The American Electoral College: Origins, Development, Proposals for Reform or Abolition

This report is a comprehensive annotated bibliography of substantive books, monographs, articles, and documents treating the origins, evolution, and current operational characteristics of the U.S. electoral college system, as well as proposals for its reform or abolition. An explanatory introduction is provided for readers unfamiliar with the issue.

Report No. 79-72 GOV &E AMERICAN ELECTORAL COLLEGE: ORIGINS, DEVELOPMENT, PROPOSALS FOR REFORM OR ABOLITION A Selected Annotated Bibliography Thomas EI. Neale Analyst in American National Government Government Division June 2, 1979 The Congressional Research Service works exclusively for the Congress, conducting research, analyzing legislation, and providing information at the request of Committees, Members and their staffs. (J / I I The Service makes such research available, without partisan bias, in many forms including studies, reports, compilations, digests, and background briefings. Upon request, the CRS assists Committees in analyzing legislative proposals and issues, and in assessing the possibie effects of these proposals and their alternatives. The Service's senbr specialists and subject analysts are also available for personal consultations in their respective fields of expertise. ABSTRACT -This report is a comprehensive annotated bibliography of substantive books, monographs, articles and documents treating the origins, evolution and current operational characteristics of the U.S. electoral college system, as well as proposals for its reform or- abolition. An explanatory introduction is provided for readers unfamiliar with the i.ssue. Introductiou I, The Electoral College System and Proposed Alternatives 111. IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . a . a a a ~ m ~ ~ a ~ a a . a a a a a a a a a . a a ' ..... 1 1 Newspaper and Periodical Articles* . . . a a . . a . a . . a a . a a a a . m a . . o . - 16 Documents 33 . . a . . a . o . a ~ a a m a ~ a . a m a ~ ~ ~ a a a a a a . ~ a ~ ~ m a e a ~ a m a a a The author wishes to credit Cheryl J. Scott, Mildred Boyle and Cynthia L. Tillman with the secretarial production of this report. THE AMERICAN ELECTORAL COLLEGE: ORIGINS, DEVELOPMENT, PROPOSALS FOR REFORM OR ABOLITION A Selected Annotated Bibliography Introduction h e purpose of this bibliography is to provide an annotated list of significant books, monographs, articles and dosument s treating the origins, growth and current characteristics 'of the electoral college system, criticism and defense of its operations, and proposals for. its reform or abolition. The bibliography is divided into four sections. Section I reviews briefly the operation of the electoral college system and major reform proposals. Important terms which appear repeatedly in the body of the bibliography are underlined and defined . Section 11 includes citations to books and monographs; Section 111, newspaper and periodical articles; and Section IV, docukents. All entries in Sections 11 and 111 are fully annotated, but the great volume and diversity of material regularly included in congressional hearings on this issue make annotation of many of the items cited in Section IV impractical. I. The Electoral college System and Proposed Alternatives Few questions so vexed the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 as the manner in which the President of the United States was to be elected. At one point, the delegates voted for selection by Congress; at other times, proposals for election by the people at large, by the governors of the States, by electors chosen by State legislatures, and even election by - a special group of Members of.Congress chosen by lot were considered, I / -At length, the matter was referred to a "committee on postponed matters," which hammered out the basic form of the electoral college and devised other provisions governing election of the Chief Executive. The system, as originally conceived, was a carefully balanced compromise which sought to reconcile differing State and Federal interests, provide a carefully limited degree of popular participation in the election, and preserve the Office of the President as independent of the Congress. Alexander Hamilton's favorable opinion of the electoral college I system is widely quoted: "if the manner- o.+ it [election of the Presi- dent] be not perfect, it is at least excellent.. It unites in an eminent degree all the advantages the union of which was to be wished for," A/ Few commentators have been so favorable in their assessments since then. Almoat every aspect of the existing system has been subject to persistent criticism over the years, while hundreds of proposals to reform or abolish the electoral college have been advanced. A brief overview of the sys- tem's characteristics and the most significant reform proposals follows. -1/ -21 31 . I Rossiter, Clinton Lawrence. 1787: Macmillan, 1966. pp. 198-220. Ibid., The Grand Convention. New York, pp. 219-221. Hamiltou, Alexander. The Federalist, No. 68. In: T h e Federalist Cambridge, Mass., The Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press, 1966. p. 440. - The electoral college system is an amalgam of constitutional proviaions, State and ~ e d e r a lstatutes and political customs, The electoral college includes 538 members, one for each Senator and Representative, and three additional electors representing the District of Columbia. It has no continuing existence or function apart from that entrusted to it by the Constitution. Each State has a number of electoral votes equal to the combined numerical total of its Senate and House delegations. Can- didates for the office of elector are chosen in one of several different methods used by the States, and are pledged to a party ticket of a Presidential and Vice Presidential nominee. In the general election, voters cast their ballots not for the candidates of their choice, but for electors pledged to vote for them, with the slate that receives the most popular votes gaining the entire block of electoral votes for the State. This practice is known variously as the unit rule, the general ticket system and the wikner take all system, and is currently operational in the District of Columbia, and every State of the Union except Maine. In 1969, Maine chose to institute a form of the district system for awarding its electoral votes. Despite its near universality, the general ticket system is not mandated by either Federal statute or the Constitution: each State has complete discretion in determining how its electoral votes will be allocated. Under the existing system, once the electors are chosen, they meet in their respective States on a date established by Congress to cast their votes for the candidates who have carried the State. ~ndividual electors are not expected to exercise their o m judgment, but, rather, , simply ratify the people's choice. Despite this understanding, there is no Constitutional provision requiring electors to vote as they have pledged ; and, in fact, over the years, a few have voted against the instructions of the voters. This is known as the phenomenon of the unfaithful or faithless elector. State results, once they have been determined, are forwarded to Washington where they are tallied and certified at a joint session of Congress presided over by the Vice Resident. The candidates receiving an absolute majority of 270'or more electoral votes are declared elected. If, however, no candidates receive the necessary majority, a complex procedure known as contingent election takes place. The mechanics of contingent election are set forth in the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution: The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall he the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if*no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall no6 choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the VicePresident shall act as president, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-Resident, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-president; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President*shall be eligible to' that of Vice-president of the United States. The first proposal to alter the electoral college system was put for- - ward as early as 1800, and by 1966, 513 such plans had been advanced. 4 / They can be divided into two major categories: those which seek to reform and preserve the electoral college system by correcting its alleged defects, and-those which urge complete abolition of the system and its replacement by direct popular elect ion. The former category consists of three enduring proposals and any number of more transitory plans which have been advanced from time to time. The first of the major proposals, the automatic plan, would retain the current method of awarding electoral votes, but would abolish the office of elector, and award a11 electoral votes in each State "automatically" to the statewide popular vote winner. This plan would eliminate the phenomenon of the faithless elector and constitutionally mandate the general ticket system of electoral vote distribution. The- second, the proportional plan, would likewise abolish the office of elector, hut it would award the electoral votes in a different fashion. Each State's electoral votes would be split between or among various candidates in direct proportion to the percentage of the popular vote gained by each slate. -4 / ' Thus, if in a State possessing ten electoral votes, candi- Peirce, Neal R. The People's President. New York, Simon and Schuster (A Clarion Book), 1968. pp. 151-152. d a t e A r e c e i v e d 70% o f t h e p o p u l a r v o t e and c a n d i d a t e B r e c e i v e d 3 0 1 , they would be awarded r e s p e c t i v e l y , seven and t h r e e e l e c t o r a l v o t e s . The t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e , t h e d i s t r i c t p l a n , w h i l e a l s o a b o l i s h i n g t h e o f f i c e of e l e c t o r , would t a l l y popular v o t e s i n c o n g r e s s i o n a l d i s t r i c t s a s well a s on a s t a t e w i d e b a s i s . The winning t i c k e t i n eac.h d i s t r i c t would be awarded an e l e c t o r a l v o t e , w h i l e t h e o v e r a l l s t a t e w i d e popular v o t e winners would r e c e i v e a two v o t e bonus, c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e two "senatorial" electors. This, is t h e proposal adopted by N i n e i n 1969. O f t h e many o t h e r reform p r o p o s a l s , one i s o f . r e c e n t o r i g i n and suf- f i c i e n t l y i n n o v a t i v e t o d e s e r v e mention; i t i s t h e n a t i o n a l bonus p l a n , developed i n 1978 by a Twentieth Century Fund t a s k f o r c e . Like t h e o t h e r reform p l a n s , i t would a b o l i s h t h e o f f i c e of e l e c t o r , and a s w i t h t h e a u t o m a t i c p l a n , i t would award S t a t e e l e c t o r a l v o t e s on t h e g e n e r a l t i c k e t basis. It would go one s t e p f u r t h e r , however, b y e s t a b l i s h i n g an a d d i t i o q - a 1 PO2 e l e c t o r a l v o t e s , two f o r each S t a t e and t h e D i s t r i c t o f Columbia. i s n a t i o i i a l .bonus would be awarded t o t h e s l a t e r e c e i v i n g t h e l a r g e s t number o f popular v o t e s n a t i o n w i d e , t h u s enhancing