Development of National Urban Growth and Rural Development Policy: Legislative and Executive Actions in 1970 and 1971

The 1970 Acts require the executive branch to submit the reports on the further development of urban growth policy, the location of Federal facilities, acceleration of the availability of government services and financial assistance (among other subjects) in support of rural community development. This report should assist in the evaluation of these submissions received from the President and executive departments and agencies. The report's basic purpose is to place individual legislative actions in the larger context of interrelated national urban and rural development objectives set forth by the Congress. The basic content of this report consists of three major components. The first summarizes 1970 legislative developments at both the State and Federal levels of government concerning contributions being made toward the development of a balanced national growth policy for the United States. The second component describes the actions taken by Congressional committees and the Congress in the first session of the 92nd Congress (1971). The final component is a detailed annotated summary of the published literature of urban and rural development made available in 1971.

HC 56 U.S. B Gen. 71 24U D DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL URBAN GROWTH AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY: LEGISLATIVE AND EXECUTIVE ACTIONS I N 1970 AND 1971 Table of Contents ................................................... .................................a P a r t I . E f f e c t i v e Use of Resources i n Urban Regions ........... 1970 Developments ......................................... Kighways and Mass Transportation ..................... S t a t e Action on Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ................. Passenger R a i l r o a d s .................................. Airways Planning and Development ..................... Health and F a c i l i t i e s Planning ....................... S o l i d Waste Planning ................................. Safe S t r e e t s Planning ................................ 1971 Developments ......................................... S p e c i a l Revenue Sharing-- Planning Considerations ..... Transportation ..................................... Manpower Consolidation ............................. Health S e r v i c e s and Waste Treatment Programs ......... Metropolitan School Education ........................ P a r t I1. Urban-Rural Balance and Economic Growth .............. 1970 Developments ......................................... A National Urban Growth Policy. ...................... Rural Development P o l i c y ............................. Watershed Development and P r o t e c t i o n ................. Unemployment Compensation ............................ TVA Power ............................................ Economic Development Highways ........................ Population Growth .................................... 1971 Developments ......................................... Depressed Areas Assistance ........................... Rural Development S p e c i a l Revenue Sharing ............ Rural C r e d i t and Loan Insurance ...................... Rural Telephones ..................................... Elural and Ghetto Health Manpower ..................... New Rural Development Subcommittee ................... Executive Branch Reports on Rural Development ........ Manpower and I t s D i s t r i b u t i o n ........................ P a r t I11. Problems of Urban Poverty ........................... Introduction Urban Growth L e g i s l a t i o n ......................................... .................................... ...................................... ................................ ...................................... 1970 Developments Access t o Housing Tenants' Rights Relocation Assistance Crime Insurance ......................................... ....................................... ............................... .................................... 1971 h v e l o p e n t s War on Poverty Family Assistance Plan Access t o Housing R a c i a l Impact of Low Income Home Ownership Program Pxrt . ... Americans ......................... ZV Good Homes f o r A l l 1979 Developments S t a t e Administration and Finance I n d u s t r i a l i z e d Housing ..................es............ Mobile Homes 1971 Developments Housing Subsidy Consolidation and 3.efom New Housing Programs Housing T e c h o l o g y I n v e s t i g a t i o n of Low and Middle Income Mortgage Assistance Withholding of Appropriated Funds Part V . ......................................... ..................... ......................................... .....................@................ .. ............. ................................. ................................. .. ......................................... .................... . ......................................... ..................... ...................................... ......................................... .............................. ...... .............. .................... .......................... Renewing Old Communities and Creating New C o r n m i t i e s 1970 Developments vrban Renewal and S t a t e Land Use New Communities 1971 Developments S p e c i a l Revenue Sharing Senate Community Development Reform L e g i s l a t i o n House Community Development Elock Grant Extension of C e r t a i n HUD Progras New Communities Regulations . Strengthening t h e Capacity of General Governments t o P a r t VI Manage t h e Urban Environment 1970 Developments Federal Phnagemect Progress S t a t e Government Modernization S t a t e Revenue Reform .... S t a t e Planning Public Sector Manpower 1971 kvelopments . . . . . . . . * . . . a . . e . Planning and Management S t a t e Land Use Flanning Coastal Lands Management Use of Public Land Revenue Sharing Departmental Reorganization Strengthening Federal Aid Administration Support i'or Public Sector TJ~anpouer Trends in t h e Urban 3rivironrient ................................. ......................................... .......................... ........................ ............................ ....................................... ............................... ..........*.........&.. ........................ ....... .............................. .......................... ................................... .................................#.... .......................... ............. ................... ......... ............. . a & Conclusion..................................................... Footnotes...............................,,,..,...,.,........... ................................................... Appendices.. Appendix A. Appendix B. Appendix C. Section 702 and Section 703 of t h e Housing Urban Development Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-609) Section 901 of t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-524). , Annotated Bibliography of Monographic and P e r i o d i c a l L i t e r a t u r e Relevant t o Urban Growth and Rural Development P a r t 1. E f f e c t i v e Use of Resources in Urban Regions P a r t 2. Urban-Rural Balance and Economic Growth....................... P a r t 3. Problems of Urban Poverty P a r t 4. Good Homes f o r A l l Americans... P a r t 5. Renewing Old Communities and Creating New Communities..... P a r t 6. Strengthening t h e Capacity of General Governments t o Manage t h e Urban Environment,.....,. .. .................... ...... ............... ................ ...... iii DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL URBAN GROWTH AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY: LEGISLATIVE AND EXECUTIVE ACTIONS IN 1970 AND 1971 In 1970 Congress adopted two landmark national policy. declarations of domestic Title VII of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1970 provided for an urban national growth policy to encourage the orderly developmat of our metropolitan areas and communities in predominantly rural areas. In a complementary action, Title IX of the Agriculture Act of 1970 committed the Congress to a sound balance between rural m d urban America and declared that highest priority must be given to the revitalization of rural areas. The 1970 Acts also require the executive branch to submit the reports on the further development of urban growth policy, the location of Federal facilities, acceleration of the availability of government services and financial assistance (among other subjects) in support of rural community development. This report should assist in the evaluation of these submissions received from the President and executive departments and agencies. The report's basic purpose is to place individual legislative actions in the larger context of interrelated national urban and rural develop- ment objectives set forth by the Congress. The first session of the 92nd Congress adjourned in mid-December having prepared the way for active consideration of important and critical domestic legislation affecting urban and rural development in the second session, This survey of Federal and State legislation in 1970 and Federal legislative and executive developments in 1971 may contribute to legislative deliberations by attempting to provide a comon framework and relating such separate but inextricably linked subjects as rural development, special revenue sharing, distribution of health manpower, the war on poverty, open housing, the regional implications of welfare reform, new communities, housing subsidy consolidation, coastal land management and departmental reorganization. The inclusion of an anno- tated summary of the literature of urban and rural development made available in 1971 is designed to contribute to facilitating research by persons concerned with finding new means to strengthen the economic and social health of all areas of the Nation, reducing the problems of our urban and rural communities, and pointing the way to a further examination of the problems and opportunities relating to sound urban and rural growth. The basic content of this report consists of three major components. The first summarizes 1970 legislative developments at both the State and Federal levels of government concerning contributions being made toward the development of a balanced national growth policy for the United States. The second component describes the actions taken by Congressional committees and the Congress in the first session of the 92nd Congress (1971). Notice is taken with respect to the positions held on these legislative issues by major organizations and groups affected, and Presidential documents and other executive branch actions taking place in 1971 having significant implications for national urban and rural development policy. * The final component is a detailed annotated s m a r y of the published literature of urban and rural development made available in 1971. We live in an interdependent, highly specialized, urbanized society. The value of placing individual public policy actions in the larger context of a national urban growth policy was well stated by Patrick Moynihan : ... the federal establishment must develop a much heightened sensitivity to its "hiddentturban policies. There is hardly a department or agency of the national government whose programs do not in some way have important consequences for the life of cities, and those who live in them. Frequently--one is tempted to say normally! --the political appointees and career executives concerned do not see themselves as involved with, much less responsible for the urban consequences of their programs and policies. They are, to their minds, simply building highways, guaranteeing mortgages, advancing agriculture, or whatever, No one has made clear to them that they are simultaneously redistributing employment opportunities, segregating neighborhoods, or desegregating them, depopulating the countryside or filling up the slums, etc.--all these things as secondand third-order consequences of nominally unrelated programs. J I The basic inputs in this legislative issue tracking report are several in number. For 1970, significant new legislation affecting urban growth enacted by the Federal government and the States are cited and analyzed. Discussion is limited to legislation actually enacted, not merely proposed or passed by one house. Ehphasis is placed on innovative legislation both Federal and States. approach is taken for the 1971 developments. A somewhat different State legislative devel- opments,in 1971 are not available for analysis this early in the year. At, the Federal ievel, there is opportunity for enactment during t!le second session of legislation considered in the first session. Therefore the first and predominant source for 1971 developments is actions taken by Congressional committees and the Congress as a whole 'legislation, studies initiated, oversight and investigation activities, etc.). Virtually all legislative proposals that have a potentially significant impact on urban development and have been reported out of committee in at least one house (in a limited number of cases, bills at the hearing stage) will be Gescribed. A second major input is the positions taken on legislative issues :at hand or emerging) by major interest groups affected. Finally, appropriate notice is taken of significant Presidential documents, other executive branch actions, and additional public documents and recommendations having major implications for national urban policy. The third major input consists of three appendices containing an annotated bibliography preceded by relevant excerpts from the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1970 and the Agricultural Act of 1970. The bibliography is divided into six sections which correspond to the subject breaks used in this report. In each section, monographic and periodical material are listed separately. The citations cover material issued in 1971 and were drawn from the SDI data bank maintained by the Litrary Per-~icesDivision of the Congressional Flesearch Service. This review of selected 1970 Federal and State legislation and 1971 Federal Congressional and Executive branch developments and literature uses the statutory declaration of a national urban growth policy as an organizing framework. In that Act, Congress declares that urban growth policy should contain eight complementary elements: 1. favor patterns of urbanization and economic development and stabilization which offer a range of alternative locations and encourage the wise and balanced use of physical and human resources in metropolitan and urban regions as well as in smaller urban places which have a potential for accelerated growth; 2. foster the continued economic strength of all parts of the United States, including centrai cities, suburbs, smaller communities, local neighborhoods, and rural areas; 3 . help reverse trends of migration and physical growth which reinforce disparities among States, regions, and cities; 4. treat comprehensively the problems of poverty and employment (including the erosion of tax bases and the need for better community services and job opportunities) which are associated with disorderly urbanization and rural decline; 5. develop means to encourage good housing for all Americans without regard to race or creed; 6. refine the role of the Federal government in revitalizing existing communities and encouraging planned, large-scale urban and new community development; 7. strengthen the capacity of general government institutions to contribute to balanced urban growth and stabilization; and 8. facilitate increased coordination in the adrninistration of Federal programs to encourage desirable patterns of urban growth and stabilization, the prudent use of natural resources, and the protection of the physical environment. These components of an urban growth policy will be used to analyze and appraise what has happened in 1970 and 1971 to respond to urban growth needs and to identify emerging specific issues affecting their growth about to be dealt with in the legislative process. Under the first element, encouraging wise and balanced use of physical and human resources on a metropolitan or urban regional basis, developments are covered in use of area-wide incentives and planning requirements contained in the President's transportation and manpower special revenue sharing proposals, funding of the 1970 mass transit legislation and proposals for new Federal responsibilities for urban public transportation, Administration recommendations for new community health care delivery systems, and metropolitan-wide approaches to elementary and secondary education. The Section on legislation to foster economic strength of all parts of tlie ;jnit,ed States and to reverse trends of migration which reinforce disparities among regions describes depressed area assistance, the new Senate Rural Development Subcommittee, rural development special revenue sharing, Executive Branch reports on rural development, rural development banks and credit, rural telephones, rural health manpower, and manpower and its distribution. 