Report No. 79-72 GOV
AMERICAN ELECTORAL COLLEGE: ORIGINS, DEVELOPMENT,
PROPOSALS FOR REFORM OR ABOLITION
A Selected Annotated Bibliography
Thomas EI. Neale
Analyst in American National Government
June 2, 1979
The Congressional Research Service works exclusively for
the Congress, conducting research, analyzing legislation, and
providing information at the request of Committees, Members and their staffs.
The Service makes such research available, without partisan
bias, in many forms including studies, reports, compilations,
digests, and background briefings. Upon request, the CRS
assists Committees in analyzing legislative proposals and
issues, and in assessing the possibie effects of these proposals
and their alternatives. The Service's senbr specialists and subject analysts are also available for personal consultations in
their respective fields of expertise.
-This report is a comprehensive annotated bibliography of
substantive books, monographs, articles and documents treating
the origins, evolution and current operational characteristics
of the U.S.
electoral college system, as well as proposals for
its reform or- abolition.
An explanatory introduction is provided
for readers unfamiliar with the i.ssue.
The Electoral College System and Proposed Alternatives
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . a . a a a ~ m ~ ~ a ~ a a . a a a a a a a a a . a a
Newspaper and Periodical Articles* . . . a a . . a . a . . a a . a a a a . m a . . o . -
. . a . . a . o . a ~ a a m a ~ a . a m a ~ ~ ~ a a a a a a . ~ a ~ ~ m a e a ~ a m a a a
The author wishes to credit Cheryl J. Scott, Mildred Boyle
and Cynthia L. Tillman with the secretarial production of
THE AMERICAN ELECTORAL COLLEGE:
PROPOSALS FOR REFORM OR ABOLITION
A Selected Annotated Bibliography
h e purpose of this bibliography is to provide an annotated list
of significant books, monographs, articles and dosument s treating the
origins, growth and current characteristics 'of the electoral college
system, criticism and defense of its operations, and proposals for. its
reform or abolition.
The bibliography is divided into four sections.
Section I reviews
briefly the operation of the electoral college system and major reform
Important terms which appear repeatedly in the body of the
bibliography are underlined and defined
Section 11 includes citations
to books and monographs; Section 111, newspaper and periodical articles;
and Section IV, docukents.
All entries in Sections 11 and 111 are fully
annotated, but the great volume and diversity of material regularly included in congressional hearings on this issue make annotation of many
of the items cited in Section IV impractical.
The Electoral college System and Proposed Alternatives
Few questions so vexed the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 as the
manner in which the President of the United States was to be elected.
one point, the delegates voted for selection by Congress; at other times,
proposals for election by the people at large, by the governors of the
States, by electors chosen by State legislatures, and even election by
a special group of Members of.Congress chosen by lot were considered, I /
-At length, the matter was referred to a "committee on postponed
matters," which hammered out the basic form of the electoral college and
devised other provisions governing election of the Chief Executive.
The system, as originally conceived, was a carefully balanced compromise
which sought to reconcile differing State and Federal interests, provide
a carefully limited degree of popular participation in the election, and
preserve the Office of the President as independent of the Congress.
Alexander Hamilton's favorable opinion of the electoral college
system is widely quoted:
"if the manner- o.+ it [election of the Presi-
dent] be not perfect, it is at least excellent.. It unites in an eminent
degree all the advantages the union of which was to be wished for,"
Few commentators have been so favorable in their assessments since then.
Almoat every aspect of the existing system has been subject to persistent
criticism over the years, while hundreds of proposals to reform or abolish
the electoral college have been advanced.
A brief overview of the sys-
tem's characteristics and the most significant reform proposals follows.
Rossiter, Clinton Lawrence.
Macmillan, 1966. pp. 198-220.
The Grand Convention.
Hamiltou, Alexander. The Federalist, No. 68. In: T h e Federalist
Cambridge, Mass., The Belknap Press of the Harvard University
Press, 1966. p. 440. -
The electoral college system is an amalgam of constitutional proviaions, State and ~ e d e r a lstatutes and political customs,
college includes 538 members, one for each Senator and Representative,
and three additional electors representing the District of Columbia.
has no continuing existence or function apart from that entrusted to it
by the Constitution.
Each State has a number of electoral votes equal to
the combined numerical total of its Senate and House delegations.
didates for the office of elector are chosen in one of several different
methods used by the States, and are pledged to a party ticket of a Presidential and Vice Presidential nominee.
In the general election, voters cast their ballots not for the candidates of their choice, but for electors pledged to vote for them, with
the slate that receives the most popular votes gaining the entire block
of electoral votes for the State.
This practice is known variously as
the unit rule, the general ticket system and the wikner take all system,
and is currently operational in the District of Columbia, and every State
of the Union except Maine.
In 1969, Maine chose to institute a form of
the district system for awarding its electoral votes.
Despite its near
universality, the general ticket system is not mandated by either
Federal statute or the Constitution: each State has complete discretion
in determining how its electoral votes will be allocated.
Under the existing system, once the electors are chosen, they meet
in their respective States on a date established by Congress to cast
their votes for the candidates who have carried the State.
electors are not expected to exercise their o m judgment, but, rather,
simply ratify the people's choice.
Despite this understanding, there is
no Constitutional provision requiring electors to vote as they have pledged ;
and, in fact, over the years, a few have voted against the instructions of
This is known as the phenomenon of the unfaithful or faithless
State results, once they have been determined, are forwarded to Washington where they are tallied and certified at a joint session of Congress
presided over by the Vice Resident.
The candidates receiving an absolute
majority of 270'or more electoral votes are declared elected.
no candidates receive the necessary majority, a complex procedure known as
contingent election takes place.
The mechanics of contingent election are
set forth in the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution:
The person having the greatest number of votes for President,
shall he the President, if such number be a majority of the whole
number of Electors appointed; and if*no person have such majority,
then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding
three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of
Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President.
But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states,
the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for
this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds
of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall no6
choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon
them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the VicePresident shall act as president, as in the case of the death or
other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the
Vice-Resident, if such number be a majority of the whole number
of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then
from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose
the Vice-president; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of
two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the
whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person
constitutionally ineligible to the office of President*shall
be eligible to' that of Vice-president of the United States.
The first proposal to alter the electoral college system was put for-
ward as early as 1800, and by 1966, 513 such plans had been advanced. 4 /
They can be divided into two major categories: those which seek to reform
and preserve the electoral college system by correcting its alleged defects,
and-those which urge complete abolition of the system and its replacement
by direct popular elect ion.
The former category consists of three enduring proposals and any number of more transitory plans which have been advanced from time to time.
The first of the major proposals, the automatic plan, would retain
the current method of awarding electoral votes, but would abolish the office
of elector, and award a11 electoral votes in each State "automatically" to
the statewide popular vote winner.
This plan would eliminate the phenomenon
of the faithless elector and constitutionally mandate the general ticket
system of electoral vote distribution.
The- second, the proportional plan, would likewise abolish the office
of elector, hut it would award the electoral votes in a different fashion.
Each State's electoral votes would be split between or among various candidates in direct proportion to the percentage of the popular vote gained
by each slate.
Thus, if in a State possessing ten electoral votes, candi-
Peirce, Neal R. The People's President. New York, Simon and Schuster
(A Clarion Book), 1968. pp. 151-152.
d a t e A r e c e i v e d 70% o f t h e p o p u l a r v o t e and c a n d i d a t e B r e c e i v e d 3 0 1 ,
they would be awarded r e s p e c t i v e l y , seven and t h r e e e l e c t o r a l v o t e s .
The t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e , t h e d i s t r i c t p l a n , w h i l e a l s o a b o l i s h i n g t h e
o f f i c e of e l e c t o r , would t a l l y popular v o t e s i n c o n g r e s s i o n a l d i s t r i c t s
a s well a s on a s t a t e w i d e b a s i s .
The winning t i c k e t i n eac.h d i s t r i c t
would be awarded an e l e c t o r a l v o t e , w h i l e t h e o v e r a l l s t a t e w i d e popular
v o t e winners would r e c e i v e a two v o t e bonus, c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e two
This, is t h e proposal adopted by N i n e i n 1969.
O f t h e many o t h e r reform p r o p o s a l s , one i s o f . r e c e n t o r i g i n and suf-
f i c i e n t l y i n n o v a t i v e t o d e s e r v e mention; i t i s t h e n a t i o n a l bonus p l a n ,
developed i n 1978 by a Twentieth Century Fund t a s k f o r c e .
Like t h e o t h e r
reform p l a n s , i t would a b o l i s h t h e o f f i c e of e l e c t o r , and a s w i t h t h e
a u t o m a t i c p l a n , i t would award S t a t e e l e c t o r a l v o t e s on t h e g e n e r a l t i c k e t
It would go one s t e p f u r t h e r , however, b y e s t a b l i s h i n g an a d d i t i o q -
a 1 PO2 e l e c t o r a l v o t e s , two f o r each S t a t e and t h e D i s t r i c t o f Columbia.
s n a t i o i i a l .bonus would be awarded t o t h e s l a t e r e c e i v i n g t h e l a r g e s t
number o f popular v o t e s n a t i o n w i d e , t h u s enhancing t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t an
e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e m a j o r i t y w i l l be gained i n each P r e s i d e n t i a l c o n t e s t .
The p r o p o s a l s o f t h e second major c a t e g o r y would a b o l i s h , t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e system a l t o g e t h e r and s u b s t i t u t e d i r e c t popular e . l e c t i o n of t h e
The p r o p o s a l c u r r e n t l y e n j o y i n g t h e most widespread s u p p o r t
provides f o r a n a t i o n a l t a l l y of t h e popular v o t e ; t h e s l a t e g a i n i n g t h e
most v o t e s would win,. provided i t s t o t a l was g r e . a t e r t h a n 40% of a l l v o t e s
I f none of t h e t i c k e t s were t o r e c e i v e t h i s p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e v o t e ,
Congress would be empowered to. schedule a rvlloff elecetion, which would be
cont=sted by the twi slates of candidates that received the highest number of votes in the first round.
