A Functional Analysis of Congressional Member Office Operations

This report presents a general analysis of personal staff functions in a congressional office. Because there is little specific information from Congress and other sources regarding staff job descriptions and because congressional office organization patterns very significantly, this report focuses on the staff functions that are common to all offices regardless of organizational structure or job title: office management; mail; projects; casework; legislation; schedulng and personal services; press and public relations; and political functions.

Report #o. 61-116 GVJ TI:?(bnpc~isior~dRcsear;h Smv~czworkc cxclusircly for lire Cnn;3rcss. condttctinp rtwarch, analyrmg tegisl;:t~on.and providma ti~fcrmationa! :he reqwst of Cornm~ttces.Xlerrbcn and ttterr staff< This :aport p z s s c ~ , t oa geiacrcl md:r;is ~f par~onalcraff frracticlns in a co;,grsmhonnl o f f i c e . bcc;oeci there is little speciZic infornation f r m Congeee end ot%sr sources regardiag s t a f f job Leecri~tionrscrswl.b~cscrecongreosianal office oqe%zis&ition pitterns vary rigdfieently, hhie report fosuoec on the rtaff fzrrctioss t h ~ tarc ceziziwb t o a l l offdtes rcigrrhlesr of ot6;mzieational strucctrte or job title : of Cite eazwgma: ; -ail ; project* ; caeevork; comaittee rathsr than p-etsoaal staff pcreonasl. The litatatere prooide~l i t t l e that La e p a t e e ~ l t i cor specific about tha role, porpoae, %ad frmction of these personal otaZf cedber;?. Yet, in 1979, there uare over t k e e (3.5) coraltsce c t d f ( 1 0 , 5 7 5 t o 3,290); eimn mere p f r a o r d esroff tben ehe x t i o on She ECURQ a r i a was (3.3 to I; 7,051 p e r r o a d ataif atde~3cczpercd to 2,073 c o m l t : - ~ c staffero). an t h e Szaetc ? l i e wau cLout 3 to 1. Tka r a t 2 0 {3,6?.2 permncl sta4f perdou:$ t o 1,217 c o r n i t t e e atoffcrz). 1 1 l%e few stuilmts of political s c i e n c e arid p u b l i c abainlstraeica t.-ko beve stteepted t o study congreeslona.1 ~ t e f fo r g a n i z a t i o n have been kmpesed by tho lack of s p e c i z i c f n f ~ r m i t i o nf r o = C o n g r e ~ sand from other souzcce. 21 The lack o f i j o b dcscziptiono, t h e leek of job uniforzity, and t h e v n r i z c f o u among offiseo i n the duties of the persons hzving the ssrc job titld contribute to thz difficulty in studying t h e p e r s o n a l n t n i f ~of Congress. , Ld - s~n cornon job titles w i t h t n the House and Senate A reviev of c eL- L illuscrnteo this probler,. Hichnel J. Nost I-ferr?berohave Adninistrative Assistcnte who Unelcctcd Reprcscntntiven. . New Yark., Casi c Books, Fox, Harri;cn I{., J r . a n d Suran Ilcbb linnzno~.d. C o n g r e s ~ i o n a lS t a f f s : t h e Xnvislble F o r c e in isumi?lti~:i;. New Ycrlc, The rree Pre!..s, 19Go. 3 . 5-6. 21 - ere u s u a l l y t h e most i n p o r t a n t and i n f l u e n t i e l s t a f f p e r s o n s . nay i n c i u d e t h e s e of s t a f f d i r e c t o r , po1i:ical Their duties e d v i s c r , cnd opsech m i t e r . S o m a l s o p l r y En a c t i v e role i n p r e s o r e l ~ t i o n s~ n dp r o j e c t w o r k . But t h e y m y share a l l t h e m d u t i e s w i t h other e t a f f e t o t i t k d Executive h s ~ i u t n u t , ? e r a o n a l Secreterg, L e g i s l a t i v e A i d e , end Prase Secretary; QP they ocy n o t . The absence of c e n t r a l i z e d job d e s c r i p t i o n s and t h e a z r t o n K j o!: eech Krabcr i n structuring, t i t l i n g , and a a c i g n i n g d u t i e s t o h i o or hzr e t e f f a s s u r e s t h i s v c r i e t i o n i n t h e Congreaa . T h i s variatim i s more of an o b r t a c l e t o t h e e t u d e n t o f Congress t h a n i t it the o p e r a t i o n of ecch Gsnrta wr House u f f i c e h e r e i t i e ccneistent w i t h the gereral ir&ni&ization of i r ; s r i t u e i o n a L g u i d e l i n e s , atanderdo, cnd r ~ g u l c t i o n a . One way so avoid t h e a i d y t i c a l ~ r o b l e ; ; ; r c a u i t i n g froo t i e l e v&ri&tioa i0 t o focue sa t k i m c t i c - n ~each ~ t a f fpe-rfc-ms rather than t b g atrac%?e ( t i t l i n g ) utiIi~i2. A d i f f i c u : t y w i t h t 5 i e approzch i s t h e ovnrio? oi!C i z t a r r e 1 n t l o ~ c h i . p rrr,=r.,n thee:: fcnrtlona. h l t h c z l ; h C o n ~ i - e c c i o n c lc f f i c e o p e r s t i o n s do n o t necefy s e p a r a t e , t h i a r q o r t hes d i v i d e d t h z ~ cf u n c t i o n e i n t o the f o l i o w i n g e i g h t c c t e g o r i e s : - o f f i c e rnsaagc~er.: -- mail - projects - casework - legisiation - s c h e d u l i n g 2nd -- pcreonal s e r v i c e e p r e s s and p u b l i c r e l ~ t i o n s - politiccl functions O f f i c e m a n a g e ~ c c tc o n a i o t s o f a n s ~ b e ro f s a d l e t S c n c c i o n s which c o n t r i b c t e t o t h e o p e r a t i o n and a d z i c i a t r o t i o n o f e a c h Coc~recgiouslo f f i c e . h n g t h e exjar itens w i t h i n t h e general c a t e g o r y of o f f i c e raons&emat t o be d i e e u a e e d i n t h i s peper ore s t a f f r e c r u i t m e n t , coordination w i t h D i s t r i c t a& S t a t e o f f i c e e , the work flow, equipcmnt and a p a c e , allowmee8, a d e f f i c i e n c g mtd i n n o v a t ion. A s t h e Congress hco incre~acd i t s ataffing rosoutceo, g r a t e r -hasis hea had t o be y l c c e d on etaFf orennizetioa on8 nr;nageo;rut f u n c t i o n s . s t n f f e 02 Rzpcczon:stivaa, p a i d frat clerk-hire Peteoxl i u z d e , are i i ~ i t c dto !C Kveregc, p e ~ s o a s ls t a f f o f S e n a t o r s r;u.her bstveen 20 and 40 p x o o n z . n o lirit on t h e m a k e r or' s t a f f (I There i6 S e n a t o r may h i r e , but t h e ficcunt of s t a f f i n g funds a v a i l a b l e t o S e n n t c r e v a r i e o v i t h Sttts pcpulaticm. 31 S t a f f s are organized d i f f e r e n t l y acccrding t o t h e individual Hrnber's l e g i f l n t i v e , r e p r e ~ e n t e t i v e , and p o l i t i c a l g o a l s , and h i s o r h e r p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e x e s . -3 / I? t h e House of Representatives, Limbers a r e a u t h o r i z e d o scs o f money ( a n a n n u a l c l e r k - h i r e a l l o w a l l o w s n c e o f $336,334 v i t h no month-to-aonth c h r r y o v e r ) v i t h which t h e y o r e p e r m i t t e d to employ n o more thcr! 1 5 permanent p e r s m s a t any one t i n e . They a r e a d d i t i o n a l l y a u t h o r i z e d $1,620 p e r y e a r t o employ a n LEJ i n t e r r , f o r a two-mnth p c r i o 8 , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e above named cn;ployees. I n t h e S e n a t e , on t h e c t l i e r h a c d , a H C I T I ~ Bi ~s a u t h o r i z e d a ~ t s f fa l l o v n n c e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i z e cf : , i s S t a : ~ ' s p c y u l a t i o n . Cuircc:ly t h e s e a l l o ~ j a n c e sr a n g e f r c n $592,603 t o $1,130,724 p e r y e a r . There a r e no r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e number of s t a f f which a S e n a t o r may h i r e , and t h e r e a r e no r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e c s i r y o v e r o f unused f u n d s f r w one ncnih t o :he n e x t . S e n a t o r s a l s o r e c e i v e c l c ~ i s l r t i v ea s s i t i t m