h e n o t i c e , a n d upon a d e t e r m i n a t i o n by t h e a u t h o r i z e d o f f i c e r t h a t a part i c u l a r e x c h a n g e i s a c c e p t a b l e , t h e owner o r h o l d e r o f t h e n o n - F e d e r a l l a n d s h a l l p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y l e g a l documents s u c h a s e v i d e n c e o f t i t l e , warranty deeds, e t c . 2. O t h e r Laws t h a t P e r t a i n t o t h e D i s p o s a l o f t h e P u b l i c Lands The F e d e r a l Land P o l i c y a n d Management A c t d i d n o t r e p e a l a l l o f t h e l a w s t h a t p e r t a i n t o t h e d i s p o s a l of t h e p u b l i c l a n d s . Several o t h e r laws w i l l r e m a i n i n e f f e c t , a l t h o u g h many o f t h e s e h a v e b e e n m o d i f i e d by P.L. 94-579. Among t h e s t i l l e x i s t i n g l a w s a r e : t h e D e s e r t Land A c t , t h e C a r e y A c t , t h e R e c r e a t i o n and P u b l i c P u r p o s e s A c t , and t h e C o l o r of T i t l e A c t s . These l a w s a r e b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g pages. 2 0 1 U.S. Department o f I n t e r i o r . Bureau o f Land Management. Exchange ~ r o c & r e s f o r t h e P u b l i c L a n d s . F e d e r a l R e g i s t e r , v . 4 6 , no. 3 , J a n u a r y 1 6 , 1981: p . 1634-1642. The r e g u l a t i o n s w i l l b e c o d i f i e d a t - C.F.R. - Desert Land Act (43 U.S.C. 321-323). The purpose of the Desert Land Act of March 3, 1877, is to promote the reclamation of arid or semi-arid public lands of the Western States by providing land at minimal cost to people willing to irrigate the land at their own expense. Individuals may apply to reclaim 320 acres of public domain land, in sufficiently close tracts to be managed satisfactorily as an economic unit, if the land has been classified by BLM as eligible for disposal under the Desert Land Act. The land 211 non-timbered, must be surveyed, unreserved, unapproprited, non mineral, and able to be irrigated. In addition, it must be land which without arti- ficial irrigation will not produce any reasonably profitable agricultural crop by usual means of cultivation. The legal cost of obtaining title to the land is very low. Persons must pay $0.25 an acre upon acceptance of their entry (application), and an additional $1.00 an acre when the title is actually transferred. In addition, entrymen (persons seeking to obtain land under the act) must spend at least $3.00 an acre on irrigation, reclamation and permanent improvements -- the actual cost of irrigating the land, however, is likely to be much higher. Once BLM approves an entry, the entryman has four years to prove the claim, at which time one-eighth of the land is to be irrigated and cultivated. Final proof of the claim includes such requirements as testimony, with witnesses, as to source, acquisition and maintenance of water, and actual tillage of the land. 211 Except lands withdrawn, classified or valuable for coal, phosphate, nitrate, potash, sodium, sulpher, oil, gas, or asphaltic minerals which may be entered with a reservation of such deposits. Under t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h e 1976 F e d e r a l Land P o l i c y and Management A c t , d e s e r t l a n d of a g r i c u l t u r e v a l u e t h a t i s d e t e r m i n e d e l i g i b l e f o r d i s p o s a l may be s o l d e i t h e r t h r o u g h t h e c o m p e t i t i v e b i d d i n g p r o c e d u r e e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e 1976 a c t , o r d i s p o s e d of t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h e D e s e r t Land A c t , a t t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i o r ' s o p t i o n . A d e t a i l e d l i s t i n g of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e D e s e r t Land Act c a n be found i n 43 Code of F e d e r a l R e g u l a t i o n s P a r t 2520 e t s e q . A c t u a l pro- c e s s i n g of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s i s made t h r o u g h t h e S t a t e BLM o f f i c e s . Most of 221 t h e l a n d e l i g i b l e f o r d e s e r t l a n d e n t r y i s l o c a t e d i n I d a h o and Nevada. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t i n t h e 100-year h i s t o r y of t h e a c t , o n l y a b o u t a t h i r d of a l l o r i g i n a l e n t r i e s w e r e "proved u p . " Carey Act ( 4 3 U.S.C. 641). The Carey Act i s s i m i l a r t o t h e D e s e r t Land Act i n t h a t i t i s d e s i g n e d t o f o s t e r r e c l a m a t i o n of d e s e r t l a n d s by i r r i g a t i o n . Under t h e Carey A c t , however, F e d e r a l d e s e r t l a n d s a r e g r a n t e d t o S t a t e s f o r r e c l a m a t i o n and t r a n s f e r t o p r i v a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s . The o r i g i n a l Carey A c t , p a s s e d i n 1 8 9 4 , a u t h o r i z e d e a c h of t h e 11 Western S t a t e s t o r e c e i v e one m i l l i o n a c r e s i n t h i s f a s h i o n ; s u b s e q u e n t l a w s a u t h o r i z e d C o l o r a d o , Nevada and Wyoming t o r e c e i v e two m i l l i o n a c r e s , and I d a h o t h r e e m i l l i o n . 22/ A t t h e end of 1980, BLM p l a c e d a two y e a r moratorium on t h e f i l i n g of "new" a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e n t r y u n d e r t h e D e s e r t Land Act on 438,259 a c r e s of BLMmanaged l a n d s n e a r t h e Snake R i v e r i n s o u t h e r n I d a h o . The a c t i o n i s i n t e n d e d t o e l i m i n a t e t h e l a r g e b a c k l o g of a p p l i c a t i o n s which h a s c r e a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems t h r e a t e n i n g t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h o r d e r l y development of d e s e r t l a n d a l o n g t h e r i v e r . Of t h e a c r e s i n v o l v e d , o n l y a b o u t 148,000 a r e c o n s i d e r e d by BLM t o be s u i t a b l e f o r e v e n t u a l development. About 111,000 a c r e s a p p e a r e l i g i b l e f o r f a r m i n g i f j u s t i f i e d by w a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y and economic s t u d i e s , and 37,000 a r e e s t i m a t e d t o be r e s e r v e d f o r p u b l i c n e e d s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u s e . BLM o f f i c i a l s s a y t h a t o n l y f i v e y e a r s w i l l be r e q u i r e d u n d e r t h e i r p l a n t o proc e s s a l l pending D e s e r t Land a p p l i c a t i o n s . The S t a t e h a s a g r e e d n o t t o f i l e a n y Carey Act a p p l i c a t i o n s d u r i n g t h a t t i m e . R e g u l a t i o n s f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e C a r e y A c t w e r e removed f r o m t h e Code of F e d e r a l R e g u l a t i o n s i n 1 9 7 0 b e c a u s e of a l a c k o f a c t i v i t y u n d e r t h e a c t ( n o a p p l i c a t i o n s h a d b e e n r e c e i v e d from S t a t e s f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s a n d v i r t u a l l y a l l ~f t h e Carey Act e n t i t l e m e n t s o r i g i n a l l y a u t h o r i z e d t o S t a t e s remained unclaimed). However, i n March 1 9 7 7 , BLM p r o p o s e d new r e g u l a t i o n s t o r e i m p l e m e n t t h e Carey Act i n r e s p o n s e t o a renewed i n t e r e s t o n t h e p a r t o f s e v e r a l W e s t e r n S t a t e s i n o b t a i n i n g Carey Act l a n d s . A t a b o u t t h i s same t i m e , a d e c l a r a t o r y judgment s u i t b r o u g h t by I d a h o c l a i m i n g 2.4 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f F e d e r a l l a n d was d e n i e d by t h e Supreme C o u r t i n f a v a r o f t h e F e d e r a l Government (Andrus v . I d a h o , 445 715 ( 1 9 8 0 ) ) . U.S. I n e f f e c t , t h e c o u r t s a i d t h e Department of t h e I n t e r i o r w i l l make t h e u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n o n w h i c h l a n d s c a n b e t r a n s f e r r e d u n d e r t h e A c t . I n t o t a l , u p t o 17 m i l l i o n a c r e s w e r e a t s t a k e i n t h e Supreme C o u r t c a s e . 231 F o l l o w i n g t h i s Supreme C o u r t r u l i n g , BLM i s s u e d f i n a l r e g u l a t i o n s . The new r e g u l a t i o n s , e f f e c t i v e as o f J u n e 2 0 , 1 9 8 0 , c l a r i f y a number of p o i n t s , e l i m i n a t e u n n e c e s s a r y r e q u i r e m e n t s and forms and r e q u i r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a l l l a n d s b e f o r e t h e y are s e g r e g a t e d u n d e r t h e a c t . The l a n d s s u b j e c t t o a p p r o p r i a t i o n must be unclaimed d e s e r t l a n d s c a p a b l e of producing o r d i n a r y a g r i c u l t u r a l c r o p s by i r r i g a t i o n a n d must b e e i t h e r n o n - m i n e r a l o r s u b j e c t t o r e s e r v a t i o n o f r l i n e r a l r i g h t s by t h e F e d e r a l Government. The r e g u l a t i o n s pro- v i d e t h a t t h e S t a t e s h a l l s u b m i t msps a n d r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n s t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e BLM S t a t e D i r e c t o r . I f ?Inns a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y , t h e Secretary of t h e I n t e r i o r ( w i t h a p p r o v a l o f t h e P r t ! s l d e n t ) may e n t e r i n t o a g i a n t c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e S t a t e f o r reclamation of t h e l a n d s w i t h i n a t e n y e a r period. The S t a t e D i r e c - t o r may e x t e n d t h e p e r i o d f o r u p t o f i v e y e a r s o r h e may r e s t o r e t h e l a n d t o t h e p u b l i c domain i f ( L ) t h e l a n d s a r e n o t reclaimc.6 w i t h i n t h e t e n y e a r p e r i a d 2 3 1 U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of I n t e r i o r . Bureau of Land Management. C a r e y A c t ~ r a n z . F e d e r a l R e g i s t e r : , v . 