t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t an e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e m a j o r i t y w i l l be gained i n each P r e s i d e n t i a l c o n t e s t . The p r o p o s a l s o f t h e second major c a t e g o r y would a b o l i s h , t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e system a l t o g e t h e r and s u b s t i t u t e d i r e c t popular e . l e c t i o n of t h e President, The p r o p o s a l c u r r e n t l y e n j o y i n g t h e most widespread s u p p o r t provides f o r a n a t i o n a l t a l l y of t h e popular v o t e ; t h e s l a t e g a i n i n g t h e most v o t e s would win,. provided i t s t o t a l was g r e . a t e r t h a n 40% of a l l v o t e s cast, I f none of t h e t i c k e t s were t o r e c e i v e t h i s p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e v o t e , Congress would be empowered to. schedule a rvlloff elecetion, which would be cont=sted by the twi slates of candidates that received the highest number of votes in the first round. The alleged merits and failings of each of these proposals are discussed at length in the items cited and annotated in the body of this bibliography. In addition, two Congressional Research Service publications -give an overview of the question. The first is Congressional Research Ser- vice Report 77-213, Proposals to Reform Our Presidential Electoral System. This provides detailed explanations of the various proposed alternatives, and reviews past legislative efforts made in behalf of each. The second publicqtion is CRS Issue Brief 75056, Elections: Electoral College Reform, which provides a brief definition of the issue, a review of recent congressional activities, and citations to relevant publications. 11. A BOOKS AND MONOGRAPHS , w e . s e l e c t i n g t h e R e s i d e n t : t h e twenty-seventh d i s c u s s i o n and d e b a t e manual. [Columbia, Mo., A r t c r a f t P r e s s , 19531 2 v. (The National U n i v e r s i t y Extension A s s o c i a t i o n Discussion and Debate Manual, 1953-1954. Prepared f o r t h e High School Debating League i n each o f t h e S t a t e s . ) JK528.A67 A high school d e b a t e r s ' manual, i n c l u d i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t i a l aominatioh p r o c e s s , campaign and e l e c t o r a l mechanism. D e t a i l s proposed reforms, arguments f o r and a g a i n s t each, and poss i b l e e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s reforms, Volume I c o n s i s t s o f a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n by "recognized a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e 'govermnent." Volume I1 i s "devoted c h i e f l y t o m a t e r i a l s r e p r i n t e d from o u t s t a n d i n g c u r r e n t sources." American Bar .Association, S p e c i a l Committee on E l e c t i o n Rkform. E l e c t i n g t h e R e s i d e n t . rev. ed. Chicago, American Bar Associaton, 1977. 64 p. JK529.A75 1977 A r e v i s e d e d i t i o n o f t h e Bar A s s o c i a t i o n ' s 1967 r e p o r t . C h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e e x i s t i n g system a s " a r c h a i c , undemocratic, complex , ambiguous, i n d i r e c t and dangerous"; recommends adopt i o n o f d i r e c t e l e c t i o n with 40% runoff e l e c t i o n provision. An appendix by John D. F e e r i c k a n a l y z e s o p e r a t i o n o f t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e i n t h e 1976 P r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t i o n . American E n t e r p r i s e I n s t i t u t e f o r Public P o l i c y Research, Direct e l e c t i o n of t h e R e s i d e n t . Washington, American E n t e r p r i s e I n s t i t u t e , 1977. 28 p. ( L e g i s l a t i v e Analysis; 95th Congress, JK528.A68 1977 no. 5 ) Describes c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e system, . mechanics of d i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n , and t h e movement f o r reform, e s p e c i a l l y l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n s i n c e 1969. Includes pro-con arguments. Best, J u d i t h . The c a s e a g a i n s t d i r e c t e l e c t i o n of t h e P r e s i d e n t : a d e f e n s e o f t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e . I t h a c a , Cornell' U n i v e r s i t y JK528.B44 1975 P r e s s [I975 c. 19711 235 p. The a u t h o r contends t h a t t h e " e l e c t o r a l count system has been, on the, whole, a success. It has never f a i l e d t o f i l l t h e o f f i c e of R e s i d e n t . I n every e l e c t i o n s i n c e t h e u n i v e r s a l ( s i c ) adoption of t h e u n i t r u l e , i t has given us a s i n g l e e l e c t i o n . It h a s provided a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y e l e c t e d and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y recIt has given ognized P r e s i d e n t , even on t h e verge o f c i v i l war. t h e v i c t o r y t o t h e winner o f t h e popular p l u r a l i t y i n every c a s e but one, d e s p i t e a s e r i e s of s t r o n g t h i r d p a r t y t h r e a t s , p a r t i c u - larly in this century. It has nurtured a moderate two-party sysUnder its rules, the Presidency has grown in both 'power and t-. She also characterizes the present system as a major prestige." contributor to the vitality of federalizm. Bickel, Alexander M. Reform and continuity: the electoral college, the convention, and the party system. rev. ed, New York, Harper JK529.B5 1971 and Row, 1971. 122 p. The author suggests the possibility of retaining the present system or adopting the Katzenbach (automatic) plan. He maintains that the electoral college concept has evolved into a more democratic form over the years and should be capable of further adjustment to changing political principles. He emphasizes the negative effect direct election might have on urban and minority group leverage, the possible proliferation of splinter candidates and the uncertainties which could arise from second round runoff elections. After the electoral college. New York, National Boyd, William J. D. Municipal League [I9681 28 p. A brief history of the electoral college system, its alleged weaknesses, and alternative reform proposals. Urges adoption of direct popular election and seeks to rebut criticisms of that proposal. controversy over the Residential electoral sysBurrill, Richard L. tem. San Francisco, R and E Research Associates, 1975. 98 p. JK 529.B87 A description of current aspects, historic development and major criticisms of the electoral college system. The author analyzes proposals for reform, primarily direct election, as they relate to the party sytem, federalism, big-small and ruralurban State controversies, minority group influence, and the prospect of a hesident who received a minority of popular votes. Concludes with an advocacy of direct popular election. Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America. Referendum No. 98 on: electoral college reform. [Washington?] Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, 1965. 10 p. This referendum, distributed to members and affiliates of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, includes background information on the origin and development of the existing system, and discusses proposed alternatives, including an extensive procon treaement of each. Its text is also included in: U.S. Congress. Senate. 'Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments. Electing the President. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1969. (See Section IV) Danie1s;'Walter n., ed. Presidential election reforms. New York, W.H. dilson Co. (19531 200 p. (The reference shelf, v. 25, no. 4) JK528.D33 v. 25 Public figures discuss the existing nomination and election process, as well as the direct popular election, proportional and district proposals for reform. Diamond, Martin. The electoral college and the American idea of democracy. Washington, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1977. 22 p. (Studies in political and social JK5 29. D5 processes; AEI Studies; 163) The author challenges the allegation of the American Bar Association that the electoral college system is "archaic, undemocratic, complex, ambiguous, indirect and dangerous." He advocates retention of the current method for reasons of valid constitutional tradition, utility, decisiveness, and preservation of both federalism and the two party system. The electoral system of the United States; its Dougherty, J. Hampden. nistory, togetner with a study of tne perils that have attended its operations, an analysis of the several efforts made by legis'fation to avert these perils, and a proposed remedy by amendment of the Constitution. New York, C. Putnam's Sons [I9061 425 p. . JK528 .D7 Reviews the origins of the electoral college system and the development of electoral.procedure in the nineteenth century, with an emphasis on the Presidential election of 1876. The author proposes separation of Presidential and Vice Presidential ballots, abolition of the office of elector, and proportional distribution of electoral votes within the States. Nomination and election of the President and Durbin, Thomas M., comp. Vice President of the United States: including the manner of selecting.delegates to national political conventions. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1976. 414 p. KF4910.D87 A comprehensive manual treating the entire process of nomination and election of the President and Vice President. It includes the following information on the operation of the present system: Federal constitutional provisions and laws governing the election of the President and Vice President, State laws concerning the nomination and election of Presidential electors, and extensive related statistical tables. 'CRS-I 1 The electoral college: how does it E i s k t e i n , Virginia gnd James. work? Should the system be changed? [Washington, Ct., The Center for Information on America, 19731 14 p. (Grass Roots Guides, no. 211) A brief examination of the operation, effect and history of the electoral college system of election. The authors consider the movement for reform but conclude that barring some sort of major stimulus, the status quo will likely be maintained. The debates in.the several State conventions Elliot, Jonathan, ed. on the adoption of the Federal Constitution as recommended by the general convention at Philadelphia in 1787. New York, Burt Franklin [1968?] 5 v. (American classics in history and social science 13; Burt Franklin research and social works series, 109) a 1 4 1 1968 A primary source which includes numerous references to the electoral college system of electing the President made in the State conventions which ratified the Constitution. Hamilton, Alexander. The method of electing the President (Federalist Paper no. 68). In The Federalist. Cambridge, Mass., The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1966. pp. 440-444. JK154.1961a Hamilton's classic explanation of the originai Presidential electoral process. Haworth, Paul Leland. The Hayes-Tilden disputed Presidential election 365 p. of 1876. New York, Russell & Russell;1966. JK526.1876. ~ 4 3 Reprint of the 1906 edition, which was published as a thesis, Columbia University. The author recounts widespread. intimidation of southern black Republican voters in the election of 1876, compares it with the questionable actions of the Electoral Commission, and asserts that the eventual election of Hayes was "an occasion" in which two wrongs go to make a right." Johnsen, Julia, comp. Direct election of the President. New York, H. W. Wilson, 1949. 