'Jnder the general heading of treating comprehensively the problems of urban poverty are discussed: the war on poverty, access to housing, racial inpact of low-income home ownership program, and the family assistance plan. The Section on Federal activities to provide good homes for all Americans discusses housing subsidy consolidation and the investigation of low- and middle-income mortgage assistance. Revitalizing existing communities and encouraging new community development deals with the Administration's special revenue sharing for community development, alternative proposals in the House and Senate for community development block grants and related reforms, new communities, and community development credit. Progress in strengthening the capacity of general governmental institutions to manage the urban environment is documented by legislative action on planning and management, State land use planning, coastal land management, use of public land, revenue sharing, and departmental reorganization. I Several subject areas not typically associated with the process of urban development are covered in this legislative review. Reflecting L the changing temper of the time and an increasing sensitivity to their impacts on urban growth, (as modified by a public policy lag inherent in a responsible and deliberative legislative process) are such newly emphasized subjects as the planning implications of grant consolidation, new private health care delivery systems, metropolitan education parks, a resurgence of concern for rural growth center development and its compatability to urban growth policy, the availability of scarce professional health manpower in both rural areas and urban ghettoes, the effect of uniform welfare policies on rural-urban migration, the value of architectural and design counseling in slum areas, credit sources for both rural and urban development, strengthening State and local management capability, manpower for the public sector, and consolidation of Federally supported anti-poverty agencies at the neighborhood level. The chronicle of urban problems to be addressed and re-addressed if a national urban growth policy is to be implemented is by now a familiar litany--poverty as a way of life for millions of Americans, decaying urban centers, inadequate housing, continued pollution of our environment, growing traffic congestion, intensifying economic and social polarization within our metropolitan areas, wider cleavages between metropolitan areas and poor rural counties, gaps in program and tax efforts between energetic and stand pat states--each continues to grow apace with urban growth itself. Sefore beginning to identify the specific legislative and related executive branch developments it may be desirable to comment on what appears to be a pervasive attitude concerning the current national posture and performance regarding its urban growth responsibilities. There is a general dissatisfaction with current Federal practices expressed within the Congress, in the executive branch and among the major national organizations representing urban communities. While there is no consensus on how to move toward implementation of a national urban growth policy there is an expectation of major changes in Federal policy and practices to be made this year and next. A July 1971 National Journal article captured the situation within the Congress : Republican and Democratic policy makers are shedding old beliefs in a scramble to rebuild completely a $2-billion-a-year package of programs to help the cities. Sweeping legislative and administrative reforms, all being developed by relatively independent clusters of The politicians and technicians, are in the works. new urban affairs catchword in Washington is I1city strategy." It describes a new approach to the use of Federal dollars. The goal is to promote comprehensive urban planning in city halls, not in Washington, Working drafts of various legislative proposals make it clear who will win and who will lose with a new approach. The big winners will be the Nation's hard-pressed cities, which will get more money, and their mayors, who will get more power. The big losers will be the semi-autonomous agencies which have traditionally controlled urban aid programs--the public housing authorities, urban renewal agencies, water and sewer districts, transit .,&ongressm& Ashley said, authorities and others. "We helped lay the cornerstone for this new approach with our 'Urban Growth and New Community Development Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1770) ,l when we said in our 1 statement of findings and purposes1 that our present processes of urban community development programs were wasteful and destructive and that our existing urban development programs were contributing to that waste and destruction. We never said that till last year. It 2~' ... ... .. The Third Annual Report on National Housing Goals prepared by the Department of Housing and Urban Development and transmitted to the Congress by the President, while primarily directed to meeting the need for providing adequate shelter was relevant to the range of urban development problems. From the perspective of the executive branch several reasons were offered for increasing concern: ... These can be grouped into three broad but interrelated categories: cost, equity, and environment. It is vitally important that all concerned with meeting the Nation's housing needs begin focusing on these issues so that necessary reforms in basic policy can be identified, developed, and implemented as quickly as possible. 2/ ... In a move t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n which key urban p o l i c y d i s c u s s i o n s can be made, a Committee on N a t i o n a l Growth P o l i c y was app o i n t e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t , w i t h i n t h e Domestic Council, c h a i r e d by t h e S e c r e t a r y of HUD; o t h e r members i n c l u d e t h e S e c r e t a r i e s of A g r i c u l t u r e , Commerce, Labor and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t h e Chairman of t h e Council of Economic Advisors and t h e D i r e c t o r of t h e O f f i c e of Economic Opportunity. A r e s o l u t i o n on n a t i o n a l urban growth p o l i c y adopted a t t h e 1971 annual meeting of t h e U.S. Conference of Mayors r e f l e c t e d impatience with t h e l a c k of f o l l o w - t h r o u g h c a l l e d f o r by t h e Executive on t h e s t a t e ment of Congressional i n t e n t . In a mood of f r u s t r a t e d f o r b e a r a n c e t h e Conference expressed i t s r e s i s t a n c e t o f u t u r e piecemeal l e g i s l a t i o n . ... Whereas, t h e United S t a t e s Conference of Mayors has s t r o n g l y supported t h e development of a National Growth; and Whereas, t h e Domestic Af'fairs Council has, unfort u n a t e l y , f a i l e d t o demonstrate a sense of urgency i n complying w i t h Congress' mandate; and ... Whereas, such l e g i s l a t i o n t e n d s t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e patchwork c h a r a c t e r a l r e a d y widespread among Fede r a l programs and t h e i r r e l e v a n t c r i t e r i a based upon d i s t i n c t i o n s of s i z e and proximity t o m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . Now, t h e r e f o r e , be it r e s o l v e d t h a t t h e United S t a t e s Conference of Mayors c a l l s upon t h e P r e s i d e n t and t h e Domestic Council t o begin immediately t o develop recommendations f o r a National Growth P o l i c y ; and ... Ee i t f u r t h e r r e s o l v e d t h a t t h e Conference u r g e s Congress t o c o n s i d e r a l l l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l s i n v o l v i n g n a t i o n a l growth q u e s t i o n s in l i g h t of t h e o b j e c t i v e of T i t l e V I I of t h e Housing and Urban Development Act of 1970; and t h a t Congress r e f r a i n from e n a c t i n g piecemeal growth l e g i s l a t i o n u n t i l t h e Administration has submitt e d i t s r e p o r t . .&' The National Governors' Conference, at their annual meeting was more forebearing, but also more prolific. Resolutions were passed urging the adoption of no less than six national policies dealing with balanced national growth: a comprehensive national community development policy, a national population growth and distribution policy, a new communities development policy, a national economic development policy, a national agricultural development policy, and a national land development policy.5' The year saw creation of two new interest groups representing local elected officials, offshoots of existing Washington-based organizations. A keen observer of the Washington scene, William Lilly found that in 1971, "The mayors have had considerable success with their own 17-member U.S. Conference of Mayors Legislative Action Committee which New York's b y o r Lindsay organized in December 1970. At the July annual convention of the National Association of Counties, a counter part NACO Council of Elected County Executives was passed. The group aimed at being a 'suburban actionf lobbying force and was made up initially of 'mayors1 of 24 large and growing suburban counties.I I ~ ' Urban Growth Legislation A number of significant legislative actions and proposals affecting key elements of the national urban growth policy were passed by one or both houses in 1971 during the first session of the 92nd Congress. Those cited here are described in more detail below: '1) P.L. 92-12 e s t a b l i s h e s a Rural Telephone B a n k f o r t h e purpose of supplying a d d i t i o n a l c a p i t a l f o r t h e r u r a l telephone program. (2) The Emergency h p l o y n e n t Act of 1971 (P.L. 92-54) w i l l a s s i s t S t a t e and l o c a l governments meet p u b l i c s e c t o r manpower s h o r t a g e s by providing s t a f f needed f o r p u b l i c s e r v i c e s d u r i n g times of high unemployment. (3) P.L. 92-65 p r o v i d e s a $4 b i l l i o n e x t e n s i o n of t h e e x i s t i n g P u b l i c Works and Economic Development and Appalachian Regional Development Acts, extending coverage t o new redevelopment and s p e c i a l impact a r e a s . ( 4 ) The Consolidated Farmers Home Administration Act of 1971, P.L. 92-133 made permanent and expanded t h e volume of l o a n s t o be made f o r r u r a l water and sewer and development purposes. ( 5 ) The Comprehensive Health Manpower T r a i n i n g Act of 1971, ( P . L . 92-157), which was signed by t h e P r e s i d e n t on November 1 8 , 1971, i n c l u d e s i n c e n t i v e s d i r e c t e d toward improving t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of h e a l t h personnel i n r u r a l and g h e t t o a r e a s . ( 6 ) The Farm C r e d i t Act (P.L. 9 2 - l 8 l ) , which was signed by t h e P r e s i d e n t on December 1 0 , 1971, prov i d e s f o r an updating and moderate expansion of t h e c o o p e r a t i v e farm c r e d i t system which provides approximately 20 p e r c e n t of t h e c r e d i t used by farmers. ( 7 ) E a r l y in t h e s e s s i o n , a new Subcommittee on Rural Development was c r e a t e d w i t h i n t h e Senate Committ e e on A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y . The primary f o c u s of t h i s subcommittee i s t h e u t i l i z a t i o n of t h e N a t i o n ' s c o u n t r y s i d e and s m a l l e r towns. (8) The Ehergency School Aid and Quality Education Act o f 1971 (S. 1 5 5 7 ) , which has been passed by t h e Senate, p r o v i d e s m e t r o p o l i t a n areawide mechanisms and i n c e n t i v e s t o meet t h e s p e c i a l needs of s c h o o l s changing from a d u a l t o a u n i t a r y school system. (9) The Social Security Amendments of 1971 (H.R. l), providing more uniform welfare benefits and elgibility, has been passed by the House. (10) The House and Senate have passed bills to establish a ongressional joint committee on the environment (S.J. Res. 17, H.J. Res. 3). (11) S.J. Res. 52 to increase the authorization for comprehensive planning grants under the Housing Act of 1954 and to increase the authorization for open space land grants under the Housing Act of 1961 has been passed by the Senate. PART I Effective Use of Resources in Urban Regions Cities have pretty much given way to metropolitan areas as the centers of American life. The first of the components of a national urban growth policy calls for sounder, orderly and more balanced patterns of development within our metropolitan regions and those smaller urban places with the potential for accelerated growth to metropolitan scale and size. Local governments share many federally supported facilities that cut across local (and frequently, state) boundaries such as highway and water and sewer systems, and many other facilities that serve large segments of the metropolitan population, such as airports and hospital centers. These forms of interaction, together with the metropolitan character of housing and employment markets, create a common area of interest. The policies of any one community typically have considerable impact in other parts of the metropolitan area. Increasing attention i s being paid t o t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of housing, j o ~ sand t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h i n an urban a r e a , and a c r o s s j u r i s d i c t i o n a l boundaries. l e a s t seven major urban l e g i s l a t i v e a r e a s : In a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s o l i d waste d i s p o s a l , crime c o n t r o l , revenue sharing, manpower, improved d e l i v e r y of h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , and i n amendments t o t h e Elementary and Secondary Education Act t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t Federal a c t i o n supporting c r e a t i o n of comprehensive r e g i o n a l o r areawide mechanisms. 