4 5 , n o . 1 0 0 , May 2 1 , 1 9 8 0 : p. 34230-34235. o r ( 2 ) a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r r e c l a m a t i o n h a s n o t begun w i t h i n t h r e e y e a r s of t h e c o n t r a c t . When t h e S t a t e w i s h e s t o p a t e n t t h e l a n d s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e s t o s e t t l e r s , t h e r u l e s p r o v i d e t h a t i t w i l l l i s t w i t h BLM t h e l a n d s t o be t r a n s f e r r e d a l o n g w i t h a c e r t i f i c a t e t h a t t h e l a n d s h a v e been r e c l a i m e d and t h a t ample w a t e r i s p r o v i d e d . The S t a t e s h a l l a l s o p u b l i s h t h e l i s t f o r p a t e n t s i n a r e p u t a b l e newspaper i n t h e a r e a . I f upon p u b l i c a t i o n , t h e l i s t s a r e f r e e from p r o t e s t , p a t e n t s w i l l be i s s u e d . R e c r e a t i o n and P u b l i c P u r p o s e s Act ( 4 3 U.S.C. 869). The R e c r e a t i o n and P u b l i c P u r p o s e s Act a u t h o r i z e s t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i o r t o l e a s e o r convey p u b l i c domain l a n d 24/ t o S t a t e s o r t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n s and t o n o n p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n s o r a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l and p u b l i c p u r p o s e s . I n a l l , more t h a n 300,000 a c r e s have been conveyed f o r S t a t e o r l o c a l government p r o j e c t s u n d e r t h e a c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n C a l i f o r n i a , A r i z o n a , Nevada and Utah. A s amended by FLPMA, t h e a c t p e r m i t s a S t a t e p a r k a g e n c y o r a n y l o c a l government t o r e c e i v e up t o 6 , 4 0 0 a c r e s a n n u a l l y f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s and any S t a t e , S t a t e agency o r l o c a l government t o r e c e i v e up t o 6 , 4 0 0 a c r e s f o r e a c h of i t s programs i n v o l v i n g p u b l i c p u r p o s e s o t h e r t h a n r e c r e a t i o n . Non-profit o r g a n i z a t i o n s may be e l i g i b l e t o r e c e i v e up t o 640 a c r e s e a c h f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l and p u b l i c p u r p o s e s . i n a g i v e n S t a t e i n any y e a r . A maximum of 25,600 a c r e s c a n be conveyed Conveyance f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s t o S t a t e , c o u n t y o r o t h e r F e d e r a l i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s o r p o l i t i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n s s h a l l be i s s u e d w i t h o u t monetary c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A l l o t h e r c o n v e y a n c e s , however, a r e t o be made a t p r i c e s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i o r t h r o u g h 2 4 / Except N a t i o n a l F o r e s t System l a n d s , n a t i o n a l p a r k s and w i l d l i f e refuge lands, lands s e t aside f o r the Indians, lands acquired f o r specific p u r p o s e s , r e v e s t e d Oregon and C a l i f o r n i n a R a i l r o a d g r a n t l a n d s and reconveyed Coos Bay Wagon Road g r a n t l a n d s . a p p r a i s a l o r otherwise. A l l l e a s e s and p a t e n t s i s s u e d u n d e r t h e a c t s h a l l r e s e r v e t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a l l m i n e r a l s and t h e r i g h t t o mine and remove t h e same u n d e r a p p l i c a b l e l a w s and r e g u l a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i o r . The a c t , a s amended, r e q u i r e s t h a t b e f o r e t h e l a n d c a n be conveyed, t h e S e c r e t a r y must be s a t i s f i e d t h a t (1) t h e l a n d i s t o be u s e d f o r e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e f i n i t e l y p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t s f o r which a d e t a i l e d s c h e d u l e of development and management c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d ; ( 2 ) t h e l a n d i s n o t of n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and d i s p o s a l and planned development w i l l s e r v e t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t ; ( 3 ) t h e l a n d i s " r e a s o n a b l y " n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e proposed u s e ; and ( 4 ) l a n d u s e and z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s w i l l be a p p l i e d i n any a r e a of o v e r 640 a c r e s . Patent p r o v i s i o n s a l l o w f o r t i t l e r e v e r s i o n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s u n d e r s e v e r a l circums t a n c e s , i n c l u d i n g , f o r example, i f t h e l a n d s a r e b e i n g used f o r p u r p o s e s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e f o r which t h e y were conveyed. C o l o r of T i t l e A c t s and U n i n t e n t i o n a l T r e s p a s s Act. S e v e r a l laws have remained i n e f f e c t t h a t p e r t a i n t o t h e conveyance of p u b l i c l a n d t o p e r s o n s who have o c c u p i e d t h e l a n d s o r whose a n c e s t o r s o c c u p i e d t h e l a n d s f o r a s p e c i f i c t i m e p e r i o d w i t h o u t knowledge t h a t t h e l a n d belonged t o t h e U n i t e d States. T h e r e a r e numerous C o l o r of T i t l e a c t s p e r t a i n i n g t o s m a l l a r e a s i n A r k a n s a s , L o u i s i a n a , I d a h o , e t c . , b u t t h e p r i n c i p a l a c t i s t h a t of December 22, 1 9 2 8 , a s amended, (43 U.S.C. SS1068,1068a) which a u t h o r i z e s i s s u a n c e of p a t e n t s f o r 160 a c r e s o r l e s s of p u b l i c l a n d h e l d u n d e r c l a i m upon payment of the sale price. The two c l a s s e s of c l a i m s r e c o g n i z e d by t h e a c t a r e : t o l a n d h e l d " i n good f a i t h " ( i . e . , (1) c l a i m s w i t h o u t knowledge t h a t t h e l a n d i s owned by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ) f o r more t h a n 20 y e a r s on which v a l u a b l e improvements have been p l a c e d o r on which some p a r t of t h e l a n d h a s been r e d u c e d t o c u l t i v a t i o n ; and ( 2 ) c l a i m s h e l d " i n good f a i t h " f o r t h e p e r i o d commencing n o t l a t e r t h a n January 1, 1901, to the date of application during which time State and local taxes have been levied and payed. The land applied for is to be appraised on the basis of fair market value, taking into consideration and subtracting from the cost the estimated value of the improvements on the land. in no case will land be sold for less than $1.25 an acre. However, Regulations for implementing the Color of Title acts can be found at 43 Code of Federal Regulations Part 2540, et seq. A similar law is the Unintentional Trespass Act of 1968 (43 U.S.C. 1431). This law permitted owners of land adjacent to public land to apply for up to 120 acres of public land which had been subject to unauthorized use by the applicant. The BLM could sell the land if: the trespass had been unintent- ional; the land was not suitable for disposal under other public land laws; and the land was not needed for a public purpose. The right to apply for land under this act expired several years ago, but BLM has yet to complete the processing of applications. Section 214 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (1976) established a five year deadline for completing the processing of these applications. It also modified the sales provision in the 1968 Act by requiring the Secretary of the Interior to determine the fair market value of the land and to offer it to those with a preference right at that price. Under the prior law, the price set at a public auc- tion would provide a basis for exercise of the preference right. In addition, P.L. 94-579 (FLPMA) provides for Congressional review of Interior Department decisions not to sell the land. 3. Mining Claims and Patents It is still possible to stake a mining claim on unreserved, unappropriated Federal public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management 25/ -- i n f a c t , s i n c e e n a c t m e n t of t h e F e d e r a l Land P o l i c y and Management Act i n 1976, BLM h a s r e c e i v e d o v e r a m i l l i o n and a h a l f mining c l a i m a p p l i c a t i o n s . 