300 p. JK528.57 A compilation of previously published articles on the question of electoral college reform, including pro-con discussions of v*arious proposals. League of Women Voters of the United States. .Who should elect the President? Washington, D.C., League of Women Voters of the United States [1969] 158 p. JK529.LZX (temporary) A comprehensive handbook dealing with the quest con of electoral college reform. Includes standard material on the origin and develop ment of the electoral college system and various proposed alternatives. Also incorporates a comprehensive overview of congress'ional action (1947-1968) and an extensive selection of statements on electoral college reform by public figures. ' Eongley, Lawrence D. and Alan G. Braun. The politics of electoral college reform. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1972. 222 p. JK529.L65 1972b The authors recall possible outcomes of two recent elections: a runner-up President in 1960 and contingent election of the chief executive in the House of Representatives in 1968 as illustrative of electoral college defects. They review the origin and development of the present system and present various reform proposals, particularly the case for direct election. They conclude with a detailed account of efforts to secure passage of direct election in 1969-1970. MacBride, Roger Lea. The American electoral college. Caldwell, Idaho, The Caxton Printers, 1953, 89 p. JK529 .M35 ~eviewing'the history of the electoral college system and various proposed reforms, from a conservative-libertarian standpoint, the author finds in favor of the district plan, on the grounds that it would not damage the principles of Federalism and would stimulate "political sympathyt' between President and Congress. He also favors retaining the current provisions for 'contingency election by the House of Representatives.. Hichener, James Albert. Presidential lottery; the reckless gamble in our electoral system. New York, Random House, 1969. 240 p. JK5 29. M5 Drawing on his experience as an elector in 1968, the author details the potential for political abuse inherent in the existing contingency election provision and the phenomenon of the unfaithful elector. He outlines the origin and evolution of the current system, urging, as first steps, the abolition of the office of elector and contingent election, and, over a longer period, adoption of one of the various proposed basic re forms. CRS- 13 Direct election of the President: a North Dakota view. ChPdohl, Lloyd B. Grand Forks, N.D., University of North Dakota, Bureau of Governmental Affairs, 1970. 19 p. ( ~ o r t hDakota. University. Bureau of Governmental Affairs special report no', 11) JK6401.N65 no. 11/JK 528 The author examines the controversy over electoral college reform from the viewpoint of a low population State. He asserts that the existing system favors large urban areas in general, but provides a mildly disproportionate advantage to the North Dakota Republican Party in Presidential elections. He concludes that "if the Republicans want to create a climate favorable to national conservatism, they will support the direct election of the President. On the other hand, if the Democratis want to keep the national political system as liberal as possible, they will favor a continuation of the electoral college..." Peirce, Neal R. The People's President: the electoral college in h e t i c a n history and the direct-vote alternative, New York, Simon and Shtister [I9681 400 p. JK529 .P4 The author provides a comprehensive review of the history and development of the electoral college system, including various reform efforts. He concludes that the current alternatives are direct election or maintenance of the status quo, and urges adoption of the former. Logic and legitimacy: on understanding the electoral colPower, Max S. lege controversy. In Matthews, D. R. ed., Perspectives on Presidential selection. Washington, The Brookings Institution, 1973. pp, 204-237. (Studies in Presidential selection) JK528.M33 ~ x a m i n e s the potential difficulties presented by the prospects of multiple candidate elections under direct election, and notes that proponents of direct election deal primarily in terms of rationaldeductive logic, m i l e defenders of the existing system are mainly concerned with empirical-pragmatic considerations. - Voting for President; the Sayre, Wallace S., and Judith 8. Parris. electoral college and the American political system. Washington, The roo kings Institution [1970] 169 p. (studies in Presidential selection) JK528 .S28 A comprehensive analysis of the existing electoral college system and comparison with four likely alternatives: direct election, the automatic, district and proportional plans. The authors conclude that "the electoral vote system with ,the winner-take-all State general-ticket system is the best of the several methods". .Schlesinger, Arthur Meier. History of American Presidential elections, 1789-1968, New York, Chelsea House, 1971. 4 v. El83 eS28 This comprehensive history of Presidential elections provides extensive coverage of individual contests, including those in which contingent election by the House of Representatives was necessary (1800, 1824) and electoral college "misfires" (1876, 1888). CRS- 14 Twentieth Century Fund. Task Force on Reform of the Presidential Election Process.. Winner-take-all. New York, The Fund, 1978. 82 p. KF49lO .T93 Urges retention of major elements of the existing system. The task force recornends establishment of a national bonus plan, by which 102 additional electoral votes would be created and awarded in block to the popular vote winner in Presidential elections. The proposal "virtually eliminates the possibility of defeat for the winner of the most popular votes." Other recommendations include a proposal for a top-two runoff election if no candidate receives a majority of electoral votes, and "a series of measures to ensure the accuracy, integrity, and speed of the vote count in the states." -The.report also includes an overview by William R. Keech. ~enetoulis,Theodore G. The House shall choose. press, 1968. 177 p. Margate, N.J., JK524 .V4 Elias A history of the two occasions (1800 and 1824) when the electoral college failed to produce a majority for one candidate and a contingent election by the House of Representatives was necessary. The author advocates adoption of the Bingham amendment, which provides for abolition of the office of elector and a runoff election in cases where no candidate has a majority of electoral votes. Wilmerding, Lucius Jr. The electoral college. New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers University Press, 1958. 224 p. JK5 29 W64 A detailed history of the origin and development of the electoral college system, with special emphasis placed on the double voting provisions of the Constitution which led to the electoral crisis of 1800 and the subsequent ratification of the Twelfth Amendment; The author also describes the gradual prevalence of the general ticket system, various reform proposals, and the existing contingency election provision. . Yunker, John H., and Lawrence D. Longley. . The biases of the electoral college: who is really advantaged? In Matthews, D. R., ed., Perspectives on Presidential selection. Washington, The Brookings Institution, 1973. pp. 172-203. (studies in Presidential selection) JK528 .M33 The authors conclude that voters in large States, metropolitan areas, population of foreign stock, blue-collar workers and the regions of the Far West and the East are advantaged by the electoral college. CRS- 15 Yunker, John L,and Lawrence D. Longley. The electoral college: its biases newly measured for the 1960's and 1970's. Beverly Hills, Calif., Sage Publications, 1976. 56 p. (Sage professional' papers in american politics; ser. no. 04-031) JK529.YS6 A substantive modification and extension of the authors' earlier work of a similar title. They analyze the different biases inherent in the existing system and proposed alternatives. Direct election of the President. Lexington, Zeidenstein, Harvey G. .Mass., Lexington Books, 1973. 118 p. JKS28.243 An advocacy of direct election. The author details inherent uncertainties of the electoral college system and states the case for reform. He seeks to demonstrate that the existing framework does not, in fact, provide an advantage to populous and ur.ban States with large numbers of ethnic bloc voters, and that criticisms of direcl election as leading to growth of splinter parties and reduction of Presidential -legitimacy as a result of the runoff election provisions are invalid. Concludes by recommending direct election with the runoff provision. 1x1. .NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL ARTICLES Alter, Jonathan. Bad marks for the electoral college. Harvard - political review, v. 5, winter 1977: 7-8. JKl.H36, v. 5 Citing the three "misfires" of the electoral college and the potential "misfires" in the Presidential elections of 1960, 1968 and 1976; the author asserts that "the odds are catching up with the American electorate" and urges adoption of direct election. Three electoral colleges. Parliamentary Andrews, William G. affairs, v. 14, spring 1961: 178-188. JNlOl.P3, v. 14 The author compares the U.S. and French electoral colleges and the House of Commons. Seeks to d&nonstrate that the electoral college and the House of commons, despite many differences, perform similar functions in electing, respectively, the president of the U.S. and the Prime Minister of the U.K. Association of the Bar of the City of New York. Committee on Federal Legislation. Proposed constitutional amendment providing for direct election of President and Vice President. Record of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, v. 33, May-June, 1978: 335-345. Law A restatement of the Association's 1967 report recommending abolition of the electoral college and substitution of direct popular election of the President and Vice-president, with a 40% run-off provision. A bad idea whose time has come. New republic, v. 176, May 7, 1977: 5-6, 8. AP2.N624, V . 176 Urges caution in considering a'direct election amendment, arguing that it would tend-to encourage splinter party candidates, diminish the role of the States, and lead inevitably to a National Presidential primary, thus devaluing the nominations of the major parties. Banzhaf, John F. 111. One man, 3.312 votes: a mathematical analysis of the electoral college. Villanova law review, v. 13, winter 1968 : 304-341. K26.156, v . 