1970 Develoments Highways and Mass Transportation The Federal Aid Highway Act of 1 9 7 0 u extends c o n s t r u c t i o n a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e I n t e r s t a t e Highway System through 1976, and i n c r e a s e s t h e t o t a l a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r t h e I n t e r s t a t e program by almost $10 b i l l i o n . A number of s i g n i f i c a n t p r o v i s i o n s t r a n s f e r t h e emphasis of Federal highway p o l i c y from an i n t e r s t a t e system t o an urban one. A new Federal- a i d urban system has been e s t a b l i s h e d , f o r urban a r e a s of 50,000 popul a t i o n o r more. The urban system i s designed t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e flow of t r a f f i c i n urban a r e a s and serve t h e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s of t h e community. It w i l l f u r t % e r implement t h e continuing comprehensive t r a n s - p o r t a t i o n planning process a l r e a d y r e q u i r e d by having r o u t e s on t h e f e d e r a l - a i d urban system s e l e c t e d by l o c a l p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s s u b j e c t t o t h e approval of t h e S t a t e and t h e S e c r e t a r y of Transportation. p u b l i c hearing process has been strengthened. The Now, t h e two-hearing procedure, e s t a b l i s h e d by r e g u l a t i o n a f t e r enactment of t h e Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1968, is, in effect, the law. An additional hearing is required on urban plans to afford citizens the opportunity to present their views on which transportation systems would best serve their needs. Responsibility for conducting the hearings rests with State and local officials designated by the governor or the duly constituted State authority. The Act funds the highway beautification program for three years and creates an eleven-member commission to report to Congress on control and funding of highway beautification projects; provides for construction of preferential bus lanes, highway traffic control devices, bus passenger loading areas, and fringe and corridor parking facilities out of the trust fund; directs the Transportation Secretary to submit guidelines to Congress by July 1, 1972, to minimize adverse social, economic, and environmental effects of proposed federal-aid highway projects. The guidelines would become mandatory regulations in two years. The Urban Mass Transportation Assistance Act of 1970w provides for a substantially increased Federal commitment of $10 billion over a twelve-year period for urban mass transportation programs. The Act gradually increases authorizations up to a limit of $3.1 billion after fiscal year 1975, and authorizes a new program of eighteen-year loans to States and local public bodies for acquisition of real property to be used as rights-of-way, station sites, and related purposes expected to be needed and used for urban mass transportation purposes within a ten-year period. The comprehensive planning agency of the affected community must be provided with a copy of the loan application. Before taking final action on the application, the Secretary of Transportation must consider, within thirty days, any comments made by the planning agency. Similarly, in any State in which statewide comprehensive trans- portation planning is being carried on, copies of applications for loans and grants must be submitted to the governor. Before taking final action on applications, the Secretary must consider, within thirty days, any comments made by the governor. This long-term program of Federal financial assistance, combined with new advance contract authority should provide greater assurance of continuing Federal assistance while anticipating future urban mass transportation needs and providing time for necessary planning, decision-making, and financing arrangements. State Action on Urban Trans~ortation The States in 1970 continued to give significant assistance to such key regional facility areas as transportation, water and air pollution, waste disposal, water supply, and open space recreation. Parallel- ing the major assistance authorized by the 1970 Federal Highway and Mass Transportation Acts, many States took especially noteworthy action to strengthen organizational and financial machinery to play a positive role in urban transportation. Departments of transportation are rapidly becoming the administrative mechanisms to provide comprehensive transportation policies and services at the State level, with such departments now established in in thirteen States. k i n g 1970, Maryland ,P/ l'ennsylvania,W and Rhode I ~ l a n d enacted ,~ legislation to create departments of transportation. ~ e l a w a r e wcombined the State Highway DEpartment and a newly created W T into a consolidated Department of Highways and Transportation. Each of the State transportation departments is headed by a single executive responsible to the governor, replacing the State highway department pattern of control by staggered term commissions. Maryland became the first Ztate to establish a comprehensive transportation trust fund. This fund will be supported by revenues from highway user taxes and charges, motor vehicle fees, a portion of the corporate income tax, and aviation fuel taxes and will be utilized to finance highways, ports, airports, and mass transit. The Pennsylvania legislature provided for a State Transportation Assistance Authority empowered to sell up to $30 million in bonds to finance mass transit programs.W' In 1970, in Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, New York, California, Arizona, and Colorado, authority was granted any county or municipality, or any combination of contiguous counties or municipalities, to create urban mass transportation agencies. The Kentucky Transit Authority Act covers both single governmental unit transit authorities and regional transit authorities whose purpose is the development and management of mass transit systems. Multi-county levee districts may also now be established. In addition, Ohio authorized transit authorities to include land, water, and air transportation. Passenger R a i l r o a d s The R a i l Passenger S e r v i c e Act of 1 9 7 0 c~r e a t e s a N a t i o n a l Railroad Passenger Corporation t o provide i n t e r c i t y r a i l s e r v i c e . be a semi-public, profitmaking c o r p o r a t i o n . It i s t o The Act a u t h o r i z e s t h e c o r p o r a t i o n t o c o n t r a c t f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n of i n t e r c i t y passenger t r a i n s : $340 m i l l i o n i s a u t h o r i z e d f o r Federal g r a n t s and l o a n g u a r a n t e e s t o f i n a n c e t h e program. The b a s i c purpose i s t o prevent t h e complete abandonment of i n t e r c i t y r a i l passenger s e r v i c e and t o p r e s e r v e a minimum of such s e r v i c e a l o n g s p e c i f i c c o r r i d o r s . The c o r p o r a t i o n w i l l probably r e v i t a l i z e r a i l passenger s e r v i c e i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t r e n d e r i n g t h i s s e r v i c e , a t l e a s t i n c e r t a i n c o r r i d o r s , can be made a p r o f i t a b l e comnercial undertaking. The S e c r e t a r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n has s i n c e i s s u e d , as d i r e c t e d by t h e Act, a p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t recommending a b a s i c n a t i o n a l r a i l passenger system, i n c l u d i n g p o i n t s t o be served and i d e n t i f y i n g t h e b a s i c s e r v i c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of such a s e r v i c e . Airwavs Plannine and Develo~ment The A i r p o r t and Airways Development Act of 197& a u t h o r i z e s a new long-range program of expansion and improvement f o r a v i a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . Revenues from u s e r charges w i l l be p a i d i n t o a trust fund s i m i l a r t o t h e e x i s t i n g Highway T r u s t F'und. It r e q u i r e s t h e S e c r e t a r y of Transpor- t a t i o n t o recommend t o t h e Congress a n a t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c y w i t h i n one y e a r , t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e coordinated development of a l l modes of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a s w e l l a s t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f recommendat i o n s f o r a i r p o r t and airway development and a n a t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. In t h e i n t e r e s t s of environmental p r o t e c t i o n , t h e S e c r e t a r y i s p r o h i b i t e d from approving any a i r p o r t p r o j e c t a p p l i c a t i o n u n l e s s t h e governor of t h e S t a t e i n which t h e p r o j e c t would be l o c a t e d c e r t i f i e s i n w r i t i n g reasonable assurance t h a t t h e p r o j e c t would comply w i t h a i r and water q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s . Grants a r e a v a i l a b l e t o planning a g e n c i e s f o r a i r p o r t system planning and p u b l i c a g e n c i e s f o r a i r p o r t master planning. The funds f o r t h e planning g r a n t program cannot exceed $15 m i l l i o n a n n u a l l y , and no g r a n t may exceed two-thirds of t h e c o s t i n c u r r e d i n t h e accomplishment of t h e p r o j e c t . Any S t a t e o r p o l i t i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n of a S t a t e (and n o t j u s t S t a t e a e r o n a u t i c a l a g e n c i e s ) which i s a u t h o r i z e d by law t o engage i n a i r p o r t system planning, may be e l i g i b l e t o r e c e i v e planning g r a n t s f o r a i r p o r t system planning. The S e c r e t a r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t h e S e c r e t a r y of Housing and Urban Development a r e d i r e c t e d t o develop j o i n t l y procedures t o coordinate and t o prevent d u p l i c a t i o n of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e planning a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s . Health and F a c i l i t i e s Planning Congress, i n amending and extending t h e Hill-Burton Medical F a c i l i t i e s Act,* provided f o r l o c a l planning review b e f o r e t h e Surgeon General approves an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r any p r o j e c t g r a n t . An o p p o r t u n i t y must be provided f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e p r o j e c t by t h e areawide h e a l t h planning agency o r o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t has developed t h e comprehensive r e g i o n a l o r o t h e r l o c a l a r e a h e a l t h p l a n ( a u t h o r i z e d Ly the Comprehensive Health Planning and Public Health Service Act Amendments of 19uo). If there is no such organization or agency, the State health planning agency must have an opportunity to consider the project a~plication. The Public Health Service Act has been amended so that areawi.de health planning agencies must include appropriate representation of the interests of hospitals and other health care facilities, physicians serving the area, and the general public. At the State level, authorization for contiguous municipalities to create consolidated local health districts has been approved by the New Jersey Legislature. The Act further authorizes two or more municipalities to form operational regional health commissions.1P/ The Emergency Community Facilities Act of 197@ reenacted the Department of Housing and Urban Development's water and sewer grant program. In doing so, it extended again for one year (until October 1, 1971) the time within which a community may qualify for a basic water and sewer facilities grant even if its program for an areawide system, though under preparation, has not been completed. Solid Waste Planning @ significantly expands support The Resource Recovery Act of 197 for development of new technologies for solid waste disposal and for State and municipal disposal programs. These objectives are to be achieved through (1) studies, investigation, and demonstration projects conducted by the Secretary of HEW, and (2) construction grants to States and municipalities as well as areawide agencies to contribute to the financing of pilot facilities utilizing new and improved technologies. The construction of such facilities must be part of a State or interstate plan which sets forth a comprehensive plan for solid waste disposal in the area. The Act authorizes two-thirds planning grants (with incentives for an areawi.de approach) to State, interstate, municipal, and intermunicipal agencies as well as to metropolitan, regional, or district councils of government, and 50 percent grants for overseeing the implementation, enforcement, and modification of such plans. Planning grants are to be available for (1)making surveys of solid waste disposal practices and problems within the jurisdictional areas of such agencies and (2) developing solid waste disposal plans as part of regional environmental protection systems for such areas, including planning for the reuse, as appropriate, of solid waste disposal areas and studies of the effect and relationship of solid waste disposal practices on areas adjacent to disposal sites. To qualify for planning grants, an applicant must designate a single planning agency and indicate what provisions will be made for consideration of such "public healthn factors as population growth, urban and metropolitan development, land use planning, water and air pollution control, and the feasibility of regional disposal programs, The Act also provides that the Secretary shall submit to Congress no later than two years after the date of enactment a comprehensive report and plan for the creation of a system of national disposal sites for the storage and disposal of hazardous wastes and the establishment of a commission to develop a national materials policy. Safe Streets Planning The 1970 Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act Amendments,22/ in extending and expanding the Law Ehforcement Assistance Administration's grant programs, made several modifications in planning arrangements. Now State law enforcement planning agencies and any regional planning units within the State must, within their respective jurisdictions, be representative of law enforcement agencies, units of local government, m d public agencies maintaining programs to reduce and control crime. :,:xistingrequirements that each State planning agency make at least 40 percent of Federal planning funds available to local units of government are modified by authorizing LEAA to waive this "pass-throughn requirement if a 40 percent transfer of planning funds to local units would not be appropriate in view of the respective law enforcement responsibilities of the State and its local units, or if it would not contribute to effective, comprehensive statewide law enforcement planning. Finally, the Act authorizes grants for the establishment of Criminal Justice Coordinating Councils for local governments. It limits such authority for local planning councils to local units or combinations having a population of 250,000 or more. Establishment of councils for smaller population areas was believed to be a needless proliferation of the planning function. 