c e a l 1 o w a r . c ~oC $183,291 p e r f i s c a l y e a r . I n t h e c a s e o f a c o z ~ i t t e ec h a i r - n o r r a n k r n ~m i n o r i t y rntnbzr of a Carmictct? t h e a l l o v s n c e i s a u t c i l q t i c a l l y reduced by $61,267 f c r each such 1 c l d c r : h i p p o s i t i o n . O t h e r S c n s t o r s a u t h o r i z e d t o ;p;.oint c o ~ x ittc e s t a f f r e c e i v e reduced l e g i s l a t i v e n o s i s t ~ n c e f u r b a s a s w e l l . atno play a r o l e . E?cruiroloe f o r p r c f a s s i o n e l s t a f f positioac, eceordina to one oleerver, is " b a e d p r i ~ ~ r i lM y inf01l~..11, non-rotit LiiLzeB c o n t a c t 8 and 'who know o */ I a x x ? i c t e l y f o l l o & 5 n ~aa election, the t e a t l g e l e c t e d W b e r o are deluged with s g p l i c a t i o o s for e ~ t p l o y ~ t c c z . And t h r o u g h o u t ons'e c o e g ~ e e o i o n a l careat, there i o hardly a welt t h e t will go by without at least oac pereon dropping off e r e w m . C i u t r i c G ooteera do n 3 t . burner, few of "ctarru perso~oore b i r d . It cteoet g e m r a l l y r-greed t h a t t h e need and o p p s r t u n i t y f a r S t c t c p e o p l e on a P:sirrt~er'a a t n f f Cccreaecc as c e c ~ o r i t y increases. H i r i n g p c p l c frca t h e S t a t e may c r e n t e a t l e r r t t h r c e p r o b l e n s : ( 1 ) i t n z y prove c l i f f i c ~ l tt o fire smaone w i t h t i e s t o t h e c o n e t i t u e n c y ; ( 2 ) it may n o t be e d v a ~ t e g e o u a f o r a hoae S t a t e r c r x n v i t h t i e s t o t h e c o n s t i t u e n c y t o be p r i v y t o all t h e t t r a n s p i r e s i n t h e ~enber's o f f i c e ; end ( 3 ) o c c a s i o n a l l y s t c f f F r r s o c - s f r o n t h e hoge S t ; t e a x b i t i o n s 1:hich s a y a t l e s o , t p i r t i a l l - y ir,f!uonce -4 / Fox and t i c m o g d , p . 4 9 . have t h e i r o m p o l i t i c a l t h c i r e f f o r t s i n the Congressional o f f i c e . On t h e o t h e r hand, hone S t a t e s t a f f e r s moy be e s p e c i a l l y a t t u n e d t o t h e p r o b l e n s o f t h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l ccnetitueccy. Sozzetimes e t ~ f f e r aarc h i r e d t o f i l l s p e c i f i c r o k o , and in thzna c a s e o s k i l l s , and e x p e r i e n c e . I n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , peraone are hired f o r t h e i r g e n e r a l c e p a b i l i t i e o ; and d u t i e o m y be soeigaad as they orher. Dutieo may seen t o be r a n d m l y aeeigmd, but many ccmgreseia.=..nlstaffers now c o n s i d e r e d experts i n their fieid can point out that their a p e r t i o a b e g s jut& becauce someone was needed to cover o certain subject area. Erpartise grew D ,M& facto. a u t t i o r i z c d arid c h c r ~ e df o r r e c t a ? space f o r D i o t r i c ~c 2 f i c e c i n p a t o f f k c : crd FeGercl b u i l d i n g s on e oquare footagc? b a s i s ( o r eundm t o pap f o r e q c i v e i c r r t p r i v a t e o f f i c e spcce). S c n s t o r s a r e a~.i"orlzed r e n t a l space i n p s t o f f i c e o and F e d e r a l b u i l d i c g ~( o r funda t o pay f o r e q u i v a l c a : p r i v c e c o f f i c e space by s q u a r e f o o t a g e , a c c o r d i n g t o E t a t e p u p u l s t i o n , nst e x c e ~ d i i ~the g highest r a t e p e r s q u a r e £00: charged F e d e r a l Agcnciea by C F h ) . I n c d d i t i c n , each Scnatci or Representetivs is authcrized t o Ieese a m b i l e o f f i c e . Although S t a t e o r D i o t r i c t o f f i c e 6 n a y perform v a r y i n g f u n c t i o n e , a l l o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s must bc c c o r d i n a t e d w i t h t h o s e dona i n Washington. h current t r e n d s e e m t o be t h e a s s i g n r , e n t of moot cesework ( w i t h t h e u e u e l s s c e p t i o n of military cases) to thfse offices. C e r t a i n £ o m l e t t e r s ( c o n g r s t u i a t o r y , new r e s i d e n t , and sometimes l e g i s l a t i v e ) u r e a l s o dcnc i n S t e t e o r D i ~ t r i c to f f i c e s . These o f f i c e s ere o f t e n i n v o l v e d i n s c h e d u l i n g t h e Crcber'a tiiac io bock h o w , a d , of couroa, Co?pgrc6sloanl o f f i c e n a r e a o m & l l y when he o r ohe involved i n local p c l i t i c a l affairs, cad i n p r o j e c t work. L a s t l y , an i n p o r t t n t p c r t of o f f i c e manegenent r2e.z:~ w i t h c q u i p ! u n t snd spece. A v a r i e t y of o f f i c e m a c h i c c s , v i t h d i f f e r i n g epplicatiofis and c a p a b i l i t i e s , &re c v a i l a b l c t o Hmbers. It i a a f u n c t i o n of o f f i c e rnsnczesent t o be eware of t h e o f f i c e ' s specific needs, artd t o m&e e q u i p z x n t o e e t ~t h o s e n s r d s . lure t h a t t h e o f f i c e With r e g a r d t o s p a c e , o f t e n - b u t e s p e c i e l l y a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and end o f each .Congre~e--various o f f i c e s e u i r t b l ~f o r " e m e x aptice" become svailable ( t h i e s l o o o c c u r s as t h e S e n a t e aed Houftc Office E t i i l d i n ~ cincrenoc i n nimber and new c f f i c e c a r e created); thcr; charged w i t h o f f i c e oanege.;artat nzed t o be w a r e of t h e s e so a s t o p l c c c a ~ p l i c c t i o a s . P e r s o n a l & t a f f i n the Nous? and Senat2 has increased by =ere t b m 50 percent i n t h e loat 10 yews, I/ cnd c d d i t i o n a l o f f i c e apace h e o been needed end acquired t o house these p e r o m t i . A Coagtocaio~clo f f i c e t h a t doea nct acquire convs~isrrtly located space as i t acquires o t e f f m i ~ h twell find i e s a l f oeverely crcwpd curd operating iaef f i c i e n t l y . Effbcimcy bad Imavation Efficiency i n o f f i c e o ~ c r a t i o n eio alwsye decircblc, bat o f t e n d i f f i c u l t LO etbievz. Ldiyei of each fitgff perc;onln r x k - s s The quai;ty of t h e c r f f i c r as E ~jhjholc-\*~l^ie~ accorliix:: t o a nu:,L?r vclf cle that of different fcetore. Each o f t h e c c q u n c u t a d i a c u a a e d above c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e vark l e v 2 1 o f eech cctployee. I t i s n o t a l w ~ y sp s e o i b l e i n t h c c o n t e n t of each C o n g r ~ e a i o n a l o f f i c e t o s u p p l y eech s t a f f w i t h o p t i m a l v o t k i a g c o n 2 i t i o n c . Space l i n i t n t i a n o may f o r c e meny s t a f f e r s t o vork i n on e n v i r o r r x ~ n t t h e y cozcidcr-acd r i g h t l y ao--less t h ~ no c - t i c f c c t o r y . perhaps This m y wo-11 iopit-,sr upon p r c z u c t i v i t y . I n an a t t e m p t t o o v e s c o m t h e problerr; of space l i m i t n t i c n , a s c n ? l nurtber o f o f f i c e s have e x p e r h e n t e d wiLh i n n o v a t i v e s p a c e - e f f i c i e n t furniture. r? component of o f f i c e o;anagzroent i s t o be w s r e o f such o p p o r t u n i t i e e when they a r i s e , enc! a l s o t o be a b l e t o e v a l u a t e how w e l l such o p t i o n o w i l l fare i n t h e -5 1 Fox a n d Hamond , p. 2 4 - 2 5 . particular o f f i c e . There asy wdl.1 b e rzsiotnnce among tredition-orierrted e t a f f e r e t o s u b e t e n t i a l innovation. And i n n o v e t i m i n o f f i c e apsrrtiono i e not neccsserily