Actions of the Congress and the Federal Government on Smoking and Health

This paper is a history of actions taken by the U.S. Congress and by the various departments and regulatory agencies of the Federal Government on the subject of smoking and health for the period from the mid-1950s to the end of the 95th Congress in 1978.

R e p o r t No. 79-219 EPW ACTIONS OF THE CONGRESS AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ON SMOKING AND HEALTH by Edward R. Klebe Analyst i n S o c i a l L e g i s l a t i o n E d u c a t i o n and P u b l i c We1 f a r e D i v i s i o n September 2 6 , 1979 The Congressional Research Service works exclusively for the Congress, conducting research, analyzing legislation, and providing information at the request of Committees, Members and their staffs. The Service makes such research available, without partisan bias, in many forms including studies, reports, compilations, digests, and background briefings. Upon request, the CRS assists Committees in analyzing legislative proposals and issues, and in assessing the possible effects of these proposals and their alternatives. The Service's senior specialists and subject analysts are also available for personal consultations in their respective fields of expertise. ABSTRACT This paper i s a h i s t o r y o f a c t i o n s taken by t h e U.S. Congress and by t h e various departments and r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s of t h e Federal Government on the s u b j e c t o f smoking and h e a l t h f o r the period from t h e mid 1950s t o the end o f the 95th Congress i n 1978. CHRONOLOGY OF I W O R ACTIONS ON SMOKING AND JBALTH November 1962--The Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health is established and begins its study of tobacco as a possible health problem. January 11, 1964--The Advisory Committee releases its report, entitled Smoking and Health, which concludes that cigarette smoking is a health hazard. June 23, 1964--The FTC issues a trade regulation requiring a health warning on cigarette packages and in advertising. June 23 through July 2, 1964--The House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce holds five days of hearings on the general subject of smoking and health. The FTC agrees to a Committee re- quest that it defer its ruling until the Congress can study the subject in more detail. March 22 through April 15, 1965--The Senate Commmittee on Commerce holds eight days of hearings on legislation concerning cigarette labeling and advertising. A bill, S. 559, is reported by the Committee on May 19. April 6 through May 4 , 1965--The House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce holds eight days of hearings on smoking-related legislation, one of which, H.R. 3014, is reported on June 8. June 16, 1965--The Senate passes S. 559. June 22, 1965--The House passes S. 559 after substituting the provisions of H.R. 3014. June 6 , 1965--The Senate passes the conference report on S. 559. July 13, 1965--The House passes S. 559. July 27,1965--The President sign S. 559 into law as P.L. 89-92, the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act of 1965. October 29, 1965--The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare establishes a National Clearinghouse on Smoking and Health. June 2, 1967--The Federal Communications Commission, in sustaining the complaint of Banzhaf v. F.C.C., applies the "fairness doctrine" requiring broadcast stations carrying cigarette advertising to carry also a significant amount of antismoking messages. April 15 through May 1, 1969--The House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce holds 13 days of hearings on proposals to regulate cigarette advertising and labeling. A bill, h.R. 6543, is reported on June 5. June 18, 1965--The House passes H.R. 6543. July 22, 1965--The Consumer Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Commerce holds hearings on the House-passed H.R. 6543. The Committee reports an amended version of the bill on December 5. December 12, 1969--The Senate passes H.R. 6543 as amended. March 1970--Both houses agree to a conference report on H.R. 6543. April 1, 1970--The President signs H.R. 6543 into law as P.L. 91-222, the public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1970. August 8, 1970--The FTC issues a proposed rule requiring cigarette manufacturers to disclose tar and nicotine content of cigarettes in advertising . The proposal is suspended when manufacturers agree voluntarily to make the disclosures. February 1, 1973--Senator Frank Moss and the American Public Health Association petition the Consumer Product Safety Commission to set a maximum level for the tar content in cigarettes and to ban from interstate sale any cigarettes exceeding that level. April 5, 1973--The Senate Committee on Commerce reports S. 1165, a bill to include little cigars under the broadcast advertising prohibition. April 10, 1973--The Senate passes S. 1165. May 22 through May 24, 1973--The House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce holds three days of hearings on H.R. 3828 and H.R. 7482, similar legislation affecting little cigars. The committee reports H.R. 7482 on June 22. September 10, 1973--The House passes S. 1165, in lieu of H.R. 7482. September 20, 1973--The President signs S. 1165 into law as P.L. 93-109, Little Cigar Act of 1973. May 7, 1973--The Civil Aerongutics Board approves a regulation requiring domestic airlines to provide designated "no smoking" areas aboard aircraft after July 1, 1973, for the comfort of passengers. May 17, 1974--The Consumer Product Safety Commission decides that it does not have the authority to act on the Moss petition to ban high tar cigarettes. October 5, 1976--The CAB proposes a change in its aircraft smoking regulation to ban the smoking of pipes and cigars entirely on aircraft on the basis of the discomfort they cause nonsmokers. January 11, 1978--Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Joseph Califano announces a new anti-smoking initiative, consisting of public education, regulation, and research. The new initiative is to be coordinated by a newly-created Office on Smoking and Health, which will include the National Clearinghouse on Smoking and Health. February 5, 1978--The Subcornittee on Public Health and the Environment of the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce holds oversight hearings on the new anti-smoking initiative, with testimony from the Secretary, and from representives from the tobacco industry, anti-smoking organizations, and other health organizations. May 19, 1978--Senator Edward Kennedy introduces bills dealing with preventive health and other health programs, S. 3115, S. 3116, and S. 3118, which contain provisions combining elements of a broad anti-smoking campaign. May 25 through June 9, 1978--The Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Senate Committee on Human Resources holds CRS- ix t h r e e days of h e a r i n g s on p r e v e n t i v e h e a l t h and r e l a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g S. 3115, S . 3116, and S. 3118, which c o n t a i n anti-smoking p r o v i s i o n s . September 7 , 1978--The Subcommittee on Tobacco of t h e House Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e h o l d s h e a r i n g s on t h e e f f e c t of smoking on nonsmokers, with t e s t i m o n y t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t p u b l i c smoke i s n o t hazardous t o nonsmokers. September 1 5 , 1978--The Senate Committee on Human Resources r e p o r t s S. 3116, c o n t a i n i n g p r o v i s i o n s t o fund r e s e a r c h and d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t s t o d e t e r smoking among c h i l d r e n . September 29, 1978--The p r o v i s i o n s of S. 3116, i n c l u d i n g t h o s e concerning childhood smoking d e t e r r e n c e , a r e i n c l u d e d i n S. 2474, a b i l l amending h e a l t h s e r v i c e s programs. The b i l l i s passed by t h e Senate and a c o n f e r e n c e i s h e l d w i t h t h e House. The conference agreement c o n t a i n s t h e Senate childhood smoking p r o v i s i o n with t h e a d d i t i o n of language t o r e q u i r e t h e program t o work a l s o t o d e t e r t h e use of a l c o h o l i c beverages among c h i l d r e n . November 1 0 , 1978--The P r e s i d e n t s i g n s S. 2474 i n t o law a s P.L. Health S e r v i c e s and Centers Amendments of 1978. 95-626, the .......................................................... iii CKRONOLOGY OF MAJOR ACTIONS .......................................... v INTRODUCTION ......................................................... 1 ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION The f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t i s a h i s t o r y o f F e d e r a l involvement i n t h e i s s u e of smoking and h e a l t h . The r e p o r t d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l t h e a c t i o n s t a k e n by t h e Congress, t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h , and by independent F e d e r a l r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s on t h e s u b j e c t o f c i g a r e t t e smoking and h e a l t h . It c o v e r s t h e y e a r s immediately preceding t h e 1964 Surgeon G e n e r a l ' s r e p o r t on Smoking and Health t o t h e end of t h e 9 5 t h Congress i n 1978. The chronology b e g i n s w i t h t h e e v e n t s l e a d i n g up t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e Advisory Committee t o t h e Surgeon General on Smoking and Health i n 1962, and t h e work o f t h a t committee 'which r e s u l t e d i n t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of i t s h i s t o r i c r e p o r t i n J a n u a r y 1964. The a f t e r m a t h of t h a t r e p o r t i n c l u d e d l a b e l i n g and a d v e r t i s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1965 and 1970, a s w e l l a s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n and examinat i o n o f numerous o t h e r b i l l s and f l o o r amendments t h a t were n o t e n a c t e d i n t o law. These b i l l s were designed t o r e d u c e F e d e r a l s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e f o r tobacco p r o d u c t i o n and e x p o r t , r a i s e t a x e s on tobacco p r o d u c t s , modify c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g p r a c t i c e s , r e g u l a t e smoking i n p u b l i c c a r r i e r s and p u b l i c p l a c e s , and g e n e r a l l y improve t h e K a t i o n ' s h e a l t h by d i s c o u r a g i n g t h e p r a c t i c e of c i g a r e t t e smoking. Various a t t e m p t s a t l e g i s l a t i o n t o d e a l w i t h t h e smoking and h e a l t h i s s u e a r e described i n t h e r e p o r t , a s a r e t h e a c t i o n s of Federal r e g u l a t o r y agencies, such a s t h e F e d e r a l Trade Commission, t h e F e d e r a l Communications Commission, t h e I n t e r s t a t e Commerce Commission, t h e C i v i l A e r o n a u t i c s Board, t h e F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and t h e Consumer P r o d u c t S a f e t y Commission, a l l o f whom have been i n v o l v e d i n t h e smoking and h e a l t h c o n t r o v e r s y i n one way o r a n o t h e r o v e r t h e y e a r s . The v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e Department o f HEW i n t h i s a r e a a r e a l s o d e s c r i b e d . The r e p o r t a l s o c o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n o n l e g i s l a t i o n and h e a r i n g s , s p o n s o r e d p r i m a r i l y by c o n g r e s s i o n a l members from tobacco-producing S t a t e s , who d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e o r i g i n a l Surgeon G e n e r a l ' s r e p o r t and s u b s e q u e n t documents t h a t smoking h a s a s e r i o u s c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with c e r t a i n d i s e a s e s . ACTIONS OF THE CONGRESS AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ON SMOKING AND HEALTH I n June 1956, t h e N a t i o n a l Cancer I n s t i t u t e , t h e N a t i o n a l H e a r t I n s t i t u t e , t h e American Cancer S o c i e t y , and t h e American H e a r t A s s o c i a t i o n , o p e r a t i n g j o i n t l y , e s t a b l i s h e d a s c i e n t i f i c S t u d y Group t o examine t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f smoking and h e a l t h . The g r o u p a p p r a i s e d 16 i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d i e s c a r r i e d on i n f i v e c o u n t r i e s o v e r a n 18y e a r p e r i o d , and concluded t h a t t h e r e was a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x c e s s i v e c i g a r e t t e smoking and l u n g c a n c e r . The Surgeon G e n e r a l o f t h e U.S. P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , D r . Leroy E. Burney, who had h e l p e d t o i n i t i a t e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y Group, exp r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n of t h e U.S.P.H.S. on t h e s u b j e c t on J u l y 1 2 , 1957: "The P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e f e e l s t h e weight o f t h e e v i d e n c e i s i n c r e a s i n g l y p o i n t i n g i n one d i r e c t i o n ; t h a t e x c e s s i v e smoking i s one o f t h e c a u s a t i v e f a c t o r s i n lung c a n c e r . " Two y e a r s l a t e r , i n t h e November 28, 1959, i s s u e o f t h e J o u r n a l o f t h e American ~ e d i c a lA s s o c i a t i o n , Surgeon G e n e r a l Burney r e i t e r a t e d h i s v i e w s from t h e e a r l i e r s t a t e m e n t t h a t : "The weight o f e v i d e n c e a t p r e s e n t i m p l i - c a t e s smoking a s t h e p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r i n t h e i n c r e a s e d i n c i d e n c e o f l u n g c a n c e r ,I' and t h a t : " C i g a r e t t e smoking p a r t i c u l a r l y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an increased chance o f developing lung cancer." I n 1961, t h e p r e s i d e n t s o f t h e American Cancer S o c i e t y , t h e American P u b l i c H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e American H e a r t A s s o c i a t i o n , and t h e N a t i o n a l T u b e r c u l o s i s A s s o c i a t i o n w r o t e t o t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e United S t a t e s , u r g i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a P r e s i d e n t i a l commission t o s t u d y t h e "widespread i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e t o b a c c o problem." I n J a n u a r y of 1962, a m e e t i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h t h e Surgeon G e n e r a l , L u t h e r L. T e r r y , r e s u l t e d i n a p r o p o s a l by D r . T e r r y t h a t t h e S e c r e t a r y o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and Welfare form an a d v i s o r y committee t o a s s e s s a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t and make recommendations. A d e t a i l e d p r o p o s a l i n A p r i l o f t h e same y e a r f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f such an a d v i s o r y committee c a l l e d f o r t h e r e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e 1957 and 1959 p o s i t i o n s t a k e n b y Surgeon General Burney i n t h e l i g h t o f s e v e r a l developments i n t h e a r e a d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s , such a s : 1. "New s t u d i e s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t smoking h a s m a j o r adverse h e a l t h e f f e c t s ; R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s from n a t i o n a l v o l u n t a r y h e a l t h a g e n c i e s f o r a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e S e r v i c e ; The r e c e n t s t u d y and r e p o r t o f t h e Royal C o l l e g e of P h y s i c i a n s o f London his s t u d y concluded t h a t : C i g a r e t t e smoking i s a c a u s e o f l u n g c a n c e r and b r o n c h i t i s , and p r o b a b l y c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e development of c o r o n a r y h e a r t d i s e a s e and v a r i o u s o t h e r l e s s common d i s e a s e s . It d e l a y s h e a l i n g o f g a s t r i c and duodenal u l c e r s ) ; A c t i o n o f t h e I t a l i a n Government t o f o r b i d c i g a r e t t e and t o b a c c o a d v e r t i s i n g ; c u r t a i l e d a d v e r t i s i n g o f c i g a r e t t e s b y B r i t i a n ' s m a j o r t o b a c c o companies on TV; and a s i m i l a r d e c i s i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e Danish t o b a c c o i n d u s t r y ; A p r o p o s a l by S e n a t o r Maurine Neuberger t h a t Congress c r e a t e a commission t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e h e a l t h e f f e c t s o f smoking ; A r e q u e s t f o r t e c h n i c a l g u i d a n c e by t h e S e r v i c e from t h e F e d e r a l Trade Commission on l a b e l i n g ' a n d a d v e r t i s i n g o f t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s ; and 7. Evidence t h a t m e d i c a l o p i n i o n h a s s h i f t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a g a i n s t smoking ."