1971 Developments S p e c i a l Revenue Sharing--Plannine: Considerations Ln any of t h e s i x s p e c i a l revenue s h a r i n g proposals i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e 92nd Congress, t h e r e i s no s t a t u t o r y l i n k a g e o r uniform approach r e g a r d i n g t h e planning f e a t u r e s t o a n a t i o n a l urban growth p o l i c y o r t o c o n s i s t e n t r e g i o n a l growth p o l i c i e s . Nor do they overcome t h e p r e s e n t fragmentation of planning a s s i s t a n c e programs a t t h e Federal l e v e l o r make any r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r o l e of t h e Domestic A f f a i r s Council a s i t r e l a t e s t o t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n of Federal programs and t h e development of a n a t i o n a l urban growth p o l i c y . On t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e a l l of t h e s p e c i a l revenue s h a r i n g measures except @ducationwould f u r n i s h more support f o r areawide planning by encouraging planning by combinations of u n i t s of g e n e r a l l o c a l government. Two of t h e l e g i s l a t i v e p l a n s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and manpower provide s p e c i f i c f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s t o areawide approaches. Transwortation Sec. 6 ( c ) of t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n revenue s h a r i n g proposal (S. 1693) would permit t h e S e c r e t a r y t o make funds, up t o 10 p e r c e n t n o t otherwise s t a t u t o r i l y appropriated, available a t h i s discretion. This d i s c r e t i o n i s , however, guided by "areawide s t i m u l a t o r and sweetenert1 language which provides t h a t t h e S e c r e t a r y s h a l l make a d d i t i o n a l commitments t o a consortium of governments equal t o 10 p e r c e n t of t h e shared revenue received by such consortium through S t a t e apportionment. This areawide p r o v i s i o n i s designed t o encourage S t a t e governments t o "pick up t h e r e i n s n of areawide planning and development through p o s i t i v e a c t i o n t h a t can r e s u l t in t h e flow of g r e a t e r d o l l a r r e s o u r c e s from t h e F e d e r a l l e v e l down through t h e S t a t e t o l o c a l governments on an a r e a wide b a s i s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e term "consortium of governmentstt i s defined i n the B i l l a s : . ..any a s s o c i a t i o n which i s ( i )formed by general. purpose governments l o c a t e d w i t h i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a t h e combined p o p u l a t i o n of which c o n s t i t u t e s a t l e a s t 75% of t h e t o t a l population of t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , and (ii)recognized by t h e S e c r e t a r y , with t h e concurr e n c e of t h e Governor of t h e a p p l i c a b l e S t a t e , a s an appropriate e n t i t y t o a c t f o r the metropolitan a r e a f o r t h e purposes of t h i s Act, except t h a t i f any p o r t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n comprising t h e 75% minimum population s e t f o r t h i n c l a u s e ( i )i s l o c a t e d i n more than one S t a t e , t h e concurrence of t h e Governor of each such S t a t e s h a l l be n e c e s s a r y . Sec. 6 ( c ) s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t s t h e S e c r e t a r y t o : ...g i v e p r i o r i t y t o a s s i s t i n g r e c i p i e n t s in developing and implementing comprehensive t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n s , e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n s o r t i a of governments in metrop o l i t a n a r e a s having powers t o implement comprehensive transportation plans f o r the various jurisdictions comprising t h e c o n s o r t i a . The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o p o s a l a l s o r e q u i r e s some form of new planning e f f o r t on t h e p a r t of l o c a l governments. P r i o r t o t h e r e c e i p t of trans- p o r t a t i o n s p e c i a l revenue, commencing w i t h f i s c a l y e a r 1973, each r e c i p i e n t u n i t of l o c a l g e n e r a l purpose government e x p e c t i n g t o r e c e i v e g r a n t s i s t o p u b l i s h and make a v a i l a b l e t o t h e S e c r e t a r y , t h e Governor and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e planning board a " g e n e r a l l o c a l government development p l a n " which s h a l l o u t l i n e t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s and p r o j e c t e d u s e s of shared revenue. Man~ower Consolidation The manpower special revenue sharing proposal (H.R. 6181, S. 1243) authorizes the Secretary of Labor to distribute shared revenues among: ... standard metropolitan statistical areas in which no single unit of government is eligible but where local units of general government with a combined population which constitutes at least 75% of the total SMSA population form a consortium. Sec. 102(b) provides that funds distributed to manpower consortia ... which constitute a defined labor market area shall be an amount 10% greater than that to which such jurisdiction would be entitled under the formula provided in this subsection. The law enforcement proposal (H.R. 5408, S. 1087) encourages areawide efforts by calling for the amendment of the 1968 parent act to include provision for: ... effective utilization of existing facilities and permits and encourages units of general local government to combine or provide for cooperative arrangements with respect to services, facilities, and equipment. ... The Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, in a useful appraisal of the special revenue sharing proposals, summarized the provisions relating to planning by individual cities and counties: only the Urban Community Development proposal would make available dollar incentives for these jurisdictions to prepare plans, although in all but the Rural Community Development bill they are encouraged to do so. In the Transportation, Urban Community Development, and Manpower areas, local planning would not only be encouraged but would be required. Sub- mission of a general local government development plan or a statement of progran obJectives and projected uses of shared revenues, including treatment of local-areawide and local-State interrelationships, would be a necessary condition for receiving Federal funds. Although these local plans and program statements would not be subject to approval by the Federal agency head, governor, or areawide planning district administrator, their 'submission and publication still would serve to enhance public accountability and facilitate interlevel and interagency planning coordination. Health Services and Waste Treatment Programs The President in his February, 1971 message to the Congress relative to hilding a national health strategy and subsequently by the intro- duction of implementing legislation (H.R. 5614, H.R. 5615, S. 1182) recommended providing medical care that would have a significant impact on the provision of such services in both urban areas and rural districts. The new proposed machinery is termed "Health Maintenance Organization" or "HT.lO's.'' In the words of the President these have two essential characteristics: ... It brings together a comprehensive range of medical services in a single organization so that a patient is assured of convenient access to all of them. And it provides needed services for a fixed contract fee which is paid in advance by all subscribers. Other barriers to the development of HMO's include archaic laws in 22 States. The Federal Government will facilitate the development of HMO's in all States by entering into contracts with them to provide service to Medicare recipients and other Federal beneficiaries who elect such programs. 2J-/ I n c e n t i v e g r a n t s t o a c c e l e r a t e new H M O l s i n c l u d e a $23 m i l l i o n program of planning g r a n t s t o a i d p o t e n t i a l sponsors and a program of l o a n g u a r a n t e e s t o h e l p sponsors r a i s e t h e n e c e s s a r y c a p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n i t i a l o p e r a t i n g c o s t s t o encourage HMO's i n m e d i c a l l y s c a r c e a r e a s , b o t h i n n e r c i t y neighborhoods and r u r a l c o u n t i e s . A d i r e c t '$22 m i l l i o n g r a n t and l o a n program i s proposed t o o f f s e t t h e d e f i c i t s u n t i l enrollment i s achieved which a l l o w s them t o pay t h e i r own way i n such scarcity areas. Hearings have now been h e l d on two s e t s of Administration p r o p o s a l s t o a c c e l e r a t e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of waste t r e a t m e n t works. S. 2770 passed i n l i e u of S. 1013 by t h e Senate i n November would change t h e p r e s e n t a l l o c a t i o n t o more c l o s e l y r e f l e c t t h e s e r i o u s n e s s of an a r e a ' s water p o l l u t i o n problem. H.R. The Environmental Financing Act of 1971 (S. 1015, 5970) would e s t a b l i s h a n Environmental Authority t o i n s u r e t h a t i n a b i l i t y t o borrow funds on r e a s o n a b l e terms does n o t p r e v e n t any S t a t e o r l o c a l p u b l i c body from c a r r y i n g out a waste t r e a t m e n t works p r o j e c t . M e t r o p o l i t a n School Education The Ehergency School Aid and Q u a l i t y I n t e g r a t e d Education Act of 1971 (S. 1557) which was passed by t h e Senate i n A p r i l and had h e a r i n g s i n t h e House i n J u l y p r o v i d e s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o meet s p e c i a l needs of s c h o o l s changing from a d u a l t o a u n i t a r y school system. The B i l l r e c o g n i z e s t h a t areawide c o o p e r a t i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f e c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n e f f o r t s where urban school d i s t r i c t s c o n t a i n i n g l a r g e numbers and proportions of minority group children are surrounded by suburban districts containing few such children. Among the innovative approaches in the proposed Act are several specifically designed to utilize metropolitan areawide mechanisms. To reduce the educational disadvantages of minority group isolation, fifteen percent of the appropriated funds is reserved for metropolitan area interdistrict programs including : (1)grants to metropolitan area school districts for the joint development of plans to change from a dual to a unitary system; and (2) funds for suburban school districts with low concentration of minority group students to establish, through cooperation with urban school districts, integrated schools with student bodies of which a substantial proportion are children from educationally advantaged backgrounds and which contain a proportion of minority group students equal to one-half the proportion of minority group students in the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. The Bill also authorizes the Commissioner of Education to pay all or part of the cost of planning and constructing at least two integrated education parks. The Senate Committee reported that testimony received indicated that the education park is among the most encouraging strategies for the long-term improvement of urban education. An education park consists of a school, or cluster of schools located on a common site, within a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, of sufficient size to achieve maximum economy of scale consistent with sound educational practice, providing the full range of preschool elementary and secondary education. The Committee concluded, however, t h a t without Federal support f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s , school d i s t r i c t s a r e unable t o undertake t h i s promising concept. The House, on November, r e f u s e d t o suspend i t s r u l e s and pass a r e l a t e d b i l l , H.R. 2266, t o a u t h o r i z e $1.5 b i l l i o n i n a i d t o desegregating school d i s t r i c t s . PART I1 Urban-Rural Balance and Economic Growth There i s i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c debate over p r o j e c t e d p a t t e r n s of urban development. Current t r e n d s a r e marked by d i s o r d e r l y urban sprawl i n our l a r g e r metropolitan r e g i o n s and a g r a d u a l depopulation i n t h e nonmetropoli5an p a r t s of t h e country. Is i t p o s s i b l e and i s i t d e s i r a b l e t o achieve a more balanced urban growth which provides r e a l i s t i c choices f o r people, avoids d e t e r i o r a t i o n of t h e urban environment, and makes use of t h e r e s o u r c e s of smaller c i t i e s and growth c e n t e r s ? Is i t d e s i r - a b l e t o t r y t o d e c e l e r a t e c u r r e n t m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n s t o achieve g r e a t e r urban-rural balance? The 1970 A g r i c u l t u r e Act d e c l a r e d t h a t h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y be given i n a l l programs of t h e Federal Government t o t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of rural a r e a s a s a n i n t e g r a l component of a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y of balanced growth. The long-term n a t i o n a l debate on t h i s fundamental component of an urban growth p o l i c y i s now underway. While t h e o v e r a l l percentages of r e g i o n a l population s h i f t were small, s i g n i f i c a n t flows of population impacting on c e n t r a l c i t i e s , m e t r o p o l i t a n f r i n g e s , and s m a l l e r urban p l a c e s d i d mark t h e decade. Some new p a t t e r n s emerged from e a r l y Census Bureau r e p o r t s on t h e 1970 census. The South r e g i s t e r e d a g a i n through in-migration of about 400 thousand new r e s i d e n t s d u r i n g 1960-70--the decades. f i r s t such i n c r e a s e i n many The i n c r e a s e r e s u l t e d from a n e t g a i n of about 1 . 8 r i l l i o n whites through in-migration balanced a g a i n s t a n e t l o s s of about 1 . 4 million blacks. During 1960-70, b l a c k s continued t o l e a v e t h e South i n about t h e same numbers ( b u t a t a somewhat reduced r a t e ) a s i n t h e two preceding decades, i n each of which t h e l o s s of b l a c k s was about one and one-half m i l l i o n . The 1960-70 e s t i m a t e s show t h a t l a r g e out-migra- t i o n s of whites from New York and f i v e e a s t n o r t h c e n t r a l S t a t e s (Ohio, Tntiiana, I l l i n o i s , Michigan, and isc cons in) , were countered somewhat by Iar[;c i m d e r n t i o n s of b l a c k s . New York, f o r example, showed a n e t l o s s of more than a h a l f m i l l i o n whites through out-migration while g a i n i n g n e a r l y 400,000 b l a c k s v i a in-migration. 