13 The author expounds a mathematical model through which he seeks to measure the biases of the existing system, and such as vould exist if the proportional or district system were introduced. Concludes that the electoral college system provides an advantage'to populous States, while the other two plans would provide great advantage to less populous States. The main body of the articles is followed by coonnentaries from Senators Birch Bayh, Karl E. Mundt and John J. Sparkman, and Mr. Neal Peirce. CRS- 17 Electing a President: the case for direct popular Bayh, Birch. election. -Earnard journal on legislation, v. 6, Jan. 1969: Law 1-12. Analysis of the potential for electoral misfire in the 1968 Presidential election, emphasizing electoral college strategy of the American Independent (George Wallace) Party. Brief review of various reform plans and advocacy of direct popular election, Becker, Carl. The will of the people. Yale review, v. 34, spring 1945: 392-4040 AP2.Y2, V. 34 The author maintains that the existing system promotes breadth of appeal and moderation of program in the political parties, encourages compromise among competing interests and tends "to keep the nation politically united and politically stable." Is electoral reform the answer? Commentary, Bickel, Alexander M. v. 46, Dec. 19.68: 41-51. DS101.C63, v . 46 The author-urges caution in revising the electoral process. He maintains that the electoral college system provides desirable leverage to urban voters, minorities and progressives, and is a major support of the t w o party system. Brams, Steven J., and Morton D. Davis. The 3/2's rule in Presidential campaigning. American political science review, v. 68, Mar. 1974: . 113-134. JAl.A6, v. 6 8 The authors maintain that "the winner-take-all feature of the that the popular-vote winner in each Electoral College -- i.e., state vins all the electoral votes of that state induces candidates to allocate campaign resources roughly in proportion to the 312's power of the electoral votes of each state. This creates a peculiar bias in presidential campaigns that makes the largest states the most attractive campaign targets of the candidates, even out of proportion to their size." -- Bremner, Marjorie. The American electoral college. Parliamentary affairs, v. 5, summer 1952: 364-369. JNlOl.P3, v. 5 A British view of the existing system; concludes that without the stimulus of a minority President produced by the electoral college, change is unlikely. Taking the pulse of an anachronism in good health. B r o m e , Paul J. Empire State report, v. 2, Dec. 1976: 403-405. JK3401.E46, v . 2 isc cusses the strengths and weaknesses of the electoral college system, with special emphasis on the makeup of the New York State contingent of the electoral college in 1976. Explores rationale for choice of these electors. Burgess, John W. The.law of the electoral count. Political science quarterly, v. 3, Dec. 1888: 633-653. Hl.P8, v. 3 An analysis .of the Flectoral Count ~ a of w - 1887, which established procedures for nomination and certification of - electors in the States, transmission of certificates of election to, and tabulation of electoral votes by, Congress. Carter's narrow victory brings electoral college. under renewed scrutiny. ~on~resa^ional quarterly.weekly report, v. 34, Dec. 18, 1976:. JKl.Cl5, V. 5 3330-3331 An overview of efforts -to adopt direct election in light of the close Presidential election of 1976. Colantoni, Claude S., Terrence J. Levesque, and Peter C. Ordeshook. Campaign resou.rce aLlocations under the electoral college. American political science review, v. 69, Mar. 1975: 141-154. JAl.A6, v. 69 The authors attempt to refute the work of Steven Brams and Morton Davis (supra), claiming that their 3/2's rule of campaign resource allocations in Presidential campaigns is simplistic, and fails'to take into account numerous variables. The article ineludes a comment by Brams and Davis and a rejoinder. by the authors. Cronin, Thomas E. Choosing a President. Center Magazine., v. 11, Septa-Oct. 1978: 5-15. HCll.C42, v. 11 The author, noting both contingencies inherent in the electoral college system and the alleged liabilities of direct popular election, explains and urges adoption of the national bonus plan. delesseps, Suzanne. Electoral college reform. Washington, Editorial research reports p. 845-862. (Editorial research'reports, 1976, v. 2, no. 19) H35mE35, v. 19 A review of the evolution of the electoral college system and the potential for a 'misfire' in light of the 1976 Presidential election. Includes discussion of various reform plans. Madison's views on electoral reform. Western Dewey, Donald 0 . political quarterly, v. 14, Mar. 1962: 140-145. JAl.W4, v . 15 James Madison's desire to return to the original principles of the electoral college system, as drawn from letters written between 1823 and 1830. Dixon, Robert G., Jr. Electoral college procedure. Western political JAl.W4, v. 3 quarterly, v; 3, June 1950: 214-224. A review of the selection process for slates of elector.^, -Presidential ballot variations in the several States and the particulars of convening and voting by electors at the time of writing. Doolittle, James R. The electoral system. Political science HlOP8, v. 19 quarterly, v. 19, Sept. 1904: 69-75. An-advocacy of the district plan. The author asserts its substitution for the general ticket system would lessen geographical concentration of political parties and reduce incentives to manipulate election returns in large, closely contested States. Dubner, Ronald. The electoral college: proposed changes. Southwestern law journal, v. 21, spring 1967: 269-284. K23.085, v. 21 A review of the electoral college system and the district, proportional and direct election reform proposals. Asserts that "inequities of the present system with the winner-takeall procedure and indirect elections" necessitate refbtm and that "the direct election system would cure these defects.'' The duty of presidential electors. Outlook, v. 101, July 27, 1912: 656-658. AP2.08, vt 101 Comments favorably on the elector's right to make an independent selection from among Presidential candidates; a de facto endorsement of Progressive Party efforts to sway Republican electoral votes in the Presidential election of 1912. Eagleton, Thomas F. Direct election vs. vox populi. American Bar Aasociation.journa1, v. 56, June 1970: $43-546. Kl.M385, v. 56 The author advocates adoption of his Federal system reform proposal, which he maintains would obviate contingent or runoff elections and buttress the existing two party system. Why the minority voice in the election of the President? Eaton, Joe. Florida bar journal, v. 38, May 1964: 260-266. Law "The electoral college itself could well be done away with, but that in so doing, the integrity of the states in the electoral proces8 should be preserved." Advocates adoption of the.proportional plan as conducive to this goal. Farrand, Max. The House of Representatives shall choose. New republic, AP2eN624, v. 40 v. 40, Nov. 5,- 1924: 243-247. The author speculates on the possibility of electoral college d-eadlock in the Presidential election of 1924. He notes that members of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 expected contingent election by the House of Representatives would be the usual mode of Presidential selection. Feerick, John D. The electoral college -- its defects and dangers. New York State bar journal, v. 40, Aug. 1968: 317-330. - Law A review of contingencies inherent under the electoral college system, including possible election of a "minority President", provision for election by the House of Representatives in case of electoral deadlock, the phenomenon of the "faithless elector" and procedures to be followed in case of death or withdrawal of a candidate. -Association The electoral college: why Journal, v. 54, Mar. it was created. American Bar 1968: 249-255. K1.M385, v. 54 A review of events at the constitutional Convention of 1787 which led t o adoption of the electoral college system. Maintains it was a compromise between supporters of legislative election and those favoring some degree of popular involvementi Hubert Humphrey's S.J. 152: a new proposal for Goldman, Ralph X. electoral college reform. Midwest journal of political science, JAl.MS, v, 2 v e 2, Feb. 1958: 89-96. An overview of a compromise plan of electoral reform offered by Sen. Humphrey. The plan calls for abolition of the office of elector, "assigns two senatorial electoral votes to the candidate winning the plurality of popular votes in each state," and divides "the' remaining block of 435 votds according to the proportion of popular votes received by each candidate on arnationwide basis." Direct popular election of the President. Gossett, William T. American Bar Association journal, v. 56, Mar. 1970: 225-231. Kl.M385, v. 56 The author favors adoption of a direct election amenhment with a 40% runoff election prouision. He examines contingencies inherent in the existing system, maintaining they will be avoided in direct election, also seeks to refute arguments against the proposed reform. ' . -- Association Electing the President: new hope for an old idea. journal, v. 53, Dec. 1967 1103-1106. American Bar : Kl.M385, v. 53 The author comments favorably on the American Bar Association's support of direct popular election, announced in 1967. . Grady, John. Is the electoral system really obsolete? Human D4S.H8, v. 37 events, v. 37, Apt, 16, 1977: 12-14 The author contends that condemnations of the electoral system which take place after each Presidential election are bared on a misunderstanding of the Constitution and the intent of the framers. He argues that "the electoral system demands in effect that the presdiential and vice presidential candidates heed the people of every state, independently and regardless of size, because of the desirability of carrying each respective state and receiving its electoral vote." The ox-cart-way we pick our space-age President. Hamilton, John A. New York times magazine. Oct. 20, 1968: 36-37, 1240129, AP2.N6575, 1968 Writing from the perspective of the 1968 Presidential election, the author urges adoption of direct election, describing it as the. only system which "would give all voters equal voting power and only this reform would guarantee that the Presidential candidate receiving the most popular votes would become President.'' Harvey, George. Electoral vote and the electoral college. North American review, v. 204, Dec. 1916: 813-819. AP2.N7, v. 204 Defends the electoral college system as necessary for the viability of federalism; urges, however, adoption of automatic plan. Heinlein, J.C. Presidential election procedures. University of Cincinnati law review, v. 35, winter 1966: 1-15. K25oN569, V. 35 The author reviews the existing system and various proposals for change. He suggests that any reform meet three requirements: "1. election of the President of the United States should be by the people of the United States. 