The alleged merits and failings of each of these proposals are discussed at length in the items cited and annotated in the body of this bibliography.
In addition, two Congressional Research Service publications
-give an overview of the question.
The first is Congressional Research Ser-
vice Report 77-213, Proposals to Reform Our Presidential Electoral System.
This provides detailed explanations of the various proposed alternatives,
and reviews past legislative efforts made in behalf of each.
publicqtion is CRS Issue Brief 75056, Elections: Electoral College Reform,
which provides a brief definition of the issue, a review of recent congressional activities, and citations to relevant publications.
BOOKS AND MONOGRAPHS
, w e .
s e l e c t i n g t h e R e s i d e n t : t h e twenty-seventh d i s c u s s i o n and
d e b a t e manual.
[Columbia, Mo., A r t c r a f t P r e s s , 19531 2 v. (The
National U n i v e r s i t y Extension A s s o c i a t i o n Discussion and Debate
Prepared f o r t h e High School Debating League
i n each o f t h e S t a t e s . )
A high school d e b a t e r s ' manual, i n c l u d i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e
P r e s i d e n t i a l aominatioh p r o c e s s , campaign and e l e c t o r a l mechanism.
D e t a i l s proposed reforms, arguments f o r and a g a i n s t each, and poss i b l e e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s reforms, Volume I c o n s i s t s o f a r t i c l e s
w r i t t e n e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n by "recognized a u t h o r i t i e s
i n t h e 'govermnent."
Volume I1 i s "devoted c h i e f l y t o m a t e r i a l s
r e p r i n t e d from o u t s t a n d i n g c u r r e n t sources."
American Bar .Association, S p e c i a l Committee on E l e c t i o n Rkform.
E l e c t i n g t h e R e s i d e n t . rev. ed. Chicago, American Bar Associaton,
1977. 64 p.
A r e v i s e d e d i t i o n o f t h e Bar A s s o c i a t i o n ' s 1967 r e p o r t .
C h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e e x i s t i n g system a s " a r c h a i c , undemocratic, complex , ambiguous, i n d i r e c t and dangerous"; recommends adopt i o n o f
d i r e c t e l e c t i o n with 40% runoff e l e c t i o n provision. An appendix
by John D. F e e r i c k a n a l y z e s o p e r a t i o n o f t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e i n
t h e 1976 P r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t i o n .
American E n t e r p r i s e I n s t i t u t e f o r Public P o l i c y Research,
e l e c t i o n of t h e R e s i d e n t . Washington, American E n t e r p r i s e
I n s t i t u t e , 1977. 28 p.
( L e g i s l a t i v e Analysis; 95th Congress,
no. 5 )
Describes c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e system, .
mechanics of d i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n , and t h e movement f o r reform, e s p e c i a l l y l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n s i n c e 1969. Includes pro-con
Best, J u d i t h .
The c a s e a g a i n s t d i r e c t e l e c t i o n of t h e P r e s i d e n t : a
d e f e n s e o f t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e . I t h a c a , Cornell' U n i v e r s i t y
P r e s s [I975 c. 19711 235 p.
The a u t h o r contends t h a t t h e " e l e c t o r a l count system has
been, on the, whole, a success. It has never f a i l e d t o f i l l t h e
o f f i c e of R e s i d e n t .
I n every e l e c t i o n s i n c e t h e u n i v e r s a l ( s i c )
adoption of t h e u n i t r u l e , i t has given us a s i n g l e e l e c t i o n . It
h a s provided a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y e l e c t e d and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y recIt has given
ognized P r e s i d e n t , even on t h e verge o f c i v i l war.
t h e v i c t o r y t o t h e winner o f t h e popular p l u r a l i t y i n every c a s e
but one, d e s p i t e a s e r i e s of s t r o n g t h i r d p a r t y t h r e a t s , p a r t i c u -
larly in this century. It has nurtured a moderate two-party sysUnder its rules, the Presidency has grown in both 'power and
She also characterizes the present system as a major
contributor to the vitality of federalizm.
Bickel, Alexander M.
Reform and continuity: the electoral college,
the convention, and the party system. rev. ed, New York, Harper
and Row, 1971. 122 p.
The author suggests the possibility of retaining the present
system or adopting the Katzenbach (automatic) plan. He maintains
that the electoral college concept has evolved into a more democratic form over the years and should be capable of further adjustment to changing political principles. He emphasizes the
negative effect direct election might have on urban and minority
group leverage, the possible proliferation of splinter candidates
and the uncertainties which could arise from second round runoff
After the electoral college. New York, National
Boyd, William J. D.
Municipal League [I9681 28 p.
A brief history of the electoral college system, its alleged
weaknesses, and alternative reform proposals. Urges adoption of
direct popular election and seeks to rebut criticisms of that
controversy over the Residential electoral sysBurrill, Richard L.
tem. San Francisco, R and E Research Associates, 1975. 98 p.
A description of current aspects, historic development and
major criticisms of the electoral college system. The author
analyzes proposals for reform, primarily direct election, as
they relate to the party sytem, federalism, big-small and ruralurban State controversies, minority group influence, and the
prospect of a hesident who received a minority of popular votes.
Concludes with an advocacy of direct popular election.
Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America. Referendum No. 98
on: electoral college reform. [Washington?] Chamber of Commerce
of the United States of America, 1965. 10 p.
This referendum, distributed to members and affiliates of the
Chamber of Commerce of the United States, includes background
information on the origin and development of the existing system,
and discusses proposed alternatives, including an extensive procon treaement of each. Its text is also included in: U.S. Congress. Senate. 'Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on
Constitutional Amendments. Electing the President. Washington,
U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1969. (See Section IV)
Danie1s;'Walter n., ed.
Presidential election reforms. New York,
W.H. dilson Co. (19531 200 p. (The reference shelf, v. 25,
JK528.D33 v. 25
Public figures discuss the existing nomination and election
process, as well as the direct popular election, proportional
and district proposals for reform.
The electoral college and the American idea of
democracy. Washington, American Enterprise Institute for Public
Policy Research, 1977. 22 p. (Studies in political and social
JK5 29. D5
processes; AEI Studies; 163)
The author challenges the allegation of the American Bar
Association that the electoral college system is "archaic, undemocratic, complex, ambiguous, indirect and dangerous."
retention of the current method for reasons of valid constitutional
tradition, utility, decisiveness, and preservation of both federalism
and the two party system.
The electoral system of the United States; its
Dougherty, J. Hampden.
nistory, togetner with a study of tne perils that have attended
its operations, an analysis of the several efforts made by legis'fation to avert these perils, and a proposed remedy by amendment
of the Constitution. New York, C. Putnam's Sons [I9061 425 p. .
Reviews the origins of the electoral college system and the
development of electoral.procedure in the nineteenth century, with an
emphasis on the Presidential election of 1876. The author proposes separation of Presidential and Vice Presidential ballots, abolition
of the office of elector, and proportional distribution of electoral
votes within the States.
Nomination and election of the President and
Durbin, Thomas M., comp.
Vice President of the United States: including the manner of selecting.delegates to national political conventions. Washington, U.S.
Govt. Print. Off., 1976. 414 p.
A comprehensive manual treating the entire process of nomination and election of the President and Vice President. It includes
the following information on the operation of the present system:
Federal constitutional provisions and laws governing the election
of the President and Vice President, State laws concerning the
nomination and election of Presidential electors, and extensive
related statistical tables.
The electoral college: how does it
E i s k t e i n , Virginia gnd James.
work? Should the system be changed? [Washington, Ct., The Center
for Information on America, 19731 14 p. (Grass Roots Guides,
A brief examination of the operation, effect and history of
the electoral college system of election. The authors consider
the movement for reform but conclude that barring some sort of
major stimulus, the status quo will likely be maintained.
The debates in.the several State conventions
Elliot, Jonathan, ed.
on the adoption of the Federal Constitution as recommended by
the general convention at Philadelphia in 1787. New York, Burt
Franklin [1968?] 5 v. (American classics in history and social
science 13; Burt Franklin research and social works series, 109)
a 1 4 1 1968
A primary source which includes numerous references to the
electoral college system of electing the President made in the
State conventions which ratified the Constitution.
The method of electing the President (Federalist
Paper no. 68). In The Federalist. Cambridge, Mass., The Belknap
Press of Harvard University Press, 1966. pp. 440-444.
Hamilton's classic explanation of the originai Presidential
Haworth, Paul Leland.
The Hayes-Tilden disputed Presidential election
of 1876. New York, Russell & Russell;1966.
JK526.1876. ~ 4 3
Reprint of the 1906 edition, which was published as a thesis,
Columbia University. The author recounts widespread. intimidation
of southern black Republican voters in the election of 1876, compares it with the questionable actions of the Electoral Commission,
and asserts that the eventual election of Hayes was "an occasion"
in which two wrongs go to make a right."
Johnsen, Julia, comp.
Direct election of the President. New York,
H. W. Wilson, 1949. 300 p.
A compilation of previously published articles on the question of electoral college reform, including pro-con discussions
of v*arious proposals.
League of Women Voters of the United States. .Who should elect the
President? Washington, D.C., League of Women Voters of the United
States  158 p.
A comprehensive handbook dealing with the quest con of electoral
college reform. Includes standard material on the origin and develop
ment of the electoral college system and various proposed alternatives.