261 The a r e a s open t o c l a i m a r e m a i n l y i n A l a s k a , A r i z o n a , A r k a n s a s , C a l i f o r n i a , Colora d o , F l o r i d a , I d a h o , L o u i s i a n a , M i s s i s s i p p i , Montana, N e b r a s k a , Nevada, New Mexico, North D a k o t a , Oregon, South D a k o t a , U t a h , Washington, and Wyoming. In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e some l a n d s ( e . g , t h o s e t h a t were a v a i l a b l e under t h e Stockr a i s i n g Homestead A c t ) on which t h e s u r f a c e e s t a t e h a s b e e n p a t e n t e d t o p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s o r a g e n c i e s , b u t some o r a l l of t h e m i n e r a l r i g h t s have been r e s e r v e d t o t h e F e d e r a l Government. Many of t h e s e l a n d s , w h i l e s u b j e c t t o c e r t a i n re- s t r i c t i o n s , a r e a l s o open t o m i n e r a l e n t r y and l o c a t i o n . N a t i o n a l , p a r k s and monuments, I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n s , most r e c l a m a t i o n p r o j e c t s , m i l i t a r y r e s e r v a t i o n s , s c i e n t i f i c t e s t i n g a r e a s , some w i l d l i f e p r o t e c t i o n a r e a s and l a n d s s e g r e g a t e d u n d e r t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and M u l t i p l e Use Act a r e c l o s e d t o mining. Mining on n a t i o n a l f o r e s t l a n d s i s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I11 of t h i s r e p o r t . Under t h e G e n e r a l Mining Law of 1 8 7 2 , a s amended, o n l y l o c a t a b l e m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s may b e s t a k e d and c l a i m e d on p u b l i c domain l a n d s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e United S t a t e s . non-metallic These i n c l u d e b o t h m e t a l l i c ( g o l d , s i l v e r , l e a d , e t c . ) and ( f l u o r s p a r , mica, a s b e s t o s , e t c . ) m i n e r a l s . Mineral d e p o s i t s on t h e O u t e r C o n t i n e n t a l S h e l f , d e p o s i t s of common v a r i e t i e s of m i n e r a l mat e r i a l s s u c h a s s a n d , s t o n e , pumice, c l a y o r c i n d e r s ( c l a s s i f i e d a s " s a l a b l e " m i n e r a l m a t e r i a l s ) , m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s on l a n d s which a r e d i s p o s a b l e o n l y under s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s of l a w , and t h o s e m i n e r a l s commonly r e f e r r e d t o a s " L e a s i n g 251 A v a l i d mining c l a i m may a l s o be b o u g h t , s o l d , w i l l e d o r i n h e r i t e d . 261 T h e r e a r e , however, c e r t a i n l a n d s u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c i t o n of BLM which a r e r e s e r v e d form t h e p u b l i c domain and s a i d t o b e "withdrawn" from m i n e r a l e n t r y and l o c a t i o n e i t h e r u n d e r t h e G e n e r a l Mining Law, by A c t s of Congress, o r by p u b l i c l a n d o r d e r s . The v a r i o u s BLM S t a t e O f f i c e s k e e p up-to-date r e c o r d s of which l a n d s a r e withdrawn. Act Minerals" (i.e., oil, gas, coal, potash, phosphate, sodium, oil shale, bitumen, asphalt, bituminous rock or sand, and in Louisiana and New Mexico, sulfur) are not open to prospecting and location. Anyone who is a U.S. citizen or who has declared an intention to become a citizen, and any corporation organized under State law may locate a mining claim on BLM land. The claim becomes valid only after a valuable mineral deposit has been discovered. Discovery of a valuable mineral deposit is determined by what the courts have established to be and which the Federal Government follows as the "prudent man and marketability test." 27/ There is no limit as to the number of claims a person may hold, but there must be an actual physical discovery of a valuable mineral deposit on each and every mining claim -- traces, minor indications, geological inferences, or hopes of future discovery do not suffice. When staking a mining claim, Federal law specifies only that the claim boundaries be distinctly and clearly marked so as to be readily identifiable. The claimant, however, must also comply with State regulations. As a general rule, staking a claim includes erecting corner posts or monuments plus posting notice of location in a conspicuous place such as the point of discovery. All owners of unpatented mining claims or sites on Federal lands, including lands where the U.S. Government owns only the minerals, must record their holdings with the Federal Government in addition to filing certain notice forms with county and State offices. Recordation must be done within 27/ To meet the requirements of the test, minerals must be found and the evidence must be such that a person of ordinary prudence would be justified in further expenditure of his labor and means, with a reasonable prospect of success, in developing a valuable mine. This evidence must also show that the minerals can be extracted, removed and marketed at a profit. 90 d a y s a t a BLM S t a t e O f f i c e h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e a r e a i n which t h e claim is located. T h e r e i s a $5 f i l i n g f e e f o r e a c h c l a i m o r s i t e . Once a m i n i n g c l a i m i s e s t a b l i s h e d , a n owner must v e r i f y a n a c t i v e int e r e s t i n t h e c l a i m by p e r f o r m i n g l a b o r o r making improvements w o r t h a t l e a s t $100 e a c h y e a r . FLPMA p r o v i d e s t h a t a n a f f i d a v i t t h a t t h e a s s e s s m e n t work o r s u r v e y s h a v e been completed must be f i l e d w i t h b o t h t h e l o c a l c o u n t y o f f i c e where s u c h r e c o r d s a r e k e p t a n d w i t h t h e p r o p e r BLM S t a t e O f f i c e . The a s s e s - sment y e a r b e g i n s a t 1 2 noon on t h e f i r s t of September f o l l o w i n g t h e d a t e of l o c a t i o n and g o e s t o 1 2 noon o f t h e f o l l o w i n g September. Upon f a i l u r e t o comply w i t h a s s e s s m e n t work r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e c l a i m i s reopened t o l o c a t i o n by o t h e r s . A mining c l a i m a n t may u s e o n l y a s much of t h e s u r f a c e and s u r f a c e r e s o u r - c e s a s a r e r e a s o n a b l y n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y o u t m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s and may n o t b u i l d any s t r u c t u r e s u n l e s s t h e y a r e r e a s o n a b l y r e l a t e d t o m i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The F e d e r a l Government m a i n t a i n s t h e r i g h t t o manage t h e s u r f a c e and s u r f a c e r e s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g u s e of t h e a r e a f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s t h a t do n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e mining a c t i v i t y . The m i n i n g l a w s g i v e l o c a t o r s and owners of m i n i n g c l a i m s t h e r i g h t of e n t r y and e x i t a c r o s s p u b l i c l a n d s f o r p u r p o s e s o f removing m i n e r a l s and m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r c l a i m s . T h i s , however, d o e s n o t t r a n s l a t e i n t o t h e r i g h t t o c a u s e u n n e c e s s a r y l o s s o r i n j u r y t o U.S. property o r u n r e a s o n a b l e damage t o p u b l i c l a n d s u n d e r a g u i s e of g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o a claim. It i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o " p a t e n t " a v a l i d m i n i n g c l a i m on p u b l i c l a n d s . A p a t e n t g i v e s e x c l u s i v e t i t l e t o t h e l o c a t a b l e m i n e r a l s , and i n most c a s e s , t o u s e of t h e s u r f a c e and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s . A s w i t h any mining c l a i m , p a t e n t i n g r e q u i r e s a d i s c o v e r y of a v a l u a b l e m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s u c h a s s a t i s f i e s t h e "prud e n t man and m a r k e t a b i l i t y t e s t . " I n a d d i t i o n , t h e a p p l i c a n t needs t o : have the claim surveyed by a mineral surveyor selected from a roster maintained by the BLM; post for a 60-day period and publish a notice of intention to apply for a patent; and pay a filing fee of $25.00. Evidence of right of possession to the claim and the basis of the right to patent (including proof of discovery of a valuable mineral deposit and proof that not less than $500 worth of development work has been made on or for the benfit of each claim) also must be demonstrated. A patent application for lode and 28/ must fully describe the reasons why the deposit claimed placer claims is believed to be a valuable mineral deposit. A field examination by a Government mineral examiner is then conducted as part of BLM's processing procedures to confirm the facts contained in the application. Therefore, applications should include, as appropriate, data, discussions, and analysis covering such items as minerals applied for, general and economic geology, results of drilling, sampling, nature of mineralization, likely mining method, estimated mining and milling costs, benefication or metallurgical process, transportation factors, market data and analysis, sales prices, costs, etc. Finally, to receive full title to the land and its minerals, the applicant must pay a purchase price of $5 an acre, or any fraction of an acre, for lode claims and $2.50 an acre for place claims. When a final certificate has been issued in connection with an application for a mineral patent, the mining claimant (in most cases) may thereafter use the land as any other private property. The land is subject to taxes and local ordinances. 