27/ Although t h e p o s s i b l i l i t i e s a r e v i r t u a l l y i n f i n i t e , t h e r e a r e e s s e n t i a l l y two b a s i c p u b l i c o p t i o n s d e a l i n g with methods f o r meeting t h e needs of urban growth. The f i r s t i s c o n c e n t r a t i n g a t t e n t i o n on improved q u a l i t y of suburban growth, new town development and r e d e v e l opment w i t h i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n t o absorb t h e new growth; an approach t h a t w i l l be d e a l t with below under t h e heading "renewing o l d communities and c r e a t i n g new communities." Here we w i l l i d e n t i f y t h e l a r g e range of a c t i v i t i e s under way t o have t h e Nation move in t h e d i r e c t i o n of s u p p o r t i n g t h e deveiopment of s m a l l e r urban c e n t e r s r a t h e r than e x i s t i n g l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . 1970 Developments A National Urban Growth Policy Hesitancy on the proper course of action characterized the 1970 national legislative scene. The most important determinant of where people live is economic opportunity--jobs. The Public Works and Economic Development Act is the most specific Federal grant and loan program aimed at redressing unemployment in depressed and less developed areas. The Act was due to expire in 1970 and Congress, in accordance with executive branch recommendations, agreed to a simple extension of the existing program pending further study and future revision.28/ But, during 1970, the Federal government began a conscious formulation of policies for guiding future growth and development. The President and the Departments of Housing and Urban Development and Agriculture were all given general mandates by Congress to develop national policies on this subject. The 1970 Housing and Urban Development Act provides for development of a national urban growth policy--the components of this are listed earlier in this Review. The Act provides for submission by the President to the Congress of a biennial Report on Urban Growth. The biennial report should assist in the development of national urban growth policy, and would include information and statistics relevant to urban growth; a summary of significant problems associated with urban growth; assessments of Federal, interstate, State, local, and private policies, plans, and programs affecting, or designed to deal w i t h , urban growth; an a n a l y s i s of c u r r e n t f o r e s e e a b l e needs r e s u l t i n g from urban growth and t h e s t e p s being taken t o meet such needs; and, most i m p o r t a n t , recommendations f o r programs t o c a r r y out a n a t i o n a l urban growth p o l i c y . S e c t i o n 701 was amended i n t h e 1970 Housing and Urban Development Act t o a u t h o r i z e t h e S e c r e t a r y t o make comprehensive planning g r a n t s , a t t h r e e - f o u r t h s of t h e c o s t of t h e planning, t o government a g e n c i e s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s of p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s capable of f o r m u l a t i n g p l a n s and procedures f o r determining where growth should t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n t h e S t a t e , region, o r area. Rural Development P o l i c y Concerned with t h e f a c t t h a t some 147,000 r u r a l people moved i n t o urban c e n t e r s i n 1969 a l o n e , t h e 9 1 s t Congress, in p a s s i n g t h e Agric u l t u r a l Act of 1 9 7 0 , w o u t l i n e d t h e f i r s t s t e p s of a p l a n t o achieve rural development. T i t l e 9 of t h e a c t committed Congress t o t h e e s t a b - l i s h m e n t of rural-urban balance i n t h e p r o v i s i o n of government s e r v i c e s and c a l l e d f o r a s e r i e s of r e p o r t s a s a f i r s t s t e p i n f o r m u l a t i n g programs of r u r a l development. Executive agencies of t h e F e d e r a l government a r e d i r e c t e d t o s e t up procedures t o l o c a t e new f a c i l i t i e s i n a r e a s of lower p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y . The Departments of Housing and Urban Development and A g r i c u l t u r e a r e t o p r e p a r e a r e p o r t t o t h e Congress on t h e e f f o r t s of t h e two departments i n planning f o r t h e development of r u r a l multicounty economic a r e a s n o t included in economically depressed areas. The P r e s i d e n t i s t o submit a r e p o r t on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y to rural areas of all government services designed to provide adequate transportation, communication, water and sewer systems, health and medical care, protection, and education facilities. The report is also to outline efforts of the executive branch to improve these services. Watershed Development and Protection Two Federal actions to protect the delicate fabric of the urbanrural fringe and stimulate rural economic development were adopted in 1970. While a $55,000 annual limit was imposed for farm subsidies on any one farm, the Water Bank ~ c was tadopted, ~ authorizing the Sec- retary of Agriculture to enter into ten-year agreements--with provision for renewal for additional periods of ten years each--with landowners and operators i n important migratory nesting and breeding areas for the conservation of water on specified farm, ranch, or other wetlands identified in a conservation plan developed in cooperation with the soil and water conservation districts in which the lands are located. The purpose is to slow down the loss of valuable waterfowl habitat to inappropriate development. These lands are rapidly disappearing because of the accelerated pace at which marshes and swamps are being ditched, dredged, drained, filled, paved, and polluted in order to meet the demands for more agricultural lands, more industrial sites, more urban housing developments, more roads, and more airports. The Act provides the owners and operators of lands which are necessary for the conservation of migratory waterfowl, an economic alternative to such uses. &my r u r a l watershed a r e a s a r e s u i t a b l e f o r multiple-purpose development--for f l o o d p r e v e n t i o n , municipal water supply, and r e c r e - a t i o n , b u t l o c a l communities o f t e n l a c k t h e economic r e s o u r c e s t o develop t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l phases. Amendments t o t h e Barkhead-Jones Farm Tenant A c t u a u t h o r i z e d t h e S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e t o f u r n i s h f i n a n c i a l h e l p t o p u b l i c b o d i e s in planning and c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e s e r e c r e a t i o n and f i s h and w i l d l i f e development f e a t u r e s . f o r cost-sharing, To be e l i g i b l e a p r o j e c t must be p a r t of an approved s t a t e w i d e p l a n . There must be no o t h e r avenue of Federal a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e , and t h e r e may be only one such p r o j e c t f o r each 75,000 a c r e s i n a development urea. Procram measures w i l l i n c l u d e a s s i s t a n c e i n i n s t a l l i n g iniprovcd p r o c e s s i n g and marketing f a c i l i t i e s , new and expanded indust r i e s , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , t o u r i s t developments, and o t h e r a c t i o n s designed t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e r u r a l economy. Unemplo.ment Compensation In a move t o make unemployment b e n e f i t p o l i c i e s more r e s p o n s i v e t o r e g i o n a l pockets of unemployment, t h e Federal-State Extended Unemployment Compensation Programa extends t h e l e n g t h of time unemployment t e n e f i t s a r e paid i n any S t a t e when t h e S t a t e ' s j o b l e s s r a t e of t h o s e covered by i n s u r a n c e e q u a l s o r exceeds 4.0 p e r c e n t f o r t h r e e consecutive nonths. I5 p r o v i d e s t h a t such e x t e n s i o n would t e r m i n a t e when t h e ~ n e m p l o ~ m e nr ta t e f a l l s below t h a t l e v e l . TVA Power A l i t t l e n o t i c e d p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n , w t o i n c r e a s e from $1.75 b i l l i o n t o $5 b i l l i o n t h e amount of revenue bonds which TVA may have o u t s t a n d i n g t o f i n a n c e a d d i t i o n s t o i t s power system, was e n a c t e d d u r i n g 1970. I t s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r p u b l i c p o l i c y in p r e s e r v i n g urban- rural balance i s c o n s i d e r a b l e . The House Committee i n r e p o r t i n g t h e b i l l n o t e s t h a t t h e TVA r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e development program i s known and acclaimed as one of t h e most s u c c e s s f u l governmental p u b l i c improvement p r o j e c t s undertaken i n h e l p i n g an economically d e p r e s s e d r e g i o n t o t a k e advantage of i t s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o i n d u s t r i a l i z e and t o make t h e b e s t use of i t s r e s o u r c e s t o improve i t s economy. E l e c t r i c power i s one of t h e g r e a t r e s o u r c e t o o l s provided by TVA w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n i n which i t conducts i t s o p e r a t i o n s . But t h e impor- t a n c e of t h e TVA power system i s by no means l i m i t e d t o e l e c t r i c consumers i n i t s a r e a . The TVA system i s p a r t of a huge power network. I n a time of power emergency, o p e r a t i o n of t h e TVA power system has an impact on power supply c o n d i t i o n s from t h e Great Lakes t o t h e Gulf of Mexico and from New England t o Texas. Economic Develo~mentHighways The 1970 F e d e r a l Aid Highway Act a u t h o r i z e d a new $50 m i l l i o n program t o demonstrate t h e e f f e c t of highway improvements on "economic growth c e n t e r s . " The governor of each S t a t e would recommend t o t h e S e c r e t a r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t h e l o c a t i o n of growth c e n t e r s under 100,000 population and assign a priority to each. h d s would be available for reconstruction (70 percent Federal share) and engineering and economic surveys (100 percent ~ederal)of roads on the Federal-aid primary system. Po~ulationGrowth In his Message to the Congress on July 18, 1969, the President proposed that a Commission on Population Growth and the American Future be established to inquire into and make recommendations in three specific areas: First, the probable course of population growth, internal migration and related demographic development between now and the year 2,000. Second, the resources in the public sector of the economy that will be required to deal with the anticipated growth in population. Third, ways in which population growth may affect the activities of Federal, State and local government. Congress broadened the commissionls research mandate to include two additional considerations: Fourth, the impact of population growth on environmental pollution and on the depletion of natural resou,ces. Fifth, the various means appropriate to the ethical values and principles of this society by which our Nation can achieve a population level suited for its environmental, natural resources, and other needs. As directed by the approved the commission is required to make an interim report in one year and a final report two years after its organization. The Congress also enacted the Family Services and Population Research ~ c t to w broaden and expand the scope of existing Federal contracts, grants, and training activities in the fields of birth control and population research. 1971 Developments A new Coalition for Rural America, composed of political business and educational leaders was established in September, 1971, "to speak for the total rural community. ..in a way that the Urban Coalition and the U.S. Conference of Mayors speaks for the large cities.lfW The bi-partisan groups' first recommendation called for amendment of the President's investment tax credit proposal. to provide a differential in favor of enterprises that locate in rural areas. The President, through proclamation 4094 designated the week of November 19 through November 25, 1971 as National Farm-City Week and requested the leaders of agricultural organizations, business and labor groups, and other interested organizations to focus their attention upon the interrelationship of urban and rural community development. Depressed Areas Assistance On June 29, 1971 the President vetoed S. 575, Economic and Regional Development Act, Public Works Acceleration Act, Public Works and Economic Development Act, and Appalachian Regional Development Act Extensions. The President voiced support for the extension of the present economic development programs and most importantly that there be ",,.no gap in s e r v i c e t o t h e people i n Appalachia and i n t h e economically depressed a r e a s served by EDA." He s t a t e d t h e reason f o r h i s o p p o s i t i o n f o r an a c c e l e r a t e d p u b l i c works program: e x c e s s i v e l y long l e a d t i m e s , l i t t l e e f f e c t on employment where most needed, over emphasis on t h e construct i o n i n d u s t r y and i n a d e q u a t e l y planned p r o j e c t s . 37/ Congress responded on J u l y 30 by e n a c t i n g a new $4 b i l l i o n ext e n s i o n of t h e e x i s t i n g P u b l i c Works and Economic Development and Appalachian Regional Development Acts which expand t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s by i n c r e a s i n g t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n of d i r e c t g r a n t s f o r p u b l i c work p r o j e c t s , i t expands t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e redevelopment a r e a s and c o n t a i n s a new c a t e g o r y o f s p e c i a l impact r e g i o n s t o i n c l u d e a r e a s t h r e a t e n e d with an a b r u p t r i s e of unemployment due t o c u r t a i l m e n t of a major employment s o u r c e , r e g i o n s with c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of low income p e r s o n s , r u r a l a r e a s undergoing continued out-migration and p l a c e s where employment s u f f e r s a c o n t i n u i n g d e c l i n e , The Appalachian Regional Development Act was s t r e n g t h e n e d by adding a ,!+-year Appalachian a i r p o r t s a f e t y program, a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r mine d r a i n a g e p o l l u t i o n p r o j e c t s , a d d i t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e in making low and moderate income housing a v a i l a b l e , and areawide demonstration p r o j e c t s f o r v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l education. The b i l l was enacted (P.L. 95-65) on August 5 with t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s signature. Rural Develo~ment S p e c i a l Revenue Snaring The P r e s i d e n t on March 1 0 , 1971 s e n t a message t o t h e Congress a d v o c a t i n g a major c o n s o l i d a t i o n of g r a n t programs a f f e c t i n g non-urban a r e a s t o be administered by t h e proposed Department of Community Development. In t h e message on revenue s h a r i n g f o r rural community develop- ment he e x p l a i n s t h e s t a k e t h a t urban r e s i d e n t s have i n r u r a l development. ... The v e r y s i z e and d e n s i t y of many of our l a r g e s t c i t i e s has produced new problems:. whereas in t h e most r u r a l a r e a s i t i s hard t o achieve economies of s c a l e in p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s , t h e most h e a v i l y urban a r e a s have grown f a r p a s t t h e s i z e range i n which a community can f u n c t i o n most economically. ... For t h e sake of balanced growth, t h e r e f o r e , b u t even more f o r t h e sake of t h e farmer and a l l his neighb o r s i n rural America--first-class c i t i z e n s who deserve t o l i v e i n f i r s t c l a s s communities--I am proposing t h a t t h e Federal Government re-think America's rural development needs and r e d e d i c a t e i t s e l f t o providing t h e r e s o u r c e s and t h e c r e a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p t h o s e needs demand. 