going t o bc b e n r f i c i ~ iin every c m e . h f i n a l note abost =any of t h e w off ice c h x ~ z p w n toperrtio:~c--the reeponaibic personnel i n ~ c Ccagrecsianst h o f f i c e acs?.k ~ e pabreco: c f t h e ever-chknghg E I ~ O V ~ Lhit: CBS pertsin Cc s t n f f , nq-l;prl?ant, s t e t i o n e r g , t r a v e l , etc . h e m are c m p i l e d ir. t h e C ? ~ . r r c s t b m ?t k ~ 3 5 c i r k (prq?p.mW! t t t d repu+czrly uprhtcd by the Cwsittee on Boisne Adniraiatretion, in the House, and the C m i t e c e An e l e z e n t o f oCfice n o n s g a n e n t i s t h e f m c t i c n o f r e c e i v i n g , r o u t i n g , and responding t o c o r ; g r e o s l o n a l a i l . M e ~ k e r so f t e n f e e l t h a t r e s p o n d i n g t o m i l p r o m p t l y a-13 e x p e d i t i s u s l y i s as i n p r t a n t a f u n c t i o n aa say. k/ The v o l u w of m i l v a r i e s frcm o f f i c e t o o f f i c e and from wsek t o week, b u t r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e f l o o d of correspdence can r e q u i r e Large oE3unta of tine and e f f o r t . Even ' ; h o q h "the huge voltme of mil today is irspoacible to handle i n any way o t h e r than o e c h m i z a t i o a , " c a t e g o r i z i n g incodn;: I/ the simple t a n k s of opening a d c o r r e s ~ n d e n c ecan consure s i g a i f i = e n t eeaf f t i;nc . Each l e t t e r must be r o u t e d t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e 6taEE p e r c t n , end l e a i s l e t i v e p a i l on new i s o u c a n u s t be renzarctred and t h e H:*:5cr's p o s i t i o n must be entnbliszkied and c0nfimr.d. It i o e n m i o r ! i n Congreao t h a t t h e i n p o r t a n c e nf eoc'i c o n s t i t u e n t l e t t e r s h o u l d n o t be u n l e r r r t e d . A Member o f t h e Hogse a x e s t a t e d why he b e l i e v c d t h a t ehch l e t t e r n u s t be w r i t t e n as i f i t were f o r p u b l i c o t ' o n . "One . . . thitlg I t h i n k a p p l i e s t o e v e r y new member [ i s ] t o r e a l i z e t h a t you are now b i g ncve ir: your honc d i s t r i c t ; &nd d o n ' t e v e r w r i t e a n y t h i n g t o a c o n s t i t u e n t t h a t you v o u l d n ' t be w i l l i n g t o s e e on Page Onc o f t h e l o c a l newspaper. I t you c a n 6/ C o n s i d e r t h i s e d v i c e g i v e n freshman R e p r e s s n t n t i v e E z t e s K e f a u v e r (~enn;) by Speaker nanlkhend i n 1939: "Give c l o s e and prompt a t t e n t i o n t o your m a i l . Your v o t e s and s p e e c h e s nay mike you w e l l knox-n and g i v e you a r e p u t c t i o n , but i t i c t h e way you h a n d l e your m a i l t h a t determigres your r e e l e c t i o n . " Quate6 i n K e f a u v e r , E s t e s , and Jack Levir?. A Tventie:h-1'-ntury C o n g r e s s . N e w York, D u e l l , S l o s n and P e n r c e , 1947. p. 171. 7 1 S t u a r t , P e t e r C . W r i t e 3 Congressclan--and ~ h r i s t - i n nS c i e n c e M o n i t o r , J u n e 2 , 1975. p. 2 . Get a Machine R e p l y . CRS- 10 remeabex t h a t a5 r ~ l cnumber one, i t w i l l keep you o u t of an awful l o t of trouble." 81 Such a warning i~ p.dbably d o u b l y < r u e f o r S e n a t o r s , whose views e p p c c r t o receive more 5 e d i a z i t t e n t i o n i n both t h e i r home S t t i t e a and Waehington, D.C., t h a n t h a c e of m o t Representatives. The i t c o z i n f n t i l r c p r e s a n t o much cf t h e t o t a l o f f i c e o p e r r t i o n i n m i c r o c o f i ~ . 'fbcre are l e t t e r 2 d e a l i r e w i t h l e g i e l o t b o n , c e s e v o r k , echeciuling of t h e Hecher'c ti-&, S t a t e , District, and n & t i o n c l politics, and v i s i t o r e Ln a d d i t i o n a r e t h e p r i n t e d or a u t o a s t i c a l l y typed coming t o Wwhing:m. (''Dear ~ o l l e c g u e " ) letters c i r c u l a t e d by o t h e r Xembers s o l i c i t i n g c o s p o n s o r e h i p of Legisiation, r e g a r d i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n Y£ emndmenta, o r c a n c e r n i n g c t b e r Rouse or Senate metera. It qp.c.ars virtttelly impcrsiblc to keep trctck o f all i n c m i n g corrcepondaxe. Rlthongh #me, though p r o b f b l y n o t mart, lTouse o f f i c e s use . i s t e s a t i c c ? l y prst.8-cic! ti;r-c:gL ttie c o s p e s s i o s c l office, euch s y s t e m can bcccr-e o v c t l o c d r : Fr, "high r~i.1"offices. cxneu2c.1 i n t r o c k i r : the : e t t I I x e t i ~ ecnL' e f f o r t ~ra;lld he .acac be e i f o r d e d . I n t h e Sccric, soze .frslbero ere using the c o r r e s p o n S e x e e n c g e n e n t s y s t e n in rhich moot i n q u i r i e e requiring n w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s r e t r c c k e d end c a t e g o r i z e d by s u b j e c t . - 81 Tacheron, Gonclld Cr., and F!orris K. U d a l l . The Job of t h e Congrcesnzn. B o b b e - d s r r i l l Cmpzny, Inc., New York, 1970. p. 76. CRS- 11 Each q f c i c c , however, do28 have a 3ystmn by & i z h m i l i s d i s * . r i t u t e d and a s s i g n e d :o cffhce p c r a o c 3 e l f o r a respcnae. The a c t u a l method o f receiving and r o u t i n g r.o??'*<t\:cnt correspondence varlea f r o = off ice t o off icc and tlependo oil t h e awocnt cf s a i l received, t h e s i z e of t h e s t a f f , t h e s t r u c t u r e a& of the o t a f f , arid the inc!iostione of t h e E m b e r 613 orie6tat Lon t o hos ouch d e t s i l he or ohe p r t f e r s in h i e or her r e s p c n s e a . G e n e r a l l y , incorning mail can b e c a t e g o r i z e d into three =in legislative, r e p e e : e , a& groupingo: special. L e g i s l a t i v e m i l d e a l s ~ i r hc l ; b e t o ~ t i v e isouea. processed b:, a u t c x t i c t p p e w r i t e r c hnviog been p e r o o e a l l y prep-red. 7 h c h of t h i s mil cen be .Let! providz ~ e c p 3 s a e s irk nu ~ ~ i ~ e a r nofn = ~ There r t c a nurr'xr cf t y p e s o f a u e w ~ t i c t y p e w r i t e r s , end t h e c o r e e o p h i s t i c ~ t e duodels c i f o v f o r the s p l i c i n g of s e l e c t e d i s a u e comwnents i n t o one l e t t e r i f , for e x e n p l e , a c o c s r i t u 8 c r copmento on t h e e c o n w y and t h e e n v i r o m r n t , L e t t e r s r e q u t r i n g c c o r e d e t a i l e d r e s p o n s e , o r d c ~ l i n gw i t h n s u b j e c t n o t covered by a f o w r e s p o n s e , need t o be ansvered on en i c d i v i d u a l br,r.ic. a s e i g n n e n t of a u c h l e t t e r s v a r i e s from o f f i c e t o o f f i c e . Tl~e In some o f f i c e s , o n l y t h e n o s t s e n s i t i v e l c t t e r c w i l l r e a c h t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A s s i s t a n t or t h e lfembcr ( s e e S p e c i a l M a i l , below;. t o the mail. Other Henbers take a n o r e a c t i v e r o l e with r e g a r d I n a l l c a s e s , Members a r e kept a p p r i s e d of g e n e r a l t r e n d s i n t h e m a i l ( f o r m o r e d e t a i l , sce s e c t i o n on L e g i s l a t i o n ) . Request m i l covers a i l correepus:desce in &ich requeatiog a favor--&ich to a ailirery c a m to 3 c s r range frm free copy of E U I ~kkeourc~sp m y h l e t . 