28/ Deposits subject to lode claims include defined boundaries or broad zones of mineralized gold. Deposits subject to placer claims are all claims (e.g., sand containing free gold or other lic, bedded deposits). classic veins having wellrock such as quartz-bearing those not subject to lode minerals and many non-metal- R e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e d i s p o s a l of m i n e r a l s from p u b l i c l a n d s c a n be f o u n d i n 4 3 Code of F e d e r a l R e g u l a t i o n s , P a r t 3800 ( s e e a p p e n d i c e s ) . Environ- m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r mining o p e r a t i o n s i n w i l d e r n e s s s t u d y a r e a s 291 and f o r locatable minerals 301 have b o t h been i s s u e d . The f i n a l r u l e m a k i n g r e - q u i r e s mining c l a i m a n t s t o complete r e a s o n a b l e r e c l a m a t i o n on F e d e r a l l a n d s d u r i n g a n d upon t e r m i n a t i o n of e x p l o r a t i o n a n d m i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t h e m i n i n g l a w s , a n d was d e s i g n e d t o e n s u r e t h e F e d e r a l l a n d s a r e p r o t e c t e d f r o m u n n e c e s s a r y a n d undue d e g r a d a t i o n . The r e g u l a t i o n s f o r h a r d r o c k m i n i n g a l l o w most e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a n d some e x t r a c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s by f i l i n g a " n o t i c e . " A c t i v i t i e s t h a t exceed a c e r t a i n l e v e l ( e . g . , d i s t u r b a n c e t o more t h a n f i v e a c r e s i n o n e y e a r ) o r t h a t w i l l t a k e p l a c e o n c e r t a i n l a n d s s u c h a s a r e a s of " c r i t i c a l environmental concern" o r a r e a s "closed t o off-road vehicles" r e q u i r e t h a t a " p l a n o f o p e r a t i o n s " b e a p p r o v e d a n d / o r a bond f u r n i s h e d . 4. A Note About A l a s k a D e s p i t e t h e enormous amount o f F e d e r a l l a n d i n A l a s k a 311, and t h e f a c t t h a t s e v e r a l laws r e l a t i n g t o homesteading and d i s p o s a l of l a n d , o t h e r w i s e r e p e a l e d by t h e F e d e r a l Land P o l i c y a n d Management A c t , w i l l r e m a i n i n e f f e c t i n t h a t S t a t e u n t i l 1986, F e d e r a l l a n d i s simply n o t widely a v a i l a b l e f o r 2 9 1 U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r . Bureau o f Land Management. E x p l o r a t i o n a n d M i n i n g , W i l d e r n e s s Review Program. F e d e r a l R e g i s t e r , v. 4 5 , no. 4 3 , March 3 , 1 9 8 0 , p . 13968-13979. 30/ U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of t h e I n t e r i o r . B u r e a u o f Land Management o f P u b l i c ~ a n d F u n d e rU.S. M i n i n g Laws. F e d e r a l R e g i s t e r , v. 4 5 , no. 2 3 0 , November 2 6 , 1 9 8 0 , p . 78902-78915. 3 1 1 A l t h o u g h C o n g r e s s h a s a u t h o r i z e d t h e c o n v e y a n c e o f 148 m i l l i o n a c r e s of ~ e d e z ll a n d t o t h e S t a t e a n d t h e A l a s k a n N a t i v e s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 225 m i l l i o n a c r e s w i l l remain i n F e d e r a l ownership. conveyance to private individuals at this time. It is possible, however, that some Alaskan Federal land will be open for disposition in the future. Under the provisions of the Alaska Statehood Act of 1958, the State Government was given until January 1984 to select over 103 million acres of Federal land land. -- most of it vacant, unappropriated, unreserved public domain Soon after the State began making its land selections, however, Alas- kan Natives raised the objection that they had a prior, aboriginal right to the State's Federal lands. Accordingly, in 1966 the Department of the In- terior froze further conveyance of Federal land to the State and/or private interests. In 1971, Congress passed the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act which authorized Alaskan Natives to select 44 million acres of Federal land for their own. The same act, under section 17 (d)(2), established procedures for transferring public domain land to the national land conservation systems. The Congress ordered the Interior Department to temporarily withdraw no more than 80 million acres of Federal land to protect the "national interest" while decisions were to be made about establishing new national parks, wildlife refuges, wild and scenic river areas, and national forests. On November 16, 1978, given congressional failure to resolve the "d-2" issue and given the approaching expiration of "d-2" withdrawals, Secretary of the Interior, Cecil Andrus, used the "emergency" withdrawal authority provided in section 204(e) of FLPMA "to preserve values that would otherwise be lost" on 116.2 million acres for another three years -- for 40.1 million acres of that land the withdrawal period was increased to 20 years in February of 1980. In addition, President Carter, citing an urgent need to pro- vide permanent protection for certain Alaskan land, on December 1, 1978 used his authorities under the 1906 Antiquities Act to designate 56 million acres as permanent new national monuments (52.5 million of which were already af321 fected by the previous month's temporaty three-year withdrawal). The issue of the Alaska "national interest" or "d-2" lands came to a close on December 2, 1980, when President Carter signed into being P.L. 96-487. This legislation established a total of 107.1 million acres of new conservation units including parks, wildlife refuges, national forests, wild and scenic rivers, and BLM-managed recreation areas. In addition, wilderness protection was extended to 56.4 million acres in new and exisiting conservation units. Among other things, the law permitted development of mineral resources in selected areas; restricted any future Federal action to create conservation units larger than 5,000 acres in Alaska; and, finalized State selections of 98 million acres granted under the Alaska Statehood Act. Even though the "national interest" lands review process has been completed, and the conveyance of State and Native entitlement lands nearly finalized, the chances are slim that much land will be disposed of in Alaska before the Homestead Laws expire in 1986. First, before any land will be made available by the BLM for homesteading, FLPMA requires compliance with the land use planning process. Furthermore, available Federal land meeting the agricultural suitability requirements of the Homestead Laws is limited. For the remainder of this calendar year, BLM expects to be reviewing Alaska public lands to determine which areas should be open for disposition or location under several Alaskan occupancy and use laws. For example, section 10 of the Act of May 14, 1898 (72 Stat. 730), also extended to 1986 321 The executive withdrawals creating Alaskan monuments and refuges were laterrevoked by P .L. 96-487. by FLPMA, a u t h o r i z e s t h e s a l e of 8 0 a c r e s o r l e s s o f A l a s k a n l a n d , p o s s e s s e d and o c c u p i e d i n good f a i t h by p e r s o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s o r c o r p o r a t i o n s a s t r a d e and manufacturing s i t e s ( e . g . , wilderness lodges, r e n t a l cabins, e t c ) . of t h e l a n d would b e $2.50 a n a c r e . 1 9 2 7 , as amended, ( 4 3 U . S . C . Cost I n a d d i t i o n , u n d e r t h e A c t o f March 3 , 687a) f i s h e r m e n , t r a p p e r s , t r a d e r s , m a n u f a c t - u r e r s , o r o t h e r s engaged i n p r o d u c t i v e i n d u s t r y i n A l a s k a , a n d / o r a n y c i t i z e n , a f t e r occupying a h a b i t a b l e house on u n r e s e r v e d non-mineral p u b l i c l a n d n o t less t h a n t h r e e months e a c h y e a r f o r t h r e e y e a r s , i s e l i g i b l e t o p u r c h a s e f i v e o r l e s s a c r e s a t t h e r a t e o f $2.50 a n a c r e . The r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s a n d a p p r o v a l s f o r s u c h s a l e s c a n b e f o u n d i n 4 3 Code o f F e d e r a l R e g u l a t i o n s , p a r t s 2562-2563. Although F e d e r a l l a n d i s n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r d i s p o s a l , t h e S t a t e o f A l a s k a p e r i o d i c a l l y s e l l s f a i r l y s u b s t a n t i a l amounts o f l a n d . I n fact, s i n c e s t a t e h o o d i n 1 9 5 8 , A l a s k a h a s d i s p o s e d o f 4 2 2 , 6 8 5 . 8 8 a c r e s of S t a t e l a n d a n d a l e g i s l a t i v e mandate c u r r e n t l y e x i s t s w h i c h r e q u i r e s t h e S t a t e t o d i s p o s e of 100,000 a c r e s of l a n d p e r y e a r . L o t t e r y , h o m e s i t e , and a g r i - c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s a l e s a r e t h e major l a n d programs i n Alaska. To b e e l i g - i b l e , one must b e a r e s i d e n t of t h e S t a t e f o r o n e t o t h r e e y e a r s p r i o r t o filing. The a u c t i o n program, however, i s o p e n t o n o n r e s i d e n t s who a r e a t l e a s t 1 8 y e a r s of a g e . Auctions generally involve commercial/industria1 o r u t i l i t y l a n d s a n d a p e r s o n may a p p o i n t a n a u t h o r i z e d a g e n t t o a t t e n d a public "outcry" auction t o present t h e bid. Table 3 f o l l o w i n g , d e t a i l s t h e v a r i o u s l a n d d i s p o s a l programs of t h e A l a s k a n Department o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e (DNR). Further information about t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y a n d means o f d i s p o s t i o n o f S t a t e l a n d i n A l a s k a c a n b e o b t a i n e d by c o n t a c t i n g t h e Department d i r e c t l y . TABLE 3 DNR Land Disposal Programs ON SITE REQUIREMENTS F O R TITLE DEVELOPMENT OR USE HOMES11E AND REMOTE PARCEL NONE CONST RUCl DWEI LING; O K U P Y LAND 35 MONTH5 I N 5 YEARS I LEASE ANY AGRICULTURAL INTEREST $ :'& % O r APPRAISED VALUE OR HIGH Ell) P A Y M ~ - rNs SPECIFIFD BY CONTRACT MIN. IIMI/ACRE APPRAISFD VALUE OR HIGH BID SEE LOTTERY OR AUCTION TERMS t l l G l l 810 AT PUBI.IC AlJCTlON 1 PARCEL PER AUCTION BY LOlTEKY OR HIGH BID AT PUBLIC AUCTION SEPIEMBER, 1980 * Alaska Department of N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s D i v i s i o n of F o r e s t , Land and Water Management 323 E . F o u r t h Avenue Anchorage, Alaska 99501 (907) 279-5577 MAY APPLY lo LLOrTERY; MAY API'L Y TO AUCTION 18 NONE NONE 0 A FARM DEVFLOPMENT 1 YEAR PLAN MAY BE KEQU'RED 0 A FARM CONSERVATION PLAN IS