38/ The P r e s i d e n t ' s proposal c a l l s f o r replacement of eleven a i d programs p r e s e n t l y i n f o r c e w i t h a new $1.1b i l l i o n revenue s h a r i n g package which, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e funding p r e s e n t l y a u t h o r i z e d f o r programs a f f e c t e d , would i n c l u d e $179 m i l l i o n i n new funds. Development S p e c i a l Revenue Sharing (s. To be included i n t h e Rural 1612, H. R. 7993) would be monies a u t h o r i z e d f o r p r e s e n t (1)Economic Development Administration, c u r r e n t l y funded a t a $227 m i l l i o n l e v e l and designed t o provide a i d t o economica l l y depressed a r e a s ; ( 2 ) Appalachian Regional Commission, a r e g i o n a l a i d program i n v o l v i n g $278 m i l l i o n of Federal a s s i s t a n c e ; ( 3 ) f i v e r e g i o n a l commissions, embracing p o r t i o n s of 22 S t a t e s , spending $38 m i l l i o n per y e a r in development programs; ( a s seen above, i t e m s ( l ) , ( 2 ) , and ( 3 ) have a l r e a d y been s e p a r a t e l y extended by Congress t h i s y e a r ) ; ( 4 ) Rural Water and Waste Disposal F a c i l i t i e s Grants, a $42 m i l l i o n program of water and sewer g r a n t s t o smaller communities; ( 5 ) Cooperative A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension S e r v i c e , which expends an annual $14" m i l l i o n f o r t h e s u p p o r t of some 15,000 county a g e n t s and farm s p e c i a l i s t s ; and ( 6 ) Rural b v i r o n m e n t a l Assistance Program, a $140 m i l l i o n a n n u a l program which provides c o s t s h a r i n g g r a n t s t o f a r m e r s f o r t h e improvement of t h e i r l a n d . Although S t a t e s would n o t have t o show maintenance of e f f o r t , t h e y would have t o prepare a d w e l o p e n t plan showing t h e proposed u s e of the funds. The p l a n would be worked out between t h e Governor and sub- S t a t e planning d i s t r i c t s . required. F e d e r a l approval of t h e p l a n s would n o t be E a r l y o p p o s i t i o n was voiced by t h e National Farmers Union which f e a r e d t h a t t h e t a s k of r u r a l development could n o t s a f e l y be t u r n e d back t o t h e S t a t e s . The Subcommittee on Rural Development of t h e Senate Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y concluded h e a r i n g s on S. 1612 on September 20. The h e a r i n g record c o n t a i n s a thorough examination of t h e i s s u e s , i n t e r e s t group views and o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e f o r new d i r e c t i o n s in a c h i e v i n g sounder economic s t r e n g t h f o r non-metropolitan a r e a s . 2P/ Rural C r e d i t and Loan Insurance There i s a g r e a t d e a l of i n t e r e s t i n t h e 92d Congress t o d a t e f o r l e g i s l a t i o n t o provide p u b l i c a l l y guaranteed sources of c a p i t a l t o h e l p f i n a n c e t h e economic development of r u r a l communities. The Farm C r e d i t Act of 1971 (P.L. 92-181) approved on December 10, 1971 was j u s t i f i e d in p a r t on t h e need t o reduce t h e p r e s s u r e s of popul a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n . Fundamental t o an urban growth p o l i c y i s improving the quality of life in rural areas. To do so takes invest- ment of public as well as private resources. The underlying purposes of the Farm Credit Act are to modernize and remove some archaic restrictions in the authority of the cooperative Farm Credit System in order to assure an adequate flow of funds into rural areas and thereby meet the credit needs of farmers, ranchers, and cooperatives and other rural residents. In addition to liberalizing existing farm credit legislation, the Act grants authority to land banks to make loans for rural housing to persons other than farmers or ranchers in amounts up to 15 percent of outstanding loans. Loans may also be made to farm-related businesses, P.L. 92-133 approved on October 5 made permanent the loan insured authority under the Consolidated Farmers Home Administration Act of 1961. This amendment authorized the continuation of three existing loan programs: The Farm Ownership Loan Program, the Water and Sewer Loan Program, and the Association Loan Program. The Farmers Home Administration insured loan authority makes possible a much larger volume of loans both in amount and number, than would have been possible under the direct loan approach, There were three basic development bank bills before the Banking and Currency Committees of the House and Senate and one before the House and Senate Agriculture Committees. S. 742 and the identical House bill (H.R. 9630) provide for the creation of a rural community development bank to assist rural c o m i t y development by making financial and technical assistance available for the establishment and expansion of commercial, industrial and related private and public facilities. The Bills would create a Rural Community Development Bank as an instrument of the United States Government. The Bills spell out Congressional findings and a statement of purpose much like that of many narrower rural development bills. There is a need to cut back migration from depressed rural areas to cities, to achieve a better geographical distribution of our population, and to establish and expand commercial and industrial enterprises and public and related private services and facilities--including recreational and cultural institutions. Any community in a county where at least 15 perrent of the families have an annual income below the OEO poverty levcl is clicille. Specifically excluded from the definition are areas within standard metropolitan statistical areas, metropolitan planning or development districts and areas in otherwise rural areas where adequate development resources are already available. S. 2223 and the corresponding House bills, H.R. 9650, H.R. 9671, and H.E. 9874 before the Agriculture Committees would amend the Consolidated Farmers Home Administration Act of 1961 by establishing for non-farm rural development an across-the-board investment and credit system similar in purpose and operation to the combined operations of bhe Farm Credit Administration and the Farmers Home Administration in the farm credit field. Hearings were held on S. 2222, and Committee action is expected in the Second Session. A substitute Bill version of S. 2223 has been developed within Senate Committee. It would replace the Administration's Rural Devel- opment Special Revenue Sharing Bill. It leaves the categorical rural development grant programs as they are and, in addition, would provide $500 million in new money. Twenty percent of this would go to the States, 40 percent to multi-county districts, and 40 percent to local . government Under the substitute S. 2223, the revised and expanded farm credit system would be governed by a 19-member board. Under the policy board would be a Federal Rural Development Credit Agency to administer the program. Ten regional banks would also be established coterminous with the 10 multi-state administrative regions created by the President. At the local level, district rural development credit agencies would be subsidiary agencies, administered by the local multi-county regional councils. To be eligible for financial assistance, the application must be endorsed by the multi-jurisdictional governmental planning and development district as consistent with its plans. S. 580 and its companion bill, H.R. 3550, introduced by the Chairmen of the House and Senate Banking Committees recognize the inadequacy of tax and other financial sources available to State and local governments to support the needs of a growing national population for employment opportunities, housing, streets, water and sewer facilities, schools, hospitals, airports, recreational facilities and pollution abatement facilities. A National Development Bank would make long-term l o a n s a t reasonable i n t e r e s t r a t e s t o (1) S t a t e and l o c a l governments f o r p u b l i c works f a c i l i t i e s ; ( 2 ) i n d i v i d u a l s and c o r p o r a t i o n s t o e s t a t l i s h new b u s i n e s s and commercial i n s t i t u t i o n s ; and ( 3 ) p u b l i c a g e n c i e s and p r i v a t e n o n - p r o f i t and l i m i t e d dividend c o r p o r a t i o n s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of low- and moderate-income housing. It would a l s o make o r guarantee l o a n s t o i n t e r m e d i a r i e s who would provide construct i o n f i n a n c i n g f o r housing t o be f i n a n c e d with mortgages i n s u r e d o r guaranteed by Federal a g e n c i e s . The a s s i s t a n c e w i l l go t o "depressed urban and r u r a l a r e a s " d e f i n e d f o r purposes of t h e B i l l a s a r e a s with a 6 p e r c e n t r a t e of unemployment f o r t h e preceeding c a l e n d a r y e a r , d e s i g n a t e d without r e g a r d t o p o l i t i c a l boundaries by t h e S e c r e t a r i e s of Labor and Commerce and t h e D i r e c t o r of t h e O f f i c e of Economic Opportunity. Areas with a h i g h r a t e of unemployment o r a pending drop i n employment a l s o f a l l under t h e d e f i n i t i o n . Rural Telephones On May 7, 1971, Congress e n a c t e d t h e Rural Telephone Bank Act (P.L. 92-12), an Administration supported proposal. The Act e s t a b l i s h e s a Rural Telephone Bank f o r t h e p u r p s e of supplying a d d i t i o n a l c a p i t a l f o r t h e r u r a l telephone program. The f i n a n c i n g i s an a d a p t a t i o n of t h e F e d e r a l l a n d bank system and t h u s s e r v e s t o f r e e a l e n d i n g program from r e l i a n c e on Treasury f i n a n c i n g over a p e r i o d of y e a r s . The Senate A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y Committee i n r e p o r t i n g o u t t h e B i l l s t r e s s e d t h e importance of m a i n t a i n i n g b a s i c p u b l i c s e r v i c e s in r u r a l places. Other s o u r c e s of f i n a n c i n g must be sought t o supplement the present loan program if the rural telephone systems are to meet their service responsibilities. The Act should serve to supply the supplemental financing needed for continued growth and improvement of the Nation's rural telephone system. Subsequently on July 22, Congress appropriated funds to finance the new telephone authorization and called on the Administrator of the Rural Electrification Administration "not to make loans to telephone companies or associations when there is any indication that such company or association is likely to be purchased by larger corporate interests. I I ~ Rural and Ghetto Health Manpower The Comprehensive Health Manpower Training Act of 1971 (P.L. 92-157), signed by the President on November 18, 1971, provides increased support for meeting the manpower needs in the health professions and contains a number of provisions directed toward improving the geographic distribution of health personnel. The House Cormnittee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce in report- ing the bill cited relevant statistics on the current uneven distribution on health personnel. There are striking differences among the States. For example, New York State has a ratio of 219 active (nonFederal) physicians per 100,000 population, while South Dakota has only 77. Even those States with a relatively good supply of physicians often have serious shortages in inner cities and in rural areas. There are 134 counties in the United States with no practicing physician at all.4U The Act a u t h o r i z e s t h e f u n d i n g o f p r o j e c t s d e s i g n e d t o i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l s whose background o r i n t e r e s t s make i t r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e y w i l l engage i n t h e p r a c t i c e of a h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n i n rural o r o t h e r a r e a s having a s e v e r e s h o r t a g e of such p e r s o n n e l and t o encourage and a s s i s t i n c r e a s e d numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h t h i s motivat i o n t o u n d e r t a k e and s u c c e s s f u l l y complete t r a i n i n g i n a h e a l t h profession. ,Support may be g i v e n t o s t u d e n t s t o expose them t o t h e s p e c i a l problems o f , m d p r a c t i c e i n , r u r a l communities, i n n e r c i t i e s , and o t h e r a r e a s with s e v e r e s h o r t a g e s . '1'0 s u s t a i n i n t e r e s t and enhance p r e p a r a t i o n f o r s e r v i c e i n such a r e a s , t h e r e i s a l s o new s p e c i a l p r o j e c t a u t l i o r i t , y f o r t r a i n c e s l l i p s f o r f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t s t o r e c e i v e p a r t of t , h c i r cduc:r~tion under p r e c e p t o r s i n rural communities and o t h e r a r e a s having a s e v e r e nhorta{:e of p h y s i c i a n s . & Llnder a n o t h e r p r o v i s i o n , f o r H e a l t h Manpower Education I n i t i a t i v e Awards, i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o p r o v i d e s p e c i a l t y r e s i d e n c y t r a i n i n g programs i n l o c a l c o m v u n i t i e s away from t h e m e d i c a l s c h o o l s t o expose i n t e r n s and r e s i d e n t s t o a c r o s s s e c t i o n of c a r e and h e a l t h problems i n t h e community. It i s a l s o d e s i g n e d t o a t t r a c t h e a l t h c a r e p e r s o n n e l t o p r a c t i c e i n a r e a s where t h e need f o r them i s g r e a t . require:: The B i l l t h a t e a c h liea15h 14anpower F d u c a t i o n I n i t i a t i v e g r a n t o r contrac~i. must te c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h t h e Regional Medical Program i n t h e a r e a i n which t h e p r o j e c t i s c a r r i e d ou.,, R e ! i e a l t h i.?anpower I n i t i a t i v e a u L , h o r i t y i n t h e Act a l s o i n c l u d e s a s e p a r a t e a u t h o r i t y , s u b s t a n t i a l l y similar t o t h a t proposed f o r t h e h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s , t o encourage and a s s i s t i n c r e a s e d numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s from m i n o r i t y o r low-income groups t o u n d e r t a k e t r a i n i n g i n , and s u c c e s s f u l l y comp l e t e , p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u r s e s of study i n s c h o o l s t r a i n i n g t h e h e a l t h professions. F i n a l l y , t h e Act provides g r e a t e r i n c e n t i v e s t o p h y s i c i a n s , d e n t i s t s , and o t h e r h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o p r a c t i c e i n s h o r t a g e