Also incorporates a comprehensive overview of congress'ional action
(1947-1968) and an extensive selection of statements on electoral college reform by public figures.
Eongley, Lawrence D. and Alan G. Braun.
The politics of electoral college
reform. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1972. 222 p.
The authors recall possible outcomes of two recent elections:
a runner-up President in 1960 and contingent election of the chief
executive in the House of Representatives in 1968 as illustrative
of electoral college defects. They review the origin and development of the present system and present various reform proposals,
particularly the case for direct election. They conclude with a
detailed account of efforts to secure passage of direct election
MacBride, Roger Lea.
The American electoral college. Caldwell, Idaho,
The Caxton Printers, 1953, 89 p.
~eviewing'the history of the electoral college system and
various proposed reforms, from a conservative-libertarian standpoint, the author finds in favor of the district plan, on the
grounds that it would not damage the principles of Federalism
and would stimulate "political sympathyt' between President and
Congress. He also favors retaining the current provisions for
'contingency election by the House of Representatives..
Hichener, James Albert.
Presidential lottery; the reckless gamble
in our electoral system. New York, Random House, 1969. 240 p.
JK5 29. M5
Drawing on his experience as an elector in 1968, the author details the potential for political abuse inherent in the
existing contingency election provision and the phenomenon of
the unfaithful elector. He outlines the origin and evolution
of the current system, urging, as first steps, the abolition
of the office of elector and contingent election, and, over
a longer period, adoption of one of the various proposed basic
Direct election of the President: a North Dakota view.
ChPdohl, Lloyd B.
Grand Forks, N.D.,
University of North Dakota, Bureau of Governmental Affairs, 1970. 19 p. ( ~ o r t hDakota. University. Bureau
of Governmental Affairs special report no', 11) JK6401.N65 no. 11/JK 528
The author examines the controversy over electoral college
reform from the viewpoint of a low population State. He asserts
that the existing system favors large urban areas in general,
but provides a mildly disproportionate advantage to the North
Dakota Republican Party in Presidential elections. He concludes
that "if the Republicans want to create a climate favorable to
national conservatism, they will support the direct election
of the President. On the other hand, if the Democratis want to
keep the national political system as liberal as possible, they
will favor a continuation of the electoral college..."
Peirce, Neal R.
The People's President: the electoral college in
h e t i c a n history and the direct-vote alternative, New York, Simon
and Shtister [I9681 400 p.
The author provides a comprehensive review of the history and
development of the electoral college system, including various
reform efforts. He concludes that the current alternatives are
direct election or maintenance of the status quo, and urges
adoption of the former.
Logic and legitimacy: on understanding the electoral colPower, Max S.
lege controversy. In Matthews, D. R. ed., Perspectives on Presidential selection. Washington, The Brookings Institution, 1973. pp,
(Studies in Presidential selection) JK528.M33
~ x a m i n e s the potential difficulties presented by the prospects
of multiple candidate elections under direct election, and notes that
proponents of direct election deal primarily in terms of rationaldeductive logic, m i l e defenders of the existing system are mainly
concerned with empirical-pragmatic considerations.
Voting for President; the
Sayre, Wallace S., and Judith 8. Parris.
electoral college and the American political system. Washington,
The roo kings Institution  169 p. (studies in Presidential
A comprehensive analysis of the existing electoral college
system and comparison with four likely alternatives: direct election, the automatic, district and proportional plans. The authors
conclude that "the electoral vote system with ,the winner-take-all
State general-ticket system is the best of the several methods".
.Schlesinger, Arthur Meier.
History of American Presidential elections,
1789-1968, New York, Chelsea House, 1971. 4 v.
This comprehensive history of Presidential elections provides
extensive coverage of individual contests, including those in which
contingent election by the House of Representatives was necessary
(1800, 1824) and electoral college "misfires" (1876, 1888).
Twentieth Century Fund. Task Force on Reform of the Presidential Election Process..
New York, The Fund, 1978. 82 p.
Urges retention of major elements of the existing system.
The task force recornends establishment of a national bonus plan,
by which 102 additional electoral votes would be created and awarded
in block to the popular vote winner in Presidential elections. The
proposal "virtually eliminates the possibility of defeat for the
winner of the most popular votes."
Other recommendations include
a proposal for a top-two runoff election if no candidate receives
a majority of electoral votes, and "a series of measures to ensure
the accuracy, integrity, and speed of the vote count in the states."
-The.report also includes an overview by William R. Keech.
The House shall choose.
press, 1968. 177 p.
A history of the two occasions (1800 and 1824) when the electoral college failed to produce a majority for one candidate and a
contingent election by the House of Representatives was necessary.
The author advocates adoption of the Bingham amendment, which provides for abolition of the office of elector and a runoff election
in cases where no candidate has a majority of electoral votes.
Wilmerding, Lucius Jr.
The electoral college. New Brunswick, N.J.,
Rutgers University Press, 1958. 224 p.
JK5 29 W64
A detailed history of the origin and development of the electoral college system, with special emphasis placed on the double
voting provisions of the Constitution which led to the electoral
crisis of 1800 and the subsequent ratification of the Twelfth
Amendment; The author also describes the gradual prevalence of the
general ticket system, various reform proposals, and the existing
contingency election provision.
Yunker, John H., and Lawrence D. Longley. . The biases of the electoral
college: who is really advantaged? In Matthews, D. R., ed., Perspectives on Presidential selection. Washington, The Brookings
Institution, 1973. pp. 172-203. (studies in Presidential selection)
The authors conclude that voters in large States, metropolitan
areas, population of foreign stock, blue-collar workers and the
regions of the Far West and the East are advantaged by the electoral
Yunker, John L,and Lawrence D. Longley.
The electoral college: its
biases newly measured for the 1960's and 1970's. Beverly Hills,
Calif., Sage Publications, 1976. 56 p. (Sage professional'
papers in american politics; ser. no. 04-031) JK529.YS6
A substantive modification and extension of the authors' earlier work of a similar title. They analyze the different biases
inherent in the existing system and proposed alternatives.
Direct election of the President. Lexington,
Zeidenstein, Harvey G.
.Mass., Lexington Books, 1973. 118 p.
An advocacy of direct election. The author details inherent
uncertainties of the electoral college system and states the case
for reform. He seeks to demonstrate that the existing framework
does not, in fact, provide an advantage to populous and ur.ban States
with large numbers of ethnic bloc voters, and that criticisms of
direcl election as leading to growth of splinter parties and reduction of Presidential -legitimacy as a result of the runoff election
provisions are invalid. Concludes by recommending direct election
with the runoff provision.
1x1. .NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Bad marks for the electoral college. Harvard
- political review, v. 5, winter 1977: 7-8.
JKl.H36, v. 5
Citing the three "misfires" of the electoral college and
the potential "misfires" in the Presidential elections of 1960,
1968 and 1976; the author asserts that "the odds are catching
up with the American electorate" and urges adoption of direct
Three electoral colleges. Parliamentary
Andrews, William G.
affairs, v. 14, spring 1961: 178-188. JNlOl.P3, v. 14
The author compares the U.S. and French electoral
colleges and the House of Commons. Seeks to d&nonstrate
that the electoral college and the House of commons,
despite many differences, perform similar functions in
electing, respectively, the president of the U.S. and the
Prime Minister of the U.K.
Association of the Bar of the City of New York.
Federal Legislation. Proposed constitutional amendment
providing for direct election of President and Vice President.
Record of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York,
v. 33, May-June, 1978: 335-345.
A restatement of the Association's 1967 report recommending
abolition of the electoral college and substitution of direct
popular election of the President and Vice-president, with a
40% run-off provision.
A bad idea whose time has come.
New republic, v. 176, May 7, 1977:
AP2.N624, V . 176
Urges caution in considering a'direct election amendment,
arguing that it would tend-to encourage splinter party candidates,
diminish the role of the States, and lead inevitably to a
National Presidential primary, thus devaluing the nominations
of the major parties.
Banzhaf, John F. 111.
One man, 3.312 votes: a mathematical analysis
of the electoral college. Villanova law review, v. 13, winter
1968 : 304-341.
K26.156, v . 13
The author expounds a mathematical model through which he
seeks to measure the biases of the existing system, and such
as vould exist if the proportional or district system were
introduced. Concludes that the electoral college system provides
an advantage'to populous States, while the other two plans would
provide great advantage to less populous States. The main body
of the articles is followed by coonnentaries from Senators Birch
Bayh, Karl E. Mundt and John J. Sparkman, and Mr. Neal Peirce.
Electing a President: the case for direct popular
election. -Earnard journal on legislation, v. 6, Jan. 1969:
Analysis of the potential for electoral misfire in the
1968 Presidential election, emphasizing electoral college
strategy of the American Independent (George Wallace) Party.
Brief review of various reform plans and advocacy of direct
The will of the people. Yale review, v. 34, spring
AP2.Y2, V. 34
The author maintains that the existing system promotes
breadth of appeal and moderation of program in the political
parties, encourages compromise among competing interests and
tends "to keep the nation politically united and politically
Is electoral reform the answer? Commentary,
Bickel, Alexander M.
v. 46, Dec. 19.68: 41-51.
DS101.C63, v . 46
The author-urges caution in revising the electoral process.
He maintains that the electoral college system provides desirable
leverage to urban voters, minorities and progressives, and is a
major support of the t w o party system.
Brams, Steven J., and Morton D. Davis.
The 3/2's rule in Presidential
campaigning. American political science review, v. 68, Mar. 1974:
JAl.A6, v. 6 8
The authors maintain that "the winner-take-all feature of the
that the popular-vote winner in each
Electoral College -- i.e.,
state vins all the electoral votes of that state
induces candidates to allocate campaign resources roughly in proportion to the
312's power of the electoral votes of each state. This creates a
peculiar bias in presidential campaigns that makes the largest
states the most attractive campaign targets of the candidates,
even out of proportion to their size."