REOUIRED 0 LAND DISCOUNT APPLICABLE (EXCEPT INDUSTRIAL FORPARCELS) COMMFRCIAL OR LAND DISCOUNT APPLICABLE (EXCFP1 FOR COMMI RClAL OR INDUSTRIAL PARCELS) ENTRY PERMIT NON-ASSIGNABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR COMhitKCIAL/INDUSTRIAL USE RFQUlRkD . MAY REQUIRE PRE QUALIFICATION RtCElVFS AGR I N K R E F T O N L Y LAND DISCOUNT APPLICABLE B. Bureau of Reclamation The Bureau of R e c l a m a t i o n , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1902 a s t h e R e c l a m a t i o n Ser3 3 / and t h e development and v i c e , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e R e c l a m a t i o n program management of w a t e r r e s o u r c e s i n t h e West. l i o n a c r e s i n 17 Western S t a t e s . The Bureau manages o v e r 6.6 m i l - I t i s t h e p o l i c y of t h e Bureau t o r e t a i n under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n o n l y t h o s e l a n d s n e c e s s a r y f o r Reclamation p r o j e c t purposes. P r o d u c t i v e a c r e s a r e recommended f o r d i s p o s a l i f i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t upon t r a n s f e r t o p r i v a t e ownership t h e y would c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e repayment c o n t r a c t on t h e p r o j e c t . Withdrawn l a n d s upon which no improvements have been made may be r e p o r t e d t o t h e Bureau of Land Management f o r s a l e u n d e r p r o v i s i o n o f Sect i o n 203 of t h e F e d e r a l Land P o l i c y and Management A c t , u n l e s s t h e l e g i s l a t i o n authorizing the project gives s p e c i f i c land disposal authority. Pub- l i c l a n d s which have been withdrawn and improved f o r r e c l a m a t i o n p u r p o s e s and which a r e no l o n g e r needed f o r t h o s e p u r p o s e s may be s o l d a t n o t l e s s t h a n t h e a p p r a i s e d v a l u e t o t h e h i g h e s t b i d d e r under t h e p r o v i s i o n of t h e Act of May 20, 1920 ( 4 3 U.S.C. 375). On o p e r a t i n g p r o j e c t s , s m a l l i s o l a t e d p a r c e l s of withdrawn l a n d s which remain unneeded by t h e p r o j e c t may be s o l d under t h e a u t h o r i t y of e i t h e r t h e Act of May 1 6 , 1 9 3 0 , o r t h e Act of March 3 1 , 1950 ( 4 3 U.S.C. 424 and 43 U.S.C. 375b, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Lands a c q u i r e d by t h e Bureau of R e c l a m a t i o n t h r o u g h d i r e c t p u r c h a s e , d o n a t i o n , exchange, o r eminent domain, and which a r e no l o n g e r needed, may be s o l d by t h e Bureau p r o v i d i n g t h e v a l u e of t h e s a l e i s l e s s t h a n $ 1 , 0 0 0 . 3 3 1 The b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s of t h e F e d e r a l Reclamation program a r e t o a s s i s t t h e S t a t e s , l o c a l governments and F e d e r a l A g e n c i e s t o s t a b i l i z e and s t i m u l a t e l o c a l and r e g i o n a l economies, enhance and p r o t e c t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , and improve t h e q u a l i t y of l i f e t h r o u g h development of w a t e r and r e l a t e d l a n d r e s o u r c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e 17 c o n t i g u o u s Western S t a t e s and Hawaii. I f t h e v a l u e e x c e e d s $ 1 , 0 0 0 , t h e n t h e s e unneeded l a n d s must b e r e p o r t e d t o t h e General S e r v i c e Administration f o r d i s p o s a l (See Chapter v). GSA may a u t h o r i z e t h e Bureau t o a c t a s t h e d i s p o s a l agency u n d e r c e r t a i n circumstances. When t h e Bureau of R e c l a m a t i o n d e t e r m i n e s t h a t a new t o w n s i t e i s necess a r y f o r p r o j e c t development, i t may, t h r o u g h t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i o r , d e s i g n a t e such a s i t e . A f t e r t h e l o t s a r e s u r v e y e d , t h e Bureau may s e l l t h e l o t s a t p u b l i c a u c t i o n a t n o t l e s s t h a n t h e a p p r a i s e d v a l u e u n d e r t h e prov i s o n of t h e Act of A p r i l 1 6 , 1906 ( 4 3 U.S.C. 561). I n most c a s e s , t h e impending s a l e of R e c l a m a t i o n l a n d s i s a d v e r t i s e d i n a r e a newspapers 30 d a y s p r i o r t o t h e s a l e . Depending on t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r may o p t t o s e l l t h e l a n d t h r o u g h a p u b l i c d r a w i n g , auction, o r sealed bid. S a l e s by t h e Bureau h a v e dwindled i n t h e l a s t 5-10 y e a r s due t o a r e d u c t i o n i n i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s . Most i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s now a r e t o s e r v e l a n d s a l r e a d y i n p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p . The Bureau, however, h a s r e c e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d o v e r 1 , 0 5 1 p a r c e l s of p o t e n t i a l l y unneeded l a n d tot a l i n g 318,000 a c r e s . The p o r t i o n of t h e s e l a n d s which was " a c q u i r e d " w i l l most l i k e l y b e d i s p o s e d of by t h e G e n e r a l S e r v i c e s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; t h o s e l a n d s which were withdrawn w i l l be r e p o r t e d t o t h e Bureau of Land Management f o r f u t u r e management o r s a l e . On o c c a s i o n , t h e Bureau of R e c l a m a t i o n a l s o exchanges l a n d on which t h e r e a r e f a c i l i t i e s which i n t e r f e r e w i t h a p r o j e c t and need t o b e r e l o c a t e d . The exchange a u t h o r i t y comes u n d e r t h e R e c l a m a t i o n Act of 1939. 2,000 a c r e s i n s m a l l p a r c e l s ( i . e . , Approximately 200 a c r e s o r l e s s ) h a v e been exchanged by t h e Bureau o v e r t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s . A p r o p o s a l t o broaden t h e B u r e a u ' s exchange a u t h o r i t y i s i n t h e v e r y e a r l y s t a g e s of development. Exchanges of R e c l a m a t i o n l a n d a r e a l s o p o s s i b l e u n d e r S e c t i o n 206 o f FLPMA. However, r e c - lamation o f f i c i a l s c l a i m such exchanges have been i n f r e q u e n t due t o t h e e x t e n t of r e s t r i c t i o n s referenced e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter. F u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g d i s p o s a l o f l a n d by t h e B u r e a u o f R e c l a m a t i o n s h o u l d b e d i r e c t e d t o S t a f f A s s i s t a n t , Land R e s o u r c e s Management, O p e r a t i o n and M a i n t e n a n c e P o l i c y S t a f f , Bureau o f R e c l a m a t i o n , D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. 20240 (202-343-5204). C. National Park Service The N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e a d m i n i s t e r s f o r t h e American p e o p l e a n e x t e n s i v e s y s t e m o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s , monuments, h i s t o r i c s i t e s , a n d r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . T h e r e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 300 u n i t s w i t h i n t h e System f o r a t o t a l o f o v e r 26 million acres. The S e r v i c e i s n o t p e r m i t t e d t o s e l l a n y o f i t s l a n d s . In authorizing t h e a d d i t i o n o f a new u n i t t o t h e S y s t e m , t h e C o n g r e s s h a s , o n o c c a s i o n , a u t h o r i z e d t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i o r t o a c q u i r e l a n d f o r t h e u n i t through exchange. The e x c h a n g e n o r m a l l y i n v o l v e s F e d e r a l a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f a p a r k by p r o v i d i n g F e d e r a l l a n d o f c o m p a r a b l e v a l u e o u t s i d e t h e park -- s u c h as BLM l a n d . The F e d e r a l l a n d t o b e e x c h a n g e d would n o t normally be Park S e r v i c e l a n d . D. U n i t e d S t a t e s F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e The U.S. F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e a d m i n i s t e r s t h e N a t i o n a l W i l d l i f e R e f u g e S y s t e m which c o n s i s t s o f o v e r 400 w i l d l i f e r e f u g e s c o m p r i s i n g more t h a n 89 m i l l i o n a c r e s i n 49 S t a t e s , a n d a number o f w i l d l i f e p r o d u c t i o n a r e a s . W h i l e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e S y s t e m ' s l a n d was r e s e r v e d f r o m t h e p u b l i c domain, approximately four and a half million acres within the System were acquired through the Migratory Bird Conservation Fund. Land within the National Wildlife Refuge System may not be transferred or otherwise disposed of (except by exchange) unless the Secretary of the Interior determines (with the approval of the Migratory Bird Conservation Commission) that the land is no longer needed for the purposes for which the System was established. Upon making such a determination, the Secretary must make a recommendation to the Congress and seek its approval to dispose of the land. On occasion (approximately once a month nationwide), however, exchanges of small parcels of land do take place. Authority for such exchanges is granted by the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C. 668). The exchange process is strictly used as a tool to improve or upgrade the System, therefore benefiting the national interest, and is not - undertaken unless it will result in equal or greater wildlife benefits than would occur without it. Cash equalizations are also sometimes possible. All land within the National Wildlife Refuge System is open to exchange. Inquiries about exchange possibilities should be directed to the local refuge manager of the System's individual units. 