7C 8 a constituteat is p u b l i c works project i n the Stete a 2 e p n r t ~ e o tof Agriculture or @ttparczrcat Virt\..dily every o f f i c e respanto t o there lectors pereonally, although e c h n n i ~ e dtyprvritars cna 'be utilirsd at certsin secscs. Different staffarc h d l c difr'e.-eat a a p ~ s t eof t h i s job; the exrct diatritsuzion of d u t i e e ell v r r y frm czficc: to office. The ~ e e e g e i o n i s tm y W l c s t p t e dacnw~: reqta?m while casamrkcrs h r d h ths rwytine ~ r o b l w or "c&iianWwith other r s t a i f e r ~ ~e'e s i o t e n c c , dcpenditig a the ezportise needed S p e c i c t rsi.1 i n c 2 1 ~ d c ethose l e t t e r e that reach t h e deeh of the Htster, perccnal s e c r e t a r y , oz ACxinietrntive Sssietont directly. of ' i c e t h e c e &re rel-riveip fev in nu.&er, Those i t m s i n c l u d e d i u t h i s cote;ory Scae limbers n a y v a ~ et o see r o s e l e t t e r s A l t h o u ~ hin 8 ty~iccl they are q u i t e i n p r t a n t . will v a r y f r m o f f i c e t o o f f i c e . fro= other Limbers. b 3 t H a b e r e alao vent to EC? p ~ ? i t i c s l l yt c n f i t i v e c o r ~ e s p o n d e n c e , r e l a t i e t o the licm S t o 2 e and mric:ic: p o l i t i c o ; others prefer t h a t thcse natters be har.dled by t h e Administrativz Assistrnt o r another p o l i t i c a l l y expert s t a f f person. In writ o f f i c e s , Hcir+,bere m? ~ t a f f e r ~vculd i agree that d m to tcc k.~ber'a e x r t c a i v e t i ~ cdemends, the moil categorized os special and chacnefled to the As important aa receiviog, routixq, md responding t o =sir, i o tba final functisa of review aad eendlee the mail out. n o s e Ictterls oertt t o ti= i:szsbe+ Aooictsat for review w i l l vary, not only frm office or the &inistrstiva t o o f f i c e , but &loo Lrea staffer t o ateffer within each o f f i c e . zcnoitive 1e:ter ~ 3 S m z ataffcra require y ehs s p p r o v d of the A . 6 , o r n ~ e n i c rl e ~ i o l s t l v o Although ooze o f f i c e s a t t m p t t o k e p within three Jays of the fnccsing mail ( t h a t is, each l e t t e r m s t be reayonded to vithr'n three Osp), other o f f i c c n fiad that a f u l l i e e k or tvo i s ofter? a more r e o l i c t i c t i n e frzzie. Correcpondenie expect o pronpt reapsnse, a d incouine It-itcro that coc~j.t3teiltly go un~nevered for e e v e r a l w e k s can & d v ~ t s e l ya f f e c t c o n c t i t o e n t r e l c t i ~ n a . FROJECTS The p r o j e c t f u t c t i m of a Coogretsioanl office is probably m e of the least understood cad one of the e t s i e c t t o overlook. Basically, it ie the steering of Federal funds to thoee persons, orecniemtiono, and c c s m d t i e s rseeking to pereicipaec in a federatry epneored prqpmt. %re a e ar errticrated 2,693 '9' different types of grant iruafleblc k a a t h e varioue Pcderal dopsztmeate and ngencies. grant-in-cid w ~ t l a y ~:otalecl . In f i e c o l year 1981 F&erol 3'35-3 billicn s / - - E u u d a mode availttie c a i c l y t o cnivcrrity :cb ttt;:t &.I1 be privcte r e e e e x h 3 r o q s . In addition, there 2re t h 0 ~ ePedcral fucC3, not d i k p c n ~ e d thraugh g r e a t s but nevertheless much eougl;: a f t e r , that are used for defense prccureeent o f f i c e buildings snd Pedercl projects (such as flood control and highvay construction). Research Service budget analyst explains that i t i n 9 / A Con:ressional difficult to provide an exact nurobcr, since there is vide disegreenent about the definition of "grant progrms". 101 U.S. Esecutive Office of the P r e s i d e ~ t . Office of ffrnegement Find ~ u d ~ e t .B u d g e t of t h e United S t e t e ~C o v e r m e n t Ficcal Year 1?62. Iiachfngton, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1981. p. 239. 111 - Ibid. p. 306. &c:nuoe the S t a t e , l o c a l , or p r i r r t e uait i a frcqcently e i t h e r unnaare of w r i l a b l n n3aeyo or uscerttin of how t o go about o b t a i a i n g them, a Co~,eresoionalo f f i c o cen be of usaistia?~';ccin thsae eridcsvors. Staff nenbcrs ocab t o r s n i t o r G e p ~ r t c m tacd sgtzcy a c t i r i t i e e i n the f i e l d of gron: B i e t c t a w n t s , hnd, whm poosib?e, n o t i f y the apprepriete persoas in the Gtate of w h t f u d r era s v t i l a b l e . Staffer8 can contact agency geriwiiiel t o d e t e z d z e their intereet in c a r e a h projects, and relay their f i d i n g s to the locsl authorities. filed, affice etaffe-ad Oacc a g t a t opplicrtion is the Sensect or Eeprescntetive, at tks--can keep in touch d t h .cgcncy paogle 4 indicate thcih: s u y e r t for tkt' pzojact. This i e ctpeciolly efPeceiva i f the Hezhr i e of t h e s e w party or the h i n i s r t r a t i m concert& c c t i o n os the p e r t of tiic s t a f f CL? r ~ e u l ti n mre Fcderal fur63 beins spent i n the S t c t e or d i z t r i c c , and provide gnecter oerviceo :o the c o n ~ t i t u c n t y(for eriaplc, & Vetersrna' h o s p i t e l , Socisl Securitr. o f f i c e , or a better funded and more f u l l y equipped redicel s c h o o l ) . k s ~ e rprojects are, of course, not neglected. Tlre iapr"cpncc o f the cocnocicstio3 task c~lledcasework is reflected in a 1977 queetionnaire survey, by Robert Kloaoff, whoa@ result8 are given i n t h e t a b l e below. Percentage of Tim Spent On Casework (Percent of Faspondicg O f f ices a/) Percentcge of t i n e spent on caoewcrk Q steff a e e i s t a n t s k/ Ly limbers 100.0 I 123 -a / -b/ responses F i g u r e s d c n o t add up t o 100 p e r c e n t because o f r o u n d i n g . Includes d i s t r i c t s t a f f . K l o n o f f ' s f i n d i n g s s h o ~t h a t k % i l e nost H e a b e r s d e v o t e l i t t l e of t h e i r own 2i.ze t o c a s e w o r k , 3 3 . 3 p e r c e n t of t h a o f f i c e s r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e 1977 q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v o t e a t l e a a t 50 p e r c e n t of a11 s t a f f hour6 t o ceaework, a n d 71.5 p e r c e n t of t h e o f f i c e s e ~ a n di n excess of 25 p e r c e n t of t h e i r t i m e aa casework. Ceeevork i s r a r e l y e e l £ - i n i t i a t e d ; letter. 121 i t moat o f t e n s t e m froas a s o n e t i t u e n t The d e f i n i t i o n o f ceseoork v a r i e s . S e a e u s e t h e tern t o a p p l y t o t h e whole raaze of c o n ~ t i t u s n tp r o b l m a and i n q u i r i c o , o t h e r s r e s t r i c t it t o a r e a s ouch eo s o c i a l t e c ~ r i t yend v s t e r t n s ' b e a e f i t o , tcucing and d l i t c r y p r o b l e m , isiaigration eod unereplojmmt, and t h e like. 131 0x12 S c o o t o r ezplained that h e v i e w d easew,?rk oe "request6 far a wide variety of services requiring me t o go to bat for c i t b e n e witb th a&ainiatr(ttive agencies of E b e Federal C a s m k i s &dl& r s r k r routinaly. !h? incaslag cmstituaat l e t t e r is judged fcr rcfidity (there are a Lev, uwustly elaey-to-spot, c r e h letters), and s u b ~ e s tarr-co on3 receive a l l l a t t s z - e cithin t b c i r specific arace. o r e8cncy Leo j c r i s d i c t l o n cnd m k e c E; b e e t 0 2 h a n d l e d by t e l e p h c n e o r l e t t s r . I n this way, d e t e r m i n a t i o n no t o tihethcr t h e caoe can I n eoze c s s e a r e f e r r a l t o S t a t e o r c r m i c i p a l govcrnzcrit, or t a t h e K a b c r ' s S t e t e o r D i s t r i c t o f f i c e i~ a p p r o p r i s t e . I f t h e c n J c l e n d s i t e e l f t o b e i n g handled on t h e phone, t h e agency i e c o n t a c t e d ; u8ua:ly'via t h e CongieasionaL L i a i s o n O f f i c e . 