The American electoral college. Parliamentary
affairs, v. 5, summer 1952: 364-369.
JNlOl.P3, v. 5
A British view of the existing system; concludes that
without the stimulus of a minority President produced by the
electoral college, change is unlikely.
Taking the pulse of an anachronism in good health.
B r o m e , Paul J.
Empire State report, v. 2, Dec. 1976: 403-405. JK3401.E46, v . 2
isc cusses the strengths and weaknesses of the electoral
college system, with special emphasis on the makeup of the
New York State contingent of the electoral college in 1976.
Explores rationale for choice of these electors.
Burgess, John W.
The.law of the electoral count. Political science
quarterly, v. 3, Dec. 1888: 633-653.
Hl.P8, v. 3
An analysis .of the Flectoral Count ~ a of
w - 1887, which
established procedures for nomination and certification of
- electors in the States, transmission of certificates of
election to, and tabulation of electoral votes by, Congress.
Carter's narrow victory brings electoral college. under renewed scrutiny.
quarterly.weekly report, v. 34, Dec. 18, 1976:.
JKl.Cl5, V. 5
of the close Presidential election of 1976.
Colantoni, Claude S., Terrence J. Levesque, and Peter C. Ordeshook.
Campaign resou.rce aLlocations under the electoral college.
American political science review, v. 69, Mar. 1975: 141-154.
JAl.A6, v. 69
The authors attempt to refute the work of Steven Brams and
Morton Davis (supra), claiming that their 3/2's rule of campaign
resource allocations in Presidential campaigns is simplistic,
and fails'to take into account numerous variables. The article
ineludes a comment by Brams and Davis and a rejoinder. by the
Cronin, Thomas E.
Choosing a President. Center Magazine., v. 11,
Septa-Oct. 1978: 5-15.
HCll.C42, v. 11
The author, noting both contingencies inherent in the
electoral college system and the alleged liabilities of
direct popular election, explains and urges adoption of the
national bonus plan.
Electoral college reform. Washington, Editorial
research reports p. 845-862. (Editorial research'reports, 1976,
v. 2, no. 19)
H35mE35, v. 19
A review of the evolution of the electoral college system
and the potential for a 'misfire' in light of the 1976 Presidential election. Includes discussion of various reform plans.
Madison's views on electoral reform. Western
Dewey, Donald 0 .
political quarterly, v. 14, Mar. 1962: 140-145. JAl.W4, v . 15
James Madison's desire to return to the original principles
of the electoral college system, as drawn from letters written
between 1823 and 1830.
Dixon, Robert G., Jr.
Electoral college procedure. Western political
JAl.W4, v. 3
quarterly, v; 3, June 1950: 214-224.
A review of the selection process for slates of elector.^,
-Presidential ballot variations in the several States and the
particulars of convening and voting by electors at the time
Doolittle, James R.
The electoral system. Political science
HlOP8, v. 19
quarterly, v. 19, Sept. 1904: 69-75.
An-advocacy of the district plan. The author asserts
its substitution for the general ticket system would lessen
geographical concentration of political parties and reduce
incentives to manipulate election returns in large, closely
The electoral college: proposed changes. Southwestern law journal, v. 21, spring 1967: 269-284. K23.085, v. 21
A review of the electoral college system and the district,
proportional and direct election reform proposals. Asserts
that "inequities of the present system with the winner-takeall procedure and indirect elections" necessitate refbtm and
that "the direct election system would cure these defects.''
The duty of presidential electors.
Outlook, v. 101, July 27, 1912:
AP2.08, vt 101
Comments favorably on the elector's right to make an
independent selection from among Presidential candidates; a
de facto endorsement of Progressive Party efforts to sway
Republican electoral votes in the Presidential election of
Eagleton, Thomas F.
Direct election vs. vox populi. American Bar
Aasociation.journa1, v. 56, June 1970: $43-546.
Kl.M385, v. 56
The author advocates adoption of his Federal system reform
proposal, which he maintains would obviate contingent or runoff
elections and buttress the existing two party system.
Why the minority voice in the election of the President?
Florida bar journal, v. 38, May 1964: 260-266.
"The electoral college itself could well be done away with,
but that in so doing, the integrity of the states in the electoral
proces8 should be preserved." Advocates adoption of the.proportional plan as conducive to this goal.
The House of Representatives shall choose. New republic,
AP2eN624, v. 40
v. 40, Nov. 5,- 1924: 243-247.
The author speculates on the possibility of electoral college
d-eadlock in the Presidential election of 1924. He notes that
members of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 expected contingent
election by the House of Representatives would be the usual mode of
Feerick, John D.
The electoral college -- its defects and dangers.
New York State bar journal, v. 40, Aug. 1968: 317-330.
A review of contingencies inherent under the electoral
college system, including possible election of a "minority
President", provision for election by the House of Representatives in case of electoral deadlock, the phenomenon of the
"faithless elector" and procedures to be followed in case of
death or withdrawal of a candidate.
The electoral college: why
Journal, v. 54, Mar.
it was created.
1968: 249-255. K1.M385, v. 54
A review of events at the constitutional Convention of 1787
which led t o adoption of the electoral college system. Maintains
it was a compromise between supporters of legislative election
and those favoring some degree of popular involvementi
Hubert Humphrey's S.J. 152: a new proposal for
Goldman, Ralph X.
electoral college reform. Midwest journal of political science,
JAl.MS, v, 2
v e 2, Feb. 1958: 89-96.
An overview of a compromise plan of electoral reform offered
by Sen. Humphrey. The plan calls for abolition of the office of
elector, "assigns two senatorial electoral votes to the candidate
winning the plurality of popular votes in each state," and divides
"the' remaining block of 435 votds according to the proportion of
popular votes received by each candidate on arnationwide basis."
Direct popular election of the President.
Gossett, William T.
American Bar Association journal, v. 56, Mar. 1970: 225-231.
Kl.M385, v. 56
The author favors adoption of a direct election amenhment
with a 40% runoff election prouision. He examines contingencies
inherent in the existing system, maintaining they will be avoided
in direct election, also seeks to refute arguments against the
Electing the President: new hope for an old idea.
journal, v. 53, Dec. 1967 1103-1106.
Kl.M385, v. 53
The author comments favorably on the American Bar Association's
support of direct popular election, announced in 1967.
Is the electoral system really obsolete?
D4S.H8, v. 37
events, v. 37, Apt, 16, 1977: 12-14
The author contends that condemnations of the electoral
system which take place after each Presidential election are
bared on a misunderstanding of the Constitution and the
intent of the framers. He argues that "the electoral system
demands in effect that the presdiential and vice presidential
candidates heed the people of every state, independently and
regardless of size, because of the desirability of carrying
each respective state and receiving its electoral vote."
The ox-cart-way we pick our space-age President.
Hamilton, John A.
New York times magazine. Oct. 20, 1968: 36-37, 1240129,
Writing from the perspective of the 1968 Presidential
election, the author urges adoption of direct election,
describing it as the. only system which "would give all
voters equal voting power and only this reform would
guarantee that the Presidential candidate receiving the
most popular votes would become President.''
Electoral vote and the electoral college.
North American review, v. 204, Dec. 1916: 813-819.
AP2.N7, v. 204
Defends the electoral college system as necessary for
the viability of federalism; urges, however, adoption of
Presidential election procedures. University of
Cincinnati law review, v. 35, winter 1966: 1-15.
K25oN569, V. 35
The author reviews the existing system and various proposals
for change. He suggests that any reform meet three requirements:
"1. election of the President of the United States should be by
the people of the United States. 2. procedures should not be
inconsistent with the values and basic characteristics of our
political system, and 3. provision should be made against the
possibility of death or disability between election and inauguration."
He concludes that the automatic and direct'election
proposals meet these requirements, and that direct election
is preferable as it "will avoid all important defects of the
existing system" and is simple, understandable...and
The electoral college: a
Einich, Melvin J. and Peter C. Ordeehook.
spatial analysis. Political methodology, v. 1, summer 1974: 1-29.
Attempts to formulate "a theoretically meaningful measure
of the policy biases engendered by weighted unit rule election
procedures such as the Electoral College" and render "spatial
theories of elections consonant with these procedures."
Is the country about to make a mistake?
Trial, v. 3, June-July 1967:
A selection of pro-con views on the issue of electoral refotm.
Senators Birch Bayh and Karl Mundt, Harvard Professor Ernest J.
Brown and journalist James Reston contribute.
Our electoral college gerrymander. Midwest
Kallenbach, Joseph E.
journal of political science, v. 4, May 1960: 162-191.
JAl.MS, v. 4
The author asserts that under the existing system, a voter
in "populous 'pivotal' states has a far greater opportunity to
influence the outcome of a presidential election," and that
given normal voting patterns, Democratic Presidential candidates require a greater percentage of popular votes than
Republicans to secure an electoral college majority.
Recent proposals to reform the electoral college. American
political science review, v. 30, Oct. 1936: 924-929.
JAleA6, V * 30
Discusses congressional action on electoral college refonn
in the %and and 73rd Congresses. Notes that States have power
to institute many of the proposed reforms within their own
borders. Questions advisability of national reform, urging
preservation of "constitutional flexibility."
Kefauver, Estes. .The electoral college: old reforms take on a
new look. Law and contemporary problems, v. 26, spring
1962 : 188-212
K12.A9. V. 26
An examination of the existing system and potential
alternatives. The author concludes that-"through a process
of narrowing the alternatives one of the basic proposed
r e f o m s would emerge as the only realistic alternative
to the present system. What are now four or five opposing
cumps will become but two."
imitations on the power .of State legisKirby, James C. Jr.
latures over presidential electipns. Law and' contemporary
problems, v. 27, summer 1962: 495-509.