a r e a s o r f o r m i g r a t o r y a g r i c u l t u r a l workers. Any such s t u d e n t who e n t e r s i n t o an agreement with t h e S e c r e t a r y t o p r a c t i c e h i s prof e s s i o n f o r a p e r i o d of a t l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s i n a s h o r t a g e a r e a may d have t h e bulk of h i s e d u c a t i o n l o a n waived. L Somewhat similar l e g i s l a t i o n , P.L. 92-158 extending through 1974 programs t o t r a i n n u r s e s , a u t h o r i z e d c a n c e l l a t i o n of up t o 85 p e r c e n t of a l o a n f o r s t u d e n t n u r s e s who then work f o r a n o n - p r o f i t agency f o r f i v e y e a r s o r s e r v e f o r t h r e e y e a r s i n an a r e a d e s i g n a t e d as a medical s h o r t a g e a r e a . New R u r a l Development Subcommittee Of s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was t h e c r e a t i o n t h i s y e a r of an a l r e a d y l e g i s l a t i v e l y a c t i v e new Subcommittee on Rural Development w i t h i n t h e Senate Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y . The Committee Chairman, i n announcing i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , expressed t h e hope t h a t t h e major t h r u s t of t h e ( : o m i t t e e would be t o move toward r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of t h e N a t i o n ' s c o u n t r y s i d e and s m a l l e r t o - m s , " i n an e a r n e s t e f f o r t t o a c h i e v e more of a balance between r u r a l and urban America. I r& Executive Branch Reports on Rural Development The Agriculture Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-524) calls for a sound balance between rural and urban America. Priority must be given to the revitdi- zation and development of rural areas. The law requires the President, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the Secretary of Agriculture to submit annual reports to Congress on their efforts to provide rural development assistance. On March 1 the President transmitted the first such annual report on the availability of government services and levels of Federal financial assistance to rural areas. The message and report are essentially a description of the Administration's domestic legislative program, with indications of the benefits expected to accrue from them for rural America. The programs cited include; general revenue sharing, the special revenue sharing program described above, welfare reform and the comprehensive health program described below, which give special attention to the availability of medical services in remote rural areas. As required under the 1970 Agriculture Act, the Cepartments of Housing and Urban Development and Agriculture identified in the report the assistance furnished to non-metropolitan planning districts. As of June 30, 1971, 38 States had officially delineated substate planning and development districts for all or almost all geographic areas. In fiscal year 1971, $3.4 million in KLTD comprehensive planning assistance grants were made to 155 non-metropolitan planning districts, including Economic Development Districts, in 34 States. This compares with $2.8 million for 31 districts in FY 1970 and $1.4 for 61 districts in FY 1959. About t h r e e times t h i s amount was r e c e i v e d by t h e s e d i s t r i c t s from o t h e r Federal programs such a s planning f o r a i r and s u r f a c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs, community f a c i l i t i e s , h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s a ~ sde r v i c e s , and law enforcement. 4 d In s t i l l another accounting r e q u i r e d under t h e A g r i c u l t u r e Act, t h e P r e s i d e n t r e p o r t e d on September 1.4 t o t h e Congress on t h e beginn i n g s of an organized e f f o r t t o p l a c e more Federal f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s i n rural a r e a s . He s t a t e d t h a t : During t h e p e r i o d covered by t h i s r e p o r t , more than 60% of a l l Federal workers placed i n newly l o c a t e d a c t i v i t i e s were employed i n a r e a s of low population density A l l of t h e major departments and agencies of t h e executive branch a r e now g i v i n g p r i o r i t y considerat i o n t o l o c a t i n g new f a c i l i t i e s i n a r e a s of low populat i o n density. ... Manpower and I t s D i s t r i b u t i o n Several o t h e r government r e p o r t s made a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d bear on t h e problems of urban-rural balance and t h e p o t e n t i a l governmental r o l e i n achieving a more optimal p a t t e r n of urban growth and distribution. Under t h e heading, Rural Man~ower Dilemmas, t h e Second Manpower Report prepared by t h e Department of Labor and t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t t o t h e Congress on A p r i l 7 contained a number of p o l i c y recommendations t o meet rural t h e following : manpower needs. The proposals included .... Aiding relocation of workers. Pressure for migration from rural areas will undoubtedly continue and, with it, the need to minimize the economic and social costs of this migration to the workers involved relocation assistance projects have shown that mobility zssistance can be the key to a successful adjustment of rural workers to urban jobs, when this assistance includes job finding, training, and supportive services as well as help in moving. ... ... Extending income maintenance and labor standards protections to farmworkers. The exclusion of farmworkers from most of the protective social and labor legislation has contributed to their traditionally low wages and poor working conditions...Still urgently needed is the extension of the Federal-State unemployment insurance system to workers on large farms; also needed is legislation to guarantee the right of farmworkers to bargain collectively regarding the terms and conditions of their employment. ... Ikveloping more jobs in rural areas and nearby cities.,.(:ontinued efforts are called for to upgrade public facilities, to stimulate private investment, and to thus encourage economic and employment development in rural areas or adjacent cities with potential for economic growt!l. ...Imp roving the functioning of the labor market. Rural people would be greatly aided in finding employment by the extension to rural areas of the full range of services offered in urban employment service offices. & Advocates of rural developnent as an alternative to megalopolis could take some comfort from a June, 1971 study initiated by the Department of Housing and Urban Development and other interested Federal agencies to assess the possibilities for better application of telecommunications technology to improve city living and to stimdate favorable patterns of regional developnent. The project, undertaken by the Committee on ?elecommunications of the National AcademJr of Xngineering, concluded that : We maintain that many of the cities1 problems are caused by high density living conditions in an era of increasingly rapid change. Communications technology, imaginatively applied, could offset the trend in which the vast majority of Americans today, and more in the future, live on a small percentage of the available land. The committee suggested that pilot projects be undertaken to: Demonstrate a model Community Information Center, served with modern video, facsimile, and telephone systems, to provide improved city services to the citizen. Explore the effectiveness of various forms of two-way instructional television. Develop and test the operation of rugged and reliable long path sensing devices fcr remote air pollution monitoring. Design and test an automated information system for transit users; develop and demonstrate an automated interchange station for automobile parking and transfer to and from mass transit. Develop a model municipal command center for response to city emergencies; develop and test a system to locate the origin of emergency calls for city services; implement 24-hour television surveillance system to help protect citizens from crime on city streets and in public institutions. The panel suggested additionally that there be an exploratory program to examine how broadband cornnunications technology could be applied to business, government, education, health care, and entertainment to stimulate the development of existing small communities, or new communities, in rural areas. As a result, people would have a viable option of settling in either urban or rural America. lg/ PART I11 Problems of Urban Poverty Perhaps t h e most fundamental domestic problem i s t h e p o v e r t y and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n of t h e poor and m i n o r i t y groups i n our c e n t r a l c i t i e s and low-income suburban and r u r a l enclaves. Urban p o l i c i e s , which a r e now r e c e i v i n g i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n , involve encouraging t h e d i s p e r s a l of t h e c e n t r a l c i t y poor i n t o suburbs where b e t t e r jobs, s c h o o l s , and housing a r e more l i k e l y t o be a v a i l a b l e . Among o t h e r a c t i o n s , t h i s could mean a s t r a t e g y of p u t t i n g governmental r e s o u r c e s , such a s subs i d i z e d low and moderate income housing, where t h e s o l u t i o n s a r e r a t h e r than where t h e problems a r e . A range of S t a t e and Federal approaches were explored t o improve t h e c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e i n g h e t t o a r e a s through t e n a n t s ' r i g h t s a s t o , crime i n s u r a n c e , r e l o c a t i o n a i d , amendments t o t h e Economic Opportunity Act, t o provide g r e a t e r areawi.de m o b i l i t y f o r low-income and slum p o p u l a t i o n s through a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n , t o reduce t h e p o v e r t y u n i v e r s e and i n c e n t i v e s t o m i g r a t e i n t o g h e t t o s through w e l f a r e reform, and i n o t h e r ways overcome a de f a c t o demographic and geographic s t a t e of s e i g e . 1970 Developments Access t o Housing Open housing l e g i s l a t i o n s e r v e s a s p o s i t i v e government i n t e r v e n t i o n t o provide g r e a t e r housing m o b i l i t y f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n r e s i d e n t s . By t h e end of 1970, a m a j o r i t y of t h e S t a t e s had enacted open housing l e g i s l a t i o n . These actions coincide with an increase in the number of minority families having the means to move from ghettos and slums. From 1960 to 1968, the percentage of Negro families with incomes of $15,000 and over tripled--to 6 percent of the entire Negro population. In 1970, New York State extended its antidiscrimination law by authorizing the New York City Commission on Human Rights to declare neighborhoods off-limits to real estate solicitation when there is evidence of panic selling based on racial fears. Rhode Island amended its Fair Housing Practices Act to make indirect discrimination an unlawful housing practice; a Georgia law was passed to prevent blockbusting in the sale of homes; and Kansas implemented its first open housing statute. In an especailly promising piece of legislation, California51/ permitted any city or county to enter into an agreement with any other city or county to form an area housing authority having all the powers of a local housing authority. Tenants' Rip&,Legislation affecting the rights of occupants of unfit housing has a direct impact on poor and minority groups. area have been especially dynamic recently. Developments in this Typical State legislation covers such subjects as rent liability in premises violating housing codes, appointment of receivers to collect rent, and tenant petitions for code enforcement. A l a 7 0 Yew < i e r s e y a c t p r o v i d e s t h a t any l a n d l o r d who t h r e a t e n s o r makes r e p r i s a l s a g a i n s t any t e n a n t f o r membership o r a c k i v i t i e s in any t e n a n t s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a d i s o r d e r l y p e r s o n and s h a l l be p u n i s h e d by f i n e o r imprisonment. ' In H a w a i i , t e n a n t s a r e now p e r m i t t e d t o w i t h h o l d r e n t f o r minor r e p a i r s t o t h e i r d w e l l i n g u n i t s upon n o t i f i c a t i o n t o the landlord. T e n a n t s who complain a b o u t h e n l t h h a z a r d s a r e p r o t e c t e d from r e t a l i a t o r y r e n t i n c r e a s e s o r e v i c t i o n . California r e g u l a t e d p a - p e n t s o r d e p o s i t s of money g i v e n p r i m a r i l y t o s e c u r e p e r formance of r e n t a l a g r e e m e n t s , and t h e t e n a n t now h a s p r i o r i t y of claim t o t h e s e funds. I n a s e p a r a t e a c t i ~ n C, a~l i f o r n i a d e f i n e d " u n t e n a n t a b l e " and l i m i t e d t h e t e n a n t remedy of r e p a i r i n g d i l a p i d a t i o n s :md d e d u c t i n p c o s t from r e n t t o once a y e a r . I;clocation Assist,ance F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h i n g uniform r e l o c a t i o n p o l i c y and payments was approved i n t h e l a s t d a y s of 1970. A t l e a s t seventeen S t a t e s a l s o took l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n i n 1969 and 1970 t o d e a l w i t h t h e problem of r e l o c a t i n g p e r s o n s and b u s i n e s s e s d i s p l a c e d by government c o n s t r u c t i o n programs. O f t h e s e S t a t e s , twelve e n a c t e d l e g i s l a t i o n r e q u i r i n g S t a t e highway a g e n c i e s t o p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and advice t o displaced persons. Land a c q u i s i t i o n and r e l c c a t i o n p o l i c i e s of d i f f e r e n t F e d e r a l programs have been g l a r i n g l y i n c o n s i s t e n t and u n f a i r . The Uniform ?.elocation A s s i s t a n c e and Real P r o p e r t y A c q u i s i t i o n P o l i c i e s Act of Zi/ 1970 e s t a b l i s h e s a uniform p o l i c y f o r F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s and S t a t e and l o c a l r e c i p i e n t s of F e d e r a l g r a n t programs t h a t i n v o l v e condemnation i n d e a l i n g with p r o p e r t y owners and o t h e r s d i s p l a c e d by F e d e r a l o r Federally aided land a c q u i s i t i o n s . I n each of some f i f t y F e d e r a l g r a n t programs, i t provides f o r r e l o c a t i o n payments, a d v i s o r y a s s i s t a n c e , a s s u r a n c e of a v a i l a b l e r e l o c a t i o n housing, and economic a d j u s t m e n t s and o t h e r a s s i s t a n c e t o owners, t e n a n t s , and o t h e r s d i s p l a c e d . The Act a l s o e s t a b l i s h e s uniform p o l i c i e s t o guide a l l F e d e r a l and F e d e r a l l y a s s i s t e d a g e n c i e s i n n e g o t i a t i o n s with owners f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of r e a l property f o r public use. Crime Insurance The 1968-enacted f l o o d i n s u r a n c e program now covers LOO communities i n thirty-four States. S i m i l a r l y , r i o t r e i n s u r a n c e and FAIR p l a n s ( f a i r a c c e s s t o i n s u r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s ) a r e now organized i n twenty-six S t a t e s , t h e D i s t r i c t of Columbia, and P u e r t o Rico. Under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n of t h e S t a t e i n s u r a n c e a u t h o r i t y , t h e s e p l a n s f u r n i s h c o o p e r a t i v e s e r v i c e s by p r o ~ e r t yi n s u r a n c e companies doing b u s i n e s s in t h a t S t a t e . These p l a n s provide p r o p e r t y owners i n urban a r e a s a c c e s s t o f i r e , extended coverage, and vandalism and m a l i c i o u s mischief i n s u r a n c e coverage. The 1970 Housing Act extends t h i s i n s u r a n c e coverage t o provide c r a e insurance i n each S t a t e where a f i n d i n g i s made t h a t such i n s u r - ance i s u n a v a i l a b l e o r a v a i l a b l e only a t a p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t . The hXD Secre5ary i s r e q u i r e d t o conduct a c o n t i n u i n g review of t h e market availability of crime insurance at affordable rates in each State. l'pon determining that such insurance is not available, the Secretary is authorized to provide crime insurance in that State after August 1, 1971. This affords States and the industry a reasonable period of time during the early part of this year to provide for adequate crime insurance programs in order to avoid the Federal government undertaking such a program. Coverages offered by the Secretary would include those against robbery, burglary, larceny, and similar crimes. He is also authorized to offer insurance against consequential losses, such as business interruption coverage. 