121 Klonof f , Robert. The Congress~nan as H d i a t o r Between C i t i r e n s and G o v c r m c n t Agencies: P r o b l e n s nnd P r o s p e c t s . Harvnrd J o u r n a l on L e g i s l a t i o n , v . 16, S u m e r 1 9 7 9 . p. 708. - 131 B u t l e r , Karren H. M n i n i s t e r i n g Congress: the Bole of t h e S t a f f . P u b l i c Adninio:rntion Review, v . 26, Harch 1966. p. 6. Yew Y I & / C l e r k , Joseph S. ~ X ,1354. p. 63. Congreso: t h e S a p l e s s Branch. h r p t r t Row, If t h e c a s e i s t o be handled by l e t t e r , t h e caseworker uakes a photoccpy o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t l e t t e r and Forwards i t t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e Rgency, s o r r e t i z e s G.th a p e r s o n a l l y w r i t t e n l e t t e r , but mic o f t e n G-th an sppcopri3te i a q u i r i n g "buck s l i p . " A l e t t e r i s s e n t t o t h e c o n s t i t u e n t over t h e Hszberfu s i g n z t u r e a s s u r i n g t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n t t h a t t h e N&r i s l o o k i ~ ginto t h e v a t t a r , The e x e c u t i v e branch departarsnt o r agency c a n n o r ~ n l l pbe counted on t o respond to, t h e "case" w i t h i n a week o r tw, and a rxpy of t h a t r e s p a w e i~ forwarded t o t h e c o n s t i t u e n t w i t h o t s a m a t i o a s , eaggctstions, o r o e n t i m n t e ma f i t t h e circuastances. Few e e p i r i c a l data e x i e t on the uu&er o f tims a c o n s t i t u e a t ' o coraplsin: and t h e eccmpanying c c r n ~ r e s s i o n n li n q u i r y a c t u a l l y e f f e c t a csaege i n c a m statua. it0 Pbre o f t e n t h a n n o t , the agency i n q u e s t i o n w i l l s i t q l y i n c l u d e i n l e t t e r n r e c i t a t i o n of t h e f a c t s an? the c ? p l i c o b l e regu?ictlocs ac & emma o f e z p l s i n i n g why t h e c o n o t i t u c c t ' s probies c a n n o t be f m o r & l y rebolva2. O w s t u d y , i n ~ h i c h198 P!e&ero and s t a f f ~ r r t i c i p a ~ e be ,c t i m t e d t h c t c o n g r e s s i o n a l cesersort: r e s u l t e d i n f a v o r a b l e de t e m i n c t i o n s by t h e a g e n c i e s i n a p p r o r i n s t e l y 37 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s . g/It should be n a t e d , however, t h a t neventcen yearn ago, some Mutbers c l a i r , ~ d e s u c c e s e r a t e of o n e - f i f t h t o one-third. %/ G r e a t e r c o n g r e e s i o n s l a t t e n t i o n t o caaevork nay c o n t r i b u t e t o a higher current success r a t e . But, one r e a s o n f o r t h e d i s p a r i t y nsy e l s o be t h e measurement of s u c c e s s . I n some c a s e s , t h e F e d e r a l agency, upon a kienber's r e q u e s t , w i l l g r z n t t h e c o n p l a i n a n t an a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w and e x p l a i n i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l why t h e p a r t i c u l e r c l a i m must be d i s a l l o w e d . Although not a 15/ Johannes, John R. Congressionnl Caseworkers: A t t i t u d e s , O r i e n t a t i o n s , and ~ E r a t i o n s . P r e p a r e d f o r d e l i v e r y a t t h e 1978 meeting of t h e Midwest p. 2 6 . P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c o g o , , I l l i n o i s , A p r i l 20-27. 1 6 / Clapp, C h a r l e s L . The Congressmnn; I i i s Work a s He Sees I t . I n s t i t u t i o n , Washington, 1963. p . 7 C . ,Erookings CRS-20 total success, it ie c p l u t for the Member and often the conatitutent is In certain instances, a Hmlrcr rere GCCS.;;~MB, ineervcci* percon&l!y. may do mote for constituents and nay, on Frosever, in gecoral, Hmbars end t;eir s t a f f 8 are reluctrznt to k c m a heavily involved especiaily in t h o f e cased in ~ h i c hp o t c o t i d conflict of interest questions could arise. Ope coonon, thou$;h uat frcqceot, practice i a casework d e a l i n g p t i w x i l y with imigtation caoea i o the introduction of a private b i l l . 'Although private bills have dealt with c l & h o egainst Goveraraent, pettnzts, military offoiro, oad other i t e m , mast hare cancemed o w aepcct or mother of b t i g t a t i o n . catagorico u i t h i a the bro& The majar heading of b i g r a t i o n are: 1 ) pcmittia~alicrw r e a i d i n g abroad t o h i g r a t e to the United States afthcrrgh othtnriae they may not 1 q a l Z p t a iible to do eo; 2) pzrdttia~alicnn in the tkited S t c t c s to remain Me~bers ehould bti azrare of the difference in Eause and Senate coneidcrzticn of the second category given above. hh8 The Imigrstion end Ncturalization Service different agreenenta vith the Souse er?d Senate Judiciery Canitteee involving stays of deporta~ionfcr pereons not legally in the U n i t e d States. In the House, deportation proceedings ..ill "cot be stayed upon the introducticn of a private bill . . . unless the House Cornittee on the Judici~ryaddreoses some fomnl com.cnic~tionsto the service to stay proceedings." In the Senate, however, deportation will "be stayed in the case of any alien concerning w h m a private iriiigration bill is prndtn: in the Senate on which no unfavorable a c t i o n has been taken by the Senate Cornittee on t h e J u d i c i ~ r yby the end of t h e current sesaion o f Congress." g! Caoeuork is utdm3red?y zn important C~ngrcocionsl functio-a. In encouraging c o n a r i t u s ~ t s t o take advgnr&ge of their s e r v i c e , marry Hmkr8 are a c t i n g G S ~the supporition t h a t a s e t i k f i e d constituent is a vote gained i n the next e l e c t i o n ; the corollary i s t h ~ ta d i s s s t i s f i c d conatitueat well be a vote i r r e t r i e o e b l y ~959 lout. 17/ Congressionrl Quarterly's Grridc to the Congraae of the United Statee. # s s h i z t a , Congreseiorral Quarterly Services, 1971. p. 338. LEGISLATIOS Perheps t h e key m t L i n a C i s c u o o i o a of a S e n a t o r ' s o r R f p r e s e n t e t i v e ' s l e g i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o a i s "coordinrition." B e l e g i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o n eacozpaszcs v a r i o u e a c t i v i t i e s i n d i f fcrent crenco : t h e Bouec f l o o r , the Scnate f l o o r , t h e Eouac coimittees, t h e S e n a t e cmsiittecn, end each Ksber's p e r ~ o i z a lo f f i c e (where he or she f o m u l a t e s p o s i t i o n pupcrs d often rercmrcheo isruee on which bejshe w i l l l a t e r i n t r c d u c e l a g i a l a t i c m ) . All ~ t a f fd e r e , both in t h e p r s a t n l o f f i c e m d on the v a r i o r s comaittee a d tlubcm?ttiztee stsffa, &o are r c s p x a i b t e t o the Hmb~_b,are hest served by n&ma awtreneoa cf t h e f t m b e r ' o p s i t i a n - - o n 6 o t h e r eteff =be-'s posaiblc actiulriae- on a l l r e l a t e d i s s u e s . cn i q o r t a n t v o t e cn t h e f l o o r , nged t o be c o o r d i n a t e d . The most time-consuming l e ~ i s l a t i v et a s k f o r s t a f f is r e s p o n d i n g t o c o n s t i t u e n t c o r t e a p o n d e n c e ( e e c p. 10 f o r additional i n f o m c t i o n on h o c s s t a f f reapondo t o l e g i s l a t i v e n a i l ) , Conti:;tuent s a i l i s not n e c e s s a r i l y i m p o r t a n t ao a d e t e r m i n a n t of how a R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r S e n e t o r v i l l v o t e , b u t i t can be used a s a mects f o r measuring c o n s t i t u e n t s ' views on l e g i s l a t i o n t h e Nenber must v o t e upon. - s/L e g i s l a t i v e m a i l i s t r e a t e d with r e m e c t . 