K1ZsA9, v. 27
The author maintains that the degree of control over
appointment of Presidential electors granted the State
legislatures in Article 11, Section 1 of the Constitution
is not as absolute,as is sometimes asserted. He enumerates
Federal and State constitutional limitations, Federal legislative limitations, and the acknowledged freedom of 'choice
of individual electors as checks to State power in this area.
Kristol, Irving, and Paul Weaver.
A bad idea whose time has come.
New York times magazine, Nov. 23, 1969: 43, 146, 148,
AP2 .N6575, 1969
The authors argue for the retention of the electoral
college system on the grounds that it provides leverage
to urban bloc voters in general and ethnic minorities in
Lechner, Alfred J., Jr.
The direct election of the President: the
final step in the constitutional evolution of the right to vote.
Notre Dame lawyer, v. 47, Oct. 1971: 122-152. Law
The author reviews the growth of the right to vote in
America, maintaining that institution o f direct popular
election of the President and Vice President would be a
logical extension of this historic trend.
Levine, Charley J.
Implications of abolishing the electoral
college. Practical politics, v. 1, Sept.-Oct, 1978: 4-5,
JKleP8, V. 1
The author reviews the mechanics of electoral college
operation and lists arguments pro and con on-its abolition.
Claims strongest cases for retention are its effect in
reinforcing the centrist non-ideological two party system
and the leverage it affords urban minority voters.
Longley., Lawrence D.
The electoral college. Current history, v. 67,
Aug. 1974: 64-69, 85-86.
D410.C82, v. 67
The author traces the historic background of the electoral
college and examines the current operation of the system, placing
special emphasis on the possiblity of electoral college deadlock
which existed in the 1968 Presidential election. He briefly
reviews the unsuccessful 1969-1970 effort to pass a direct election amendment, explaining positions taken by its opponents.
Mabbutt, Fred R..
Federalism, democracy and the electoral college,
Thought, v. 45, winter 1970: 542-558.
AP2.T333, v. 45
An exmiination 05 direct election and proportional reform
proposals; the author rejects the f o m e r on grounds that it
11 sacrifices representativeness, leadership and the federal
principle in return for providing the people with a direct
voice in the election of the President." Be characterizes the
propo,rtional plan as substituting a "quantitative democratic
system for the qualitative democratic regime..."
Martin, William Logan.
Presidential electors: let the State
legislatures choose them. American Bar Association journal,
KlMM385, v. 44
v. 44, Dec. 1958: 1182-1187.
A review of the historic .trend towards choice of electors
by universal suffrage and the general ticket system. Defends
the right of State legislatures to choose electors themselves,
without reference to public will.
Let's keep the electoral college. National review,
Moe, Ronald C.
AP2.N3545, v. 22
v. 22, Apt. 7, 1970: 356-359, 375.
The author argues that the existing system, "with its traditional unit rule, is a critical factor in the maintenance of our
two-party politics," and hence should be retained. He also
asserts that the run-off election provision incorporated in most
direct election plans could promote political instability.
Democracy and the electoral college. Modern age,
v. 5, fall 1961: 373-388.
APZ.M628, v. 5
An'examination of the origin and development of the
electoral college and various proposals for change in the
system. The author perceives an "underlying conflict
between inherited and current theorkes of American government", i.e.,
conflict between the principles of federalism
and "centralized democracy.''
Will the Supreme Court guard these rights, too? Nation's
business, v.. 54, Oct. 1966: 27-28.
HFl.N4, v. 54
Supports object of suit brought by Delaware in Delaware v.
New York which asked the Supreme Court to rule the general ticket
The electoral college and Presidential
Mullen, James Morfit,
vacancies. -Maryland law reviev, v. 9, winter 1948: 28-54,
~ircusseshistory of the electoral college, including
European and colonial antecedents. Details technical
difficulties inherent in the existing system, including
controversies over electoral vote counting, prevalence
of the general ticket system, status of electors, and
vacancies caused by deaths either of candidates for
President and Vice President or those officers-elect.
How not to elect a President. Playboy, v. 16,
Sept. 1969: 141-142, 260-264.
AP2.P69, v. 16
The author, a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin, discusses and
advocates reform of national political convention delegate
selection procedures and adoption of direct .popular election
o f the President.
Liberals quit "college."
Politicks and other
human interests. v.1, Nov. 22, 1977: 22', 24.
Takes note of the split in ranks of "liberal" groups
over the issue of abolishing the electural college and
temporary alliance of some organizations with "c~nservative~~
groups and legislators to prevent direct popular election.
Questions their reasoning that abolition would reduce
political leverage of blacks and Jews.
Partisan bias in the electotal college. Journal
Nelson, Michael C.
of politics, v. 36, Nov. 1974: 1033-1048.
JAl.J6, v. 36
The author contends that partisan bias in the allocation of
votes in the electoral college system is revealed in close
elections. Proceeding from this premise, he analyzes -Presidential
elections between 1932 and 1972, asserting that through 1952 the
system had a pro-Republican bias, but that since 1956, the bias
has operated in favor of Democratic candidates.
The new federalism and direct popular election.
The review of politics, v. 34, Jan. 1972: 3-15.
JAl.R.4, V. 4
The author maintains that advocacy of direct popular
election conflicts vith renewed concern over concentration of
power in the Federal Government; claims its establishment would
weaken the federal system..
Peirce, Neal R.
The electoral college goes to court. Reporter,
V. 35, Oct. 6, 1966: 34-37. D839.RS35, v. 35
Review8 the course of events leading to the Supreme Court
case of Delaware v. New York, in vhich opponents of the general
ticket system of awarding electoral votes sought, unsuccessfully,
to have it ruled unconstitutional.
Electoral college reform: a new plan for an old idea.
post, Mar. 18, 1978: A-19.
A discussion of the origin and details of the national
bonus plan, devised by the Twentieth Century Fund, which
would award the winner of the popular vote majority or
plurality one hundred two bonus votes (two for each State
and District of Columbia) in addition to the conventional
electoral vote allocation, thus removing the potential for
e-lecto-ral college deadlock.
Perkins, Paul M.
What's good about the electoral college.
Washington monthly, v. 9, Apt. 1977: 40-41.
E838.W37, v. 9
A defense of the basic concept of the electoral college
system on the grounds that "however strange it may sound, it
' h a s great overriding virtue: it works."
of the discretionary voting power of individual electors and
of the one hundred "constant two" electoral votes that disadvantage populous States.
The proposal for the direct election of the President: pro and con
Congressional digest, v. 58, Mar. 1979: 65-96. JKl.Cl5, v. 58
A discussion of constitutional provisions and current
practices governing the existing electoral college system.
~ n c l u d e ssection-by-section analysis of S. Res. 1 and procon. materials from the 1977 Senate Judiciary Committee report
and discussion of the issue by Senators James McClure and
The electoral college enigma. Midstream, v. 15,
June-July 1969: 50-55.
DS149.A336, v. 15
Writing from a Jewi.sh perspective, the author seeks to
elucidate his ambivalence on the question of electoral college
abolition, whether "to endorse a change which from a purist
point of view would be more democratic1', but "which might
entail the sacrifice of a significant and perhaps justifiable
measure of urban minority leverage."
The electoral college: a note on American political
Dissent, v. 8, spring 1961: 197-199.
HX1 .D58, v. 8
A brief review of the origin of the electoral college;
asserts that it "was neither an exercise in applied Platonism
nor an experiment in indirect government...
(but) a jerryrigged improvisation which has subsequently been endowed with
a high theortetical content."
Roche, John P.
The Constitution, Congress and Presidential
Rosenthal, Albert J.
elections? Michigan law review, -v. 67,
- Nove. 1968:
K13.135, v. 67
Questions the desirability of direct popular election on
grounds that the alleged urban-minority orientation of the
electoral college system would be lost. Suggests instead
abolition or alteration of contingent election provisions
and speculates that judicial action could remove the
possibility of faithless electors.
Rooting for the electoral college. New leader, v. 51,
Oct. 21, 1968: 14-18.
HXl.N37, v. 51The author reviews the perceived failings of the electoral
college and various proposals for reform, concluding "It is far
from clear that-the dangers in the present system outweigh the
need for fully preserving the influences that might contribute
to the quickest possible amelioration of urban and Negro
Some doubts concerning the proposals to elect the President
by direct popular vote. Villanova law review, v. 14, fall 1968:
K26.156, v. 14
Comments favorably on findings of John F. Banzhaf I11 (supra).
Asserts that populous State voter bias of the electoral college
system is justifiable as it provides black voters with a desirable
influence in choice of Presidential candidates and major political
party policies. Points out that electoral college bias is balanced
by small State biases inherent in the composition of the Senate
and the constitutional amendment ratification procedure.
Rovere, Richard H.
Letter from Washington. New Yorker, v. 45,
- Oct. 4, 1969: 125-132.
AP2.N6763, v . 45
Cmmentary on 1969 House passage of a direct popular
election amendment, its likelihood of passage by the Senate,
and the possible effect the amendment would have on political
affairs if adopted.
Selden, Harry Louis.
The electoral colle'ge: does it always choose .
the best man? .American heritage, v. 13, Oct. ,1962: 12-19,
E171bA43, V. 13
A review of the origin and evolution of the electoral
- college, with emphasis on misfires of 1800, 1824, 1876 and 1888.
The power index and the electoral college: a
Sickels, Robert J.
challenge to Banzhaf's analysis.
ilian nova law review, v. 14,
fall 1968: 92-96.