* I n J u l y , t h e Surgeon G e n e r a l met w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t o b a c c o i n d u s t r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , and F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i s s u e t o d i s c u s s g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e ' s work. inga l s o produced a l i s t o f p o s s i b l e Committee members. his meet- T h i s l i s t was r e v i e w e d o v e r t h e n e x t months by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e s e g r o u p s , a l l o f which had t h e r i g h t t o v e t o any name w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o g i v e r e a s o n s . Any p e r s o n s who had a l r e a d y t a k e n a p u b l i c p o s i t i o n on t h e q u e s t i o n s a t i s s u e were e l i m i n a t e d from t h e l i s t . The Surgeon G e n e r a l f i n a l l y s e l e c t e d t e n p h y s i c i a n s and s c i e n - t i s t s who a g r e e d t o s e r v e on t h e A d v i s o r y Committee t o t h e Surgeon G e n e r a l on Smoking and H e a l t h . On November 9 , 1 9 6 2 , t h e Committee began i t s work. I n c a r r y i n g o u t i t s s t u d y , t h e Committee u t i l i z e d 155 o u t s i d e c o n s u l t a n t s , s u p p o r t i n g s t a f f from t h e P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , and s e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t smoking and h e a l t h t o b e a s s e s s e d was o b t a i n e d from t h e N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y o f h e d i c i n e , from t o b a c c o companies, and from s p e c i a l r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d under c o n t r a c t . I n i t s s t u d i e s , t h e Commit- t e e e v a l u a t e d t h r e e main k i n d s o f s c i e n t i f i c e v i d e n c e : animal experiments, c l i n i c a l and a u t o p s y s t u d i e s , and p o p u l a t i o n o r e p i d e m i o l o g o c a l s t u d i e s . Subcommittees were formed t o d e a l i n d e p t h w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c t o p i c s under s t u d y and t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s were s u b m i t t e d t o t h e f u l l committee f o r d e b a t e , r e v i s i o n and a d o p t i o n . The f u l l A d v i s o r y Committee between November 1962 and December r963 h e l d n i n e s e s s i o n s , e a c h l a s t i n g f r o m two t o f o u r d a y s , i n Washington o r B e t h e s d a . "Smoking and H e a l t h , Report o f t h e A d v i s o r y Committee t o t h e Surgeon G e n e r a l o f t h e P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , p. 8. On J a n u a r y 11, 1964, t h e r e p o r t o f t h e Advisory Committee t o t h e Surgeon G e n e r a l was r e l e a s e d . According t o t h e r e p o r t e n t i t l e d Smoking and H e a l t h , t h e Committee's judgment i n b r i e f was: " C i g a r e t t e smoking i s a h e a l t h h a z a r d o f s u f f i c i e n t i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e United S t a t e s t o w a r r a n t a p p r o p r i a t e r e m e d i a l a c t i o n .I' S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e Committee found t h a t : " C i g a r e t t e smoking i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a 70 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e age-specific death r a t e s of males, and t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e w i t h i n c r e a s e d d e a t h r a t e s of f e m a l e s ; C i g a r e t t e smoking i s c a u s a l l y r e l a t e d t o l u n g c a n c e r i n men; C i g a r e t t e smoking i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e c a u s e s o f c h r o n i c b r o n c h i t i s i n t h e United S t a t e s , and i n c r e a s e s t h e r i s k o f d y i n g from c h r o n i c b r o n c h i t i s and emphysema; and Male c i g a r e t t e smokers have a h i g h e r d e a t h r a t e from c o r o n a r y a r t e r y d i s e a s e s t h a n nonsmoking males."* On J a n u a r y 1 6 , 1964, f i v e d a y s a f t e r t h e R e p o r t ' s p u b l i c a t i o n , S e n a t o r Maurine Neuberger o f Oregon i n t r o d u c e d two b i l l s i n t h e S e n a t e t h a t were a d i r e c t reaction t o the Report's findings. The f i r s t b i l l , S. 2429, would have r e q u i r e d t h e F e d e r a l Trade Commission t o r e g u l a t e c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g and l a b e l i n g , mandated t h a t a l l c i g a r e t t e packages c a r r y a warning l a b e l , and o r d e r e d t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g p o r t r a y i n g smoking a s attractive to childten. The second b i l l , S. 2430, t h e C i g a r e t t e H e a l t h Hazard A c t , p r o v i d e d f o r a c o n g r e s s i o n a l f i n d i n g t h a t c i g a r e t t e smoking c o n s t i t u t e s *Smoking and H e a l t h , Report o f t h e Advisory Committee, pages 31 and 3 2 . a grave public h e a l t h hazard. It a l s o provided f o r t h e Department o f ~ e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and Welfare t o c o o r d i n a t e F e d e r a l a c t i v i t i e s and conduct r e s e a r c h programs on t h e i n j u r i o u s s u b s t a n c e s i n c i g a r e t t e smoke, conduct an educat i o n a l program t o inform t h e p u b l i c o f t h e h e a l t h h a z a r d s involved i n smoking, and conduct p e r i o d i c s u r v e y s of smoking p a t t e r n s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s John B l a t n i k and John D i n g e l l i n t r o d u c e d s i m i l a r b i l l s i n t h e House on J a n u a r y 20. No con- g r e s s i o n a l a c t i o n o c c u r r e d on t h e s e b i l l s . On January 1 8 , t h e F e d e r a l Trade Commission i s s u e d n o t i c e of i t s i n t e n t i o n t o adopt t r a d e r e g u l a t i o n r u l e s which would have r e q u i r e d t h a t c i g a r e t t e packages and a d v e r t i s e m e n t s b e a r a h e a l t h warning. On June 23, t h e Commission i s s u e d a t r a d e r e g u l a t i o n r u l e t o be promulgated J u l y 1, 1965, t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t f a i l u r e t o d i s c l o s e a h e a l t h warning i n a l l a d v e r t i s i n g and on e v e r y pack, box, c a r t o n , o r o t h e r c o n t a i n e r i n which c i g a r e t t e s a r e s o l d t o t h e consuming p u b l i c would be a v i o l a t i o n of S e c t i o n 5 of t h e FTC A c t . On March 4 , 1964, t h e f l o o r of t h e S e n a t e was t h e s c e n e o f t h e f i r s t i n what was t o be over t h e succeeding y e a r s a s e r i e s o f a t t e m p t s t o d e a l with an a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y F e d e r a l p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g tobacco and h e a l t h . Sen. John Williams o f Delaware, d u r i n g d e b a t e on t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l A c t of 1964, H.R. 6196, d e a l i n g w i t h c o t t o n and wheat p r o d u c t i o n , proposed a f l o o r amendment t o r e p e a l t h e F e d e r a l p r i c e s u p p o r t program f o r t o b a c c o . "Why," asked Sen. Williams, "should t h e Government spend $40 m i l l i o n a n n u a l l y t o s u b s i d i z e t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t o b a c c o , a commodity so s t r o n g l y c r i t i c i z e d b y t h e Surgeon General?" He s a i d t h a t h i s amendment would n o t r e s t r i c t t h e use o f tobacco o r i n t e r f e r e with i t s p r o d u c t i o n , but would simply s t o p t h e p r a c t i c e o f spending m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s o f t h e t a x p a y e r s ' money " t o s u p p o r t a commodity which no one h a s s a i d would b e o f b e n e f i t t o t h e h e a l t h o f America b u t which t h e Surgeon General and t h e b e s t m e d i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e c o u n t r y have d e t e r m i n e d would b e i n j u r i o u s t o o u r h e a l t h .I' O p p o s i t i o n t o t h e amendment was immediate and s t r o n g , based on several factors. Some opponents f e l t t h a t t h e Surgeon ~ e n e r a l ' sr e p o r t was i n c o n c l u s i v e , w i t h i t s f i n d i n g s based l a r g e l y on s t a t i s t i c a l a s s o c i ation. One o f t h e major p o i n t s o f o p p o s i t i o n was t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f p r i c e s u p p o r t s would have on t h e t h o u s a n d s o f t o b a c c o f a r m e r s i n t h e c o u n t r y . According t o one o p p o n e n t , Sen. John Sherman Cooper o f Kentucky, " I f t h e amendment were a d o p t e d , t o b a c c o p r o d u c t i o n would mount, and t h e r e s u l t would be c h e a p t o b a c c o , a t d i s a s t r o u s p r i c e s t o our farmers." Another o p p o n e n t , Sen. E v e r e t t J o r d a n o f North C a r o l i n a , s a i d t h a t a d o p t i o n o f t h e amendment, "would i n c r e a s e t h e smoking h a b i t s o f m i l l i o n s o f p e o p l e , because c i g a r e t t e s would p r o b a b l y be produced a t half price .'I The W i l l i a m s amendment t o r e p e a l t h e t o b a c c o p r i c e s u p p o r t program was d e f e a t e d b y a v o t e o f 63-26, b u t t h e a t t e m p t would b e made a g a i n many t i m e s i n f u t u r e Congresses. The a c t i o n s of t h e FTC and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i o n d e s c r i b e d above, a s w e l l a s o t h e r b i l l s n o t enumerated h e r e f i n d i n g s o f t h e Advisory Committee -- - all i n response t o t h e l e d t o t h e c a l l i n g o f h e a r i n g s by t h e House Committee on I n t e r s t a t e and F o r e i g n Commerce on June 23, 24, 2 5 , 29, and J u l y 2 , 1964. Committee Chairman Oren H a r r i s o f A r k a n s a s , i n h i s open- i n g remarks a t t h e h e a r i n g s , r e f e r r e d t o b o t h t h e FTC a c t i o n and t h e proposed l e g i s l a t i o n , and s a i d : "The purpose o f t h e s e h e a r i n g s w i l l b e , i f we c a n r e a c h t h a t p o i n t , t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f a u t h o r i t y u n d e r e x i s t i n g law t o d e a l w i t h t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h i s g e n e r a l f i e l d , and t o d e t e r m i n e whether any a c t i o n o f t h e Congress i s w a r r a n t e d i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f p u b l i c health. I n o t h e r words, we want t o f i n d o u t under o u r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w h e t h e r o r n o t l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y , and i f s o , what kind?" Testimony was h e a r d from Members o f C o r ~ g r e s s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and k e l f a r e , t h e t o b a c c o i n d u s t r y , h e a l t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h e h e a r i n g s , Chairman H a r r i s , a t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e Committee, a s k e d t h e FTC t o d e f e r t h e e f f e c t i v e d a t e o f i t s proposed r u l e a p p l i c a b l e t o c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g and packa g i n g , s o t h a t t h e Committee would have more t i m e t o go i n t o t h e m a t t e r i n more d e t a i l . The FTC a g r e e d t o do s o . The t o b a c c o i n d u s t r y ' s r e s p o n s e t o ' t h e r e p o r t o f t h e A d v i s o r y Committee was t o c a l l f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on t h e s u b j e c t . George V . A l l e n , p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Tobacco I n s t i t u t e , r e s p o n d i n g on J a n u a r y 11 f o r t h e i n d u s t r y , s a i d t h a t t h e t o b a c c o i n d u s t r y , "which i s a l r e a d y s u p p o r t i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f h e a l t h r e s e a r c h , s t a n d s r e a d y t o i n c r e a s e t h a t s u p p o r t and a l s o t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e Government and o t h e r g r o u p s on any p r o j e c t s which o f f e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f i l l i n g t h e g a p s i n knowledge which s t i l l e x i s t i n t h i s broad f i e l d o f s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e r n , " On J a n u a r y 1 3 , 1964, R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Harold Cooley o f North C a r o l i n a i n t r o d u c e d t h e f i r s t i n a number o f b i l l s c a l l i n g f o r s u c h r e s e a r c h t h a t was t o be i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g month. The b i l l , H.J. Res. 885, c a l l e d f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e q u a l i t y and h e a l t h f a c t o r s o f t o b a c c o . On F e b r u a r y 7 , t h e House Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e , o f which R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Cooley was c h a i r m a n , r e p o r t e d o u t a n o t h e r b i l l i n t r o d u c e d by him, H.J. Res. 915, t o a u t h o r i z e t h e S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o c o n d u c t r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e q u a l i t y and h e a l t h f a c t o r s o f t o b a c c o and o t h e r i n g r e d i e n t s and m a t e r i a l s used i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f c i g a r e t t e s ( ~ o u s eR e p o r t no. 1 1 3 5 ) . No f u r t h e r a c t i o n was t a k e n d u r i n g t h e 8 8 t h C o n g r e s s , b u t t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Cooley r e i n t r o d u c e d t h e same b i l l i n t h e 8 9 t h Congress a s H . J . Res. 153. Again no f u r t h e r a c t i o n was t a k e n on t h e p r o p o s a l . I n J u l y o i 1964, t h r e e F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s , t h e C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau, t h e U.S. O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n , and t h e P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , working w i t h v a r i o u s p r i v a t e h e a l t h i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , e s t a b l i s h e d t h e N a t i o n a l I n t e r a g e n c y Council on Smoking and H e a l t h . The Council was c r e a t e d t o s e r v e a s a medium o f exchange f o r g r o u p s concerned w i t h t h e problems o f smoking and h e a l t h . In succeeding y e a r s , o t h e r government a g e n c i e s and p r i v a t e g r o u p s j o i n e d t h e C o u n c i l ' s membership. The e a r l y d a y s o f t h e 8 9 t h Congress saw t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f b i l l s d e a l i n g w i t h c i g a r e t t e l a b e l i n g and a d v e r t i s i n g . The S e n a t e Commerce Committee h e l d e i g h t d a y s o f h e a r i n g s between March 22 and A p r i l 5 , 1965, on two b i l l s . One, S. 547, i n t r o d u c e d by S e n a t o r Neuberger, s p e c i f i c a l l y autho- r i z e d t h e F e d e r a l Trade Commission (FTC) t o s e t a d v e r t i s i n g and l a b e l i n g s t a n d a r d s f o r c i g a r e t t e s , i n c l u d i n g a c a u t i o n l a b e l with t h e average y i e l d per c i g a r e t t e o f e a c h " i n c r i m i n a t e d a g e n t , " a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e Commission. The b i l l a l s o r e q u i r e d a l l c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t o c a r r y t h e same warning and c a l l e d f o r t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f a l l a d v e r t i s i n g t h a t t e n d e d t o d e p i c t smoking a s CRS- 11 a t t r a c t i v e t o children. The second b i l l , S. 5 5 9 , i n t r o a u c e d by S e n a t e Commerce Committee Chairman Warren Magnuson, r e q u i r e d t h a t a l l c i g a r e t t e packages c a r r y a warning l a b e l p l u s t h e a v e r a g e t a r and n i c o t i n e y i e l d p e r c i g a r e t t e . It a l s c p r o h i b i t e d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f any o t h e r warning by any F e d e r a l , S t a t e , o r i o c a i a u t h o r i t y ( i n c l u d i n g t h e FTC) . A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n of i t s h e a r i n g s , t h e S e n a t e Commerce Committee r e p o r t e d S. 559 amended, on May 19. As r e p o r t e d , t h e b i l l r e q u i r e d a l l c i g a - r e t t e packages t o b e a r t h e s t a t e m e n t : Hazardous t o Your H e a l t h . " "Caution: C i g a r e t t e Smoking May Be It a l s o p r o v i d e d t h a t no o t h e r s t a t e m e n t c o u l d be r e q u i r e d and t h a t , f o r t h r e e y e a r s , no s t a t e m e n t r e l a t i n g t o smoking and h e a l t h c o u l d be r e q u i r e d i n c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g . It p r o v i d e d f o r a f i n e o f $100,000 f o r v i o l a t i o n s o f t h e law and r e q u i r e d t h e FTC, working w i t h HEW, t o t r a n s m i t r e g u l a r r e p o r t s on t h e e f ' f e c t i v e n e s s o f l a b e l i n g , i n f o r - m a t i o n on t h e h e a l t h consequences o f smoking, c u r r e n t a d v e r t i s i n g p r a c t i c e s , and recommendations f o r l e g i s l a t i o n . On June 1 6 , 1 9 6 5 , t h e S e n a t e p a s s e d S. 559 by a 72-5 r o l l c a l l v o t e and s e n t t h e b i l l t o t h e House. I n t h e meantime, t h e House Committee on I n t e r s t a t e and F o r e i g n Commerce had h e l d e i g h t d a y s o f h e a r i n g s between A p r i l 6 and May 4 on a number o f b i l l s . H.R. 2248, i n t r o d u c e d by Represen- t a t i v e M o r r i s U d a l l , would have amended t h e F e d e r a l Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act t o make i t a p p l i c a b l e t o smoking p r o d u c t s . H.R. by R e p r e s e n t a t i v e k a l t e r Rogers o f Texas, and H.R. 3014, i n t r o d u c e d 4007, i n t r o d u c e d by R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Ancher Nelson, r e q u i r e d t h e same c a u t i o n l a b e l a s r e q u i r e d by t h e S e n a t e - p a s s e d b i l l , and b a r r e d t h e FTC o r o t h e r r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s