181 Kingdon, John k'. Congressmen's Voting D e c i c i o n s . Harper and Row, 1973. p. 57. New York, ' I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s o f t e n i n r e s p o n s e t o c o n s t i t u e n t l e t t e r s t h a t Hembera, w i t h t h e a s e i s t e n c e of t h e i r s t a f f s , f i r s t r e s e a r c h v a r i o u s i s s u e s and draw u? p o s i t i o n popere, which a r e theil used aa t h e basis f o r form , l e t t e r s . I n a d d i t i o n t o reoponding t o c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , t h e b o o i c s t a f f l r g i s l a t i v e d i n one word: f u n c t i o n can be s u ~ i ~ eup neecis t o be p::epared preparation. A Heuber of Congress f o r t h e n.meroue l z g i s l a t i v e forurns i n which he o p e r a t e s , and i t is t h e s t a f f r o l e t o e n s u r e t h a t such p r e p a r a t i o n i s adequate. I n t h e 95th Congress, f o r exrrorple, t h e r e r e r e 1,276 r o l l c a l l v o t e s i n t h e Hovse and 1 , 0 5 5 r o l l c a l l v o t e e i n the S e n a t e ; r=ul Nembere needed t o be p r e p a r e d for each. It i e a etcff funetiolt t o be f m i l i o r w i t h the c o n t e n t and canrnittce report ~ f ercb b i l l , to be aware o f m a j o r l o b b y i u g e f f o r t s f o r and a g a i n o t t h e logiol&ios, to 'mow & i c h c o l l e ~ g w e smight be o f f e r i n g a s m d a e a t s and t h e merits of t h t e e e a m % e n t s , anti to keep abreast o f p o s s i b l e p e r l i r r n e n t a r y rnanerrvere by p o a i t i o u s , c o n s t i t u e n t o ? i n i o n , tic6 cay p r c o s r e z c t i o n - - t h u s necessitating c o o r d i n n t i ~ nwith t h o c e rrho p e r f o m t h e p r e s s , m a i l , an:! p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s . S e n a t o r s end R c p r e s e a t a t i v e s g e n e r a l l y d e v e i o p a d e g r e e o f e x p e r t i s e i n t h o s e s u b j c c t e w i t h 6 i c h t h e y d e a l on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s as e r e s u l t of c o m i t t e e rrezberahip. Accordingly, K m b e r s nee6 a more c o m p r e h e n ~ i v e p r e p 8 r n t i o n f o r c o - u i t t e e h e a r i n g s and m z e t i n g s . It is a s t a f f f u n c t i o n t o e a s u r e t h a t Mmber3 have an in-depth f a m i l i e r i t y w i t h s u b j e c c s t o be cavered i n upcoming c o m i t t e e and s u b c o n i t r e e h e a r i n g s . This w i l l include not only t h e r e l a t i v e p r o s and cons en each i s o u e , b u t each committee ( c r s u b c o w i t t e e ) c o l l e a g u e ' s p o i n t of view, t h e p o s i t i o n of r e l a t e d i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , and g e n e r a l l y t h e s p e c i f i c inpac" c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n n i g h t hitve on t h e Hember's c o n s t i t 3 x n c y . S t a f f n u s t be s u r e t h a t t h e Nen5er has not enunciated a p o s i t i o n on a p a r t i c u l a r . i o o ~ ei n t h e p a s t ( o r i f h e hog, t h a t t h e two p o s i t i o n 8 are c o n s i s t e n t o r c a a be j u s t i f i e d ) , and that no otZer person on t h e 3-2 working on t h e same i s s u e toward an o p p o s i t e c o n c l w l o n . s t a f f is Again, coordLnotion C o o r d i n a t i o n v i t h t h o s e &a t r a c k S t a t e i n t e r e s t 8 m a t o l o o be c o n n i d e r e d . This s t a f f work might be doce i n e i t h e r the b s h i a g t o n , D i s t r i c t or Sta o f f i c e ; b u t , u h e r w a r it is p e r f o r p e d , such input i s oftm accedd. In r e s e a r c h i n g legialation, drafting bills, w r i t i n g rpeeches, e t c . , the s t a f f r o l t i s considerab'le, alsays keeping i n d a d the b b e . r t e political p h i l o s o p h y and p e r o s n a l i n c l i n a e i o c s ( f o r eztrple, sonis F&mbero i n t r o d u c e muck l e g i s l a t i o n , athero L i t t l e - ~ n e r e is no b e s t m y of o p r s r t i n z ! . Different a s p e c t s of t h e s e tenka cen be f u l f i ~ l c dby p e r a c n a l s t a f f (in Otishist~tot?, D i s t r i c t o r S t a t e ) , c x m i t t e e staff, othe: I!ouza o r S e n a t e 6:r;ff (c.p,., L e g i o l a t i v e Counsel), o t h e r Goverment s t a f f (an executive d e p r t a e a t , t h e C o n g r e s s i o n a l Reoeerch S e r v i c e ) , o u t s i d e o r g a n i e a t i o n , ~(interer;?. g r o u p s , c o n s u l t i n g f i r m ) , o r my o t h e r s v a i l t i b l e r e a o u r c e . working on s i m i l a r subjects-coupled C o o r d i n n t i o n between a t s f f w i t h e f f x t i v e o f E i c e rr-ncgenent- contributes t o efficient lcgiolative oparation. The s t a f f l e g i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o n i s c l o s e l y t i e d t o a l l o t h e r f u n c t i c n o . The Hember i s f i r s t and foremost a l e g i s l a t o r . be c a r r i e d o u t i n t h a t c o n t e x t . Other s t a f f a c t i v i t i e s w e b t o Another it= t h a t a l s o n t e d e t o be c o o r d i n a t e d ~ 4 t hrhe coa?;wncni@ of t h e l e g i s l a t i v e flmr,eior f c t h e o c h d u l i ~function. A Congreca- o f t e n b@ called upon t o b8 in pore than one place at t h e 8- o r Bzaztor e a y t h . IBe o t e f f p e r o o ~ n e lr u o t perfom a t w f o l d fuocticm w i t h regard t o the F f B e r ' a ecbedule: one, the s t a f f must a s e i a t in the e v a l u e t i o n of riatultaaxms eveato to detepaiae t h e i r b p o r t t n c e a d worth; and tw, t h e s t & £ mart eeo t o it thee the l o g i s t i c c of t h e #wbcr's d a y are w l l eaough p l t a n e d t o enable hi% t o ecrve one scheduled even: eacily f r m t o the. next. I n t h e 9 5 t h Ccngresa, a PlmSer o f t h e b u 3 e u s u a l l y b e l w g c d t o a t l e s c t two cvi.mitteeo ( s t a n d i n g , j o i n t , and oelect) and five or =ore subcc&.itteae, A S e n a t o r u s u a l l y nerved on t h r e e or rcore c o m n j t t e c c ( a t a n d i n g , j o i n t end s e l e c t ) and e i g h t s u b c m i t t e e s . bhen some of t h e s e meet s k u l t a n c o u s l y , i t i s t h e S e n a t o r o r R e p r e o e n t a t i v e , w i t h t h e a d v i c e of h i a s t a f f , who must weigh t h e p r o s and cons of each meeting. S t a f f cen e v a l u a t e t h e r e l a t i v e importance of each h e a r i n g , but t h e H a b e r a l s o c o n s i d e r s o t h e r commitments, such a s t h o s e ncde t o i n t e r e s t group r e p r e e e n t e t i v e s o r c o l l e a g u e c i n t h e House o r S e n a t e with r e g a r d t o t h e a t t e n c ' m c e a t c c m i t t e e meetings. Often s t a f f people keep a b r e a s t on a n e a r l y minute-by-minute b a s i s of a c t i v i t i e s i n t h o s e meetings not a t t e n d e d by t h e H m b e r , 60 t h a t st,ould an e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t v o t e o r o t h e r mazter a r i s e , t