K26.156, v. 14
The author faults the methods by which John F. Banzhaf 111
(supra) reached a ~onclusionthat the electoral college system
favors populous States, claiming that his mathematical model's
"view of the electoral process is distorted."
The Lodge-Gossett resolution: a critical analysis.
Silva, Ruth C.
American political science review, v. 44, Mar. 1950: 86-99.
JAl.A6, v. 44
Criticizes the Lodge-Gossett (proportional) plan. The
author, analyzing regional voting patterns then prevailing,
concludes that proportional allocation of electoral votes
would disadvantage Republican candidates; she also takes
issue with the plan's proposed abolition of the office of
elector and its stipulation that 40% of electoral vote would
be sufficient to elect a President in a multiple candidate
Rsform0of the electoral system. Review-of politics, v. 14, July 1952: 394407.
3Al.R4, v. 14
The author maintains that under then-prevailing conditions,
the proportional plan would aid Democrats, the district plan
would aid neither party but "would make presidential elections
closer contests by enlarging the electoral vote of the defeated
Sindler, Allan P.
Presidential election methods and urban-ethnic
interests. Law and contemporary problems, v. 27, spring 1962:
K12.A9, v. 27
The author's intent is "to evaluate American presidential
elections by criteria including, but extending well beyond, the
commonly used ones of vote equality, reduction in the distortion
of the popular vote, and minimization of the chances of electing
minority President. The conclusion reached is that retention
of the current procedure is preferable to any of the major sug.
. gested reforms that has some chance of being adopted as a constitutional amendment. I n support of that conclusion, a justification for inflated urban influence is offered and some
perspectives for the understanding of ethnic politics are
Skau, George H.
A critical analysis of the Presidential election
system. Presidential studies quarterly, v. 6, fall 1976:
JK501.C44, v. 6
A review of the origins, development and present condition
of the electoral college system. The author concludes that
direct election should be adopted as thp culmination of the
historic progression of democratic reforms,
Possible consequences of direct elec.tion of the
Smolka, Richard G.
President. State government, v. 50, summer 1977: 134-140.
JK2403.S7, v. 50
The author speculates on the effect direct popular election
of the President might have on such issues as access to ballot,
particularly by minor party candidates, arrangement of the ballot,
conditions of registration, absentee voting, voting hours and vote
counting. Predicts the necessity of a National election code and
increased Federal administration of elections under direct election.
How to make the electoral college constitutionally
Spering, Howard S.
representative. American Bar'Association journal, v. 54, Aug. 1968:
Kl .M385, v. 54
The author urges adoption of a form of the district election
proposal, -in which citizens would vote for three electors: one
"Representative" elector in his Congressional district, and two
"Senator" electors elected on a statewide-basis. Suggests that
citizens might bring class action suits to force substitution of
this method for the general ticket system.
Spilerman, Seymour, and David Dickens.
Who will gain and who will lose
influence under different electoral rules. American journal of
sociology, v. 80, Sept. 1974: 443477.
HMl.A7, v. 80
The authors attempt "to assess the change in electoral
influence among population groups which would result from
replacing the Electoral College by a different system."
conclude that "relative to the popular vote, the electoral
result of large states, metropolitan centers, Negroes, Catholics,
and, possibly, low-income persons is enhanced under the Electoral
College. Adoption of direct popular election would reduce the
impact of these groups on presidential politics. With few exceptions, the district and proportional plans would produce an even
greater erosion in their influence."
State power to bind electors.
Apr. 1965: 696-709.
Discusses efforts of States to
electors to vote for the candidates
pledged. Asserts that the power to
implicitly granted to the States by
law review, v. 65,
to whom they are
bind electors was
the framers of the
Steinberg, Lawrence B.
There's another move to put the electoral
college out of business. National journal, v. 9, Oct. 8, 1977:
JKl0N28, V. 9
A dircussion of congressional action on the proposed
rubstitutiou of direct popular election for the electoral
- college rystem following the close Presidential election
Sterling, Carleton W.
The electoral college and the impact of
popular vote distribution. American politics quarterly,
v. 2, Apr. 1974: 179-204.
JKl .A48 , v. 2
The author disputes the theory that the electoral college
system provides an advantage to populous industrial ~ i a t e aand
minority groups residing therein, claiming that "the thesis of
a liberal bias in the electoral system is a superficially
plausible conclusion derived from selected attributes of a
complicated electoral system."
The electoral college biases revealed: the conventional
wisdom and game theory models notwithstanding. Western
political science quarterly, v. 31, June 1978: 159-177.
The author faults analyses of electoral college bias
which conclude that the existing s y s t m favors populous
States and urban bloc voters of ethnic minorities. Using
a "core coalition" theory to analyze closely contested
Presidential elections in the past century, he concludes
that "the system generally favored Republican coalitions
from 1876 through 1948,'' but that "the pattern of biases
can no longer be expected to favor one political party
over another. "
Tansill, Charles C.
Congressional control of the electoral system.
Yale law journal, v. 34, Mar. 1925: 511-525.
K29.A4, v. 34
A history of congressional action and legislation governing certification and counting of electoral votes. Notes
that Congress' assertion of power not subject to review in
this matter has potential for abuse.
Federalism in the strategy of Presidential
campaign trails, 1932-1972: an empirical analysis. Conference
for Federal studies notebook, v. 6, sumnet, 1976: 3-16.
Concludes that electoral vote calculations influence
"presidental candidates' choice of states in which to campaign
for election. Both parties allocate more campaign stops to
the reven largest states, and this predisposition is upheld
regardless of the competitiveness of the election outcome.
When the presidential election is competitive, candidates
of both parties also focus on 'marginal' states, but this
variable loses all significance when an apparent landslide
victory by either party's candidate is in the making."
Timanus, Ball E.
Will the South decide.the 1960 Presidential
election? U.S. news and world report, v. 49, July 11, 1960:
Explanation of the unpledged '!free elector" strategem
employed by southern States in the 1960 Presidential election.
Uslaner, Eric M.
Spatial models of the electoral college:
distribution assumptions and biases of the system.
Political methodology, v. 3, 1976: 355-381.
Using results from Gallup surveys from 1957 to 1961
on six national issues, ranging from right-to-work-laws
to government aid co parochial education, 'the author
examines biases "which the electoral'college introduces
for the candidates' optimal policy strategies...Analysis
provides direct evaluation of the policy biases of the
electoral college as well as for more direct tests of the
claims that the electoral college favors liberals or
h e author
conservatives, or larger or smaller states."
cautions that it is "misleading to argue that there is a
single and identifiable source of bias in the electoral
college. Different issue areas will produce different
results even for such a straightforward hypothesis as the
large state vs.-the small state bias."
He concludes that
the electoral college system slightly favors conservatives
and smaller States,
Electing the President: how should it be done?
k l l s , David I,
National civic review, v. 66, May 1977: 230-234. ~ ~ 3 9 . ~ 3 , ' v66
The author discusties the reputed biases of the electoral
college system, briefly describes alternative proposals for
reform and advocates adoption of direct popular election
maintaining that it is least likely to distort or'reverse the
Who really elects our Presidents. Midwest
Welty, Richard C.
AS30.M5, v. 2
quarterly, v. 2, autumn 1960: 21-34.
Reviews history and evolution of the electoral college
system and presents pro-con analyses of various reform proposals. ~oncludesthat the proportional plan is "apparently
White, Theodore H.
Direct elections: an invitation to national chaos.
Life magazine, v. 68, Jan. 30, 1970: 4.AP2.L547, v. 68
Opposes direct election, claiming it would result 'in greater
vote counting fraud, cenrralization of election administration,
reinforcement of the tendency towards mass media campaigning, and
would reduce the leverage exercised by blacks.
Wilkinson, Donald M., Jr.
The electoral process and the power of the
States. American Bar Association journal, v. 47, Mar. 1961:
Kl.M385, v. 47
E x a d n e s restraints on the P'pparently sweeping grant of
power over Presidential elector selection awarded to the
States in Article I, Section 2 of the Constitution. Maintains
that "the Fourteenth Amendment constitutes a limitation an the
respective state legislatures in all phases of the process of
'appointment' of presidential electors," Suggests adoption of
a semi-proportional automatic plan as a means of eliminating
the faithless elector phenomenon.
Reform of the electoral system. Political
81.P8, v. 64
science quarterly, v. 4, Mar. 1949: 1-23.
Asserts that the Lodge-Gossett (proportional) amendment,
then-under consideration, would be as deficient as the general
ticket system. Maintains that the district plan would be
closer to the framers' original intent. Also lists points in
favor of retention of the office of elector.
m a t to watch out for. National review, v. 21, Jan. 28, 1969:
AP2.N3545, v. 21
The author reviews the current status of the electoral
college and various proposals for change; criticizes the
general ticket system, concluding that adoption of either
direct election or the district system would restore the
Presidency to the status of "a pure elective magistracy."
Also urges replacement of the current contingent election
provision by a run-off election or election by a joint
session of Congress, with Members voting as individuals.
Election contests and the electoral vote.
Wroth, L. Kinvin.
Dickinson law review, v. 65, June 1961: 321-353.
The author details the origin and provisions of the
Electoral Count Act of 1887, which established procedures
by which Congress would judge contested electoral vote
returns. He argues that while Congress' power to adjudicate such dhputes is unquestioned, the requirements of
fairness and the interests of political stability suggest
that "Congress must give to the federal courts the power
to reach a timely, final and binding decision of all (such)
Kennedy, John F.
The P r e s i d e n t ' s news conference o f January 25, 1961
(Question 31). Public papers o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s o f t h e United
S t a t e s : John F. Kennedy, 1961: 16-17.