111. DISPOSAL OF FEDERAL LAND BY THE U.S. FOREST SERVICE WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE The National Forest System is administered by the Department of Agricul- ture's Forest Service. One hundred and fifty-four national forests with 184 million acres, 19 national grasslands with 3.8 million acres, and 17 land utilization projects with 59,000 acres, comprise the 188 million acre National Forest System in 43 States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. About 160 million acres of the National Forest System are located in the 17 western-most States, including Alaska. The National Forest System lands operate by law under a multiple use land management concept designed to obtain sustained flows of goods and services. The 1960 Multiple Use Act (16 U.S.C. 528-531), the 1974 Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (16 U.S.C. 1600-1614), and the 1976 National Forest Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1600 note) set the major parameters for the Forest Service's general land management activities, providing for orderly management, while protection of resources and compliance with applicable air and water quality standards provide for land planning, and permitted uses. Land-ownership planning activities involve analysis of areas within the boundaries of a national forest and are directed toward improving landownership patterns to facilitate protection, management, and development of System lands. Land exchange authority provides a way to adjust ownership designed to benefit both the public and private sectors and provides cost savings in resource administration, protection and management. The FY 80 program provided for examination and appraisal of 100,000 acres of the National Forest System and the approval of exchanges involving 77,600 acres of land. The circumstances under which parcels of land are made available by the Forest Service to governments, citizens, or corporations, and mining regulations i n n a t i o n a l f o r e s t s a r e b o t h d i s c u s s e d below. Persons seeking s p e c i f i c infor- m a t i o n a b o u t F o r e s t S e r v i c e l a n d s , however, s h o u l d c o n t a c t e i t h e r t h e F o r e s t S u p e r v i s o r of t h e n a t i o n a l f o r e s t i n which t h e l a n d i n q u e s t i o n i s l o c a t e d , o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e g i o n a l o f f i c e of t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e ( s e e appendix). A. Exchanges a n d S a l e s The e x c h a n g e a n d s a l e a u t h o r i t i e s o f t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e a r e s p e c i f i e d i n s e v e r a l a c t s , b u t t h e d e c i s i o n t o d i s p o s e of N a t i o n a l F o r e s t System l a n d i s e n t i r e l y d i s c r e t i o n a r y on t h e p a r t of t h e S e r v i c e and t h e S e c r e t a r y of Agriculture. The S e r v i c e ' s s a l e a u t h o r i t y i s l i m i t e d t o p u b l i c a g e n c i e s however e x c h a n g e s may b e made w i t h p r i v a t e o r p u b l i c o w n e r s . U s u a l l y , l a n d s t o b e ex- c h a n g e d must b e i n t h e same S t a t e a n d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l v a l u e . I n order t o p e r m i t t h e e x c h a n g e of l a n d s t h a t a r e n o t o f e x a c t l y c o m p a r a b l e v a l u e , t h e F e d e r a l Land P o l i c y a n d Management A c t o f 1976 a u t h o r i z e s c a s h e q u a l i z a t i o n payments o f u p t o 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a l u e of t h e F e d e r a l l a n d t o b e e x c h a n g e d . Forest Service disposal authorities, b r i e f l y outlined, are: Weeks Act of March 1, 1911 (36 S t a t . 9 6 2 , a s amended; 1 6 U . S . C 516, 519) S e c . 7 . A u t h o r i z e s t h e S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , when i t i s i n t h e p u b l i c ' s i n t e r e s t , t o accept t i t l e t o lands (outside t h e boundaries o f N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s ) w h i c h h e deems c h i e f l y v a l u a b l e f o r f o r e s t cons e r v a t i o n , a n d i n e x c h a n g e , t o convey t h e g r a n t o r t o c u t and remove a n e q u a l v a l u e o f t i m b e r w i t h i n s u c h n a t i o n a l f o r e s t s i n t h e same S t a t e . R e q u i r e s t h a t n o t i c e of t h e l a n d s t o b e exchanged a p p e a r e a c h week f o r f o u r s u c c e s s i v e weeks i n n e w s p a p e r s i n t h e c o u n t i e s i n which the lands a r e situated. S e c . 1 0 . A u t h o r i z e s t h e S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u e t o s e l l up t o 80 a c r e s o f a c q u i r e d l a n d t o " a c t u a l s e t t l e r s " f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s , provided t h e l a n d i s s u i t e d f o r such and i s n o t needed f o r p u b l i c purposes. The l a n d s a r e t o b e o f f e r e d f o r s a l e a s h o m e s t e a d s a t t h e i r t r u e v a l u e . S i n c e v i r t u a l l y a l l of t h e n a t i o n a l f o r e s t l a n d s w e r e s u b - m a r g i n a l c h a r a c t e r a n d / o r were needed f o r p u b l i c p u r p o s e s , l i t t l e o r no l a n d h a s in actually been sold under the Weeks Act. Nevertheless, the regulations for implementing it still exist in 36 Code of Federal Regulations, 281, et seq. General Exchange Act of March 20, 1922 (42 Stat. 465, as amended; 16 U.S.C. 485-486) Authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, when it is in the public's interest, to accept title to lands (outside the boundaries of national forests) which he deems chiefly valuable for national forest purposes. In exchange, authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to patent surveyed, non-mineral lands of equal value wihtin the National Forest System of the same State and established from the public domain, or authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to allow the grantor to cut and remove an equal value of timber within the national forests of the same State. Notice of the lands to be exchanged must appear each week for four successive weeks in newspapers in the counties in which the lands are situated before the exchange can be finalized. Allows either party to an exchange to make reservation of timber, minerals, or easements, the value of which shall be duly considered in determining values of the exchanged lands. Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act of July 22, 1937 (50 Stat. 525, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 1011) Sec. 31. Directs the Secretary of Agriculture to develop a program of land conservation and land utilization for purposes of correcting maladjustments in land use and thus assisting in controlling soil erosion, reforestation, preservaiton of natural resources, etc. Sec. 32. States that in order to effectuate the program provided for in Section 31, the Secretary is authorized to sell, exchange, lease or otherwise dispose of any property so acquired to public -authorities and agencies on the condition that the property is used for public purposes. Allows an exchange of lands of equal value to be made with private owners and with subdivisions of State governments provided it would not conflict with the purpose of the act. National Forest Townsite Act of July 31, 1958 (72 Stat. 438, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 1011) Allows the Secretary of Agriculture to set aside and sell, at not less than fair market value, tracts of National Forest System land, located adjacent to an established community in Alaska or the 11 contiguous Western States. Stipulates that the land may not exceed 640 acres for any given application and can only be sold to-a governmental subdivision. Limits conveyances to essential community needs resulting from internal growth and the need to improve and modernize community facilities and services. R e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e s e t - a s i d e and d e s i g n a t i o n of t r a c t s of l a n d from t h e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t System l a n d s f o r t o w n s i t e development c a n be found i n 36 Code of F e d e r a l R e g u l a t i o n s , C h a p t e r 11, P a r t 254, S u b p a r t B . Sales t o i n d i v i d u a l s were e l i m i n a t e d by S e c t i o n 213 of t h e F e d e r a l Land P o l i c y and Management A c t of 1976. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Omnibus Act of 1958 (72 S t a t . 216; 16 U.S.C. 565b) t r a n s f e r , without Sec. 5 . A u t h o r i z e s t h e S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e t o reimbursement o r a t s u c h p r i c e s a s h e may impose, -l a n d and s t r u c t u r e s ( o u t s i d e t h e n a t i o n a l f o r e s t b o u n d a r i e s ) p r e v i o u s l y u s e d i n connect i o n w i t h , b u t no l o n g e r needed by t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e f o r , -f i r e prev e n t i o n and s u p ~ e s s i o n . S t i p u l a t e s t h a t t h e p r o p e r t y may o n l y be t r a n s f e r r e d t o S t a t e s and p o l i t i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n s o r a g e n c i e s and t h a t t i t l e w i l l r e v e r t back t o t h e United S t a t e s i f t h e p r o p e r t y i s n o t u s e d w i t h i n two y e a r s f o r S t a t e of l o c a l f i r e p r o t e c t i o n p u r p o s e s . F o r e s t S e r v i c e Omnibus Act of 1962 (76 S t a t . 