h e Henber's proxy can be voted o r h i e attednnce effected. Z~:lercere o t h e r o b i i g s t i o n s t o c o a s t i t n r a t o end i n t e r e s t groups. blrabero c a n l e a v e c m i t t e e e e e i i n e s o r the f l o o r of t h e Bou6e o r t h e S e n a t e rat s l o w rim-ata t o greet coastitirmts. W b e r o alao e c b o d u l e sreetir3o t h r o u g h o u t t h e day with c o e o t i t u e n t e and L o b b y i r t s , kwwing t h a t many w i l l be J e l a y c d and others m y = v a t wcur ( g e n e r a l l y aeaff aides f i l l i n at t h e s e tisee). l%oae charged with a c b e d u l i n ~dusieo (gea",rolly an ~ ~ o i a t m e n at e c r a t a r y , scmatime a pcroonaal aecretaery or un e x e c u t i v e a e e i e t a n t ) m e t judge tha relative iaportpnce of c o a o t i t u e r s t s , l o b b y i r t e , and .o forth. khcduling also m t a t i l a i n i t i a t i v e on t h e part of r t a f ferr so &at gaod relaeioao ate Ccaeeted with chow interest grimpa active in tk &tuber's f i e l d o o f interest. b t t a t i o t s t o werbhops sari conDete3ces that geaerste With regard t o l o , o i a t i c e , e a c h Ember has o f s u p p o r t serviceo h i s 8 t n f f ought t o sup?ly. 8 d i f f e r e n t iCeo of k%at s o r t Eeobers may u s e t h e s t a f f f o r t o t s 1 t r a m p o r t a t i o n h r v i n g one o r s e v e r a l s t a f f e r s p i c k t h e fjczber up i n t h e morning, p r o v i d e t r i m s p o r t t o any f u n c t i o n 0 t h a t c c c u r d u r i n g t h e d a y , and, f i n a l l y , e n s u r e t h a t t h e Nezbzr a r r i v e s a t whatever evening a c t i v i t y i s scheduled. Trenaportation h o - i is provided a s v e l l . Although t h e f o r e g o i n g s i t u a t i o n Coeo n o t o c c u r i n e v e r y o f f i c e , s t a f f ir m m y House and Scnote o f f i c e s do p e r f o m t r s n s p o r t a t i o n d u t i e s f o r t h e i r Membzr. A t t h e v e r y l e a o t , i n a t y p i c a l o f f i c e t h e s t a f f e r s i n c h a r g e must be s u r e t h a t t r 2 n s p o r t s t i o n i o a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e Hember t h r o u g h o u t t h e d a y , and occasionally on weekends. I n rooe o f f i c e e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s c b c d u i i q a r e a l s o provided t h e Meaber's hurband or wife. The r o l e of t h e congressional spouoe varies-aorae play an a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e o f f i c e and i n t h a cortgrcnsioncnl E o t r i e t or Strrte o f f i c e ; o t h e r s concentrate on family and c a r e e r s md do l i t t l e r e l h t e d t o the p o l i t i c a l world. Whatever t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e o f f i c e e t a f f needs t o be a b l e t o $ r o v i d e s e r v i c e s n,oeded by t h e cpousc a6 t h e &&er deeiree. X lt.~:,but c e r t a i n l y not l e a a t , perscmal a i d e i f t h e I z e b e r ' s P e ~ s o a e Z Secretary. In leeny o f f i c e a , t h i s p o s i t i o n e n t a i l 6 e i g n i f i c a u t d u t i e s and reoponsibilities. The Pereonal S e c r e t a r y has perhapo t h e met frequent pereonal c o n t a c t wirh t h e &saber. Her o r h i s duties o f t e n L n c l ~ d ca l l or mot of the following: s c h e d u l i n ~ ,tranopor.cnti&n l o g i s t i c e , screening phone c a l l s , p e r ~ o n a l d i c t a t i o n , c ~ p s c i n l l yeenriitive c o r r e ~ p o n d e s c e , mi b%atever eloe the M b e r t o be d c a ~i n a hurry. d ~ ~ i d eought o The Pereonal Secretary o f t e n hoe a d m i n i ~ t r e t i v er e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s over ~ t h o rs c c r e t o r k e cud the f i n a l m i l i n g activities, Aa a p r a c t i c a l m f t t e r , mmy Heriberr ernploy a psreon f o r press r e o p o a e i b i t i t i e a , though t h a t staff p e r e o n may b d l c o t h e r d u t i e a or well. In a S e n a t o r ' e o f f i c e i t is L a p o r l a a t f o r her or him to c o m r m i c a t e e f f e c t i v e l y t o t h e newspaperr and o t h e r w d i a outlets with circulation i a tbe htme %tote, or nationally. Often t h i s w i l l i n c l u d e a few ~ o p o p e r rm d r~dioand telcrieioo e t a t i o u r frw adjoining States which same "media mark&sn i n t h e S c n a t o r ' o S t a t e . Tee o p h a s i s i n n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s o f e i c e i e u s r t c l l y on " l o c a l " prcsa; it wpekrl) t h a t feu E e p r e s e a t o t i v e r have fomd p u r s u i t o f n e t i o n e l m d i a c c v e r s g e f m i t f u l . It i o v e r y i a p r t a n t f o r a Keaber KO c w r r m i c a t e e f f e c t i v e l y t o t h e d a i l y aod weekly nevopnpera aid ocher media o u t l e t s v i t h c i r c ~ l o t i c ni n h i s c o a g r r o s i o a s l district. O f t e n t h i s w i l l i n c l u d e a t l e a s t a few newspapers and r a d i o and television stations f r a adjoining d i s t r i c t s . Theee a r e t h e s o u r c e s fron which c o n s t i t u e n t s g e t t h e i r newe and f o r m u l a t e t h e i r views. Freae nidee o f t e n c u l t i v a t e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h oewapaper ~ n de l e c t r o n i c media p e r s o n n e l . S m e d e l i v e r p r e a s r e l e a s e s p e r s o n a l l y i f t h e newspaper has a h"oshiagton c o r r e s p o n d e n t Jr bureau. Press a i d e s a r e mindful of t h e d e a d l i n e s f o r t h e various media o u t l e t s and t o k e c s r e t o see t h a t a c c e c e t o n s t e r i a l i o e a s y and p r c n p t . The House and S e n a t e m a i n t a i n - ! t u d i o s f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n m a t e r i a l , and p r e s s a i d e s need t o know what t h e e l e c t r o n i c media c a n b e s t u s e . Nedia o u t l e t s i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s h a v e d i f f e r e n t c n > s b i l i t i e s ccd d i f f e r e n t emphases. vary. Soze A c c o r d i n g l y , e f f o r t s t o u t i l i z e t h e s e d i f f e r e n t media o u t l e t s w i i i o u t l e t s nzy be prone t o c o v e r n a t i o n a l newc; o t h e r s f o c u s more on local. On i s p o r t a n t n o t t e r s , a #ember may t a i l o r h i s a c t i v i t i e s t o c o i n c i d e with t h e a t e d e of t h e media o u t l e t i n which he d e s i r e s coverage. A t t e n t i o n t o t h e n o t i o n a l media is a d i f f e r e n t task. t i e c t r o n i c uetvorke , t h e " n a t i o n a l nerrspepcre" t h e Washington Post, (s. the The n a t i o n a l New York T h e e , and t h e Wall S t r e e t J o c n s e l aatoq o t h e r r , and t h c wire s e r v i c e 8 are impartant t o those KeEibere of the Bouae and Senate wishing t o b u i l d a national rept;catim. Rot a l l Rembers have such d e s i r e s . For thoee tAo do, e v e n t s can be o r e s e i z e d in such a way sa t o m e x b i z e media exposure. For e x c s y l e , afteraam hearing5 have v i r t u a l l y uo chance of being included on t h e early evening new vahoon; haportant event8 are t h e r e f o r e rebeBuled in t h e sorniag. A t a11 timer, aclvmct c o p i e s of preao r e l c a s t a trd text of epeeches shciufd be handled i n ouch a way as t o achieve maxiam coveraae and f o s t e r good m r k i e 3 r c l