2. procedures should not be inconsistent with the values and basic characteristics of our political system, and 3. provision should be made against the possibility of death or disability between election and inauguration." He concludes that the automatic and direct'election proposals meet these requirements, and that direct election is preferable as it "will avoid all important defects of the existing system" and is simple, understandable...and based on voter equality." The electoral college: a Einich, Melvin J. and Peter C. Ordeehook. spatial analysis. Political methodology, v. 1, summer 1974: 1-29. Attempts to formulate "a theoretically meaningful measure of the policy biases engendered by weighted unit rule election procedures such as the Electoral College" and render "spatial theories of elections consonant with these procedures." Is the country about to make a mistake? Trial, v. 3, June-July 1967: 12-19. Law A selection of pro-con views on the issue of electoral refotm. Senators Birch Bayh and Karl Mundt, Harvard Professor Ernest J. Brown and journalist James Reston contribute. Our electoral college gerrymander. Midwest Kallenbach, Joseph E. journal of political science, v. 4, May 1960: 162-191. JAl.MS, v. 4 The author asserts that under the existing system, a voter in "populous 'pivotal' states has a far greater opportunity to influence the outcome of a presidential election," and that given normal voting patterns, Democratic Presidential candidates require a greater percentage of popular votes than Republicans to secure an electoral college majority. - Recent proposals to reform the electoral college. American political science review, v. 30, Oct. 1936: 924-929. JAleA6, V * 30 Discusses congressional action on electoral college refonn in the %and and 73rd Congresses. Notes that States have power to institute many of the proposed reforms within their own borders. Questions advisability of national reform, urging preservation of "constitutional flexibility." Kefauver, Estes. .The electoral college: old reforms take on a new look. Law and contemporary problems, v. 26, spring 1962 : 188-212 K12.A9. V. 26 An examination of the existing system and potential alternatives. The author concludes that-"through a process of narrowing the alternatives one of the basic proposed r e f o m s would emerge as the only realistic alternative to the present system. What are now four or five opposing cumps will become but two." . imitations on the power .of State legisKirby, James C. Jr. latures over presidential electipns. Law and' contemporary problems, v. 27, summer 1962: 495-509. K1ZsA9, v. 27 The author maintains that the degree of control over appointment of Presidential electors granted the State legislatures in Article 11, Section 1 of the Constitution is not as absolute,as is sometimes asserted. He enumerates Federal and State constitutional limitations, Federal legislative limitations, and the acknowledged freedom of 'choice of individual electors as checks to State power in this area. Kristol, Irving, and Paul Weaver. A bad idea whose time has come. New York times magazine, Nov. 23, 1969: 43, 146, 148, 150-154, 156-157. AP2 .N6575, 1969 The authors argue for the retention of the electoral college system on the grounds that it provides leverage to urban bloc voters in general and ethnic minorities in particular. Lechner, Alfred J., Jr. The direct election of the President: the final step in the constitutional evolution of the right to vote. Notre Dame lawyer, v. 47, Oct. 1971: 122-152. Law The author reviews the growth of the right to vote in America, maintaining that institution o f direct popular election of the President and Vice President would be a logical extension of this historic trend. Levine, Charley J. Implications of abolishing the electoral college. Practical politics, v. 1, Sept.-Oct, 1978: 4-5, 18. JKleP8, V. 1 The author reviews the mechanics of electoral college operation and lists arguments pro and con on-its abolition. Claims strongest cases for retention are its effect in reinforcing the centrist non-ideological two party system and the leverage it affords urban minority voters. Longley., Lawrence D. The electoral college. Current history, v. 67, Aug. 1974: 64-69, 85-86. D410.C82, v. 67 The author traces the historic background of the electoral college and examines the current operation of the system, placing special emphasis on the possiblity of electoral college deadlock which existed in the 1968 Presidential election. He briefly reviews the unsuccessful 1969-1970 effort to pass a direct election amendment, explaining positions taken by its opponents. Mabbutt, Fred R.. Federalism, democracy and the electoral college, Thought, v. 45, winter 1970: 542-558. AP2.T333, v. 45 An exmiination 05 direct election and proportional reform proposals; the author rejects the f o m e r on grounds that it 11 sacrifices representativeness, leadership and the federal principle in return for providing the people with a direct voice in the election of the President." Be characterizes the propo,rtional plan as substituting a "quantitative democratic system for the qualitative democratic regime..." Martin, William Logan. Presidential electors: let the State legislatures choose them. American Bar Association journal, KlMM385, v. 44 v. 44, Dec. 1958: 1182-1187. A review of the historic .trend towards choice of electors by universal suffrage and the general ticket system. Defends the right of State legislatures to choose electors themselves, without reference to public will. Let's keep the electoral college. National review, Moe, Ronald C. AP2.N3545, v. 22 v. 22, Apt. 7, 1970: 356-359, 375. The author argues that the existing system, "with its traditional unit rule, is a critical factor in the maintenance of our two-party politics," and hence should be retained. He also asserts that the run-off election provision incorporated in most direct election plans could promote political instability. Motley, Felix. Democracy and the electoral college. Modern age, v. 5, fall 1961: 373-388. APZ.M628, v. 5 An'examination of the origin and development of the electoral college and various proposals for change in the system. The author perceives an "underlying conflict between inherited and current theorkes of American government", i.e., conflict between the principles of federalism and "centralized democracy.'' - Will the Supreme Court guard these rights, too? Nation's business, v.. 54, Oct. 1966: 27-28. HFl.N4, v. 54 Supports object of suit brought by Delaware in Delaware v. New York which asked the Supreme Court to rule the general ticket system unconstitutional. The electoral college and Presidential Mullen, James Morfit, vacancies. -Maryland law reviev, v. 9, winter 1948: 28-54, Law ~ircusseshistory of the electoral college, including European and colonial antecedents. Details technical difficulties inherent in the existing system, including controversies over electoral vote counting, prevalence of the general ticket system, status of electors, and vacancies caused by deaths either of candidates for President and Vice President or those officers-elect. Nelson, Gaylord, How not to elect a President. Playboy, v. 16, Sept. 1969: 141-142, 260-264. AP2.P69, v. 16 The author, a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin, discusses and advocates reform of national political convention delegate selection procedures and adoption of direct .popular election o f the President. Nelson, Michael. Liberals quit "college." Politicks and other human interests. v.1, Nov. 22, 1977: 22', 24. Takes note of the split in ranks of "liberal" groups over the issue of abolishing the electural college and temporary alliance of some organizations with "c~nservative~~ groups and legislators to prevent direct popular election. Questions their reasoning that abolition would reduce political leverage of blacks and Jews. Partisan bias in the electotal college. Journal Nelson, Michael C. of politics, v. 36, Nov. 1974: 1033-1048. JAl.J6, v. 36 The author contends that partisan bias in the allocation of votes in the electoral college system is revealed in close elections. Proceeding from this premise, he analyzes -Presidential elections between 1932 and 1972, asserting that through 1952 the system had a pro-Republican bias, but that since 1956, the bias has operated in favor of Democratic candidates. Nicgorski, Walter. The new federalism and direct popular election. The review of politics, v. 34, Jan. 1972: 3-15. JAl.R.4, V. 4 The author maintains that advocacy of direct popular election conflicts vith renewed concern over concentration of power in the Federal Government; claims its establishment would weaken the federal system.. ' Peirce, Neal R. The electoral college goes to court. Reporter, V. 35, Oct. 6, 1966: 34-37. D839.RS35, v. 35 Review8 the course of events leading to the Supreme Court case of Delaware v. New York, in vhich opponents of the general ticket system of awarding electoral votes sought, unsuccessfully, to have it ruled unconstitutional. -----Washington Electoral college reform: a new plan for an old idea. post, Mar. 18, 1978: A-19. Newsp . A discussion of the origin and details of the national bonus plan, devised by the Twentieth Century Fund, which would award the winner of the popular vote majority or plurality one hundred two bonus votes (two for each State and District of Columbia) in addition to the conventional electoral vote allocation, thus removing the potential for e-lecto-ral college deadlock. Perkins, Paul M. What's good about the electoral college. Washington monthly, v. 9, Apt. 1977: 40-41. E838.W37, v. 9 A defense of the basic concept of the electoral college system on the grounds that "however strange it may sound, it ' h a s great overriding virtue: it works." Suggests abolition of the discretionary voting power of individual electors and of the one hundred "constant two" electoral votes that disadvantage populous States. The proposal for the direct election of the President: pro and con Congressional digest, v. 58, Mar. 1979: 65-96. JKl.Cl5, v. 58 A discussion of constitutional provisions and current practices governing the existing electoral college system. ~ n c l u d e ssection-by-section analysis of S. Res. 1 and procon. materials from the 1977 Senate Judiciary Committee report and discussion of the issue by Senators James McClure and Robert Dole. Rabinove, Samuel. The electoral college enigma. Midstream, v. 15, June-July 1969: 50-55. DS149.A336, v. 15 Writing from a Jewi.sh perspective, the author seeks to elucidate his ambivalence on the question of electoral college abolition, whether "to endorse a change which from a purist point of view would be more democratic1', but "which might entail the sacrifice of a significant and perhaps justifiable measure of urban minority leverage." L KS- 27 The electoral college: a note on American political Dissent, v. 8, spring 1961: 197-199. HX1 .D58, v. 8 A brief review of the origin of the electoral college; asserts that it "was neither an exercise in applied Platonism nor an experiment in indirect government... (but) a jerryrigged improvisation which has subsequently been endowed with a high theortetical content." Roche, John P. mythology. ' - The Constitution, Congress and Presidential Rosenthal, Albert J. elections? Michigan law review, -v. 67, 1-38. - Nove. 1968: K13.135, v. 67 Questions the desirability of direct popular election on grounds that the alleged urban-minority orientation of the electoral college system would be lost. Suggests instead abolition or alteration of contingent election provisions and speculates that judicial action could remove the possibility of faithless electors. - Rooting for the electoral college. New leader, v. 51, Oct. 21, 1968: 14-18. HXl.N37, v. 51The author reviews the perceived failings of the electoral college and various proposals for reform, concluding "It is far from clear that-the dangers in the present system outweigh the need for fully preserving the influences that might contribute to the quickest possible amelioration of urban and Negro disadvantages - ." Some doubts concerning the proposals to elect the President by direct popular vote. Villanova law review, v. 14, fall 1968: K26.156, v. 14 87-9 1. Comments favorably on findings of John F. Banzhaf I11 (supra). Asserts that populous State voter bias of the electoral college system is justifiable as it provides black voters with a desirable influence in choice of Presidential candidates and major political party policies. Points out that electoral college bias is balanced by small State biases inherent in the composition of the Senate and the constitutional amendment ratification procedure. Rovere, Richard H. Letter from Washington. New Yorker, v. 45, - Oct. 4, 1969: 125-132. AP2.N6763, v . 