1157; 1 6 U.S.C. 555a) A u t h o r i z e s t h e S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e t o exchange l a n d s ( u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e which h a v e been a c q u i r e d and a r e b e i n g a d m i n i s t e r e d under laws which c o n t a i n no p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e i r exchange) f o r t i t l e t o a n y l a n d s which i n h i s o p i n i o n a r e s u i t a b l e f o r u s e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a c t i v i t i e s of t h e S e r v i c e . Proh i b i t s t h e conveyance of l a n d s which e x c e e d i n v a l u e t h e l a n d s t o be accepted. Act of December 4 , 1967 ( 8 1 S t a t . 531; 1 6 U.S.C. 484a) A u t h o r i z e s t h e S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e upon t h e s u g g e s t i o n of a p u b l i c s c h o o l d i s t r i c t t o exchange n a t i o n a l f o r e s t l a n d s o r o t h e r l a n d s a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e , n o t t o exceed 80 a c r e s , f o r l a n d s s u i t a b l e f o r t h e same p u r p o s e s a s t h e s e l e c t e d l a n d s o r f o r a d e p o s i t of a p o r t i o n o r a l l of t h e v a l u e of t h e s e l e c t e d l a n d . P r o v i d e s f o r any s u c h d e p o s i t t o be k e p t f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of l a n d s i n t h e same S t a t e a s t h e s e l e c t e d l a n d s . Wild and S c e n i c R i v e r s Act of O c t o b e r 2 , 1968 ( 8 2 S t a t . 906, a s amended; 1 6 U.S.C. 1277) Sec. 6 ( d ) . A u t h o r i z e s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e S e c r e t a r y t o a c c e p t t i t l e t o non-Federal p r o p e r t y w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s of any F e d e r a l l y administ e r e d component of t h e N a t i o n a l Wild and S c e n i c R i v e r s System and i n exchange t h e r e f o r , convey t o t h e g r a n t o r a n y F e d e r a l l y owned p r o p e r t y which i s u n d e r h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h i n t h e S t a t e i n which t h e compone n t l i e s a n d which h e c l a s s i f i e s a s s u i t a b l e f o r exchange o r o t h e r d i s p o s a l . S t i p u l a t e s t h a t t h e v a l u e s of t h e p r o p e r t i e s a r e t o be a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l o r e q u a l i z e d by t h e payment of c a s h a s t h e circumstances require. F e d e r a l Land P o l i c y and Management Act of 1 9 7 6 ( 9 0 S t a t . 2756; 4 3 U.S.C. S e c . 2 0 6 . A u t h o r i z e s t h e S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e t o e x c h a n g e a t r a c t o f p u b l i c l a n d o r i n t e r e s t s t h e r e i n w i t h i n t h e N a t i o n a l Fore s t S y s t e m p r o v i d e d t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t w i l l b e w e l l s e r v e d . Req u i r e s t h a t t h e l a n d t o b e e x c h a n g e d b e l o c a t e d i n t h e same S t a t e a s t h e non-Federal l a n d o r i n t e r e s t t o be a c q u i r e d , and t h a t t h e y b e of e q u a l v a l u e o r be e q u a l i z e d -by t h e payment o f money n o t t o e x c e e d 25 p e r c e n t of t h e t o t a l v a l u e o f t h e l a n d s o r i n t e r e s t t r a n s f e r r e d o u t of F e d e r a l ownership. B. Mining i n t h e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s A p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 5 p e r c e n t of N a t i o n a l F o r e s t S y s t e m l a n d i s o p e n t o mine r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and development. The G e n e r a l Mining Law of 1 8 7 2 , a s amended, g o v e r n s t h e p r o s p e c t i n g f o r and a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f m e t a l l i c a n d most n o n - m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s o n t h e 140 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f n a t i o n a l f o r e s t c r e a t e d f r o m t h e p u b l i c domain. Many of t h e n a t i o n a l f o r e s t l a n d s o p e n t o m i n i n g u n d e r t h e 1872 l a w a r e west of t h e M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r . Mining i s a l s o p o s s i b l e i n t h e n a t i o n a l f o r e s t l a n d s which a r e p u b l i c domain i n Alabama, A r k a n s a s , F l o r i d a , L o u i s i a n a , M i s s i s s i p p i , Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The Department of t h e I n t e r i o r g e n e r a l l y i s s u e s l e a s e s o r p a t e n t s t o Fede r a l l y owned l o c a t a b l e a n d l e a s a b l e m i n e r a l s o n n a t i o n a l f o r e s t l a n d s . The F o r e s t S e r v i c e , h o w e v e r , r e m a i n s f u l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r management of t h e s u r face resources. The p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r o f t h i s r e p o r t f o r f o r s t a k i n g a m i n i n g c l a i m u n d e r t h e 1872 a c t o n B u r e a u o f Land Management p u b l i c domain l a n d s a l s o a p p l y t o n a t i o n a l f o r e s t l a n d s . T h i s in- c l u d e s r e c o r d i n g t h e c l a i m w i t h a BLM S t a t e o f f i c e a n d m e e t i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t of c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h e d i s c o v e r y of a v a l u a b l e m i n e r a l d e p o s i t . If legal title t o t h e s u r f a c e and m i n e r a l r i g h t s on t h e c l a i m i s d e s i r e d , a n a p p l i c a t i o n m u s t b e f i l e d w i t h BLM. On N a t i o n a l F o r e s t l a n d s , h o w e v e r , t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e w i l l c o n d u c t a m i n e r a l e x a m i n a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e i f a v a l u a b l e d e p o s i t h a s been f o u n d a n d a c c o r d i n g l y w i l l t h e n recommend t o I n t e r i o r w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e pat e n t should be g r a n t e d . The Department of t h e I n t e r i o r t h e n c o n s i d e r s t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e ' s m i n e r a l r e p o r t , p l u s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e c l a i m a n t , t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e p a t e n t should be i s s u e d . Once a p a t e n t i s g r a n t e d , l e g a l t i t l e i s conveyed a n d t h e t i t l e r e s t s w i t h t h e p r i v a t e owner. On August 2 8 , 1 9 7 4 , t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e i s s u e d r e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g m i n i n g a n d p r o s p e c t i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n n a t i o n a l f o r e s t s ( s e e 36 Code o f F e d e r a l Regulations 252). The r e g u l a t i o n s a p p l y t o t h e p r o t e c t i o n of n o n m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s a f f e c t e d by m i n e r a l - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s a n d a r e i n l i n e w i t h t h e N a t i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l i c y Act of 1 9 6 9 . They r e f l e c t t h e need f o r s u r f a c e r e s o u r c e p r o t e c t i o n r e s u l t i n g from i n c r e a s e d p r o s p e c t i n g and mining a c t i v i t y i n recent years. The r e g u l a t i o n s a p p l y o n l y t o " l o c a t a b l e m i n e r a l s " o n N a t i o n a l F o r e s t S y s t e m l a n d s o p e n t o o p e r a t i o n u n d e r t h e G e n e r a l Mining Law of 1 8 7 2 , a s amended, and t o o p e r a t i o n s c o n d u c t e d u n d e r t h o s e l a w s . They c o v e r t h o s e l a n d s r e s e r v e d f r o m t h e p u b l i c domain f o r n a t i o n a l f o r e s t purposes (and n o t o t h e r w i s e withdrawn from t h e i r o p e r a t i o n ) , a s w e l l a s a v e r y s m a l l p o r t i o n o f l a n d s a c q u i r e d by t h e F e d e r a l Government f o r n a t i o n a l f o r e s t purposes. Under t h e r e g u l a t i o n s , o n e p r o p o s i n g t o p r o s p e c t o r mine i n t h e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t S y s t e m i n a way t h a t c a u s e s s u r f a c e d i s t u r b a n c e of r e s o u r c e s must g i v e t h e l o c a l F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f f i c e a " n o t i c e of i n t e n t i o n t o o p e r a t e . " If t h e authorized f o r e s t o f f i c e r determines t h a t such.operations w i l l cause a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t u r b a n c e t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e o p e r a t o r must t h e n s u b m i t a p r o p o s e d " p l a n of o p e r a t i o n s " i n w h i c h h e d e s c r i b e s t h e t y p e o f o p e r a t i o n p r o p o s e d , how i t w i l l b e c o n d u c t e d ; p r o p o s e d r o a d s , a c c e s s r o u t e s a n d means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o t h e s i t e ; a n d , t h e t i m e p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h t h e proposed a c t i v i t i e s a r e t o t a k e p l a c e . The p l a n must a l s o show what s t e p s t h e operator will take for feasible rehabilitation of the area once the mining is completed. Upon filing the plan of operations, the operator may be required to furnish a bond commensurate with the expected cost of rehabilitating the area. The plan is analyzed by the Forest Service officer and must be approved before any operations can be conducted. In analyzing each plan, consideration is given to the economics of the operation and an assessment is made of the environmental impacts. IV. DISPOSAL OF FEDERAL LAND BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE The Department of Defense (DOD) administers approximately 24.5 million acres. 