from r e q u i r i n g any f u r t h e r warning o r s t a t e m e n t i n c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g . H.R. 4244, i n t r o d u c e d by R e p r e s e n t a t i v e P a u l F i n o , r e q u i r e d t h e l a b e l : "Warning -- C o n t e n t s May Be Dangerous t o H e a l t h , " p l u s t h e n i c o t i n e and t a r c o n t e n t be p l a c e d on c i g a r e t t e packages. The Bouse Committee r e p o r t e d H.R. i t was s i m i l a r t o t h e Senate-passed 3014 amended, on June 8 * As r e p o r t e d , b i l l , r e q u i r i n g t h e same c a u t i o n l a b e l . It a l s o p r o h i b i t e d FTC o r o t h e r agency a c t i o n on c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g perma- nently, rather than for three years. The House b i l l p r o v i d e d f o r f i n e s up t o $10,000 f o r v i o l a t i o n s , and c o n t a i n e d no p r o v i s i o n f o r r e g u l a r r e p o r t s from t h e FTC. The House passed H.R. 3014 on June 22 by v o i c e v o t e ; t h e n s u b s t i t u t e d i t s p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h o s e o f S. 559, which i t t h e n p a s s e d , a l s o by v o i c e v o t e . The two h o u s e s went t o c o n f e r e n c e on t h e p r o p o s a l , and on J u l y 1 , t h e c o n f e r e n c e r e p o r t on S. 559 was f i l e d (H.R. No. 5 8 6 ) . I n a compromise o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e House and S e n a t e b i l l s , t h e b i l l a g r e e d upon i n c o n f e r e n c e - (1) Required t h a t e a c h c i g a r e t t e package b e a r a c o n s p i c u o u s and l e g i b l e label stating: "Caution: C i g a r e t t e Smoking May Be Hazardous t o Your ~ealth;" (2) P r o h i b i t e d any o t h e r s t a t e m e n t r e l a t i n g t o smoking and h e a l t h from b e i n g r e q u i r e d on c i g a r e t t e packages s o l a b e l e d ; (3) P r o v i d e d t h a t , u n t i l J u l y 1, 1969, no s t a t e m e n t r e l a t i n g t o smoking and h e a l t h c o u l d be r e q u i r e d i n any a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f c i g a r e t t e s t h e packages o f which were l a b e l e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e a c t ; (4) ~ s t a b l i s h e da p e n a l t y o f $10,000 f o r v i o l a t i o n s ; and (5) Required t h e S e c r e t a r y o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and Welfare and t h e F e d e r a l Trade Commission t o submit a n n u a l r e p o r t s and recommendations t o t h e Congress. The c o n f e r e n c e r e p o r t was passed by t h e S e n a t e on J u l y 6, by v o i c e v o t e , and by t h e House on J u l y 1 3 , by a 286-103 r o l l c a l l v o t e , and S. 559 was s e n t t o t h e P r e s i d e n t , A number o f S e n a t o r s and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s e n t a l e t t e r t o P r e s i d e n t Johnson on J u l y 1 6 , u r g i n g him t o v e t o t h e b i l l because i t d i d n o t go f a r enough, and t h a t " i n s t e a d o f p r o t e c t i n g t h e h e a l t h o f t h e American people, ( i t ) p r o t e c t s o n l y t h e c i g a r e t t e industry.'' however, s i g n e d S. 559 i n t o law a s P.L. The P r e s i d e n t , 89-92 on J u l y 27, 1965. I n October of 1965, t h e Department o f H e a l t h , Education and Welfare s e t up a N a t i o n a l Clearinghouse on Smoking and Health. was i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e s e v e r a l r o l e s . The C l e a r i n g h o u s e I t was t o a c t a s a c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r y of s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n , t o c a r r y o u t a n a t i o n a l program o f p u b l i c i n f o r mation and e d u c a t i o n a l p r o j e c t s , and t o c a r r y on r e s e a r c h i n smoking behavi o r and methods o f c e s s a t i o n . objectives: It was e s t a b l i s h e d t o a c h i e v e t h r e e major (1) t o r e d u c e t h e numbers o f p e r s o n s smoking c i g a r e t t e s ; ( 2 ) t o reduce t h e number o f young p e r s o n s t a k i n g up c i g a r e t t e s ; and ( 3 ) t o h e l p d e v e l o p l e s s hazardous smoking f o r t h o s e n o t w i s h i n g t o q u i t o r u n a b l e t o do so. 1967 The 90th Congress wag a time o f l i t t l e l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i v i t y r e g a r d i n g smoking and h e a l t h . A number o f b i l l s were i n t r o d u c e d by members o f b o t h Houses who f e l t t h a t t h e 1965 l e g i s l a t i o n d i d n o t do enough t o p r o t e c t t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h ; b u t none was e n a c t e d . I n May of 1 9 6 7 , S e n a t o r Magnuson and o t h e r s s p o n s o r e d a b i l l , S . 1 8 0 3 , t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e 1965 b i l l by r e q u i r i n g t h e d i s c l o s u r e o f t h e t a r and n i c o t i n e c o n t e n t o f m a i n s t r e a m smoke o f c i g a r e t t e s and t o a u t h o r i z e a c o n t i n u i n g program f o r i s o l a t i n g and d i s c l o s i n g o t h e r h a r m f u l a g e n t s i n c i g a r e t t e smoking. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s Thomas F o l e y and James Corman i n t r o d u c e d s i m i l a r b i l l s i n t h e h o u s e , H.R. 10903 and H . R . 11175. I n A u g u s t , S e n a t o r hagnuson h e l d t h r e e d a y s o f h e a r i n g s o f t h e Consumer Subcommittee o f t h e S e n a t e Commerce Committee on t h e b i l l and on e f f o r t s toward t h e development and m a r k e t i n g of a l e s s hazardous c i g a r e t t e . ~ o t h i n gf u r t h e r came of t h e b i l l , b u t t h e F9C t h a t y e a r began t o t e s t t h e t a r and n i c o t i n e c o n t e n t of c i g a r e t t e s s o l d i n t h e U.S. and t o p u b l i s h t h e r e s u l t s p e r i o d i c a l l y . The f i r s t r e - p o r t i s s u e d on November 22 l i s t e d 54 b r a n d s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e J o h n Moss i n t r o d u c e d h.R. 1171, r e q u i r i n g t h e i n c l u - s i o n o f a s t r o n g e r warning l a b e l p l u s t h e a v e r a g e t a r and n i c o t i n e y i e l d on a l l c i g a r e t t e p a c k a g e s and i n a l l a d v e r t i s i n g . It a l s o a u t h o r i z e d t h e S e c r e t a r y o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e t o p r e s c r i b e r u l e s e s t a b l i s h i n g maximum l e n g t h s o f c i g a r e t t e s , i f h e d e t e r m i n e d t h a t l o n g e r c i g a r e t t e s increased t h e r i s k of d i s e a s e . S e n a t o r R o b e r t Kennedy and o t h e r s i n t r o d u c e d t h r e e b i l l s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e problem. The f i r s t , S. 2 3 9 4 , r e q u i r e d a s t r o n g e r warning l a b e l p l u s t h e d i s c l o s u r e of t a r and n i c o t i n e y i e l d s on p a c k a g e s and i n a d v e r t i s i n g . The s e c o n d , S. 2395, d i r e c t e d t h e F e d e r a l ~ o m m u n i c a t i o n s Commission t o e s t a b l i s h r e g u l a t i o n s p r o h i b i t i n g c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g which might e f f e c t c h i l d r e n o r which m i g h t e f f e c t t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h . S. The t h i r d , 2 3 9 6 , p r o v i d e d f o r t a x i n g c i g a r e t t e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r t a r and nicotine content. CRS- 15 None o f t h e s e b i l l s r e c e i v e d any f u r t h e r l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n i n 1968 and i t was n o t u n t i l t h e 9 1 s t Congress t h a t f u r t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a was e n a c t e d . Although 1967 saw no s u b s t a n t i v e l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i v i t y on smoking and h e a l t h , i t was a y e a r f o r s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a t o r y a c t i o n . I n J a n u a r y a com- p l a i n t was f i l e d w i t h t h e F e d e r a l Communications Commission by an a t t o r n e y , John Banzhaf 111, a c t i n g a s a p r i v a t e c i t i z e n , t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e h e a l t h h a z a r d s of smoking was n o t b e i n g made a v a i l a b l e on t e l e v i s i o n on t h e ~ 1 1 1and on e f f o r t s toward t h e development and m a r k e t i n g o f a l e s s hazardous c i g a r e t t e . Nothing f u r t h e r came o f t h e b i l l , b u t t h e FTC t h a t y e a r began t o t e s t t h e t a r and n i c o t i n e c o n t e n t o f c i g a r e t t e s s o l d i n t h e U.S. t o publish the r e s u l t s periodically. and The f i r s t r e p o r t i s s u e d on November 22 l i s t e d 54 b r a n d s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e John Moss i n t r o d u c e d H.K. 11717, r e q u i r i n g t h e i n c l u - s i o n o f a s t r o n g e r warning l a b e l p l u s t h e a v e r a g e t a r and n i c o t i n e y i e l d s on a l l c i g a r e t t e packages and i n a l l a d v e r t i s i n g . It a l s o a u t h o r i z e d t h e S e c r e - t a r y of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and Welfare t o p r e s c r i b e r u l e s e s t a b l i s h i n g maximum l e n g t h s f o r c i g a r e t t e s , i f he d e t e r m i n e d t h a t l o n g e r c i g a r e t t e s i n c r e a s e d t h e r i s k of d i s e a s e . S e n a t o r Robert Kennedy and o t h e r s i n t r o d u c e d t h r e e b i l l s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e problem. The f i r s t , S. 2394, r e q u i r e d a s t r o n g e r warning l a b e l p l u s t h e d i s c l o - s u r e of t a r and n i c o t i n e y i e l d s on packages and i n a d v e r t i s i n g . S. The s e c o n d , 2395, d i r e c t e d t h e F e d e r a l Communications Commission t o e s t a b l i s h r e g u l a t i o n s p r o h i b i t i n g c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g which might e f f e c t c h i l d r e n o r which might effect the public health. The third, S. 2396, provided for taxing cigarettes on the basis of their tar and nicotine content. None of these bills received any further legislative action in 1967 or 1968 and it was not until the 91st Congress that further legislation in this area was enacted. Although 1967 saw no substantive legislative activity on smoking and health, it was a year for significant regulatory action. In January a com- plaint was filed with the Federal Coumunications Commission by an attorney, John Banzhaf 111, acting as a private citizen, to the effect that information on the health hazards of smoking was not being made available on television and radio as a counterweight to cigarette advertising. In June tne FCC sus- tained Banzhaf's complaint that cigarette advertisements on radio and television raised just one side of a controversial issue of public importance, and that the Commission's "fairness doctrine'' was applicable to such advertising. The Commission ruled that broadcast stations must allow "a significant amount of time" for "the other side of this controversial issue." The ruling did not require equal time for antismoking messages, but left the volume of such messages up to the "reasonable judgment" of station officials. The FCC received protests on its decision from the various parties affected by the decision, such as the Tobacco Institute, cigarette manufacturers, radio and television networks, individual stations, and the National Association of Broadcasters, but the Commission on September 8 formally denied all petitions for reconsiderations of its ruling, and in 1968 its position was sustained by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. I n t h e summer o f 1 9 6 7 , two F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s , t h e P u b l i c H e a l t h s e r v i c e and t h e F e d e r a l Trade Commission b o t h p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s which were t h e f i r s t i n an a n n u a l s e r i e s o f r e p o r t s , mandated by t h e Congress i n t h e 1965 l e g i s l a t i o n . The P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , i n i t s f i r s t a n n u a l I h e H e a l t h Consequences o f Smoking, p r e s e n t e d a r e v i e w o f more t h a n 2 , 0 0 0 r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s p u b l i s h e d s i n c e t h e 1964 Surgeon G e n e r a l ' s r e p o r t . The r e p o r t s t a t e d t h a t "no e v i d e n c e h a s b e e n r e v e a l e d which b r i n g s i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e 1964 r e p o r t . " "On t h e c o n t r a r y , " t h e r e p o r t went o n , " t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s p u b l i s h e d s i n c e 1964 have s t r e n g t h e n e d t h o s e c o n c l u s i o n s and have e x t e n d e d i n some i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t s o u r knowledge o f t h e h e a l t h c o n s e q u e n c e s o f smoking.'' The r e p o r t summarized t h e s t a t e o f knowledge a t t h a t t i m e c o n c e r n i n g t h e h e a l t h consequences a s f o l l o w s : C i g a r e t t e smokers have s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r r a t e s o f d e a t h and d i s a b i l i t y t h a n t h e i r nonsmoking c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s means t h a t c i g a r e t t e smokers t e n d t o d i e a t e a r l i e r a g e s and e x p e r i e n c e more d a y s o f d i s a b i l i t y t h a n comparable nonsmokers. A s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of e a r l i e r d e a t h s and e x c e s s d i s a b i l i t y d u e t o d i s e a s e s t h a t may have b e e n c a u s e d by smoking would n o t h a v e o c c u r r e d i f t h o s e a f f e c t e d had n e v e r smoked. I t i t were n o t f o r c i g a r e t t e smoking, p r a c t i c a l l y none o f t h e e a r l i e r d e a t h s from l u n g c a n c e r would have o c c u r r e d ; n o r a s u b s t a n t i a l port i o n o f t h e e a r l i e r d e a t h s from c h r o n i c bronchopulmonary d i s e a s e s (commonly d i a g n o s e d a s c h r o n i c b r o n c h i t i s o r pulmonary emphysema o r CRb- 18 b o t h ) ; nor a p o r t i o n of t h e e a r l i e r d e a t h s o f cardiovascular o r i g i n . Excess d i s a b i l i t y from c h r o n i c pulmonary and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r d i s e a s e s would a l s o be l e s s . 4. C e s s a t i o n o r a p p l i c a b l e r e d u c t i o n o f c i g a r e t t e smoking c o u l d d e l a y o r a v e r t a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n o f d e a t h s which o c c u r from l u n g c a n c e r , a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n o f t h e e a r l i e r d e a t h s and e x c e s s d i s a b i l i t y from c h r o n i c bronchopulmonary d i s e a s e s , and a p o r t i o n o f t h e e a r l i e r d e a t h s and e x c e s s d i s a b i l i t y o f c a r d i o v a s c u l a r o r i g i n . The F e d e r a l Trade Commission's 1967 r e p o r t t o Congress s t a t e d t h a t " t h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e warning s t a t e m e n t on c i g a r e t t e packages ( r e q u i r e d by Congress) h a s had any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . " The Com- m i s s i o n recommended mandatory l a b e l i n g o f t a r and n i c o t i n e c o n t e n t on c i g a r e t t e packages and i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , a s w e l l a s o t h e r measures t o encourage manufacturers t o develop l e s s hazardous c i g a r e t t e s . The r e p o r t n o t e d t h a t whether " i n t e n t i o n a l o r f o r t u i t o u s , t e e n a g e r s a p p e a r t o be t h e prime t a r g e t f o r t e l e v i s e d c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g , " and t h a t such a d v e r t i s i n g " c o n t i n u e s t o d e p i c t smoking a s a n e n j o y a b l e a c t i v i t y w h i l e i g n o r i n g c o r ~ l p l e t e l yt h e h e a l t h hazards." It s u g g e s t e d t h a t t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e n - c u r r e n t a d v e r t i s i n g prac- t i c e s might r e q u i r e " e i t h e r t e r m i n a t i o n o r d r a s t i c a l t e r a t i o n o f c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g on r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n " , and would c e r t a i n l y r e q u i r e a " v a s t e d u c a t i o n a l campaign t o n e g a t e t h e image o f c i g a r e t t e smoking a s h a r m l e s s and s a t i s f y i n g . ' I 1968 I n 1 9 6 8 , a supplement t o t h e 1967 PHs's H e a l t h Consequences of Smoking c o n t i n u e d t h e r e v i e w of s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t . According CKS- 19 t o t h e Surgeon G e n e r a l , t h e s e f i n d i n g s c o n f i r m e d t h e " c l i n i c a l , e x p e r i m e n t a l , and e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t o b a c c o smoking and many forms o f i l l n e s s r e l a t e d t o it." The FTC's 1968 r e p o r t s t r e n g t h e n e d i t s recommendation t o Congress t o "ban t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g o r s u c h a d v e r t i s i n g s h o u l d be l i m i t e d a s t o t h e h o u r s a t which i t may a p p e a r ; t h e e x t e n t t o which i t may a p p e a r ; and t h e t y p e o f programs on which i t may appear." 