45 Cmmentary on 1969 House passage of a direct popular election amendment, its likelihood of passage by the Senate, and the possible effect the amendment would have on political affairs if adopted. CRS- 28 Selden, Harry Louis. The electoral colle'ge: does it always choose . the best man? .American heritage, v. 13, Oct. ,1962: 12-19, 9 2-96 E171bA43, V. 13 A review of the origin and evolution of the electoral - college, with emphasis on misfires of 1800, 1824, 1876 and 1888. The power index and the electoral college: a Sickels, Robert J. challenge to Banzhaf's analysis. ilian nova law review, v. 14, fall 1968: 92-96. K26.156, v. 14 The author faults the methods by which John F. Banzhaf 111 (supra) reached a ~onclusionthat the electoral college system favors populous States, claiming that his mathematical model's "view of the electoral process is distorted." ' The Lodge-Gossett resolution: a critical analysis. Silva, Ruth C. American political science review, v. 44, Mar. 1950: 86-99. JAl.A6, v. 44 Criticizes the Lodge-Gossett (proportional) plan. The author, analyzing regional voting patterns then prevailing, concludes that proportional allocation of electoral votes would disadvantage Republican candidates; she also takes issue with the plan's proposed abolition of the office of elector and its stipulation that 40% of electoral vote would be sufficient to elect a President in a multiple candidate race, - Rsform0of the electoral system. Review-of politics, v. 14, July 1952: 394407. 3Al.R4, v. 14 The author maintains that under then-prevailing conditions, the proportional plan would aid Democrats, the district plan would aid neither party but "would make presidential elections closer contests by enlarging the electoral vote of the defeated candidate," Sindler, Allan P. Presidential election methods and urban-ethnic interests. Law and contemporary problems, v. 27, spring 1962: 213-233. K12.A9, v. 27 The author's intent is "to evaluate American presidential elections by criteria including, but extending well beyond, the commonly used ones of vote equality, reduction in the distortion of the popular vote, and minimization of the chances of electing minority President. The conclusion reached is that retention of the current procedure is preferable to any of the major sug. . gested reforms that has some chance of being adopted as a constitutional amendment. I n support of that conclusion, a justification for inflated urban influence is offered and some perspectives for the understanding of ethnic politics are suggested." Skau, George H. A critical analysis of the Presidential election system. Presidential studies quarterly, v. 6, fall 1976: 42-48. JK501.C44, v. 6 A review of the origins, development and present condition of the electoral college system. The author concludes that direct election should be adopted as thp culmination of the historic progression of democratic reforms, Possible consequences of direct elec.tion of the Smolka, Richard G. President. State government, v. 50, summer 1977: 134-140. JK2403.S7, v. 50 The author speculates on the effect direct popular election of the President might have on such issues as access to ballot, particularly by minor party candidates, arrangement of the ballot, conditions of registration, absentee voting, voting hours and vote counting. Predicts the necessity of a National election code and increased Federal administration of elections under direct election. How to make the electoral college constitutionally Spering, Howard S. representative. American Bar'Association journal, v. 54, Aug. 1968: Kl .M385, v. 54 763-767. The author urges adoption of a form of the district election proposal, -in which citizens would vote for three electors: one "Representative" elector in his Congressional district, and two "Senator" electors elected on a statewide-basis. Suggests that citizens might bring class action suits to force substitution of this method for the general ticket system. Spilerman, Seymour, and David Dickens. Who will gain and who will lose influence under different electoral rules. American journal of sociology, v. 80, Sept. 1974: 443477. HMl.A7, v. 80 The authors attempt "to assess the change in electoral influence among population groups which would result from replacing the Electoral College by a different system." They conclude that "relative to the popular vote, the electoral result of large states, metropolitan centers, Negroes, Catholics, and, possibly, low-income persons is enhanced under the Electoral College. Adoption of direct popular election would reduce the impact of these groups on presidential politics. With few exceptions, the district and proportional plans would produce an even greater erosion in their influence." State power to bind electors. Colwbia Apr. 1965: 696-709. Discusses efforts of States to electors to vote for the candidates pledged. Asserts that the power to implicitly granted to the States by Constitution. law review, v. 65, Law require Presidential to whom they are bind electors was the framers of the Steinberg, Lawrence B. There's another move to put the electoral college out of business. National journal, v. 9, Oct. 8, 1977: JKl0N28, V. 9 1574-1576. . A dircussion of congressional action on the proposed rubstitutiou of direct popular election for the electoral - college rystem following the close Presidential election of 1976. Sterling, Carleton W. The electoral college and the impact of popular vote distribution. American politics quarterly, v. 2, Apr. 1974: 179-204. JKl .A48 , v. 2 The author disputes the theory that the electoral college system provides an advantage to populous industrial ~ i a t e aand minority groups residing therein, claiming that "the thesis of a liberal bias in the electoral system is a superficially plausible conclusion derived from selected attributes of a complicated electoral system." - The electoral college biases revealed: the conventional wisdom and game theory models notwithstanding. Western political science quarterly, v. 31, June 1978: 159-177. The author faults analyses of electoral college bias which conclude that the existing s y s t m favors populous States and urban bloc voters of ethnic minorities. Using a "core coalition" theory to analyze closely contested Presidential elections in the past century, he concludes that "the system generally favored Republican coalitions from 1876 through 1948,'' but that "the pattern of biases can no longer be expected to favor one political party over another. " Tansill, Charles C. Congressional control of the electoral system. Yale law journal, v. 34, Mar. 1925: 511-525. K29.A4, v. 34 A history of congressional action and legislation governing certification and counting of electoral votes. Notes that Congress' assertion of power not subject to review in this matter has potential for abuse. Tatalovich, Raymond. Federalism in the strategy of Presidential campaign trails, 1932-1972: an empirical analysis. Conference for Federal studies notebook, v. 6, sumnet, 1976: 3-16. Concludes that electoral vote calculations influence "presidental candidates' choice of states in which to campaign for election. Both parties allocate more campaign stops to the reven largest states, and this predisposition is upheld regardless of the competitiveness of the election outcome. When the presidential election is competitive, candidates of both parties also focus on 'marginal' states, but this variable loses all significance when an apparent landslide victory by either party's candidate is in the making." Timanus, Ball E. Will the South decide.the 1960 Presidential election? U.S. news and world report, v. 49, July 11, 1960: 100-102, JKl.U65,v. 49 Explanation of the unpledged '!free elector" strategem employed by southern States in the 1960 Presidential election. Uslaner, Eric M. Spatial models of the electoral college: distribution assumptions and biases of the system. Political methodology, v. 3, 1976: 355-381. Using results from Gallup surveys from 1957 to 1961 on six national issues, ranging from right-to-work-laws to government aid co parochial education, 'the author examines biases "which the electoral'college introduces for the candidates' optimal policy strategies...Analysis provides direct evaluation of the policy biases of the electoral college as well as for more direct tests of the claims that the electoral college favors liberals or h e author conservatives, or larger or smaller states." cautions that it is "misleading to argue that there is a single and identifiable source of bias in the electoral college. Different issue areas will produce different results even for such a straightforward hypothesis as the large state vs.-the small state bias." He concludes that the electoral college system slightly favors conservatives and smaller States, Electing the President: how should it be done? k l l s , David I, National civic review, v. 66, May 1977: 230-234. ~ ~ 3 9 . ~ 3 , ' v66 . The author discusties the reputed biases of the electoral college system, briefly describes alternative proposals for reform and advocates adoption of direct popular election maintaining that it is least likely to distort or'reverse the public will. Who really elects our Presidents. Midwest Welty, Richard C. AS30.M5, v. 2 quarterly, v. 2, autumn 1960: 21-34. Reviews history and evolution of the electoral college system and presents pro-con analyses of various reform proposals. ~oncludesthat the proportional plan is "apparently best," White, Theodore H. Direct elections: an invitation to national chaos. Life magazine, v. 68, Jan. 30, 1970: 4.AP2.L547, v. 68 Opposes direct election, claiming it would result 'in greater vote counting fraud, cenrralization of election administration, reinforcement of the tendency towards mass media campaigning, and would reduce the leverage exercised by blacks. , Wilkinson, Donald M., Jr. The electoral process and the power of the States. American Bar Association journal, v. 47, Mar. 1961: Kl.M385, v. 47 25 1-255 E x a d n e s restraints on the P'pparently sweeping grant of power over Presidential elector selection awarded to the States in Article I, Section 2 of the Constitution. Maintains that "the Fourteenth Amendment constitutes a limitation an the respective state legislatures in all phases of the process of 'appointment' of presidential electors," Suggests adoption of a semi-proportional automatic plan as a means of eliminating the faithless elector phenomenon. . Wilmerding, Lucius. Reform of the electoral system. Political 81.P8, v. 64 science quarterly, v. 4, Mar. 1949: 1-23. Asserts that the Lodge-Gossett (proportional) amendment, then-under consideration, would be as deficient as the general ticket system. Maintains that the district plan would be closer to the framers' original intent. Also lists points in favor of retention of the office of elector. - m a t to watch out for. National review, v. 21, Jan. 28, 1969: 69-72., 87. AP2.N3545, v. 21 The author reviews the current status of the electoral college and various proposals for change; criticizes the general ticket system, concluding that adoption of either direct election or the district system would restore the Presidency to the status of "a pure elective magistracy." Also urges replacement of the current contingent election provision by a run-off election or election by a joint session of Congress, with Members voting as individuals. Election contests and the electoral vote. Wroth, L. Kinvin. Dickinson law review, v. 65, June 1961: 321-353. Law The author details the origin and provisions of the Electoral Count Act of 1887, which established procedures by which Congress would judge contested electoral vote returns. He argues that while Congress' power to adjudicate such dhputes is unquestioned, the requirements of fairness and the interests of political stability suggest that "Congress must give to the federal courts the power to reach a timely, final and binding decision of all (such) controversies ." Kennedy, John F. The P r e s i d e n t ' s news conference o f January 25, 1961 (Question 31). Public papers o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s o f t h e United S t a t e s : John F. Kennedy, 1961: 16-17. Washington., U,S. Govt, J80.A83, 1961 P r i n t . Off., 1962. P r e s i d e n t Kennedy e x p r e s s e s h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e autom a t i c plan. U.S. C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Convention, 1787, The r e c o r d s o f t h e Federal Convention of 1787. Edited by Max Farrand. r e v . ed. New Haven, Conn,, Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937, 4v. JK141. 