Washington., U,S. Govt,
P r i n t . Off., 1962.
P r e s i d e n t Kennedy e x p r e s s e s h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e autom a t i c plan.
C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Convention, 1787,
The r e c o r d s o f t h e Federal
Convention of 1787. Edited by Max Farrand. r e v . ed. New Haven,
Conn,, Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937, 4v.
In t h i s work, t h e e d i t o r draws on t h e o f f i c i a l j o u r n a l
of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Convention, and t h e n o t e s o f prominent
p a r t i c i p a n t s , most n o t a b l y Robert Yates, James Madison and
Rufus King, An a u t h o r i t a t i v e primary s o u r c e , i t i n c l u d e s
numerous r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e process by which t h e . e l ' e c t o r a l
c o l l e g e vas approved a t t h e Conventron.
E l e c t o r a l Cotmission, 1877, Proceedings o f t h e E l e c t o r a l
Commission and of t h e two Houses o f Congress i n j o i n t meeting
r e l a t i v e t o t h e count o f e l e c t o r a l v o t e s c a s t December 6, 1876
f o r t h e p r e s i d e n t i a l term commencing March 4, 1877, New York,
Da Capo Press, 1970 [ a r e p r i n t o f t h e Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t .
Off., 1877 e d i t i o n ] 1087 p,
The o f f i c i a l .record of proceedings o f t h e E l e c t o r a l Commission
and Congress i n r e s o l v i n g t h e d i s p u t e d e l e c t i o n o f 1876.
R e s i d e n t , 1963-1969 (Lyndon Baines Johnson). S p e c i a l message t o
t h e Congress on R e s i d e n t a l d i s a b i l i t y and r e l a t e d m a t t e r s . Public
papers o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s o f t h e United S t a t e s : Lyndon B. Johnson,
Washington, U.S. Govt. p r i n t . Off., 1966.
1965, v . 1: 100-103.
J8O.A83, 1965, v , l
Message dated January 28, 1965.
R e s i d e n t Johnson's i n c l u d e s proposals f o r t h e adoption
o f t h e automatic plan.
S p e c i a l message t o the Congress proposing c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments
r e l a t i n g t o terms f o r House Members and t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e system,
Public papers of t h e P r e s i d e n t s of t h e United S t a t e s : Lyndon B,
Johnson, 1966, v , 1:.36-41.
Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t , Off., 1967,
J8OaA283, 1966, v.1
Message dated January 20, 1966.
R e s i d e n t Johnson r e a f f i r m s h i s support f o r the automatic p l a n ,
and a l s o urges a b o l i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g c o n t i n g e n t e l e c t i o n p r o v i s i o n s
of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n .
U, S. P r e s i d e n t , 1969-1974 ( ~ i x o n ) . S p e c i a l message t o t h e Congress
on e l e c t o r a l reform. Public papers o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s o f t h e
United S t a t e s : Richard M, Nixon, 1969: 121-122.
u.S. Govt , P r i n t , Off
~ 8 0 . ~ 2 8 31969
Message d a t e d February 20, 1969.
R e s i d e n t Nixon s t a t e s h i s personal p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e
p r o p o r t i o n a l p l a n , b u t m a i n t a i n s he w i l l support any reform
plan providing f o r a b o l i t i o n of t h e o f f i c e o f e l e c t o r , " a l l o c a t i o n
t o P r e s i d e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e s o f t h e e l e c t o r a l v o t e o f each S t a t e
and t h e D i s t r i c t o f Columbia i n a manner t h a t may more c l o s e l y
approximate t h e popular v o t e ," "making a 40% e l e c t o r a 1 ' v o t e
p l u r a l i t y s u f f i c i e n t t o choose a R e s i d e n t " and p r o v i s i o n f o r
a r u n o f f e l e c t i o n should no c a n d i d a t e g a i n t h e n e c e s s a r y percentage of e l e c t o r a l votes,
Statement on c o n g r e s s i o n a l a c t i o n on e l e c t o r a l reform, Public
papers o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s o f t h e United S t a t e s : Richard M. Nixon,
Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1971
Statement d a t e d September 30, 1969. P r e s i d e n t Nixon n o t e s
passage o f a d i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n amendment i n t h e House,
endorses t h e proposal and urges Senate approval o f i t .
P r e s i d e n t , 1977( C a r t e r ) . Message t o Congress t r a n s m i t t i n g
recommendations f o r reform i n t h e e l e c t i o n system. Weekly c m p i l a t i o n of P r e s i d e n t i a l documents, v, 13, March 28, 1977: 427-431.
J80eA284, v o 13
P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r urges adoption o f d i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n .
Congress; %use . Committee on Electiori o f t h e R e s i d e n t , Vice.
P r e s i d e n t , and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n Congress. Abolishing t h e
e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e , Hearings, 72nd Congress, 2nd s e s s i o n , on
H.J. Res, 60, Feb, 16, 1933, Washington, U.S. Govt, R i n t . O f f , ,
1933, 28 pa
Proposed amendments t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s ,
providing f o r t h e e l e c t i o n o f t h e R e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t
and f i l l i n g v a c a n c i e s i n t h e o f f i c e s t h e r e o f and t h e t e n n s of
such o f f i c e r s and members o f Congress, Hearings, 70th Congress,
1st s e s s i o n , on H.3, Res, 2. Jan. 9, 1928, Washington, U.S. Govt,
P r i n t . Off., 1928. 17 p,
Proposed c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment providing f o r e l e c t i o n o f t h e
P r e s i d e n t and Vice R e s i d e n t . Hearings, . 7 l s t Congress, 2nd
s e s s i o n , on H. J, Res, 106. Mar, 14, 1930. Wa-shington, U. S. Govt
P r i n t . Off,, 1930. 56 p a
Congress. House, Committee on E l e c t i o n o f t h e R e s i d e n t , Vice .
R e s i d e n t , and. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n Congress. Proposed c o n s t i t u t i o n a l
amendment8 r e l a t i n g t o nominations and e l e c t i o n s of P r e s i d e n t ,
Vice R e s i d e n t , U.S. Senators and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Hearings,
67th Congrerr, 4 t h s e s s i o n , on H.J. Res. 290, 413, 424,
435, and H.R. 14186, Jan. 11,
Jan 23, 1923, Washington,
U.S. Govt, P r i n t , Off., 1923. 45 p.
Proposed c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments r e l a t i n g t o t h e f i x i n g of
time f o r t h e cornencement o f t h e terms of P r e s i d e n t , Vice
R e s i d e n t and Members o f Congress, and f i x i n g t h e t i m e o f t h e
assembli'ng o f Congress; and t o t h e P r e s i d e n t i a l succession;.'
and t o t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e system, m a r i n g s , . 71st. Congress,
2d s e s s i o n , on H.J. Res. 9, 65, '216 and 292. Feb. 4 ,
Feb 21, 1930.- Washington, U,S, Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1930. 67 p',
Proposing an amendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s
a b o l i s h i n g t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e ; r e p o r t t o accompany H. J, Res
60, 72nd Congress, 2nd s e s s i o n . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t ,
1933. 19 p. (72nd =ngress, 2nd Session. House. Report
Proposing an amendment t o the C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s
a b o l i s h i n g t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e ; r e p o r t t o accompany H. J, Res
136, 73d Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , Washington, U.S, Govt P r i n t .
Off ,, 1933. 20 p. (73rd Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . House. Report
a 1 7 0 1933d
Praposing an amendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s ,
providing f o r the e l e c t i o n a f R e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t .
Hearings, 70th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , on E.J. Res. 181. Jan. 27,
1928. Washington, U.S. Govt. p r i n t . Off., 1928. 19 p.
JK170 1 9 2 8 ~
Congress, House. Committee on Rules. Proposing an amendment
t o t h e C o n s t i t i t u i o n of t h e United S t a t e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e e l e c t i o n
o f t h e P r e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t
Hearings 91st Congress,
1st s e s s i o n on H.J. Res, 681 and similar measures. June 17, ,,,
J u l y 24, 1969. Washington, U.S. Govt, P r i n t . Off., 1969,
U,S, Congress.' House, Conrmittee on t h e ~ u d i c i a r y , Amend t h e
c o n s t i t u t i o n t o a b o l i s h t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e system,
Hearings, 82nd'Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , on H.J. Res. 11 and
o t h e r s . April 18,
20, 1951. Washington, U.S. Govt.
P r i n t . Off., 1951, 337 p,
J75 .C9 j
" S e r i a l no, 7"
D i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n o f t h e R e s i d e n t ; r e p o r t with a d d i t i o n a l
m i n o r i t y , i n d i v i d u a l and s e p a r a t e views on H.J. Res, 681, 9 1 s t
Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . Washington U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off
52 p. ( 9 1 s t Congress, 1st session, House, Report no. 91-253)
-Report endorsing ' d i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n , with a 40%
-----s e sEs iloe nc t ono r aH.J.
l c o l l e g e reform, Hearings, 91st Congress,
Res, 179, 181, and s i m i l a r proposals,
March 13, 1969.
Off.,, 1969. 1009 p, .
Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t .
" S e r i a l no. 1"
Proposing an amendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United
S t a t e s f o r t h e e l e c t i o n o f .the R e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t ;
r e p o r t t o accompany S,J. Res. 2, 81st Congress, 2nd s e s s i o n .
Washington, U.S, Covt, P r i n t . Off,, 1950. 5 p. ( 8 1 s t Congress,
2d s e s s i o n . .House. Rept. no. 1858)
Proposing an a n e n b e n t t o t h e C o d s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s
providing f o r t h e . e l e c t i o n o f the ,President and Vice R e s i d e n t ;
r e p o r t t o accompany E.J. Res. 9, 80th Congress, 2d s e s s i o n .