1969 The 9 1 s t Congress d i d t a k e l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n on c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g . I n t h e House more t h a n 90 members e i t h e r i n t r o d u c e d o r cosponsored b i l l s d e a l i n g w i t h c i g a r e t t e l a b e l i n g and a d v e r t i s i n g . A l l o f t h e s e b i l l s were v a r i a t i o n s of o r i d e n t i c a l t o four b a s i c approaches t o t h e s u b j e c t : (1) c r e a t i o n of a s t r o n g e r warning l a b e l p l u s i n c l u s i o n o f t a r and n i c o t o n e l e v e l s on packages and i n c l u s i o n o f b o t h t h e warning and t h e t a r and n i c o t i n e l e v e l s i n a d v e r t i s i n g ; ( 2 ) p r o h i b i t i o n o r r e g u l a t i o n of broadcast c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g ; ( 3 ) i n c l u s i o n o f t a r and n i c o t i n e l e v e l s on packages and i n a d v e r t i s i n g ; and ( 4 ) e x t e n s i o n o f t h e 1965 a c t . The f i r s t o f t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s , H.R. 6 4 3 , was i n t r o d u c e d i n i t i a l l y by R e p r e s e n t a t i v e William F. Ryan o f New York, a s an amendment t o t h e 1965 a c t . It would have r e p l a c e d t h e c a u t i o n s t a t e m e n t r e q u i r e d b y t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h a new s t a t e m e n t : "Warning: C i g a r e t t e Smoking Is Dangerous t o h e a l t h and May Cause Death From Cancer and Other D i s e a s e s . " It a l s o c a l l e d f o r t h e p l a c i n g on each c i g a r e t t e package t h e a v e r a g e t a r and n i c o t i n e y i e l d p e r c i g a r e t t e i n such package, and r e q u i r e d t h e i n c l u s i o n o f b o t h t h e warning statement and the tar and nicotine information on all advertising as well, In addition, it called for the Secretary of HEW to investigate whether longer cigarettes present increased risks to smokers, and, if so, to prescribe rules establishing a maximum length or maximum lengths for cigarettes. A bill first introduced by Representative John hoss, H.R. 1237, woula have amended the Communication Act of 1934 to direct the Federal Communications Commission to establish regulations to (1) prohibit the broadcasting of cigarette advertising at such hours and during programs determined most likely to influence children; and (2) regulate the total amount of such advertising determined for the protection of the health and welfare of the public, and particularly children. Representative James Corman introduced a bill, H.K. 3055, designed to strengthen the 1965 act by requiring on cigarette packages, in addition to the caution statement, the quantity of tar and nicotine and other identifiable hazardous agents. It required that this information also be included in cigarette advertisements. It also authorized the FCC to prescribe and pub- lish regulations dealing with the measurements of the quantity of tar and nicotine and with the identification and measurement of the quantity of other hazardous agents. Representative David Satterfield of Virginia and others sponsored H.R. 6543, the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1969, which stated the policy of Congress and the purpose of the legislation, to be the establishment of a program whereby -- "(1) the public may be adequately informed that cigarette smoking may be hazardous to health by inclusion of a wzrning t o t h a t e f f e c t on e a c h package o f c i g a r e t t e s ; and ( 2 ) commerce and t h e nat i o n a l economy may b e (A) p r o t e c t e d t o t h e maximum e x t e n t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s d e c l a r e d p o l i c y and (B) n o t impeded by d i v e r s e , nonuniform and c o n f u s i n g c i g a r e t t e l a b e l i n g and a d v e r t i s i n g r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o any r e l a t i o n s h i p between smoking and h e a l t h . " I n e f f e c t , t h i s b i l l extended t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e 1965 A c t . I n t h e meantime, t h e FCC i n F e b r u a r y o f 1969 announced t h a t i t was t a k i n g a c t i o n t o ban t h e b r o a d c a s t o f c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g o n r a d i o and television. I t s N o t i c e o f Proposed Rule Making s t a t e d t h a t " p r e s e n t a t i o n o f commercials promoting t h e u s e o f c i g a r e t t e s i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e o b l i g a t i o n imposed upon b r o a d c a s t e r s t o o p e r a t e i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . " Commission s a i d t h a t c i g a r e t t e s posed a " u n i q u e d a n g e r i n t e r m s o f an epidemic o f d e a t h s and d i ' s a b i l i t i e s " . - The a d a n g e r measured I n May, t h e F e d e r a l Trade Commission announced t h a t i t was c o n s i d e r i n g a proposed r u l e r e q u i r i n g a l l c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g t o c o n t a i n a s t r o n g warning: " C i g a r e t t e smoking i s d a n g e r o u s t o h e a l t h and may c a u s e d e a t h from c a n c e r , c o r o n a r y h e a r t d i s e a s e , c h r o n i c b r o n c h i t i s , pulmonary emphysema and o t h e r d i s e a s e s . " Both o f t h e s e proposea r u l e s would t a k e e f f e c t w i t h t h e e x p i r a t i o n l a t e r t h a t y e a r of t h e p r o h i b i t i o n i n c l u d e d i n t h e 1965 l e g i s l a t i o n a g a i n s t any s u c h regulatory action. The House Committee on I n t e r s t a t e and F o r e i g n Commerce h e l d 13 d a y s o f h e a r i n g s between A p r i l 15 and May 1, 1969, on t h e v a r i o u s l e g i s l a t i v e prop o s a l s and on t h e i s s u e s o f smoking and h e a l t h . I n h i s remarks o p e n i n g t h e h e a r i n g s , Committee Chairman H a r l e y S t a g g e r s c i t e d l a n g u a g e from t h e conf e r e n c e r e p o r t on t h e 1965 Act t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t Congress would r e e x a m i n e t h e s u b j e c t matter b a s e d on a l l a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h a t cont a i n e d i n t h e r e q u i r e d r e p o r t s from t h e Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and t v e l f a r e and t h e FTC, b e f o r e J u l y 1 , 1969. F o l l o w i n g t h e h e a r i n g s , t h e Committee r e p o r t e d H.R. 91-289) on June 5 . l a b e l , "Warning: As r e p o r t e d , H.R. 6543 ( H . Rept. no. 6543 p r o v i d e d f o r a s t r o n g e r w a r n i n g The S u r g e o n G e n e r a l Has Determined That C i g a r e t t e Smoking Is Dangerous t o Your H e a l t h and h a y Cause Lung C a n c e r o r O t h e r D i s e a s e s , " a n d , i n a d d i t i o n , e x t e n d e d f o r s i x y e a r s t h e p r o v i s i o n from t h e 1945 Act p r o h i b i t i n g F e d e r a l r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s from t a k i n g s t r o n g e r m e a s u r e s on c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g . M i n o r i t y v i e w s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e Committee r e - of commercials promoting t h e u s e o f c i g a r e t t e s i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e o b l i g a t i o n imposed upon b r o a d c a s t e r s t o o p e r a t e i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . " Commission s a i d t h a t c i g a r e t t e s posed a " u n i q u e d a n g e r i n t e r m s o f a n e p i d e m i c o f d e a t h s and d i s a b i l i t i e s " . -- The a d a n g e r measured I n May, t h e F e d e r a l T r a d e Commission announced t h a t i t was c o n s i d e r i n g a p r o p o s e d r u l e r e q u i r i n g a l l c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g t o c o n t a i n a s t r o n g warning: " C i g a r e t t e smoking i s d a n g e r o u s t o h e a l t h and may c a u s e d e a t h from c a n c e r , c o r o n a r y h e a r t d i s e a s e , c h r o n i c b r o n c h i t i s , pulmonary emphysema and o t h e r d i s e a s e s . " Both o f t h e s e p r o p o s e d r u l e s would t a k e e f f e c t w i t h t h e e x p i r a t i o n l a t e r t h a t y e a r o f t h e p r o h i b i t i o n i n c l u d e d i n t h e 1965 l e g i s l a t i o n a g a i n s t a n y s u c h regulatory action. The House Committee o n I n t e r s t a t e and F o r e i g n Commerce h e l d 1 3 d a y s o f h e a r i n g s b e t w e e n A p r i l 15 and May 1 , 1 9 6 9 , o n t h e v a r i o u s l e g i s l a t i v e prop o s a l s and on t h e i s s u e s o f smoking and h e a l t h . I n h i s remarks opening t h e h e a r i n g s , Committee Chairman H a r l e y S t a g g e r s c i t e d l a n g u a g e from t h e conf e r e n c e r e p o r t on t h e 1965 Act t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t C o n g r e s s would r e e x a m i n e t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r based on a l l a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h a t cont a i n e d i n t h e r e q u i r e d r e p o r t s from t h e Department o f H e a l t h , i ducat ion and W e l f a r e and t h e FTC, b e f o r e J u l y 1 , 1969. Following t h e h e a r i n g s , t h e Committee r e p o r t e d H.K. 91-289) on June 5. l a b e l , "Warning: As r e p o r t e d , B.R. 6543 ( H . R e p t . n o . 6543 p r o v i d e d f o r a s t r o n g e r warning The Surgeon General Has Determined That C i g a r e t t e Smoking I s Dangerous t o Your H e a l t h and May Cause Lung Cancer o r Other ~ i s e a s e s , " a n d , i n a d d i t i o n , e x t e n d e d f o r s i x y e a r s t h e p r o v i s i o n from t h e 1965 Act p r o h i b i t i n g F e d e r a l r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s from t a k i n g s t r o n g e r measures on c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g . M i n o r i t y views were i n c l u d e d i n t h e Committee r e - p o r t t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t a p p r o v a l o f t h e b i l l would p e r m i t F e d e r a l h e a l t h a g e n c i e s t o condemn smoking w h i l e p r o h i b i t i n g F e d e r a l r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s from r e q u i r i n g a f u l l d i s c l o s u r e o f t h e h a z a r d s i d e n t i f i e d . The House passed H . R . 6543 a s r e p o r t e d on June 18 by v o i c e v o t e a f t e r d e f e a t i n g s e v e r a l a t t e i n p t s by f l o o r amendments t o r e q u i r e h e a l t h w a r n i n g s i n a d v e r t i s i n g and t o permit r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s t o a c t on a d v e r t i s i n g . The Consumer Subcommittee o f t h e S e n a t e Commerce Committee h e l d h e a r i n g s on t h e House-passed b i l l on J u l y 22. The h e a r i n g s c o n c e n t r a t e d more on t h e s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n o f c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g by t h e t o b a c c o i n d u s t r y t h a n on t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e House b i l l , b e c a u s e t h e i n d u s t r y , r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e h e a r i n g s by J o s e p h F. Cullman 111, o f f e r e d t o d i s c o n t i n u e c i g a r e t t e advert i s i n g on t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o by September 1970 when m a j o r c o n t r a c t u a l a r rangements were due t o e x p i r e o r e a r l i e r i f t h e b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y would a g r e e t o t e r m i n a t e e x i s t i n g c o n t r a c t s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a t any p o i n t a f t e r December 3 1 , 1969. The Chairman o f t h e FTC, P a u l Rand Dixon, t e s t i f i e d t h a t t h e Commission would suspend u n t i l 1971 i t s e f f o r t s t o r e q u i r e a h e a l t h warning i n c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g i f b r o a d c a s t a d v e r t i s i n g were s t o p p e d v o l u n t a r i l y . Both FTC Chairman Dixon and FCC Chairman Rose1 G . Hyde, t e s t i f i e d t h a t b r o a d c a s t e r s s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o show anti-smoking messages a f t e r a d v e r t i s i n g s t o p p e d . The f u l l S e n a t e Commerce Committee r e p o r t e d H . R . t o t h e S e n a t e on December 5. A s r e p o r t e d , ( S . Rept 6543, w i t h amendments, . no. 91-566) the b i l l would have made i t u n l a w f u l t o a d v e r t i s e c i g a r e t t e s on r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n a f t e r J a n u a r y 1 , 1971; changed t h e mandatory s t a t e m e n t on packages t o : "Warning E x c e s s i v e C i g a r e t t e Smoking I s Dangerous To Your H e a l t h " ; and cont i n u e d t o ~ r o h i b i t i o no f FTC r e g u l a t i o n o f c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g f o r 18 months. On December 1 2 , t h e S e n a t e passed H . R . a d d i n g two amendments. t h e word "Excessive" 6543 by a v o t e o f 70-7 a f t e r The f i r s t o f f e r e d by S e n a t o r Frank Moss, d e l e t e d from t h e warning l a b e l . The s e c o n d , o f f e r e d by S e n a t o r Moss and m o d i f i e d by S e n a t o r N o r r i s C o t t o n , amended t h e p r o v i s i o n c o n c e r n i n g FTC r e g u l a t i o n t o a l l o w t h e Commission t o r e q u i r e h e a l t h warnings i n c i g a - r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g a f t e r J u l y 1, 1971, o r s o o n e r i f i t d e t e r m i n e d t h a t advert i s i n g p r a c t i c e s c o n s t i t u t e d a " g r o s s a b u s e f t o f t h e n o n b r o a d c a s t media. 1970 Conference agreement on H . R . As a g r e e d t o i n c o n f e r e n c e (H.Rept and s i g n e d i n t o law (P.L. 91-2221, 6543 was n o t r e a c h e d u n t i l March of 1970. . no. 91-8971, passed by b o t h Houses, the b i l l : ( 1 ) P r o h i b i t e d a d v e r t i s i n g o f c i g a r e t t e s on r a d i o o r t e l e v i s i o n b e g i n n i n g J a n . 2 , 1971; ( 2 ) Changed t h e l a b e l wording t o "Warning: The Surgeon General Has Determined That C i g a r e t t e Smoking I s Dangerous To Your Health" ; ( 3 ) P r o h i b i t e d a l l S t a t e and l o c a l h e a l t h - r e l a t e d r e g u l a t i o n o r p r o h i b i t i o n of c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g ; ( 4 ) P r o h i b i t e d FTC a c t i o n on p r i n t a d v e r t i s i n g u n t i l on o r a f t e r J u l y 1, 1971, and provided d e t a i l e d procedures f o r n o t i f i c a t i o n of Congress b e f o r e any such FTC a c t i o n ; (5) Required annual r e p o r t s t o Congress by t h e FTC and t h e Department of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and Welfare on t h e h e a l t h consequences of smoking, e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f l a b e l i n g , and advertising practices. A f t e r t h e enactment of P.L. 91-222, t h e FCC v a c a t e d i t s proposed r u l e - making r e g a r d i n g b r o a d c a s t a d v e r t i s i n g o f c i g a r e t t e s . The removal of such a d v e r t i s i n g r a i s e d t h e q u e s t i o n of whether anti-smoking messages r e q u i r e d e a r l i e r by t h e Commission under i t s " f a i r n e s s d o c t r i n e " could b e s o r e q u i r e d any l o n g e r . Broadcast and tobacco i n d u s t r y spokesman argued t h a t t h e " f a i r - n e s s d o c t r i n e " could no l o n g e r be a p p l i e d and t h e r e f o r e t h e antismoking messages no l o n g e r need be shown. The FCC, i n a r e p o r t and o r d e r approved December 1 5 , 1970, r u l e d t h a t a f t e r t h e a d v e r t i s i n g ban went i n t o e f f e c t on January 2 , 1971, b r o a d c a s t e r s could p r e s e n t antismoking messages a s a p u b l i c s e r v i c e , and t h a t because t h e smoking and h e a l t h i s s u e was no l o n g e r a "cont r o v e r s i a l " one, t h e f a i r n e s s d o c t r i n e d i d n o t a p p l y and t h e y could p r e s e n t such messages w i t h no o b l i g a t i o n t o provide views from a n o t h e r s i d e , t h e tobacco i n d u s t r y , t h a t c i g a r e t t e smoking may n o t be hazardous t o h e a l t h . On August 8 , 1970, t h e F e d e r a l Trade Commission i s s u e d a proposed r u l e t o r e q u i r e c i g a r e t t e m a n u f a c t u r e r s t o d i s c l o s e t a r and n i c o t i n e c o n t e n t of t h i s product i n c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . The proceeding was suspended on December 22 when t h e c i g a r e t t e companies agreed v o l u n t a r i l y t o make t h i s d i s c l o s u r e . I n F e b r u a r y o f 1 9 7 1 , a d v e r t i s e m e n t s conforming t o t h i s agreement began t o a p p e a r and by December o f t h a t y e a r , a l l c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s were i n c o n f o r m i t y . Also d u r i n g t h e 9 1 s t C o n g r e s s , S e n a t o r s Edward Brooke and Frank Moss introduced s e p a r a t e b i l l s t o d e a l with t h e controversy o f Federal p r i c e s u p p o r t s p a i d t o b a c c o f a r m e r s and o t h e r F e d e r a l a c t i v i t i e s s u p p o r t i n g t h e growth and s a l e o f t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s , i n a p p a r e n t o p p o s i t i o n t o F e d e r a l h e a l t h p o l i c y , a s e x p r e s s e d by t h e Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e , o n t h e d a n g e r s o f smoking. I n March o f 1969 S e n a t o r Brooke i n t r o - duced a b i l l , S. 1721, t h e Tobacco Market Adjustment A c t , which p r o v i d e d a four-year phasing o u t o f a l l Federal p r i c e s u p p o r t s f o r tobacco producers. I n May o f 1970, S e n a t o r Moss i n t r o d u c e d h i s b i l l ( S . 