1937a . In t h i s work, t h e e d i t o r draws on t h e o f f i c i a l j o u r n a l of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Convention, and t h e n o t e s o f prominent p a r t i c i p a n t s , most n o t a b l y Robert Yates, James Madison and Rufus King, An a u t h o r i t a t i v e primary s o u r c e , i t i n c l u d e s numerous r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e process by which t h e . e l ' e c t o r a l c o l l e g e vas approved a t t h e Conventron. U.S. E l e c t o r a l Cotmission, 1877, Proceedings o f t h e E l e c t o r a l Commission and of t h e two Houses o f Congress i n j o i n t meeting r e l a t i v e t o t h e count o f e l e c t o r a l v o t e s c a s t December 6, 1876 f o r t h e p r e s i d e n t i a l term commencing March 4, 1877, New York, Da Capo Press, 1970 [ a r e p r i n t o f t h e Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1877 e d i t i o n ] 1087 p, JK526 1876.A35 The o f f i c i a l .record of proceedings o f t h e E l e c t o r a l Commission and Congress i n r e s o l v i n g t h e d i s p u t e d e l e c t i o n o f 1876. U.S. R e s i d e n t , 1963-1969 (Lyndon Baines Johnson). S p e c i a l message t o t h e Congress on R e s i d e n t a l d i s a b i l i t y and r e l a t e d m a t t e r s . Public papers o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s o f t h e United S t a t e s : Lyndon B. Johnson, Washington, U.S. Govt. p r i n t . Off., 1966. 1965, v . 1: 100-103. J8O.A83, 1965, v , l Message dated January 28, 1965. R e s i d e n t Johnson's i n c l u d e s proposals f o r t h e adoption o f t h e automatic plan. - S p e c i a l message t o the Congress proposing c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments r e l a t i n g t o terms f o r House Members and t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e system, Public papers of t h e P r e s i d e n t s of t h e United S t a t e s : Lyndon B, Johnson, 1966, v , 1:.36-41. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t , Off., 1967, J8OaA283, 1966, v.1 Message dated January 20, 1966. R e s i d e n t Johnson r e a f f i r m s h i s support f o r the automatic p l a n , and a l s o urges a b o l i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g c o n t i n g e n t e l e c t i o n p r o v i s i o n s of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . U, S. P r e s i d e n t , 1969-1974 ( ~ i x o n ) . S p e c i a l message t o t h e Congress on e l e c t o r a l reform. Public papers o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s o f t h e United S t a t e s : Richard M, Nixon, 1969: 121-122. Washington, u.S. Govt , P r i n t , Off 1971. ~ 8 0 . ~ 2 8 31969 , Message d a t e d February 20, 1969. R e s i d e n t Nixon s t a t e s h i s personal p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l p l a n , b u t m a i n t a i n s he w i l l support any reform plan providing f o r a b o l i t i o n of t h e o f f i c e o f e l e c t o r , " a l l o c a t i o n t o P r e s i d e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e s o f t h e e l e c t o r a l v o t e o f each S t a t e and t h e D i s t r i c t o f Columbia i n a manner t h a t may more c l o s e l y approximate t h e popular v o t e ," "making a 40% e l e c t o r a 1 ' v o t e p l u r a l i t y s u f f i c i e n t t o choose a R e s i d e n t " and p r o v i s i o n f o r a r u n o f f e l e c t i o n should no c a n d i d a t e g a i n t h e n e c e s s a r y percentage of e l e c t o r a l votes, ., ~ --- Statement on c o n g r e s s i o n a l a c t i o n on e l e c t o r a l reform, Public papers o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s o f t h e United S t a t e s : Richard M. Nixon, 1969: 764-765. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1971 380.A283, 1969 Statement d a t e d September 30, 1969. P r e s i d e n t Nixon n o t e s passage o f a d i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n amendment i n t h e House, endorses t h e proposal and urges Senate approval o f i t . U.S. P r e s i d e n t , 1977( C a r t e r ) . Message t o Congress t r a n s m i t t i n g recommendations f o r reform i n t h e e l e c t i o n system. Weekly c m p i l a t i o n of P r e s i d e n t i a l documents, v, 13, March 28, 1977: 427-431. J80eA284, v o 13 P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r urges adoption o f d i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n . U.S. Congress; %use . Committee on Electiori o f t h e R e s i d e n t , Vice. P r e s i d e n t , and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n Congress. Abolishing t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e , Hearings, 72nd Congress, 2nd s e s s i o n , on H.J. Res, 60, Feb, 16, 1933, Washington, U.S. Govt, R i n t . O f f , , 1933, 28 pa JK528*A5 1933 -- --- . Proposed amendments t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s , providing f o r t h e e l e c t i o n o f t h e R e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t and f i l l i n g v a c a n c i e s i n t h e o f f i c e s t h e r e o f and t h e t e n n s of such o f f i c e r s and members o f Congress, Hearings, 70th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , on H.3, Res, 2. Jan. 9, 1928, Washington, U.S. Govt, P r i n t . Off., 1928. 17 p, JK170 1928b Proposed c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment providing f o r e l e c t i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t and Vice R e s i d e n t . Hearings, . 7 l s t Congress, 2nd s e s s i o n , on H. J, Res, 106. Mar, 14, 1930. Wa-shington, U. S. Govt P r i n t . Off,, 1930. 56 p a JK528,AS 1930 . u,'s, Congress. House, Committee on E l e c t i o n o f t h e R e s i d e n t , Vice . R e s i d e n t , and. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n Congress. Proposed c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment8 r e l a t i n g t o nominations and e l e c t i o n s of P r e s i d e n t , Vice R e s i d e n t , U.S. Senators and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Hearings, 67th Congrerr, 4 t h s e s s i o n , on H.J. Res. 290, 413, 424, 435, and H.R. 14186, Jan. 11, Jan 23, 1923, Washington, U.S. Govt, P r i n t , Off., 1923. 45 p. JK170 1923 ... --- Proposed c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments r e l a t i n g t o t h e f i x i n g of time f o r t h e cornencement o f t h e terms of P r e s i d e n t , Vice R e s i d e n t and Members o f Congress, and f i x i n g t h e t i m e o f t h e assembli'ng o f Congress; and t o t h e P r e s i d e n t i a l succession;.' and t o t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e system, m a r i n g s , . 71st. Congress, 2d s e s s i o n , on H.J. Res. 9, 65, '216 and 292. Feb. 4 , Feb 21, 1930.- Washington, U,S, Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1930. 67 p', JK55O.A5 1930 ... ----- ., ---- U.S. . Proposing an amendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s a b o l i s h i n g t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e ; r e p o r t t o accompany H. J, Res 60, 72nd Congress, 2nd s e s s i o n . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t , Off 1933. 19 p. (72nd =ngress, 2nd Session. House. Report 2194) JK170 1933b . Proposing an amendment t o the C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s a b o l i s h i n g t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e ; r e p o r t t o accompany H. J, Res 136, 73d Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , Washington, U.S, Govt P r i n t . Off ,, 1933. 20 p. (73rd Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . House. Report no, 262) a 1 7 0 1933d Praposing an amendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s , providing f o r the e l e c t i o n a f R e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t . Hearings, 70th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , on E.J. Res. 181. Jan. 27, 1928. Washington, U.S. Govt. p r i n t . Off., 1928. 19 p. r JK170 1 9 2 8 ~ Congress, House. Committee on Rules. Proposing an amendment t o t h e C o n s t i t i t u i o n of t h e United S t a t e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e e l e c t i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t Hearings 91st Congress, 1st s e s s i o n on H.J. Res, 681 and similar measures. June 17, ,,, J u l y 24, 1969. Washington, U.S. Govt, P r i n t . Off., 1969, 98pa KF27aR8 1969 U,S, Congress.' House, Conrmittee on t h e ~ u d i c i a r y , Amend t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n t o a b o l i s h t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e system, Hearings, 82nd'Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , on H.J. Res. 11 and o t h e r s . April 18, 20, 1951. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1951, 337 p, J75 .C9 j .., " S e r i a l no, 7" ---- D i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n o f t h e R e s i d e n t ; r e p o r t with a d d i t i o n a l m i n o r i t y , i n d i v i d u a l and s e p a r a t e views on H.J. Res, 681, 9 1 s t 1969, Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . Washington U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off 52 p. ( 9 1 s t Congress, 1st session, House, Report no. 91-253) KF32.38 1969 -Report endorsing ' d i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n , with a 40% runoff provision, ., -----s e sEs iloe nc t ono r aH.J. l c o l l e g e reform, Hearings, 91st Congress, Res, 179, 181, and s i m i l a r proposals, ... Feb.5, March 13, 1969. Off.,, 1969. 1009 p, . 1st Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . KF27,J8 1969 " S e r i a l no. 1" -..- Proposing an amendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s f o r t h e e l e c t i o n o f .the R e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t ; r e p o r t t o accompany S,J. Res. 2, 81st Congress, 2nd s e s s i o n . Washington, U.S, Covt, P r i n t . Off,, 1950. 