Washington, U.S, Govt. P r i n t . Off
1948. 8 p. .(80th Congress,
2d s e s s i o n , House. Report no. 1615) JK528.A5 1948
Proposing an wendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United
S t a t e s providing f o r t h e e l e c t i o n of p r e s i d e n t and Vice
P r e s i d e n t ; r e p o r t t o accompany H.J. Res. 2, 81st Congress,
1st s e s s i o n , Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1949.
32 p. (81 st Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , House, Report no, 1011)
JK528.A5 1949 d
Report favoring adoption o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l plan.
U. S. Congress. Bouse
Committee d n t h e J u d i c i a r y . Proposing
.an amendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s
p r o v i d i n g ' f o r t h e e l e c t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t ;
r e p o r t t o accompany H.J. Res. 19. Washington, U.S. Govt.
m i n t . Off., 1951. 36 p. (82nd Congress, 1st s e s s i o n .
House. Report no. 1199)
Report f a v o r i n g a d o p t i o n o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l p l a n .
Congress.. House. Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . Subcommit t e e
no. 1.' &'end t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o e l e c t i o n
o f t h e R e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t . Hearings b e f o r e Subcommittee no. 1, 8 1 s t Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , . a n H. J. Res.
2, 10, 11, 51, 74, 78, 81, 82, 118, and 121. Feb 9,
Feb. 25, 1949. Washington. U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off
" S e r i a l no. 3"
Congress. Senate. Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . D i r e c t popular
e l e c t i o n o f the President ; r e p o r t together with i n d i v i d u a l ,
s e p a r a t e and m i n o r i t y views t o accompany S. J. Res. 1, 91st
Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . Washington, U.S. Govt R i n t Off.,
1970. 55p. ( 9 1 s t Congress, 2d s e s s i o n . Senate. Report
The m a j o r i t y r e p o r t s f a v o r a b l y on d i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n .
D i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t
o f t h e United S t a t e s ; r e p o r t t o g e t h e r w i t h . t h e m i n o r i t y and
a d d i t i o n a l views on S.J. Res. 1, 95th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n .
~ a s h i n g t o n ,U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1977. 41 p. ( 9 5 t h Congress,
1st s e s s i o n . Senate. Report no. 95-609)
KF26.38359 '1977aThe m a j o r i t y r e p o r t s f a v o r a b l y on d i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n .
E l e c t i o n e o f R e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t . Hearings b e f o r e
a subcommittee o f t h e Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y , 8 1 s t
Congress,. 1st s e s s i o n , on S.J. Res 2. February 23,
1949. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1949. 215 p.
E l e c t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t ; r e p o r t t o accompany
S. J. Rrs. 31, 84th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . washington, U.S.
Govt. R i n t . Off., 1955. 26 p. ( 8 4 t h Congress, 1 s t s e s s i o n .
Senate. - Report no. 84-360
The m a j o r i t y r e p o r t s f a v o r a b l y on t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l p l a n .
m n g r e s r . s e n a t e . Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . The e l e c t o r a l
c o l l e g e and d i r e c t e l e c t i o n , Hearings, 95 t h Congress, 1st
r d r r i o n , on S.J. Res. 1, 8 and 18, Jan, 27,
February 1 0 ,
1977, Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f , , 1977. 608 p.
The e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e , and d i r e c t e l e c t i o n . ~ e a r i n g s , 95th
. C o n g r e s s , 1st s e s s i o n on S.J. Res. 1, 8, and 18. Supplement.
August 2, 1977. Washington, U.S. Govt. - P r i n t .
J u l y 20,
Off., 1977. 537 p.
KF 26.38359 1977a
.---The e l e c t o r a l
c o l l e g e and. r e c e n t p r o p o s a l s f o r i t s r e f o n n
o r a b o l i t i o n . H a t e r i a l s compiled by a subcommittee o f 'the
Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y , 86th Congress, 2d s e s s i o n . Washington,
1961. 35 p.
U.S. Covt. P r i n t . Off
E l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e reform, Hearings, 9 1 s t Congress, 2d s e s s i o n ,
on amending t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n r e l a t i n g t o e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e reform.
17, 1970, Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1970.
371 P O
. *.P 2 6 . J 8 1970b
-----H e aNomination
and e l e c t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t and V i c e P r e s i d e n t .
r i n g s b e f o r e a subcommittee o f t h e Committee on t h e
J u d i c i a r y , 84th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , on S.J. Bes. 3, 9, 1 0 ,
27, 30, 31, and 53. Mar. 16,
Apt. 6, 1955. Washington,
U.S. Govt. P r i n t , Off ,, 1955. 469 p.
Nomination and e l e c t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t and Vice R e s i d e n t .
E e a r i n g s b e f o r e a subcommittee o f t h e Gonnnittee on J u d i c i a r y ,
83d Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , on S.J. Res. 8, 17, 19, 55, 84, 85, 95,
and.100. June 11,
Aug. 1, 1953. Washington, U.S. Govt.
P r i n t . Off
1953. 259 p.
Proposing an amendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United
S t a t e s providing. f o r t h e e l e c t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t and Vice
R e s i d e n t ; r e p o r t t o a c c m p a n y S.J. Res. 2, 8 1 s t Congress, 1st
s e s s i o n . Washington, U.S. Govt P r i n t . Off., 1949. ( 8 1 s t
Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . Senate. Report no. 602, p a r t s 1 and 2)
SK528.A5 1949b p a r t 2
Part 1 o f t h e report favors the proportional plan,
including a provision establishing a p l u r a l i t y of e l e c t o r a l
v o t e r a s adequate t o e l e c t a R e s i d e n t , t h u s o b v i a t i n g c o n t i n g e n t
e l e c t i o a i n t h e Eouse. P a r t 2, I n d i v i d u a l Views, c o n c u r s
with t h e m a j o r i t y r e p o r t i n favoring a b o l i t i o n o f t h e o f f i c e
o f e l e c t o r , b u t opposes p r o p o r t i o n a l plan a s p e c t s o f t h e
m a j o r i t y proposal.
Cammittee on t h e J u d i c i a r y .
an c~sendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s p r o v i d i n g
f o r t h e e l e c t i o n of P r e s i d e n t and Viice P r e s i d e n t ; r e p o r t t o accompany S, J. Res 52, 82nd Congress; 1st s e s s i o n . Washing t o n ,
U;S, Govt. R i n t O f f , , 1951, 25 p. (82d Congress, 1 s t s e s s i o n .
S e n a t e . E t p o r t no. 594)
The m a j o r i t y r e p o r t s f a v o r a b l y on t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l plan.
Congress. Senate. Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y , Subcommit t e e on
C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Amendments. E l e c t i n g t h e P r e s i d e n t . Hearings,
91st Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , on S.J. Res, 1, 2, 4, 12, 18, 20,
May 2, 1969. Washington,
25, 30, 31, 33,. 71 and 72. January 23,
U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1969. 1053 p.
E l e c t i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t . Hearings, 8 9 t h C o n e e s s , 2d s e s s i o n
on S. J, Res. 4, 7, 12, 28, 58, '62, 138 and 139, Feb 28,
March 10, 1966; and, 90th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , on S.J. Res.
Aug 23, 1967.
2, .3, 6, 7, 12, 15, 21, 25, 84, and 86, May 16,
Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t Off., 1968. 948 p.
The e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e : o p e r a t i o n and e f f e c t o f proposed
amendments t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s .
Memorandum prepared b y t h e s t a f f o f t h e subcommittee on
C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Amendments, 87th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n ,
Washington, U.S. Govt, P r i n t . Off., 1961. 54 p.
J l W 9 .A52 1961
D e s c r i b e s o p e r a t i o n o f p r e s e n t system and proposed a l t e r n a t i v e s .
Seeks t o p r e d i c t p a r t i c u l a r consequences o f pending p r o p o s a l s .
E l e c t o r a l reform. Hearings, 93d. Congress, 1st se'ssion on
S.J. Res. 1. + p t . 26, 27, 1973. Washington, U.S. Govt.
P r i n t . Off., 1973. 227 p.
Nomination and e l e c t i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t ,
Hearings, 8 8 t h Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , on S.J. Res. 1, 8 , 12, 1 3 ,
24, 27, and 73. June 4 , 1963. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t .
Off., 1963. 144 p.
Comaittee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . Subc-ittee
Nomination and e l e c t i o n
o f R e s i d e n t and Vice p r e s i d e n t and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r
v o t i n g , E e a r b g s , 87th Congress, 1st' s e s s i o n , on S, J. Res.
1; 2, 4, 9, 12, 16, 17, 23, 26, 28, 48, 96, 102, 113, and
114 proposing amendments t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n r e l a t i n g t o
t h e method o f nomination and e l e c t i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t and
'Vice R e s i d e n t , and S.J. Res, 14, 20, 54, 58, 67, 71, 81,
and 90 proposing amendments t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n r e l a t i n g t o
qualifications f o r v o t i n g , May 23,
J u l y 13, 1961,
Washington, U,S. Govt. R i n t . Off
1060 p. ( i n
on C o n s t i t i t u i o n a l Amendments.
Virginia. Cammission on C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Government, Reform t h e
e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e ? Sope new looks a t an o l d i n s t i t u t i o n ,
Richmond, 11966 ] 98 p.
A p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e four a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s ( t h e
automatic, d i s t r i c t , p r o p o r t i o n a l and d i r e c t e l e c t i o n p l a n s )
t o reform t h e e l e c t o r a l system a s r e p r e s e n t e d by r e s o l u t i o n s
introduced i n the Senate during the Eighty-ninth Congress.
Each i s e x p l i c a t e d by one o f t h e Senators sponsoring t h e
per t i n e n t r e s o 1ut ion.