3826) t o e l i m i n a t e s u c h F e d e r a l s u p p o r t s and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . N e i t h e r t h e Brooke n o r Moss b i l l r e c e i v e d f u r t h e r a c t i o n beyond committee r e f e r r a l . However, i n J u l y o f 1970, S e n a t o r Moss i n t r o d u c e d t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f h i s b i l l a s f l o o r amendment t o t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e FY 1971 a p p r o p r i a t i o n s T h i s amendment would have p r o h i b i t e d t h e u s e o f any F e d e r a l f u n d s f o r : ( 1 ) a t o p a c c o p r i c e s u p p o r t program; ( 2 ) a n e x p o r t s u b s i d y ; 3 ) a d v e r t i s i n g o r promoting t h e s a l e o f t o b a c c o ; ( 4 ) f i n a n c i n g t h e f o r e i g n s a l e o f t o b a c c o under t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Trade Development and A s s i s t a n c e ; and ( 5 ) i n s p e c t i n g and g r a d i n g t o b a c c o . The S e n a t e d e f e a t e d t h e Moss amend- ment overwhelmingly, b u t t h e S e n a t o r c o n t i n u e d t o o f f e r i t i n s u c c e e d i n g years. 1971-1972 The c i g a r e t t e b r o a d c a s t a d v e r t i s i n g ban became e f f e c t i v e e a r l y i n t h e 92nd Congress. The two-year span o f t h i s Congress a g a i n was a p e r i o d o f l i t t l e s u b s t a n t i v e l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i v i t y r e g a r d i n g smoking a l t h o u g h s e v e r a l b i l l s were i n t r o d u c e d . The l e g i s l a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d r e p r e s e n t e d a v a r i e t y o f a t t e m p t s t o d e a l w i t h t h e problems o f smoking and h e a l t h , i n c l u d i n g e f f o r t s t o r e d u c e t h e p r o d u c t i o n and s a l e o f high t a r and n i c o t i n e c i g a r e t t e s , t o inform t h e publ i c about t h e d a n g e r s of smoking, and t o p r o t e c t nonsmokers. members from tobacco-producing Congressional s t a t e s a l s o presented l e g i s l a t i o n represent- ing t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the controversy. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Spark Matsunaga i n January of 1971 i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l , H.R. 877, g i v i n g a u t h o r i t y t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t o t h e I n t e r s t a t e Commerce Commission t o r e q u i r e t h a t common c a r r i e r s under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n provide s p e c i a l smoking s e c t i o n s aboard a i r c r a f t , r a i l r o a d c a r s , b u s e s , and v e s s e l s c a r r y i n g p a s s e n g e r s , w i t h smoking o n l y i n such areas. S e n a t o r Richard Schweiker sponsored an i n d e n t i c a l b i l l e a r l y t h e n e x t y e a r , S. 3249. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e B i l l Young of F l o r i d a i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l with s i m i l a r intentions. This b i l l , t h e Nonsmokers R e l i e f A c t , H.R. 4676, would have r e q u i r e d t h e S e c r e t a r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o p r e s c r i b e r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g a i r p l a n e s , r a i l r o a d s , and motor v e h i c l e modes o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n i n t e r s t a t e commerce t o r e s e r v e some s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y f o r nonsmoking passengers. This l e g i s l a t i o n , sponsored i n t h e S e n a t e by S e n a t o r Edward Gurney, S. 1298, r e c e i v e d no l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n , b u t t h e I n t e r s t a t e Commerce Commission (IcC) on November 1 7 , 1971, i s s u e d an o r d e r c o n c e r n i n g smoki n g by p a s s e n g e r s and o p e r a t i n g p e r s o n n e l on i n t e r s t a t e b u s e s . According t o t h e I C C o r d e r , which was a f f i r m e d i n a 1973 c o u r t c a s e , smoking o f c i g a r e t t e s , c i g a r s , o r p i p e s was p e r m i t t e d o n l y i n t h e rear s e c t i o n ( n o t t o exceed 20 p e r c e n t o f c a p a c i t y ) of i n t e r s t a t e p a s s e n g e r b u s e s . S e v e r a l b i l l s c o n c e r n i n g F e d e r a l t a x a t i o n o f c i g a r e t t e s were i n t r o duced i n t h e 92nd Congress. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e James Corman, i n H.R. 2460, s p o n s o r e d a n approach t o t a x c i g a r e t t e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r t a r and and n i c o t i n e c o n t e n t . H.R. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Thomas O I N e i l l i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l , 4602, t o impose an a d d i t i o n a l e x c i s e t a x on c i g a r e t t e s , w i t h t h e p r o c e e d s b e i n g used f o r c a n c e r r e s e a r c h programs t h r o u g h a Cancer Res e a r c h Fund. S e n a t o r Frank Moss i n t r o d u c e d S. 2691, t h e C i g a r e t t e Tar Tax A c t , which would have amended t h e I n t e r n a l Revenue Code t o t a x c i g a r e t t e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r t a r c o n t e n t . S e n a t o r Moss' b i l l a l s o c o n t a i n e d p r o v i s i o n s t o e l i m i n a t e F e d e r a l s u p p o r t f o r t o b a c c o f a r m e r s and s a l e s and e x p o r t , s i m i l a r t o h i s b i l l i n t h e previous year. S. 2691 a l s o p r o v i d e d f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Commission on Tobacco Adjustment A s s i s t a n c e t o p r e p a r e a n a n a l y s i s on: ( 1 ) t h e e f f e c t of t h e termination of p r i c e supports f o r tobacco; ( 2 ) t h e economic h a r d s h i p s t o g r o w e r s , m a n u f a c t u r e r s , e t c . from t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o r r e d u c t i o n o f t h e u s e of t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s ; and ( 3 ) t h e economic h a r d s h i p t o S t a t e and l o c a l governments caused by t h e r e d u c t i o n i n r e v e n u e s from t o b a c c o p r o d u c t t a x e s ; and t o p r e p a r e recommendations. In July during the Senate debate for the Department of Agriculture appropriations bill, Senator Moss again offered as a floor amendment his proposal to eliminate Federal support for tobacco production and sales. When it was again defeated, he withdrew a second amendment, this one to establish the Commission described in his bill. Also in July of 1971, the Federal Trade Commission, following up its action of the year before to require the inclusion of cigarette tar and nicotine content in all advertising, issued proposed complaints against cigarette manufacturers to require them to include health warnings in their advertising. This issue was resolved the following year when, under consent orders issued by the FTC March 30, 1972, the six major cigarette manufacturers agreed to include in all advertisement the warning statement required by law on all packages. In February 1972, the Consumer Subcommittee of the Senate Commerce Committee held three days of hearings under on a bill introduced by Subcommittee Chairman Frank Moss the year before to require the FTC to establish acceptable levels of tar and nicotine content for cigarettes. The hearings followed directly upon the release of the Surgeon General's 1972 report on the health consequences of smoking, which contained a chapter on the significance of the various hazardous ingredients in cigarette smoke. The hearings also addressed the question of the marketing and advertising of socalled "little cigars," which had recently appeared on the market, and which were being advertised on radio and television as cigars. The little cigar became the subject of legislation in the following Congress. F i n a l l y , two b i l l s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e 92nd Congress t h a t e s s e n t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e v i e w s and i n t e r e s t s o f t h e t o b a c c o i n d u s t r y and tobaccoproducing S t a t e s . I n J u l y o f 1471, R e p r e s e n t a t i v e R i c h a r d s o n P r e y e r o f North C a r o l i n a and o t h e r s i n t r o d u c e d a j o i n t r e s o l u t i o n , H . J . Res. 8245, t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a S c i e n t i f i c Commission on Smoking and H e a l t h , w i t h member s c i e n t i s t s nominated by t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s S c i e n c e A d v i s o r and by t h e t o b a c c o i n d u s t r y , t o s t u d y t h e " i n c o n c l u s i v e " findings of t h e 1964 Surgeon ~ e n e r a l ' sr e p o r t and s e t t l e o t h e r c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g smoking and h e a l t h . Then i n September o f 1972, S e n a t o r E v e r e t t J o r d a n and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Nick G a l i f i n a k i s , b o t h o f North C a r o l i n a , i n t r o d u c e d i d e n t i c a l b i l l s i n t h e S e n a t e and House t o a u t h o r i z e t h e S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o make g r a n t s f o r r e s e a r c h t o d e v e l o p t e c h n i q u e s o f and i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e growing, h a r v e s t i n g , and p r o c e s s i n g of t o b a c c o t o a s s i s t t o b a c c o p r o d u c e r s i n prot e c t i n g t h e h e a l t h of tobacco u s e r s . These b i l l s , S. 3968 and H.R. 15243, p r o v i d e d f o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n s o f funds i n an amount n o t l e s s t h a n t h a t s p e n t by t h e F e d e r a l Government i n t h e p r e c e d i n g y e a r f o r s t u d i e s on t h e e f f e c t of smoking on h e a l t h . No a c t i o n was t a k e n on any of t h e s e b i l l s . 1973-1974 The 93rd Congress was a g a i n a m i x t u r e o f l e g i s l a t i o n , most o f i t n o t a c t e d upon, and r e g u l a t o r y a c t i o n , much o f i t i n c o n c l u s i v e . S e n a t o r Moss o f f e r e d h i s b i l l s from p a s t y e a r s t o t e r m i n a t e p r i c e supp o r t s f o r t o b a c c o ( S . 2 4 8 ) , t o p r o v i d e f o r FTC e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c c e p t a b l e t a r and n i c o t i n e l e v e l s i n c i g a r e t t e s ( s . 2 4 9 1 , and t o t a x c i g a r e t t e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r t a r and n i c o t i n e l e v e l s ( S . 4 5 6 ) . Ee a l s o i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l , S. 1231, sponsored i n t h e House by ~ e p r e s e n t a t i v eRobert ~ a s t e n m e i e r , H.R. 4640, t o e l i m i n a t e c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g a s a d e d u c t i b l e b u s i n e s s expense under t h e I n t e r n a l Revenue Code. S e n a t o r Moss a g a i n t r i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o t e r m i n a t e p r i c e s u p p o r t s through a f l o o r amendment t o t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l appropriations b i l l s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Spark Matsunaga and S e n a t o r Richard Schweiker r e i n troduced t h e i r b i l l s , H.R. 765 and S. 2219, t o r e q u i r e common c a r r i e r s t o l i m i t smoking aboard a i r c r a f t , r a i l r o a d c a r s , b u s e s , and v e s s e l s , except i n designated a r e a s . A s i m i l a r approach was t a k e n by R e p r e s e n t a t i v e B i l l Young of F l o r i d a , w i t h h i s b i l l t o r e q u i r e c a r r i e r s by r a i l , motor v e h i c l e s , and a i r modes of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n i n t e r s t a t e commerce t o r e s e r v e some s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y f o r p a s s e n g e r s who do n o t smoke. Repre- s e n t a t i v e P e t e r Kyros sponsored a b i l l t o p r o h i b i t smoking on a i r c r a f t operating i n a i r transportation. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e P e t e r Peyser i n c l u d e d , a s p a r t o f a d r u g abuse e d u c a t i o n b i l l , H.R. 4976, p r o v i s i o n f o r e d u c a t i n g t h e p u b l i c on problems r e l a t i n g t o tobacco a b u s e . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s Frank Denholm i n H . R . i n H.R. 17263 and 17264, and Edward Koch, 17324, i n t r o d u c e d b i l l s t o i n c r e a s e t h e e x c i s e t a x on c i g a r e t t e s , with l a r g e r i n c r e a s e s a p p l i e d t o t h e l o n g e r c i g a r e t t e s . These b i l l s a l s o c a l l e d f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a N a t i o n a l Cancer Research Fund t o be funded from t h e a d d i t i o n a l e x c i s e t a x e s . I n c o n t r a s t , however, R e p r e s e n t a t i v e David Treen i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l , H.R. 13265, t o e l i m i n a t e , o v e r a four-year p e r i o d , t a x e s imposed under t h e I n t e r n a l Revenue Code on c i g a r s , c i g a r e t t e s , c i g a r e t t e p a p e r s , and tubes. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e W i l l i a m Lehman i n t r o d u c e d a number o f b i l l s on t h e subj e c t o f smoking and h e a l t h . One o f them (H.R. 38271, would have r e v i s e d t h e c i g a r e t t e package warning s t a t e m e n t t o r e a d : "Warning: Cigarette Smoking Is Dangerous t o H e a l t h and May Cause Death From Cancer, Coronary H e a r t D i s e a s e , Chronic B r o n c h i t i s , Pulmonary Emphysema, o r Other D i s e a s e s . " A n o t h e r , H.R. 7319, would have r e q u i r e d c i g a r e t t e packages t o d i s c l o s e t h e q u a n t i t i e s o f t a r and n i c o t i n e c o n t a i n e d i n c i g a r e t t e s i n t h e packages. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Lehman, i n F e b r u a r y o f 1973, S e n a t o r Moss i n March, and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e T o r b e r t MacDonald, i n May, i n t r o d u c e d b i l l s , B.R. 3828, S. 1165, and H.R. 7482 r e s p e c t i v e l y , d e s i g n e d t o i n c l u d e t h e s o - c a l l e d " l i t t l e c i g a r " i n t h e b r o a d c a s t ban f o r c i g a r e t t e s . Little c i g a r s had been on t h e market f o r a number of y e a r s ; t h e y were s i m i l a r t o c i g a r e t t e s i n s i z e and s h a p e and packaging, b u t were wrapped i n l e a f tobacco o r r e c o n s t i t u t e d tobacco s h e e t s i m i l a r t o c i g a r s . The l e g i s l a t i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n was d e s i g n e d t o amend t h e F e d e r a l C i g a r e t t e L a b e l i n g and A d v e r t i s i n g Act o f 1965 t o i n c l u d e l i t t l e c i g a r s a s d e f i n e d , under t h e b r o a d c a s t a d v e r t i s i n g p r o h i b i t i o n . The S e n a t e Commerce Committee, a c t i n g w i t h o u t h e a r i n g s , r e p o r t e d S. 1165 on A p r i l 5 , 1973, ( S . Rept. no. 93-103) and t h e S e n a t e passed i t on A p r i l 1 0 , and a g a i n a f t e r r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n on A p r i l 30. The House Committee on I n t e r s t a t e and F o r e i g n Commerce h e l d h e a r i n g s on H.R. 3828 and H.R. r e p o r t e d H.R. 7482 on May 22, 23, and 2 4 , and 7482 on June 22 ( H . Rept. no. 93-323). On September 1 0 , t h e House passed t h e S e n a t e b i l l i n l i e u o f i t s own measure and t h e L i t t l e C i g a r Act o f 1973 was s i g n e d i n t o law on September 2 0 , 1973, a s P.L. 93-109. The smoking-related r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e 9 4 t h Congress involved t h r e e F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s . I n 1973, t h e C i v i l Aeronautics Board and t h e F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n ~ d m i n i s t r a t i o n announced s e p a r a t e a c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i s s u e o f smoking aboard passenger a i r c r a f t . On May 7 , t h e CAB approved a r e g u l a t i o n r e q u i r i n g domestic a i r l i n e s t o provide d e s i g n a t e d "no smoking" a r e a s aboard a i r c r a f t a f t e r J u l y 1, 1973. On J u l y 16, t h e FAA announced t h a t i t was withdrawing a proposed r u l e making f i r s t i s s u e d i n darch 1970 t h a t would have r e g u l a t e d smoking i n t h e passenger compartuients of a i r c r a f t . The CAB'S j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h i s a r e a of passenger a i r l i n e o p e r a t i o n s i s r e l a t e d t o q u e s t i o n s of t h e adequacy of a i r c r a f t o p e r a t i o n based on t h e comfort o f p a s s e n g e r s . The FAA, on t h e o t h e r hand, i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with q u e s t i o n s of a i r c r a f t s a f e t y , hence i t s long-standing p r o h i b i t i o n , a s a s a f e t y h a z a r d , of smoking d u r i n g t a k e o f f and l a n d i n g , and i n a i r c r a f t l a v a t o r i e s . I n i t s 1973 d e c i s i o n , t h e FAA determined t h a t smoking d u r i n g f l i g h t was n o t a s a f e t y hazard and, t h e r e f o r e , n o t a m a t t e r f o r i t s f u r t h e r concern. The CAB, however, determined t h a t smoking d u r i n g f l i g h t was d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e convenience and comfort of p a s s e n g e r s , and decided t o proceed w i t h i t s a c t i o n t o r e q u i r e "no smoking" a r e a s . On February 1, 1973, Senator Frank Moss and t h e American P u b l i c Health A s s o c i a t i o n p e t i t i o n e d t h e Consumer Product S a f e t y Commission ( CPSC) to s e t a maximum l e v e l of 2 1 m i l l i g r a m