5 p. ( 8 1 s t Congress, 2d s e s s i o n . .House. Rept. no. 1858) ---- Proposing an a n e n b e n t t o t h e C o d s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s providing f o r t h e . e l e c t i o n o f the ,President and Vice R e s i d e n t ; r e p o r t t o accompany E.J. Res. 9, 80th Congress, 2d s e s s i o n . Washington, U.S, Govt. P r i n t . Off 1948. 8 p. .(80th Congress, 2d s e s s i o n , House. Report no. 1615) JK528.A5 1948 ., -.- Proposing an wendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s providing f o r t h e e l e c t i o n of p r e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t ; r e p o r t t o accompany H.J. Res. 2, 81st Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1949. 32 p. (81 st Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , House, Report no, 1011) JK528.A5 1949 d Report favoring adoption o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l plan. . U. S. Congress. Bouse Committee d n t h e J u d i c i a r y . Proposing .an amendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s p r o v i d i n g ' f o r t h e e l e c t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t ; r e p o r t t o accompany H.J. Res. 19. Washington, U.S. Govt. m i n t . Off., 1951. 36 p. (82nd Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . House. Report no. 1199) Report f a v o r i n g a d o p t i o n o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l p l a n . Congress.. House. Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . Subcommit t e e no. 1.' &'end t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o e l e c t i o n o f t h e R e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t . Hearings b e f o r e Subcommittee no. 1, 8 1 s t Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , . a n H. J. Res. 2, 10, 11, 51, 74, 78, 81, 82, 118, and 121. Feb 9, Feb. 25, 1949. Washington. U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off 1949. 289 p. JK5 1949.C9j ., ... " S e r i a l no. 3" U.S. - Congress. Senate. Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . D i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n o f the President ; r e p o r t together with i n d i v i d u a l , s e p a r a t e and m i n o r i t y views t o accompany S. J. Res. 1, 91st Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . Washington, U.S. Govt R i n t Off., 1970. 55p. ( 9 1 s t Congress, 2d s e s s i o n . Senate. Report no. 91-1123) The m a j o r i t y r e p o r t s f a v o r a b l y on d i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n . . I - --- D i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t o f t h e United S t a t e s ; r e p o r t t o g e t h e r w i t h . t h e m i n o r i t y and a d d i t i o n a l views on S.J. Res. 1, 95th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . ~ a s h i n g t o n ,U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1977. 41 p. ( 9 5 t h Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . Senate. Report no. 95-609) KF26.38359 '1977aThe m a j o r i t y r e p o r t s f a v o r a b l y on d i r e c t popular e l e c t i o n . E l e c t i o n e o f R e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t . Hearings b e f o r e a subcommittee o f t h e Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y , 8 1 s t Congress,. 1st s e s s i o n , on S.J. Res 2. February 23, May 3, 1949. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1949. 215 p. JK528.A5 1949 ... ---- ... E l e c t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t ; r e p o r t t o accompany S. J. Rrs. 31, 84th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . washington, U.S. Govt. R i n t . Off., 1955. 26 p. ( 8 4 t h Congress, 1 s t s e s s i o n . Senate. - Report no. 84-360 . JK528.A52 1955a The m a j o r i t y r e p o r t s f a v o r a b l y on t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l p l a n . U.S. m n g r e s r . s e n a t e . Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . The e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e and d i r e c t e l e c t i o n , Hearings, 95 t h Congress, 1st r d r r i o n , on S.J. Res. 1, 8 and 18, Jan, 27, February 1 0 , 1977, Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f , , 1977. 608 p. KF26.J8 1977b ... woo The e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e , and d i r e c t e l e c t i o n . ~ e a r i n g s , 95th . C o n g r e s s , 1st s e s s i o n on S.J. Res. 1, 8, and 18. Supplement. August 2, 1977. Washington, U.S. Govt. - P r i n t . J u l y 20, Off., 1977. 537 p. KF 26.38359 1977a .. ... .---The e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e and. r e c e n t p r o p o s a l s f o r i t s r e f o n n o r a b o l i t i o n . H a t e r i a l s compiled by a subcommittee o f 'the Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y , 86th Congress, 2d s e s s i o n . Washington, 1961. 35 p. KF4910bA25 1961 U.S. Covt. P r i n t . Off ., .--- E l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e reform, Hearings, 9 1 s t Congress, 2d s e s s i o n , on amending t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n r e l a t i n g t o e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e reform. April 15, 17, 1970, Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1970. 371 P O . *.P 2 6 . J 8 1970b ,.. ' -----H e aNomination and e l e c t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t and V i c e P r e s i d e n t . r i n g s b e f o r e a subcommittee o f t h e Committee on t h e ... J u d i c i a r y , 84th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , on S.J. Bes. 3, 9, 1 0 , 27, 30, 31, and 53. Mar. 16, Apt. 6, 1955. Washington, JP;528.A5 1955 U.S. Govt. P r i n t , Off ,, 1955. 469 p. --- Nomination and e l e c t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t and Vice R e s i d e n t . E e a r i n g s b e f o r e a subcommittee o f t h e Gonnnittee on J u d i c i a r y , 83d Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , on S.J. Res. 8, 17, 19, 55, 84, 85, 95, and.100. June 11, Aug. 1, 1953. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off 1953. 259 p. JK528.A5. 1953 ., --- ... Proposing an amendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s providing. f o r t h e e l e c t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t and Vice R e s i d e n t ; r e p o r t t o a c c m p a n y S.J. Res. 2, 8 1 s t Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . Washington, U.S. Govt P r i n t . Off., 1949. ( 8 1 s t Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . Senate. Report no. 602, p a r t s 1 and 2) SK528.A5 1949b p a r t 2 Part 1 o f t h e report favors the proportional plan, including a provision establishing a p l u r a l i t y of e l e c t o r a l v o t e r a s adequate t o e l e c t a R e s i d e n t , t h u s o b v i a t i n g c o n t i n g e n t e l e c t i o a i n t h e Eouse. P a r t 2, I n d i v i d u a l Views, c o n c u r s with t h e m a j o r i t y r e p o r t i n favoring a b o l i t i o n o f t h e o f f i c e o f e l e c t o r , b u t opposes p r o p o r t i o n a l plan a s p e c t s o f t h e m a j o r i t y proposal. . U.S. congress. Senate, Cammittee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . Proposing an c~sendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e e l e c t i o n of P r e s i d e n t and Viice P r e s i d e n t ; r e p o r t t o accompany S, J. Res 52, 82nd Congress; 1st s e s s i o n . Washing t o n , U;S, Govt. R i n t O f f , , 1951, 25 p. (82d Congress, 1 s t s e s s i o n . S e n a t e . E t p o r t no. 594) JK528.A5 1951 The m a j o r i t y r e p o r t s f a v o r a b l y on t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l plan. . U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y , Subcommit t e e on C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Amendments. E l e c t i n g t h e P r e s i d e n t . Hearings, 91st Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , on S.J. Res, 1, 2, 4, 12, 18, 20, May 2, 1969. Washington, 25, 30, 31, 33,. 71 and 72. January 23, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1969. 1053 p. KF26.3836 1969a ... --- . ... E l e c t i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t . Hearings, 8 9 t h C o n e e s s , 2d s e s s i o n on S. J, Res. 4, 7, 12, 28, 58, '62, 138 and 139, Feb 28, March 10, 1966; and, 90th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , on S.J. Res. Aug 23, 1967. 2, .3, 6, 7, 12, 15, 21, 25, 84, and 86, May 16, Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t Off., 1968. 948 p. KF26.5836 1967 ... --- The e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e : o p e r a t i o n and e f f e c t o f proposed amendments t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e United S t a t e s . Memorandum prepared b y t h e s t a f f o f t h e subcommittee on C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Amendments, 87th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , Washington, U.S. Govt, P r i n t . Off., 1961. 54 p. J l W 9 .A52 1961 D e s c r i b e s o p e r a t i o n o f p r e s e n t system and proposed a l t e r n a t i v e s . Seeks t o p r e d i c t p a r t i c u l a r consequences o f pending p r o p o s a l s . ----- E l e c t o r a l reform. Hearings, 93d. Congress, 1st se'ssion on S.J. Res. 1. + p t . 26, 27, 1973. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1973. 227 p. KF26.J386 1973 -- Nomination and e l e c t i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t and Vice P r e s i d e n t , Hearings, 8 8 t h Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , on S.J. Res. 1, 8 , 12, 1 3 , 24, 27, and 73. June 4 , 1963. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1963. 144 p. JK528.A52 1963 U,S. Congress. Senate. Comaittee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . Subc-ittee Nomination and e l e c t i o n o f R e s i d e n t and Vice p r e s i d e n t and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r v o t i n g , E e a r b g s , 87th Congress, 1st' s e s s i o n , on S, J. Res. 1; 2, 4, 9, 12, 16, 17, 23, 26, 28, 48, 96, 102, 113, and 114 proposing amendments t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h e method o f nomination and e l e c t i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t and 'Vice R e s i d e n t , and S.J. Res, 14, 20, 54, 58, 67, 71, 81, and 90 proposing amendments t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n r e l a t i n g t o qualifications f o r v o t i n g , May 23, J u l y 13, 1961, Washington, U,S. Govt. R i n t . Off 1961-1962, 1060 p. ( i n 5 parts). KF26.JS36 1961 on C o n s t i t i t u i o n a l Amendments. ., ... Virginia. Cammission on C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Government, Reform t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e ? Sope new looks a t an o l d i n s t i t u t i o n , Richmond, 11966 ] 98 p. E[F529.V5 A p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e four a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s ( t h e automatic, d i s t r i c t , p r o p o r t i o n a l and d i r e c t e l e c t i o n p l a n s ) t o reform t h e e l e c t o r a l system a s r e p r e s e n t e d by r e s o l u t i o n s introduced i n the Senate during the Eighty-ninth Congress. Each i s e x p l i c a t e d by one o f t h e Senators sponsoring t h e per t i n e n t r e s o 1ut ion. '