341 Of this, 15.5 million acres represent land set aside from the public domain (whether administratively or by Act of Congress); 6.5 million acres have been acquired from private parties over the years; and the remainder includes leased lands, lands under temporary use, or lands on which easements have been acquired. In addition, DOD holds a major portion of Federal real property outside of the United States. The Department makes a conscientious effort to regularly review lands within its jurisdiction to identify property which is no longer needed for defense purposes. Land so identified, if originally part of the public domain, is returned to the Bureau of Land Management and becomes subject to disposal under the applicable public land laws. Should BLM decide, however, that the land being returned would not serve Department of the Interior purposes (e.g., the return of an airstrip), it would recommend that the property be transferred to the General Services Administration for disposal (see Chapter V). Most of the public domain land administered by the Defense Department is used regularly for purposes of military maneuvers and bombing ranges, consequently very little of it has been returned over the years. Acquired land which DOD determines it no longer needs becomes subject to the surplus property disposal procedures administered by the General Services Administration. In the past nine years, the Defense Department has identified 1.5 million acres for dispoal under the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949. 3 4 / Current as of September 30, 1979, but subject to increase significantly if deployment of a multiple protective structure basing system for the MX missile occurs with its concomitant withdrawal of public lands. The Department of Defense i s a u t h o r i z e d t o exchange p a r c e l s of l a n d up t o a v a l u e of $50,000, b u t such exchanges r a r e l y o c c u r . Occasionally, an exchange of l a n d of v a l u e g r e a t e r t h a n $50,000 o c c u r s , e i t h e r c a r r i e d o u t through GSA o r by a n Act of Congress. V. DISPOSAL OF SURPLUS PROPERTY OF THE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION In addition to the Federal land management agencies already described, there are other Federal agencies which from time to time may dispose of land. 351 Examples include disposition of (1) residential properties (which have been in use as housing for families or individuals of low or moderate income) by the Department of Housing and Urban Development, (2) recreational and industrial sites by the Tennessee Valley Authority, and (3) farm properties acquired as a result of mortgage foreclosure by the Department of Agriculture. The prin- cipal agency in this category of disposals, however, is the General Services Administration (GSA) which, under the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, is provided with the statutory means to dispose of real property which other Federal agencies find they no longer require. Once a Federal agency determines that it no longer has valid need for a property it has been using, it informs GSA by submitting a report and descriptive data to the appropriate GSA regional office. GSA then notifies other executive agencies (whose functions require use of real property) of the property's availability. During the required 30-day notification period, GSA inspects the land and arranges for an appraisal of its "fair market value." The appraisal process helps GSA determine the highest and best use of the lands so appropriate disposal plans can be generated. Vital infor- mation and data on the local market condition and on the potential physical characteristics and capabilities of the property are collected. In addition, local development plans and assessments of the potential environmental impact of dispostion are considered. 35/ Surplus structures and other improvements located on land to be ret a i n x by the Government are normally offered for sale by the agency having care and custody over the land. If no Federal agency shows an interest in assuming the property, State and local government agencies are given opportunity to obtain the land. These public agencies may even be afforded a discount or price preference in acquiring surplus real property if they indicate an intention to use the land for public park or recreational purposes, as an historic monument, for wildlife conservation, public health or educational facilities, or as a public airport. Only if no public agency wishes to buy the land does it become eligible for private sale. Surplus properties offered for sale to private parties are ordinarily handled by GSA regional offices on a competitive bid basis. How- ever, sales for private use may also be negotiated under certain circumstances. Scheduled sales are widley publicized in newspapers, magazines and trade journals and by means of radio and television. They are listed in the publication "Commerce Business Daily" which is available on a subscription basis from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. In addition, GSA regional offices maintain mailing lists of persons who have indicated an interest either in a particular property in the region or in a type of property which might become available in the region. Request forms for inclusion on these mailing lists can be obtained from the disposal officer in the appropriate region. Addresses of the GSA regional offices can be found in the Appendix to this report. Additional information on GSA disposal programs may be obtained by writing to the Director of Real Property, General Service Administration, in the appropriate regional office. APPENDIX STATE OFFICES U.S. Department of t h e I n t e r i o r Bureau of Land Management Alaska 701 C S t r e e t Box 1 3 Anchorage, AK 99513 Arizona 2400 V a l l e y Bank C e n t e r Phoenix, AZ 85073 California F e d e r a l B u i l d i n g , Room E-2841 2800 C o t t a g e Way Sacramento, CA 95825 Colorado Colorado S t a t e Bank B u i l d i n g 1600 Broadway Denver, CO 80202 S t a t e s E a s t of t h e M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r , P l u s Iowa, M i n n e s o t a , M i s s o u r i , Arkansas and L o u i s i a n a Eastern States Office 350 S . P i c k e t t S t r e e t A l e x a n d r i a , VA 22304 Idaho F e d e r a l B u i l d i n g , Room 398 550 West F o r t S t r e e t P.O. Box 042 B o i s e , I D 83724 Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota 222 No. 32nd S t r e e t P.O. Box 30175 B i l l i n g s , MT 59107 Nevada F e d e r a l B u i l d i n g , Room 3008 300 Booth S t r e e t Reno, NV 89509 New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas U.S. P o s t O f f i c e and F e d e r a l Building P.O. Box 1449 S a n t e F e , NM 87501 Oregon and Washington 729 N . E . Oregon S t r e e t P.O. Box 2965 P o r t l a n d , OR 97208 Utah U n i v e r s i t y Club Building 136 E a s t S o u t h Temple S a l t Lake C i t y , UT 84111 Wyoming, Kansas and Nebraska 2515 Warren Avenue P.O. Box 1828 Cheyenne, WY 82001 REGIONAL OFFICES U.S. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Forest Service N o r t h e r n Region Federal Building M i s s o u l a , MT 59807 Rocky Mountain Region 11177 West E i g h t h Avenue, Box 25127 Lakewood, CO 80225 Southwestern Region Federal Building 517 Gold Avenue, S.W. Albuquerque, NM 87102 I n t e r m o u n t a i n Region Federal Building 324 2 5 t h S t r e e t Ogden, UT 84401 P a c i f i c Southwest Region 630 Sansome S t r e e t San F r a n c i s c o , CA 94111 P a c i f i c Northwest Region 319 S.W. P i n e S t r e e t P.O. Box 3623 P o r t l a n d , OR 97208 Southern Region 1720 P e a c h t r e e Road, N.W. A t l a n t a , GA 30309 E a s t e r n Region 633 West Wisconsin Avenue Milwaukee, W I 53203 Alaska Region Federal Office Building P.O. Box 1628 J u n e a u , AK 99802 REGIONAL OFFICES General S e r v i c e s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Region 1 C o n n e c t i c u t , Maine, M a s s a c h u s e t t s , New Hampshire, Rhode I s l a n d , Vermont John W. McCormack P o s t O f f i c e and Courthouse Boston, MA 02109 ( 6 1 7 ) 223-2651 Region 2 New York, New J e r s e y , P u e r t o Rico, V i r g i n Islands 26 F e d e r a l P l a z a New York, NY 10007 (212) 264-2650 Region 3 D i s t r i c t of Columbia, Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, V i r g i n i a , West V i r g i n i a 7 t h and D S t . , SW Washington, D . C . 20407 (202) 472-1921 Region 4 Alabama, F l o r i d a G e o r g i a , Kentucky, M i s s i s s i p p i , North C a r o l i n a , South C a r o l i n a , Tennessee 1776 P e a c h t r e e S t . , NW A t l a n t a , GA 30309 (404) 881-4631 Region 5 I l l i n o i s , Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin 230 South Dearborn S t . Chicago, I L 60604 ( 3 1 2 ) 353-6045 Region 6 Iowa, Kansas, M i s s o u r i , Nebraska 1500 E a s t B a n n i s t e r Rd. Kansas C i t y , MO 64131 (816) 926-7237 Region 7 Arkansas, ~ o u ii sa n a , New Mexico, Okalahoma, Texas 819 T a y l o r S t r e e t F o r t Worth, TX 76102 (817) 334-2331 Region 8 Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, S o u t h Dakota, Utah, Wyoming B u i l d i n g 41, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 ( 3 0 3 ) 234-3934 Region 9 American Samoa, Arizona, C a l i f o r n i a , Guam, Hawaii, Nevada, t h e T r u s t T e r r i t o r y of the Pacific Islands 525 Market S t r e e t San F r a n c i s c o , CA 94105 ( 4 1 5 ) 556-5314 Region L O A l a s k a , I d a h o , Oregon, Washington GSA C e n t e r Auburn, WA 98002 (206) 833-6500 E x t . 264