s of t a r i n c i g a r e t t e s and ban f r o m s a l e i n i n t e r s t a t e commerce any c i g a r e t t e s y i e l d i n g more t h a n t h a t l e v e l . Consumer P r o d u c t S a f e t y A c t , P.L. 92-573, The e n a c t e d i n 1972, had s p e c i f i c a l l y exempted " t o b a c c o and t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s " from t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e Commiss i o n , b u t t h e p e t i t i o n e r s claimed t h a t t h e Commission s t i l l had a u t h o r i t y under t h e F e d e r a l Hazardous S u b s t a n c e s Act t o c l a s s i f y h i g h t a r y i e l d c i g a r e t t e s as a "banned hazardous s u b s t a n c e . " A f t e r t h e CPSC had t a k e n t h e m a t t e r under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , S e n a t o r Sam J . E r v i n , J r . i n December of 1973, w r o t e t o t h e C o m p t r o l l e r General o f t h e U.S. a s k i n g v h e t h e r t h e GAO c o n c u r r e d w i t h S e n a t o r E r v i n ' s p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e Comm i s s i o n had no j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h i s a r e a and t h a t " t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f publ i c f u n d s by t h e Commission i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h any a t t e m p t t o r e g u l a t e t o bacco o r t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s would be i l l e g a l and i n v i o l a t i o n o f t h e l a w . " The GAO s t u d i e d t h e i s s u e and r e p o r t e d back t o S e n a t o r E r v i n i n A p r i l 1974. T h i s r e p o r t concluded t h a t : ( 1 ) The F e d e r a l Hazardous S u b s t a n c e s Act (FHSA) a t t h e t i m e o f i t s enactment d i d n o t i n c l u d e t o b a c c o o r t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s w i t h i n i t s purview; ( 2 ) a u t h o r i t y t h a t n e v e r e x i s t e d under t h e F e d e r a l Hazardous S u b s t a n c e s Act t o r e g u l a t e t o b a c c o c o u l d n o t be t r a n f e r r e d t o t h e CPSC; ( 3 ) a l t h o u g h t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s might b e i n c l u d e d under t h e g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n o f "hazardous s u b s t a n c e s " under t h e FHSA, t h e Congress had e n a c t e d s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n g o v e r n i n g smoking and h e a l t h i n 1965 and 1969, preempting t h e f i e l d ; ( 4 ) t h e CPSC, w h i l e i t d i d have j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e FHSA and t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f "consumer p r o d u c t s ," was not given a u t h o r i t y t o administer t h e various c i g a r e t t e a c t s , t h e Congress r e s e r v i n g such d e c i s i o n s t o i t s e l f ; and f i n a l l y ( 5 ) t h e Comptroller General b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e Commission d i d n o t have t h e a u t h o r i t y t o a c t on t h e p e t i t i o n t o ban o r t o a c t on any o t h e r t h e s a l e of high t a r c i g a r e t t e s matter r e l a t i n g t o the r e g u l a t i o n of tobacco products u n l e s s o r u n t i l t h e Congress saw f i t t o c o n f e r such j u r i s d i c t i o n on t h e Commission. - On May 1 7 , 1974, t h e Consumer Product S a f e t y Commission m e t and v o t e d 3-2 t h a t i t lacked t h e a u t h o r i t y t o a c t on t h e p e t i t i o n t o ban h i g h t a r cigarettes. T h i s d e c i s i o n was based on l e g a l a n a l y s e s by t h e CPSC l e g a l c o u n s e l a s w e l l a s c o n c l u s i o n s reached by t h e GAO. 1975-1976 The 9 4 t h Congress was a p e r i o d of moderate l e g i s l a t i v e and r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t y on t h e i s s u e s o f smoking and h e a l t h . Most l e g i s l a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d c o n s i s t e d of r e i n t r o d u c t i o n s o f b i l l s from p r e v i o u s Congresses o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s t h e r e o f . i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l , H.R. aboard a i r c r a f t s . R e l i e f Act, H.R. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Ken Hechler 491, s i m i l a r t o p a s t measures t o p r o h i b i t smoking R e p r e s e n t a t i v e B i l l Young r e i n t r o d u c e d t h e Nonsmokers 1227, t o r e q u i r e t h e r e s e r v i n g of s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y f o r nonsmokers i n r a i l , motor v e h i c l e , and a i r c a r r i e r s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Edward Koch r e i n t r o d u c e d l e g i s l a t i o n t o i n c r e a s e e x c i s e t a x e s on c i g a r e t t e s by l e n g t h with proceeds going t o a N a t i o n a l Cancer Research Fund (H.K. 584). b i l l , H.R. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Robert Drinan i n t r o d u c e d a s i m i l a r 1605, t o i n c r e a s e t a x e s on c i g a r e t t e s by s i z e w i t h proceeds going t o programs d e a l i n g w i t h lung and blood d i s e a s e s . Senator Edward Brooke o f f e r e d a b i l l , S. 2896, which would have i n c r e a s e d e x c i s e t a x e s on c i g a r e t t e s by $2.50 per thousand with proceeds d i v i d e d a s f o l l o w s : 66 p e r c e n t t o t h e N a t i o n a l Cancer I n s t i t u t e , 31 p e r c e n t t o t h e N a t i o n a l H e a r t I n s t i t u t e , and t h r e e p e r c e n t t o t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f Environmental Health Services. S e n a t o r Frank Moss r e i n t r o d u c e d t h e Low Tar and N i c o t i n e A c t , S. 2248, t o p r o v i d e t h a t t h e FTC e s t a b l i s h a c c e p t a b l e maximum l e v e l s o f t a r and n i c o t i n e t h a t may be p r e s e n t i n c i g a r e t t e s . On March 26, 1975, S e n a t o r Moss a g a i n a t t e m p t e d t o e l i m i n a t e p r i c e s u p p o r t s f o r t o b a c c o f a r m e r s , t h i s time by means o f f l o o r amendments t o a b i l l , H.R. 4296, t o a d j u s t t a r g e t p r i c e s , l o a n s , and p u r c h a s e l e v e l s o f c e r t a i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . S e n a t o r Moss's f i r s t amendment t o e l i m i n a t e t o b a c c o p r i c e s u p p o r t s immedia t e l y , was d e f e a t e d by a v o t e of 26-55. out t h e supports over a three-year H i s second amendment, t o phase p e r i o d , was d e f e a t e d by 32-51. The t h i r d amendment, which would have e l i m i n a t e d t h e i n c r e a s e p l a c e d on t h e s u p p o r t p r i c e f o r t o b a c c o by t h e b i l l under c o n s i d e r a t i o n from 60 p e r c e n t o f p a r i t y t o 70 p e r c e n t , was d e f e a t e d by v o t e of 35-48. I n November o f 1975, R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Robert Drinan i n t r o d u c e d t h e Smoker and Nonsmoker H e a l t h P r o t e c t i o n A c t , H.R. 10748, an omnibus b i l l . I t s t h r e e t i t l e s c o n t a i n e d many p r o v i s i o n s s u g g e s t e d by e a r l i e r p r o p o s a l s . T i t l e I was d e s i g n e d t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e e x i s t i n g l a b e l i n g and a d v e r t i s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , w i t h p r o v i s i o n s t o : ( 1 ) s t r e n g t h e n t h e package warning l a b e l ; ( 2 ) r e q u i r e t a r and n i c o t i n e l e v e l s t o be p r i n t e d on e a c h package; ( 3 ) r e q u i r e a d v e r t i s i n g t o c a r r y b o t h t h e s t r e n g t h e n e d warning and t h e t a r and n i c o t i n e l e v e l s ; ( 4 ) r e p e a l t h e preemption o f S t a t e a c t i o n on a d v e r t i s i n g and l a b e l i n g ; and ( 5 ) r e q u i r e t h a t c i g a r e t t e s manufactured f o r e x p o r t c a r r y a warning l a b e l i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r y . T i t l e 11 would have r e g u l a t e d smoking i n F e d e r a l and i n t e r s t a t e b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f nonsmokers. T i t l e 111 i n c o r p o r a t e d ~ e p r e s e n t a t i v eD r i n a n ' s e a r l i e r b i l l t o i n c r e a s e c i g a r e t t e t a x e s t o expand m e d i c a l r e s e a r c h . S e n a t o r Mark H a t f i e l d s p o n s o r e d t h e D r i n a n b i l l i n t h e S e n a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , S. 2906. I n J a n u a r y of 1976, S e n a t o r s Gary Hart and Edward Kennedy i n t r o d u c e d t h e N a t i o n a l H e a l t h Research and Development A c t , S. 2902, which i n c l u d e d a p r o v i s i o n t o amend t h e I n t e r n a l Revenue Act t o e s t a b l i s h a new t a x on c i g a r e t t e s based on t a r and n i c o t i n e c o n t e n t , w i t h p r o c e e d s g o i n g f o r h e a l t h s e r v i c e s r e s e a r c h and development. I n F e b r u a r y , March, and May, t h e H e a l t h Subcommittee o f t h e S e n a t e Labor and P u b l i c W e l f a r e Committee h e l d t h r e e d a y s o f h e a r i n g s on t h e p r o p o s a l and on t h e g e n e r a l s u b j e c t o f c i g a r e t t e smoking and d i s e a s e . Then on August 6 , S e n a t o r H a r t o f f e r e d h i s p r o p o s a l f o r a " h e a l t h p r o t e c t i o n t a x " on c i g a r e t t e s a s a f l o o r amendment i n t h e S e n a t e d e b a t e on t a x r e i o r m l e g i s l a t i o n . The p r o p o s a l was d e f e a t e d w i t h a 60-25 r o l l c a l l v o t e on a motion t o l a y t h e amendment on t h e t a b l e . On October 5 , 1 9 7 6 , t h e C i v i l A e r o n a u t i c s Board p u b l i s h e d a p r o p o s a l f o r a change i n i t s r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g smoking on a i r c r a f t . The CAB'S pro- posed r e g u l a t i o n would have banned t h e smoking o f p i p e s and c i g a r s on a i r c a r r i e r s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e d i s c o m f o r t t h e y c a u s e d nonsmokers. The pro- p o s a l a l s o a d d r e s s e d i t s e l f t o t h e improvement o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s and a c c e p t a n c e o f nonsmoking s e c t i o n s aboard a i r p l a n e s . The CAB i n v i t e d com- ments from i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s on i t s p r o p o s a l s and on r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s , s u c h a s whether a l l smoking aboard a i r p l a n e s s h o u l d be p r o h i b i t e d . After an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e d e a d l i n e f o r t h e s u b m i s s i o n o f such comments t o Janu a r y 21, 1977, t h e Board r e c e i v e d more t h a n 25,000 comments on t h e proposed changes and r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n r . The CAB had n o t reached a f i n a l d e c i s i o n on t h e m a t t e r when t h e 9 5 t h Congress drew t o a c l o s e i n October o f 1978, but c o n t i n u e d t o s t u d y and c o n s i d e r t h e e x t e n s i v e number o f comments r e c e i v e d on i t s proposed changes. period of extreme c o n t r a s t s with re- The 9 5 t h Congress was a two-year g a r d t o smoking and h e a l t h a c t i v i t i e s . The f i r s t y e a r m i r r o r e d t h e a c t i o n s of many p r e v i o u s y e a r s , w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o r r e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f b i l l s which r e c e i v e d l i t t l e o r no s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i v i t y . changed r a d i c a l l y . In 1978, however, t h i s In J a n u a r y , t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e S e c r e t a r y o f H e a l t h , Education, and Welfare, i n i t i a t e d a broad-based a t t a c k on c i g a r e t t e smoking, f o c u s i n g on e d u c a t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n , and r e s e a r c h i n an e f f o r t t o reduce b o t h t h e h e a l t h h a z a r d s of smoking and t h e i n c i d e n c e o f smoking i t s e l f . 1977 On t h e opening day of t h e 95th Congress, J a n u a r y 4, 1977, R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Robert Drinan i n t r o d u c e d a package o f t h r e e b i l l s whose p r o v i s i o n s he had sponsored i n b i l l s i n previous Congresses. H.R. 838 r e q u i r e d t h e S e c r e t a r y of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and k e l f a r e t o i n c l u d e i n h i s annual r e p o r t on t h e h e a l t h consequences of smoking, i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e e f f e c t o f i n v o l u n t a r y c i g a r e t t e i n h a l a t i o n on nonsmokers. H.R. 839, t h e P u b l i c Health C i g a r e t t e Smoking Act, was designed t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e 1965 l a b e l i n g a c t . H.R. 862, t h e F e d e r a l Nonsmokers P r o t e c t i o n Act, was designed t o p r o t e c t nonsmokers by p r o h i b i t i n g smoking i n s p e c i f i e d a r e a s o f F e d e r a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n i n t e r s t a t e passenger c a r r i e r f a c i l i t i e s and by r e q u i r i n g F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s Con- t o permit nonsmokers t o have s e p a r a t e work a r e a s where p r a c t i c a l . gressman Drinan l a t e r t h a t month i n t r o d u c e d a n o t h e r b i l l , t h e Health P r o t e c t i o n C i g a r e t t e Tax Act, H.R. 2040, which would have e s t a b l i s h e d a g r a d u a t e d s c a l e o f F e d e r a l e x c i s e t a x r a t e s on c i g a r e t t e s based on t a r and n i c o t i n e c o n t e n t . This p r o p o s a l was i d e n t i c a l t o t h e amendment t h a t S e n a t o r Gary Hart had t r i e d and f a i l e d t o add t o t h e Tax Reform Act i n 1976. Senator Hart and o t h e r s , r e i n t r o d u c e d t h i s p r o p o s a l i n t h e Senate i n A p r i l , a s S. 1260. Other p r o p o s a l s from e a r l i e r Congresses were r e i n t r o d u c e d e a r l y i n t h e 95th Congress. B i l l s t o i n c r e a s e t h e c i g a r e t t e e x c i s e t a x w i t h pro- c e e d s going t o medical r e s e a r c h were i n t r o d u c e d by R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Edward Koch, H.R. 954, and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Robert Roe, H.R. 2169. Repre- s e n t a t i v e B i l l Young r e i n t r o d u c e d h i s p r o p o s a l t o r e q u i r e s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y f o r nonsmokers i n a i r p l a n e s , r a i l r o a d c a r s , and o t h e r common c a r r i e r s H.K. 2239. A p r o p o s a l from R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Edward Beard, H.R. 5676, t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e package warning l a b e l , r e q u i r e i t s i n c l u s i o n i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , and r e g u l a t e smoking i n F e d e r a l and i n t e r s t a t e passenger f a c i l i t i e s was s i m i l a r t o o t h e r p r o p o s a l s from p a s t Congresses. I n J u n e , R e p r e s e n t a t i v e James Johnson t o o k up t h e e f f o r t f o r m e r l y waged by S e n a t o r Frank Moss t o e l i m i n a t e F e d e r a l e x p e n d i t u r e s on b e h a l f of t h e tobacco i n d u s t r y . His f l o o r amendment t o t h e FY 1978 Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e a p p r o p r i a t i o n s b i l l would have p r o h i b i t e d t h e u s e of F e d e r a l funds t o pay f o r s a l a r i e s o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses c o n c e r n i n g l o a n s , p r i c e s u p p o r t s , s a l e s o r any o t h e r d i s p o s a l program w i t h r e s p e c t t o tobacco o r tobacco products. vote. me amendment was d e f e a t e d by v o i c e L a t e r i n t h e y e a r , R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Johnson and o t h e r s i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l , a g a i n f o r m e r l y s u p p o r t e d by former S e n a t o r Moss, t o d i r e c t t h e S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o conduct a s t u d y t a d e t e r m i n e t h e p r o b a b l e economic e f f e c t o f a c e s s a t i o n o f F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i n g t o promote t o b a c c o p r o d u c t i o n and t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g and m a r k e t i n g o f t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s f o r human consumption. I n J u l y of 1977, t h e F e d e r a l Trade Conrmission, i n i t s a n n u a l r e p o r t t o t h e C o n g r e s s , recommended a s t r o n g e r warning l a b e l on c i g a r e t t e packages p l u s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t a r and n i c o t i n e c o n t e n t b o t h on t h e package and i n a l l advertising. ing: The Commission s u g g e s t e d two warning s t a t e m e n t s : "karn- C i g a r e t t e Smoking i s Dangerous t o H e a l t h and May Cause Death from C a n c e r , Coronary Heart D i s e a s e , Chronic B r o n c h i t i s , Pulmonary Emphysema, and Other D i s e a s e s " ; o r "Warning: C i g a r e t t e Smoking i s a Major H e a l t h Haz- a r d and hay R e s u l t i n Your Death." The F'TC a l s o recommended t h a t a s t r o n g warning l a b e l be p l a c e d on l i t t l e c i g a r p a c k a g e s . Two new p i e c e s o f smoking-related l a t t e r h a l f o f 1977. l e g i s l a t i o n were i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e S e n a t o r P a t r i c k Leahy i n t r o d u c e d a r e s o l u t i o n , S. Res. 333, t o ban c i g a r e t t e smoking i n a l l S e n a t e h e a r i n g rooms d u r i n g public hearings. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Gene S n y d e r ' s b i l l , H . R . 8592, was d e s i g n e d t o c l a r i f y t h e r i g h t s o f smokers aboard c a r r i e r a i r c r a f t by r e q u i r i n g t h a t no a i r c a r r i e r g i v e any p r e f e r e n c e o r a d v a n t a g e t o p a s s e n g e r s who u s e o r do n o t u s e t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s e x c e p t a s r e q u i r e d f o r a i r s a f e t y . N e i t h e r b i l l was a c t e d upon. On January 11, 1978, t h e f o u r t e e n t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e Surgeon ~ e n e r a l ' sReport on Smoking and H e a l t h , H E W S e c r e t a r y Joseph C a l i f a n o , a d d r e s s i n g a meeting of t h e N a t i o n a l I n t e r a g e n c y Council on Smoking and H e a l t h , c a l l e d c i g a r e t t e smoking " p u b l i c H e a l t h Enemy Number One i n t h e United S t a t e s . " The S e c r e t a r y reviewed t h e a c t i o n s t a k e n by t h e Department d u r i n g t h e y e a r s s i n c e t h e 1964 r e p o r t t o e d u c a t e t h e p u b l i c on t h e dangers o t smoking and t o encourage people t o c e a s e smoking o r n o t t a k e i t up i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . He a l s o d e s c r i b e d accomplishments t h a t had been made a s w e l l a s a l l t h a t s t i l l needed t o be done, p a r t i c u l a r l y r e g a r d i n g young people. F i n a l l y S e c r e t a r y C a l i f a n o announced a "vigorous new program on smoking and h e a l t h : r e g u l a t i o n , and r e s e a r c h -- a program of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , backed by h i g h e r b u d g e t s , more e n e r g e t i c e f f o r t s , and a renewed commitment from t h e government department t h a t i s charged w i t h p r o t e c t i n g t h e n a t i o n ' s h e a l t h . " A s d e s c r i b e d by t h e S e c r e t a r y , t h e p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n element o f t h e new program would i n c l u d e : e f f o r t s t o i n c r e a s e t h e number of anti-smoking announcements b r o a d c a s t on r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n ; e f f o r t s t o i n c r e a s e h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n programs d e a l i n g w i t h smoking i n t h e n a t i o n ' s s c h o o l s ; r e s e a r c h by t h e National I n s t i t u t e o f Education and t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f Child h e a l t h and Human Development on m o t i v a t i o n s t h a t encourage o r d i s c o u r a g e sqoking i n c h i l d r e n and t e e n a g e r s ; development o f a broad p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n and awareness program t o m o t i v a t e young people n o t t o smoke; and s p e c i a l e f f o r t s t a r g e t e d a t h i g h - r i s k g r o u p s , such a s pregnant women, workers i n e s p e c i a l l y dangerous o c c u p a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s , and p e r s o n s w i t h h e a l t h problems l i k e l y t o b e worsened by smoking. The r e g u l a t o r y e l e m e n t o f t h e S e c r e t a r y ' s program was aimed a t e n c o u r a g i n g more v i g o r o u s e n f o r c e m e n t e f f o r t s a g a i n s t smoking and t o p r o t e c t t h e r i g h t s o f nonsmokers i n p u b l i c p l a c e s . include: Such e f f o r t s would a new smoking p o l i c y i n t h e HEW D e p a r t m e n t ' s own f a c i l i t i e s which would r e s t r i c t a r e a s i n which smoking would be p e r m i t t e d , w i t h t h e g e n e r a l r u l e t o be "No Smoking -- e x c e p t i n smoking a r e a s " ; encourage- ment o f a s i m i l a r p o l i c y f o r p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s , o t h e r F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s t h r o u g h t h e G e n e r a l S e r v i c e s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n commercial a i r l i n e r s t h r o u g h t h e C i v i l A e r o n a u t i c s Board, and i n S t a t e f a c i l i t i e s t h r o u g h State legislation. The S e c r e t a r y d i r e c t e d t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r O c c u p a t i o n a l S a f e t y and H e a l t h t o d e v e l o p s t a n d a r d s f o r r e s t r i c t i n g smoking i n h a z a r d o u s work s e t t i n g s . The F e d e r a l T r a d e Commission would c o n s i d e r recommendations c o n c e r n i n g h e a l t h w a r n i n g s on packages and i n a d v e r t i s i n g , and on empowering t h e Federal. Government t o s e t maximum l e v e l s f o r hazardous substances i n c i g a r e t t e s . A t h i r d e l e m e n t o f t h e p r o p o s a l was a n expanded and more comprehen- s i v e program o f r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e s u b j e c t o f smoking and h e a l t h , i n c l u d i n g s u c h a r e a s a s t h e e p i d e m i o l o g y o f smoking, t h e development o f a l e s s h a z a r d o u s c i g a r e t t e , t h e e f f e c t o f smoke on t h e h e a l t h o f nonsmokers, t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t y p e s o f smokers a t g r e a t e s t r i s k , t h e f a c t o r s t h a t l e a d p e o p l e t o smoke and t o dependence on t o b a c c o , and t h e most e f f e c t i v e methods and t e c h n i q u e s i n h e l p i n g p e o p l e q u i t smoking. A s a f o u r t h e l e m e n t , S e c r e t a r y C a l i f a n o d e s c r i b e d a number o f i n c e n - t i v e s , f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r w i s e , t h a t would be e x p l o r e d as p o s s i b l e ways o f h e l p i n g p e o p l e r e d u c e t h e i r smoking. The S e c r e t a r y announced t h e f o r - m a t i o n , w i t h t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y , o f a t a s k f o r c e t o examine t a x p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g t o c i g a r e t t e u s e , i n c l u d i n g such p o s s i b l e measures a s a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e F e d e r a l e x c i s e t a x on c i g a r e t t e s and a g r a d u a t e d t a x a c c o r d i n g t o n i c o t i n e , t a r , and c a r b o n monoxide c o n t e n t . A s a n o t h e r f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e , t h e S e c r e t a r y announced t h a t h e was ask- i n g i n s u r a n c e p r o v i d e r s t o c o n s i d e r o f f e r i n g s p e c i a l premium d i s c o u n t s and o t h e r a d v a n t a g e s t o nonsmokers. The S e c r e t a r y a l s o announced t h a t h e was e s t a b l i s h i n g a new O f f i c e on Smoking and H e a l t h , r e p o r t i n g d i r e c t l y t o t h e A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y on Health, to: c o o r d i n a t e a l l HEW a c t i o n on smoking and h e a l t h ; p r o v i d e " s e e d money" t o government and v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s f o r r e s e a r c h and demons t r a t i o n programs; and o v e r s e e t h e development o f new media and i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l s on smoking and h e a l t h . The N a t i o n a l C l e a r i n g h o u s e o n Smoking and H e a l t h would be t h e n u c l e u s of t h e new o f f i c e , moving from A t l a n t a t o Washington i n t h e p r o c e s s . The S e c r e t a r y s a i d t h a t , i n c r e a t i n g t h i s new o f f i c e and i n i t i a t i n g t h e new smoking and h e a l t h a c t i v i t i e s , he was o p e r a t i n g u n d e r e x i s t i n g a u t h o r i t y from t h e N a t i o n a l Consumer H e a l t h I n f o r m a t i o n and H e a l t h Prom o t i o n Act of 1976, P.L. 94-317. The O f f i c e on Smoking and H e a l t h would b e g i n o p e r a t i o n s i n FY 1978, funded by what t h e S e c r e t a r y termed " r e p r o grammed'' funds a u t h o r i z e d by t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n , and i n FY 1979 would o v e r s e e a $ 2 3 m i l l i o n d e p a r t m e n t a l campaign on smoking and h e a l t h . F i n a l l y t h e S e c r e t a r y announced t h a t he had asked t h e Surgeon G e n e r a l t o p r e p a r e a new Surgeon G e n e r a l ' s r e p o r t f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1979. He wanted t h i s new r e p o r t t o become " t h e m a j o r compendium o f r e s e a r c h on smoking and h e a l t h o v e r t h e p a s t g e n e r a t i o n , " b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h d a t a s i n c e t h e 1964 r e p o r t . In r e s p o n s e t o t h e S e c r e t a r y ' s announced program, R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S t e p h e n Neal o f North C a r o l i n a on J a n u a r y 30 i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l , H . R . 10609, d e s i g n e d t o p r o h i b i t t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f f u n d s by H E W o n an i n f o r m a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n program. The b i l l , which was r e i n t r o d u c e d t h e f o l l o w i n g day by R e p r e s e n t a t i v e h e a l w i t h t h e o t h e r members o f t h e North C a r o l i n a d e l e g a t i o n a s c o - s p o n s o r s , would have l i m i t e d t h e expen- d i t u r e o f t h e p r o j e c t e d funds t o a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e h a r m f u l p r o p e r t i e s s f t o b a c c o and t h e d a n g e r o u s e f f e c t s o f smoking. Representa- t i v e Neal c a l l e d t h i s a " f a r more p r o d u c t i v e u s e o f t h e money." A similar p r o p o s a l , S. 5210, t o p r o h i b i t funds f o r t h e program was i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e S e n a t e by S e n a t o r Robert Morgan on F e b r u a r y 7 . None o f t h e s e b i l l s r e c e i v e d any f u r t h e r a c t i o n . On F e b r u a r y 1 3 , t h e Subcommittee on P u b i i c H e a l t h and t h e Environment o f t h e House Committee on I n t e r s t a t e and F o r e i g n Commerce h e l d h e a r i n g s on t h e S e c r e t a r y ' s a n t i s m o k i n g i n i t i a t i v e s . The purpose o f t h e h e a r i n g , a c c o r d i n g t o Subcommittee Chairman R e p r e s e n t a t i v e P a u l Rogers, was " t o h e a r d i r e c t l y from t h e S e c r e t a r y , a s w e l l a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g r o u p s bogh s u p p o r t i n g and o p p o s i n g h i s announced p l a n s , s o t h a t we may have t h e f u l l b e n e f i t o f a l l views i n t h i s a r e a . " I n h i s statement, Secretary Califano r e i t e r a t e d h i s reasons f o r i n i t i a t i n g t h e program a g a i n s t c i g a r e t t e s , h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n t o keep young p e o p l e from s t a r t i n g t o smoke and t o h e l p t h o s e a l r e a d y smoking t o q u i t , h i s c o n c e r n f o r t h o s e w i t h s p e c i a l h e a l t h r i s k s and f o r t h e r i g h t s o f nonsmokers t o b e a b l e t o work i n a smoke-free e n v i r o n m e n t . I n q u e s t i o n i n g S e c r e t a r y C a l i f a n o on h i s proposed i n i t i a t i v e , members o f t h e subcommittee g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t e d t h a t p o r t i o n o f h i s program d e a l i n g w i t h e d u c a t i n g c h i l d r e n about s t a r t i n g t o smoke. Some members however, d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e aims o f t h e i n i t i a t i v e s , c i t i n g such i s s u e s a s Government i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h p e o p l e ' s r i g h t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e r i g h t t o smoke; i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e r i g h t s o f f a r m e r s t o e a r n a l i v i n g ; c o n f u s i o n a b o u t a c t u a l numbers o f p e r s o n s who c o n t r a c t d i s e a s e s o r d i e a s a r e s u l t o f c i g a r e t t e smoking; l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n t o o t h e r f a c t o r s , s u c h as c e r t a i n a i r p o l l u t a n t s , which may c a u s e some o f t h e problems a t t r i b u t e d t o c i g a r e t t e smoki n g ; and l a c k o f c o n c r e t e e v i d e n c e t h a t c i g a r e t t e smoking h a s more t h a n a s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d i s e a s e , d i s a b i l i t y , and d e a t h . Other subcommittee members e x p r e s s e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e S e c r e t a r y ' s i n i t i a t i v e and i n some c a s e s , wondered why i t d i d n o t go f u r t h e r , i n t o s u c h a r e a s a s i n c r e a s i n g F e d e r a l t a x e s on c i g a r e t t e s , and e l i m i n a t i n g F e d e r a l p r i c e s u p p o r t s f o r t o b a c c o f a r m e r s , c i t i n g , i n t h e l a t t e r c a s e , an a p p e a r ance o f h y p o c r i s y on t h e Government's p a r t i n condemning smoking on t h e one hand and f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t i n g t h e farming o f t o b a c c o on t h e o t h e r . A p o i n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e mechanism f o r f u n d i n g t h e i n i t i a t i v e s was b r o u g h t up s e v e r a l t i m e s d u r i n g t h e h e a r i n g . I n h i s J a n u a r y 11 s p e e c h , t h e S e c r e t a r y had s a i d t h a t t h e new O f f i c e o f Smoking and H e a l t h would begin operation in FY 1978 with "several million dollars of reprogrammed funds." He was questioned at the hearing by Representative Tim Lee Carter about his use of the term "reprogrammed." In addition, an exchange of letters between the Secretary and the Chairman of the House Labor-HEW Appropriations Subcommittee, Representative Daniel Flood, was placed in the hearings record. These letters discussed the point that reprogram- ming budget items in the manner in which the Secretary was describing would have to be reviewed and approved by the Appropriations Committee. Secretary Califano responded, to both questions at the hearings and to Representative Flood's letter, that he had misused the word "reprogrammed" in his January speech, and that what he was actually proposing was to retarget funds within a budget line item. Such a "retargeting," the Secretary contended, was a legitimate step to take and did not require any further Appropriations Committee review. The subcommittee also heard testimony from: the tobacco industry represented by the Tobacco Institute, which generally opposed the initiative; an anti-smoking organization, Action on Smoking and Health, which supported the Secretary's concern, but felt that the initiative did not go far enough; a panel representing four national health organizations, which supported the Secretary's actions; and a representative of both the North Carolina and ~mericanFarm Bureau, who opposed the initiative. On May 12, 1978, Representative James Johnson made another attempt to halt the Federal Government from financially supporting the tobacco farming and the tobacco business. During the floor debate on the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978, the legislation to amend and e x t e n d t h e Food f o r Peace program, R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Johnson o f f e r e d a n m e n d ment t o d e l e t e f u n d s , t o t a l l i n g $11.3 m i l l i o n , f o r t h e p u r c h a s e o f t o b a c c o f o r e x p o r t under t h e program. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Robert F. D r i n a n , who spoke i n s u p p o r t o f t h e amendment, s a i d t h a t i t would " s i m p l y remove t h e hypoc r i s y and i n c o n s i s t e n c y from one o f o u r N a t i o n ' s most s u c c e s s f u l f o r e i g n a i d programs. " Representative Carl Perkins, speaking i n o p p o s i t i o n , noted t h a t " t o b a c c o i s n o t f o r c e d upon any n a t i o n , " and t h a t i f we d i d n o t prov i d e i t , t h e y would buy i t e l s e w h e r e , and " a l l we would be d o i n g would be h u r t i n g hundreds o f t h o u s a n d s o f s m a l l f a r m e r s i n t h i s c o u n t r y who make t h e i r l i v i n g from growing tobacco." The amendment was d e f e a t e d by a r o l l - c a l l v o t e of 189-126. On May 1 9 , S e n a t o r Edward Kennedy and o t h e r s i n t r o d u c e d a s e r i e s o f b i l l s d e a l i n g with preventive h e a l t h t h a t included provisions concerning smoking and h e a l t h . One of t h e s e b i l l s , S . 