o t i o n s h i p e v i t h the p r e s s . S-n, (elms: o f f i c e 8 reoewc cw hour o r two a week en any i n t e r e s t e d j o u r n ~ l i s t clrzayn f r m t h e "local" o r h a w S t a t e prcso) can cc-Ye cod t a l k w i t h t h e Ymbar, e i t h e r on o r o f f t h e r e c o r d . Such s e n o i o n ~can produce an i n c r e s ~ e dr s p p o r t with t h e press and cen provide i n s i g h t s f o r t h e preas i n t o t h e PIaber ' 8 accoreplishmnts. Other o f f i c e s provide t h e p r e e s with many of t h e smell but h e l p f u l p e r q u i s i t e s t h a t a r c p a r t of a Congressional o f f i c e o p e r a t i o n . Each Kouse o f f i c e is a l l o c a t e d e i g h t indexed c o p i e s and twenty-five p l a i n c o p i e s of t h e Congressional Directory. Senate o f f i c e s a r e provided w i t h f i f t y p l a i n c o p i e s . Some cen be d i s t r i b u t e d t o p r e s s personnel. D i f f e r e n t e x e c u t i v e branch departments have information programs t h a t can be staged throughout t h e country i n cooperation with a Member. a r e a i ~ e da t d i f f e r e n t groups. These prograrns For e x m p l e , t h e Departaent of Commerce w i l L hold workshops f o r l o c a i Chambers of C m e r c e on how t o c m p e t e f o r F e d e r a l c o n t r a c t s ; t h e Department of t h e I n t e r i o r will p r e s e n t p r o g r w l r f o r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n on p o l l u t i o n sad outdoor s a f e t y ; t h e S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A & d n i s t r s t i o n ' w i l l v o d u c e t c o e h ~ t e e - v i t h rocm f o r &&ding t h e Fmber'r nme-for distribution t o recipients. Almoet a l l Y n b e r a oend o c t n e w s l e t t e r s . Elmy off i c e o w i n t o i n -re t h a n one l i s t , u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t n e w e l e t t e r f o r r e s p e c t i v e s e c t o r s o f t h e constituency. Up t o s i x tiaxes a y e a r , Fmbercr of the Eoure can aleo u t i l i z e a p o r t a l p a t r o n rysttm t o e n s u r e that neujtetter6 r e a c h w e r y hotteehold i n the C o e g r e o r i o n a l D i r t r i c t . them. S e n a t o r s d o uot h w c t h i s spotem available t o It shouid be noted t h a t a l l &bere s e n d i n g -8s o f Congress are forbidden frm m e i l i a g ~d u r i n g t h e 2 8 - d ~ y period b e f o r e t h e day of m y e l e c t i o a in which the #ember i s a c ~ n d i d a t eCor p u b l i c o f f i c e (39 G.S.C. 321C!(e)(5)(D)), I n a d d i t i o n , t h e Rouse C m i s a i o n on kiaiiing Stnndzrda h a s iaeued a number of g u i d e l i n e s r e g a r d i n g what i s and i e net p e r n i s e i b l c m a t e r i a l i n r o u s e newsletters. 191 Furthermore, r e g u l a t i o n s promulgated by t h e SelecS S e n a t e Committee on E t h i c u s t a t e t h g t n e w s l e t t e r s may c o n t a i n o n l y f i v e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e S e n a t o r , i n c l u d i n g use of t h e pronoun "I", on m y one page. 191 These a r e l i s t e d i n t h e P u b l i c a t i o n , "Regulations on t h e Use s f t h e By Members of t h e House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and Rules of ~ o n ~ r z s i o n Frank sl P r a c t i c e i n Proceedings Before t h e House Comsission on C o n g r e s s i o n a l Mailing S t a n d a r d s , " prepared by t h e Cormission on C o n g r e s s i o n a l M a i l i n g S t c n d a r d s , House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1979. POLITICAL One a r e a o f p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s t h a t no M d e r c a n a f f o r d t o n e g l e c t i s t h a t d e a l i n g with h i s p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . Although mst #&ere have o n l y l i m i t e d d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e i r S t a t e and n a t i o n a l p a r t y a p p a r a t u s , elaose: every Member i s c a r e f u l n o t t o a l i e n s t e p a r t y p e r s o a n e l - - e 8 p c c i a l l y t h o s e p a r t y o f f i c i a l s who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e Heiaber's norination o r t e n a n i n a t i o n , and f o r m a r s h a l i n g p a r t y f o r c e s t o work f o r h i e reelectioa. Host Members pay a minimal a m u n t o f a t t e n t i o n t o t h e n o t i o n a l p a r t y cclnrmittee. Aside from o c c a s i c n a l s p e a k i n g e n g e g m m t s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e need f o r c o n t a c t . The p a r t y ' s C o n g r e s c i o n a l Campaign C m i t t e e , which s u p p l i e s funds t o House c e n d i d c t e s , and t h e party's S e n a t e Campaign C o r n i t t e e , t h i c k s u p p l i e s funGs t o S e n a t o r i a l c a n d i d a t e s , i s n o t a c t i v e e x c e p t a t e l e c t i o n t k e ; t h e r e i s l i t t l e need f o r c o n t a c t with t h i s body a t o t h e r times. A major p o l i t i c c l c o n s i d e r r t i o n i n t h e House and s e n a t e i e a N m b e r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s c o l l e a g u e s . Great pains a r e o f t e n taken, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e S e n a t e , t o e n s u r e t h a t p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s do n o t a f f e c t long term working r e l a t i o n s . A Member's p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n , perhaps more t h c n any o t h e r d u t y , i s t r u l y a m a t t e r of s t y l e . Some Members a r e n a t u r a l l y e x t r o v e r t e d i n a 1 1 s u r r o u n d i n g s from a neighborhood p s r t y t o a White Hogse d i n n e r ; o t h e r s a r e r e s e r v e d and a l o o f . The s t a f f must t a k e i n t o account t h e Member's e t r e n g t h s , d e s i r e s and moods i n s c h e d u l i n g p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s . I n essence, t h e p o l i t i c a l function i s an amalgss of a l l o t h e r t u n c t i o n s i n t h a t each ha8 a p l i t i c a l a s p e c t . Each %mber of Congress muat o p e r c t e w i t h i n h i s o r h e r i n d i v i d u a l p l i t i c n l philcsophy, h i s / h e r p a r t y , h i c / h e r . S t a t e o r Congrcecione? D i s t r i c t , and w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of Congreas ee well. I n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o 3 q r e a ~ L o n s IBehavicrr, Kelson P o l ~ b y%;rote: The puzzles of t h e e l e c t i o a ate n o t h i ~ gcmpared t o t h e m y s t e r i e s of t h e congreseionol cormilcity. Conggreseiontil behavior i e d e t e m i n e d -re by t h e contours of t h i s c ~ i r r w i t y ,end by &ere congressman and s e n a t o r s locaee t h c ~ e e l v e send e r e l o c a t e d w i t h reapect t o i t , t h a n by sasy o t h e r s i n g l e t h i n g . Who t h e congreaosaa o r s e n a t o r is, *.ere he c o w s f r m , &at h e stand6 f o r , h i 8 p a r t y , h i s p r i o r l i c e experiences, h i s h i t i o a e a d hopes, h i s a1l i a o c e s sad e n d e s , rL 1 p l a y e part i n l o c a t i n g h i s , and o f c w t s c , h i s l o c a t i o n & t o w i n e s wbet and h w m c h h e con do. 3 1 201 Polnby, Nelson W., ~ouee,'l971. p. x i i . JC/eg ed. Cofigreesional Behavior. Rev York, hdoa