3115, t h e D i s e a s e P r e v e n t i o n and H e a l t h Promotion Act of 1978, c o n t a i n e d f o u r s e p a r a t e t i t l e s author i z i n g a v a r i e t y o f programs i n t h e a r e a s o f p r e v e n t i v e h e a l t h and h e a l t h promotion. T i t l e I V was e n t i t l e d "Programs Designed t o Promote H e a l t h t h r o u g h Smoking D e t e r r e n c e . " T h i s t i t l e was i n t r o d u c e d a t t h e same t i m e a s a s e p a r a t e b i l l , S. 3118, t h e Smoking D e t e r r e n c e Act o f 1978. T h i s pro- p o s a l combined s e v e r a l e l e m e n t s i n t o a broad anti-smoking campaign, a s follows : 1. A major F e d e r a l i n i t i a t i v e aimed a t t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f smoking among c h i l d r e n ; 2. The i n s t i t u t i o n of a system of r e v o l v i n g warning l a b e l s t o r e p l a c e t h e c u r r e n t warning on c i g a r e t t e p a c k a g e s . The l e g i s l a t i o n l i s t e d t e n new l a b e l w a r n i n g s , t o b e a f f i x e d on a random b a s i s on c i g a r e t t e packages. This i d e a was based on e x p e r i e n c e i n c e r t a i n European c o u n t r i e s t h a t more i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e d a n g e r s o f smoking can be conveyed and t h a t consumers w i l l n o t i c e them more i f t h e l a b e l s change and t h e i r c o n t e n t v a r i e s ; 3. A r e q u i r e m e n t i n law t h a t a l l F e d e r a l b u i l d i n g s and a l l carriers in interstate transportation set side a r e a s f o r nonsmokers ; 4. The i n s t i t u t i o n o f a F e d e r a l h e a l t h p r o t e c t i o n t a x , which would t a x c i g a r e t t e s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r t a r and n i c o t i n e c o n t e n t ; 5. A u t h o r i z a t i o n o f s t u d i e s by t h e S e c r e t a r y on t h e h e a l t h r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h smoking c i g a r e t t e s o f v a r y i n g l e v e l s of t a r and n i c o t i n e and w i t h s u b s t a n c e s commonly added t o c o m m e r c i a l l y manufactured c i g a r e t t e s . Another b i l l i n t r o d u c e d a t t h i s t i m e b y S e n a t o r Kennedy was S. 3116, t h e Formula and P r o j e c t G r a n t s f o r P r e v e n t i v e H e a l t h S e r v i c e s and Resources f o r D i s e a s e s P r e v e n t i o n and H e a l t h Promotion Act o f 1978. On May 25, J u n e 7 and 9 , t h e Subcommittee on H e a l t h and S c i e n t i f i c Research o f t h e S e n a t e Committee on Human Resources h e l d h e a r i n g s on t h e v a r i o u s proposals, On September 1 5 , 1978, t h e f u l l Committee r e p o r t e d S. 3116 w i t h amendments (S. Rept. no. 95-1196) t o t h e S e n a t e . As reported, t h e b i l l c o n t a i n e d , among o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s , two new a u t h o r i z a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h smoking and h e a l t h . These p r o v i s i o n s were t a k e n from S. 3115, t i t l e IV, o r S. 3118, a s o r i g i n a l l y i n t r o d u c e d , w i t h a few changes. The f i r s t new a u t h o r i t y c r e a t e d a program t o d e t e r c h i l d h o o d smoking, a u t h o r i z i n g $5 m i l l i o n a y e a r f o r two y e a r s f o r b i o m e d i c a l and b e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h and $10 m i l l i o n a y e a r f o r two y e a r s f o r g r a n t s f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s o f community- o r school-based programs t o d e t e r c h i l d h o o d smoking. The o t h e r new a u t h o r i t y was f o r s t u d i e s on t h e h e a l t h r i s k s o f c i g a r e t t e s w i t h v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f t a r , n i c o t i n e , c a r b o n monoxide, and o t h e r a d d i t i v e s . OR September 2 9 , t h e t e x t o f S. 3116, i n c l u d i n g t h e smoking and h e a l t h p r o v i s i o n s , was i n s e r t e d i n S. 2474, a b i l l t o amend and e x t e n d a number o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s programs. S. 2474 was p a s s e d b y t h e S e n a t e and a c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t h e House was h e l d . The Eiouse c o u n t e r p a r t b i l l t o S . 2474 had c o n t a i n e d no p r o v i s i o n r e l a t e d t o smoking and h e a l t h , and t h e b i l l r e p o r t e d o u t o f c o n f e r e n c e on October 15 ( H . Rept. no 95-1799) a d o p t e d t h e S e n a t e p r o v i s i o n w i t h one change: i n t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r t h e comprehensive program t o d e t e r smoking among c h i l d r e n , language was added t o p r o v i d e a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e program t o d e t e r a l s o " t h e u s e o f a l c o h o l i c b e v e r a g e s " among c h i l d r e n . The c o n f e r e n c e b i l l i n c l u d e d t h e a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e s t u d i e s by t h e S e c r e t a r y w i t h no change from t h e S e n a t e b i l l . Both t h e House and S e n a t e a g r e e d t o t h e c o n f e r e n c e r e p o r t on S. 2474, and t h e b i l l , t h e H e a l t h S e r v i c e s and C e n t e r s Amendments o f 1978, was s i g n e d i n t o law on November 10, 1978, P.L. 95-626. On August 1 0 , d u r i n g t h e S e n a t e f l o o r d e b a t e on t h e A g r i c u l t u r e Depart- m e n t ' s FY 1979 a p p r o p r i a t i o n s b i l l , S e n a t o r C l a i b o r n e P e l l o f f e r e d an amendment t o e l i m i n a t e from t h e b i l l an a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f $3,106,000 f o r t o b a c c o p r o d u c t i o n r e s e a r c h , c i t i n g Government p o l i c y o f s u p p o r t i n g and e n c o u r a g i n g t h e growing o f t o b a c c o on t h e one hand and s p e n d i n g m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s t o t r y t o d i s c o u r a g e p e o p l e from smoking i t on t h e o t h e r a s 'I.. . senseless, and f i s c a l l y unsound," S e n a t o r P e l l s a i d t h a t " i t i s t i m e we s i g n a l a n end t o t h i s w a s t e and i n c o n s i s t e n c y on t h e p a r t o f t h e F e d e r a l Government." Speaking a g a i n s t t h e amendment, S e n a t o r W a l t e r Huddleston s a i d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e s e a r c h funded by t h i s a p p r o p r i a t i o n was c a l l e d " p r o d u c t i o n r e s e a r c h , v i r t u a l l ? a l l o f i t i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o r e s e a r c h o r t o d e v e l o p i n g a l e a f t h a t would t l i m i n a t e whastevex h a r m f u l p r o p e r t i e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d t o be i n v o l v e d . " At t h i s r e a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h e r e s e a r c h f u n d s was f o r r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g t o t h e h e a l t h a s p e c t o f tobacco production, Senator P e l 1 withdrew h i s amendment. On t h e same d a y t h a t t h i s d e b a t e was t a k i n g p l a c e , t h e p r e s s r e p o r t e d s t o r i e s o n r e s e a r c h by D r . Gio B. G o r i , d e p u t y d i r e c t o r o f c a n c e r p r e v e n t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l Cancer I n s t i t u t e , t h a t seemed t o show t h a t some c i g a r e t t e s have s o l i t t l e t a r , n i c o t i n e , and o t h e r h a r m f u l e l e m e n t s t h a t t h e y c o u l d b e c a l l e d " l e s s h a z a r d o u s " and c o u l d be smoked i n " t o l e r a b l e " numbers, up t o 16 t o 23 a d a y f o r c e r t a i n b r a n d s w i t h t h e l o w e s t l e v e l s , w i t h o u t "appreciable" i l l e f f e c t s on t h e a v e r a g e smoker, i n f a c t w i t h no m e a s u r a b l e r i s k beyond a n o n s m o k e r ' s . D r . G o r i , i n a n i n t e r v i e w , emphasized t h a t he was n o t c a l l i n g any c i g a r e t t e " s a f e . " He s a i d t h a t " t h e o n l y c i g a r e t t e t h a t i s s a f e i s t h e c i g a r e t t e t h a t i s not lit." D r . G o r i and h i s c o l l e a g u e i n t h e r e s e a r c h , D r . C o r n e l i u s Lynch, p u b l i s h e d t h e i r f i n d i n g s i n an a r t i c l e , "Toward L e s s Hazardous C i g a r e t t e s : C u r r e n t Advances ,'I i n t h e Sep- tember 1 5 , 1978, i s s u e o f t h e J o u r n a l o f t h e American Medical A s s o c i a t i o n . On September 7 , t h e Subcommittee on Tobacco o f t h e House Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e h e l d h e a r i n g s on t h e " E f f e c t o f Smoking on Nonsmokers." Repre- s e n t a t i v e k a l t e r B. J o n e s , chairman o f t h e subcommittee, s a i d t h a t t h e h e a r i n g was b e i n g h e l d "because o f c o n c e r n about an i s s u e which i s r e c e i v i n g a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n , t h a t i s , t h e e f f o r t t o r e s t r i c t smoking i n p u b l i c facilities. H e n o t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c o n t r o v e r s y on whether t o b a c c o smoke i s h a r m f u l t o p e o p l e who do n o t smoke, and s a i d t h a t " t h e t i m e h a s come t o p u t some i n r o r m a t i o n from m e d i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r t s on t h e r e c o r d t o h e l p u s i n o u r own f i n a l judgment ." The subcommittee had i n v i t e d r e s e a r c h e r s who had done work i n t h i s field to testify. Testimony a t t h e h e a r i n g was s t r o n g l y o f t h e v i e w t h a t p u b l i c smoke i s n o t h a z a r d o u s t o nonsmokers. D r . Edwin F i s h e r , u n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h School o f Medicine, f o r i n s t a n c e , t e s t i f i e d t h a t "my c a r e f u l v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , c o n f i r m i n g t h e c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d upon my own e x p e r i mental d a t a .. . r e v e a l s a l a c k of s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n which would a l l o w m e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t a t m o s p h e r i c t o b a c c o smoke o r i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s r e p r e s e n t a h e a l t h h a z a r d i n nonsmokers." D r . Kenneth Moser, D i r e c t o r o f t h e Pulmonary D i v i s i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t San Diego H o s p i t a l , s a i d , o f t h e q u e s t i o n of whether d e m o n s t r a t e d l e v e l s o f c i g a r e t t e smoke i n p u b l i c p l a c e s c a n c a u s e l u n g d i s e a s e i n nonsmokers, t h a t h e w a s aware o f "no publ i s h e d d a t a which s u p p o r t t h i s t h e s i s . " To t h e q u e s t i o n , "does p u b l i c smok- i n g a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t t h e l u n g s o f p a t i e n t s who a l r e a d y have l u n g d i s e a s e ? " , D r . Hoser responded t h a t , "based on t h e a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e , I must c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e r e i s no proof t h a t smoking i n p u b l i c p l a c e s a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s pat i e n t s with lung d i s e a s e e i t h e r a c u t e l y o r c h r o n i c a l l y . " More t h a n two d e c a d e s have passed s i n c e t h e f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r g e s were made a g a i n s t tobacco a s a s e r i o u s c a u s e o f h e a l t h problems. I n t h e p e r i o d s i n c e , t h e c h a r g e s have m u l t i p l i e d , i n v o l v i n g t o b a c c o , c i g a r e t t e smoking i n p a r t i c u l a r , a s , i n t h e words o f t h e c u r r e n t S e c r e t a r y o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and Welfare: "the s i n g l e g r e a t e s t cause of d i s e a s e and p r e m a t u r e d e a t h i n t h i s c o u n t r y today." At f i r s t t h e a c c u s a t i o n s a g a i n s t smoking were made by a number o f p r i v a t e h e a l t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s and concerned one d i s e a s e only-lung cancer. B e f o r e l o n g , t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e c h a r g e s and t h e c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t accompanied them i n v o l v e d t h e F e d e r a l Government and i t s c h i e f h e a l t h o f f i c e r t h e Surgeon General o f t h e P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e . The work o f t h e committee o r g a n i z e d b y t h e Surgeon General t o examine t h e weight o f m e d i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c e v i d e n c e on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o b a c c o and d i s e a s e s o l i d i f i e d t h e a c c u s a t i o n s concerning c i g a r e t t e s a s a cause o f lung cancer. In a d d i t i o n , t h a t r e p o r t and s u b s e q u e n t s t u d i e s g a t h e r e d and p u b l i s h e d by t h e Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and Welfare i n v o l v e d t o b a c c o w i t h o t h e r d i s e a s e s a s well--chronic b r o n c h i t i s , emphysema, c o r o n a r y a r t e r y d i s e a s e s , h e a r t d i s e a s e , and o t h e r s . The r e s p o n s e t o t h e r e p o r t o f t h e Surgeon G e n e r a l ' s Advisory Committee i n 1964 was immediate and i n v o l v e d a l l f a c e t s o f t h e F e d e r a l Government-t h e Congress, t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h , r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s , and t h e c o u r t s . , CRS- 5 3 The Congress h a s been t h e s c e n e o f numerous a t t e m p t s , t h r o u g h l e g i s l a t i o n , t o d e a l w i t h t h e problems o f smoking and h e a l t h . The y e a r a f t e r t h e 1964 r e p o r t , t h e Congress passed l e g i s l a t i o n t o r e q u i r e a warning l a b e l on c i g a r e t t e packages. A few y e a r s l a t e r , a n o t h e r b i l l was p a s s e d , t h i s t i m e t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e warning l a b e l and t o p r o h i b i t c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g on r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n . That was t h e o n l y s m o k i n g - r e l a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n p a s s e d i n t o law u n t i l 1978, when a ~ r o v i s i o nt o p r o v i d e f u n d s t o h e l p d e t e r c h i l d h o o d smoking was i n c l u d e d i n a n omnibus h e a l t h s e r v i c e s b i l l e n a c t e d i n t o law. Although l i t t l e l e g i s l a t i o n h a s been passed c o n c e r n i n g smoking and h e a l t h , many b i l l s r e p r e s e n t i n g a b r o a d v a r i e t y o f a t t e m p t s t o d e a l w i t h t h e problem have been i n t r o d u c e d i n b o t h t h e House and S e n a t e . I n a d d i t i o n , a number o f a t t e m p t s ( a l l o f them u n s u c c e s s f u l ) a t f l o o r amendments h a v e . b e e n made i n b o t h h o u s e s . These l e g i s l a t i v e e f f o r t s o v e r t h e y e a r s have d e a l t w i t h s u c h areas a s F e d e r a l economic and t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t f o r t o b a c c o farming and p r o d u c t m a n u f a c t u r e , m a r k e t i n g , and e x p o r t ; c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g p r a c t i c e s ; r e g u l a t i o n o f smoking i n p u b l i c c a r r i e r s and p u b l i c p l a c e s ; and i n c r e a s e i n t a x e s on t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s t o f i n a n c e r e s e a r c h i n t o t o b a c c o - r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s and t o pay f o r h e a l t h c a r e f o r t h o s e s u f f e r i n g from such d i s e a s e s E f f o r t s t o d e t e r and r e d u c e smoking by a number o f F e d e r a l r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s have augmented l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n . The F e d e r a l Trade Commission, f o r i n s t a n c e , h a s been a c t i v e i n t h e a r e a o f c i g a r e t t e a d v e r t i s i n g , b o t h b o t h p r i n t and b r o a d c a s t . The F e d e r a l Communications Commission h a s been i n v o l v e d i n b r o a d c a s t a d v e r t i s i n g o f c i g a r e t t e s and t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f anti-smoking messages under i t s " f a i r n e s s d o c t r i n e . " The I n t e r s t a t e Commerce Commission, t h e C i v i l A e r o n a u t i c s Board, and t h e F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n have a l l d e a l t w i t h t h e s u b j e c t o f smoking aboard common common c a r r i e r s , such a s b u s e s , t r a i n s , and a i r p l a n e s . Some o f t h e d e c i - s i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s have been c h a l l e n g e d and upheld by t h e c o u r t s . The e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h o f t h e F e d e r a l Government, p r i m a r i l y r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , h a s been i n v o l v e d i n t h e smoking and h e a l t h c o n t r o v e r s y from t h e v e r y beginning. It was t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s c h i e f m e d i c a l o f f i c e r , o f c o u r s e , who o r g a n i z e d t h e Advisory Committee t o s t u d y t h e i s s u e , and i t was t h e Department which provided t h e f u n d i n g and t h e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e Committee's r e p o r t . Over most o f t h e y e a r s , s i n c e t h e r e p o r t ' s p u b l i c a t i o n , t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s primary r o l e h a s been g a t h e r i n g and d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i s s u e o f smoking and h e a l t h ; f o r example, t h e a n n u a l r e p o r t s on t h e h e a l t h consequences o f smoking, and t h e work o f t h e N a t i o n a l C l e a r i n g h o u s e on Smoking and Health. I n t h e l a s t few y e a r s , however, t h e Department h a s t a k e n a more a c t i v i s t r o l e i n t h e i s s u e . I n J a n u a r y o f 1978, t h e S e c r e t a r y o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and Welfare i n i t i a t e d a broad program o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n , and r e s e a r c h , t o encourage p e o p l e t o s t o p o r r e d u c e t h e i r smoking, t o d i s c o u r a g e young p e o p l e from s t a r t i n g t o smoke, t o p r o t e c t t h e r i g h t s o f nonsmokers f o r a smoke-free e n v i r o n m e n t , and g e n e r a l l y t o r e d u c e t h e t o l l o f smoking on t h e N a t i o n ' s health.