1971 Developments War on Poverty The Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1971 I S . 2007) to extend 5' the Economic Opportunity Act was returned by the President on December 9.2 Essentially unrelated to the veto action were a number of proposed amendments especially relevant to the poverty dimensions of urban growth problems. Especially innovative is the proposal to finance community design and planning assistance to low income persons. Persons living in urban and rural poverty areas need improved access to professional architectural, planning, engineering and related design services in order to participate more effectively in the planning and development of the physical environment of their communities. The program proposed would make design and planning assistance grants or contract funds available relating to housing, neighborhood facilities, transportation and other aspects of community planning and developient to community organizations not otherwise able to afford such assistance. These services would be available through community-based design and planning organizations staffed primarily by professional persons and community residents on a voluntary basis. Priority is to be afforded to organiza- tions which will serve urban or rural poverty areas with substandard housing, substandard public service facilities, and generally blighted conditions.57/ A second relevant amendments is a new title which consolidates special impact and rural loan programs into a new community economic development program. Its purpose is to focus the existing program and channel other Federal aids through new urban and rural community-based corporations. Funds under the Economic Opportunity Act would be provided to supply "equity capital" to the community development corporatlons and make the corporations eligible for a range of programs administered by the Small Business Administration, the Department of Commerce, and the Department of Housing and Urban Development. A second part of the title provides grants as well as loans to low-income farm families and rural cooperatives. A final part provides technical assistance to train minority group members in business and management skills utilizing the economic developnent corporations as vehicles for such training, extends the existing rural loan revolving fund which the Administration proposed to terminate, and provides for the eventual creation of a matching urban development loan fund.58/ The B i l l s e n t t o t h e P r e s i d e n t a l s o a u t h o r i z e d a new Environnental Action Frogram through which low income people w i i l be paid f o r worki n g on p r o j e c t s combatting p o l l u t i o n ( e . g. clean-up and s a n i t a t i o n a c t l v i t i e s ) and improving t h e environment ( e . g. p l a n t i n g t r e e s , constructing parks). Also proposed i s a new Rural Hmsing Development and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e l f - h e l p program. In doing so t h e House Education and Labor Committee i n r e p o r t i n g i t s v e r s i o n of t h e B i l l commented t h a t , "There can be no s e r i o u s argument t h a t a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of b~g resources has been a p p l i e d toward urban problem s o l v i n g . .. . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s h u r a l housing7 amendment, adopted unanimously by t h e Committ.ee, w i l l s t a r t now t o c o r r e c t t h a t imbalance. &%' The need f o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and o t h e r methods f o r improving t h e management of p r o j e c t s t o develop b u s i n e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e poor was h i g h l i g h t e d by a J u l y 20 Comptroller G e n e r a l ' s r e p o r t t o Congress. 1,0/ The General Accounting O f f i c e found t h e pilot, OEO economic development p r o j e c t s had, a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , achieved t h e i r o b j e c t i v e . However, l a c k of managerial competence was one of t h e most c r i t i c a l problems i n e s t a b l i s h i n g m i n o r i t y b u s i n e s s e s . Finally, neither the r e s o u r c e s o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e o r o t h e r F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s were s u f f i c i e n f l ; ~ brought t o b e a r t o t h e e x t e n t p o s s i b l e . The 1972 budgetary p r o p o s a l s f o r OEC r e f l e c t e d d e c i s i o n s t o make t h e agency e s s e n t a i l l y one of r e s e a r c h , development and e v a l u a t i o n . The cormunity a c t i c n program i s proposed a t a lower l e v e l of appropriat i o n s and i s marked f o r t r a n s f e r t o t h e Department of Community %velopmsnt where p r e s u ~ a b l yi t would be c o n s o l i d a t e d with HUD1s Model Cities Frcgrm. Other major programs such a s Head S t a r t and Follow Thrcugh a r e contained i n t h e Department of Health, Education and Welfare budget . Family A s s i s t a n c e Plan The S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Amendments of 1971 (H.R. l), a s r e p o r t e d o u t by Nays and Means and passed by t h e House c o n t a i n s a number of reforms r e l e v a n t t o urban growth and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of poverty w i t h i n and among urban and r u r a l r e g i o n s . These i n c l u d e t h e c r e a t i o n of uniform Federal. s t a n d a r d s of e l i g i b i l i t y and minimum payment; a i d t o working as w e l l a s non-working poor; f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s t o t a k e work, and a s s i s t a n c e i n doing so i n t h e f o r m of F e d e r a l l y supported t r a i n i n g programs and day c a r e c e n t e r s . Moreover, a s h a r p r i s e i n w e l f a r e bene- f i t s i n t h e r u r a l South should slow t h e m i g r a t i o n of t h e poor i n t h e i n n e r c i t y neighborhoods of t h e North. The B i l l g i v e s promise of s t a b l i z i n g S t a t e w e l f a r e e x p e n d i t u r e s a : curr.eLt l e v e l s . h d a m e n t a l 50 t h e problem of w e l f a r e reform, however, i s t n e uneven coverage of t h e programs a t t h e r e g i o n a l , S t a t e and l o c a l l e v e l which have c r e a t e d extremes of t r e a t m e n t and a r e d i f f i c d t ts i ~ r o r p o r a t ei n 5 0 a uniform n a t i o n a l system. d i f f e r e n c e s i n payment l e v e l s a r e w e l l known. The g r e a t It i s g e n e r a l l y acknow- ledged t h a t she o r i g i n a l purpose of t h e S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Act, t o a l l o w bale L Sta:es 1 t o adapt, t h e i r own pr0grarr.s t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r economic and social conditions, had certain adverse effects nationwide in terms of tile tenefitis provided. In wha: appeared to be an interim measure, Zongress passed P.L. 42-223 which incorporates the work requirements for unemployed fathers and volunteers of the Family Assistance Plan but without increased welfare benefits. The new Act also earmarks more money for on-the-job training and for public service jobs offered by local or State government agencies. Federal matching for the public service component was increased to 100 percent for the first year of employment, 75 percent the second year and 50 percent the third year. The Administration budget for 1972 funding of the existing welfare program proposed a ceiling of 110 percent of the 1971 Federal payments for administration, training and services. The National Association of Counties consistent with other interested groups, had recommended removal of this ceiling on the grounds that costs will continue to rise and that, as a practical matter most of these costs are mandated on county governments by Federal and State statutes and administrative requirements. The effect would be that the additional costs would be passed on to already overburdened county governments. The Congress in passing the social security welfare appropriation eliminated the Federal assistance ceiling thus committing the Federal Government to 75 percent of the costs incurred by State and local go~ernmentfor these services. Access to Housing Open housing legislation serves as positive government ixtervention to provide greater housing mobility for metropolitan residents and dispersion of ghetto populations. The President in his news conference of February 17, described his position: ... First, this administration will enforce the law of the land which provides for open housing. Open cities, open suburbs, open neighborhoods are now a right for every American, Second, however, this administration will not go beyond the law or in violation of the law by going beyond it by using Federal power, Federal coercion, or Federal money to force economic integration of neighborhoods. 62/ This was followed up on June 11 with a detailed thirteen page, Presidential statement on the policies of the Administration relative to equal housing opportunity. The text, which elaborated on Executive Branch plans to carry out the requirements of Federal law on this subject, began by defining equal housing opportunity. ...By "equal housing opportunity," I mean the achievement of a condition in which individuals of similar income levels in the same housing market area have a like range of housing choices available to them regardless of their race, color, religion, or national origin. ... We will not seek to impose economic integration upon an existing local jurisdiction; at the same time, we will not countenance any use of economic measures as a subterfuge for racial discrimination. ... It does not mean that housing officials in Federal agencies should dictate local land use policies. It does mean that in choosing among the various applications for Federal aid, consideration should be given to their impact on patterns of racial concentration. ...T h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i l l n o t a t i e r n p t t o impose f e d e r a l l y a s s i s t e d h o u s i n g upon any com.unity. ... ... We w i l l c a r r y o u t o u r prograins i n a way t h a t w i l l be a s h e l p f u l as p o s s i b l e t o communities which a r e r e c e p t i v e t o t h e e x p a n s i o n of h o u s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l of our p e o p l e . 6-3-/ The Department of Housing and Urban Ilevelopment on June 14 i s s u e d g u i d e l i n e s t h a t would l i m i t t h e proposed community development s p e c i a l revenue s h a r i n g g r a n t s t o communities t h a t a g r e e d t o p l a n f o r low and moderate income housing. The S e c r e t a r y a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t under e - x i s t i n g HUD programs, communities t h a t p l a n t o p l a c e F e d e r a l l y a i d e d h o u s i n g o u t s i d e of g h e t t o s o r o t h e r w i s e s e g r e g a t e d a r e a s would i n t h e f'uture be g i v e n p r i o r i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n on t h e i r r e q u e s t s f o r f u n d s . 6Ld S i m i l a r l y , proposed g u i d e l i n e s r e q u i r i n g l f a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n " by d e v e l o p e r s of h o u s i n g c a r r y i n g F e d e r a l mortgage g u a r a n t e e s were p l a c e d i n t h e F e d e r a l i:egister f o r a 30 day p e r i o d b e g i n n i n g October 2 t o p e r m i t p u b l i c comment b e f o r e t a k i n g e f f e c t . A p o r t i o n of t h e g u i d e l i n e p r o v i d e s t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l be judged t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e y p r o v i d e m i n o r i t y f a m i l i e s w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r h o u s i n g i n a wide r a n g e of n o n s e g r e g a t e d l o c a t i o n s . The a c t i o n s t a k e n a p p e a r e d t o f a l l s h o r t of t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n by t h e U.S. Conference of' l k y o r s a t i t ' s a n n u a l meeting i n June. It c a l l e d on t h e P r e s i d e n t t o : ... d i r e c t F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s a d m i n i s t e r i n g programs such a s , b u t n o t l i m i t e d t o , highway a p p r o p r i a t i o n s , p u b l i c works p r o j e c t s , and FHA mortgage l o a n g u a r a n t e e s , a s w e l l a s corrmunity development p r o j e c t s , t o a d v i s e a l l communities that the future availabili5y of Federal funds for these projects will depend upon the applicant-community's commitment to provide low and moderate income housing, and that to refuse to cooperzte in this regard will serve to terminate all such Federzl assistance. A statement issued by some 126 participating organizations of the Leadership Conference on Civil lRights responded to the "Administration's Pronouncements on Equal Housing Opportunity." It concluded that The Administration has recognized for the first time the seriousness of the problem and has taken the first halting steps toward solution. Much will depend upon its ability to enforce the policies that have been adopted and its willingness to reconsider self-imposed limitations upon the adoption of policies that would promise genuine relief. 66/ The Civil Rights Subcommittee of the House Judiciary Committee began public hearings in late October on the Federal government's role in the achievement of equal opportunity in housing. The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development on December 9 testified at these hearings that an agreement has been in effect since July 1971 under which HUD and the General Services Administration are seeking to ensure that the Federal government, as a major employer, fulfills its fair housing responsibilities under the 1968 Civil Rights Act. HUD is to inform the GSA of the availability of low-income and moderateincome housing in areas of proposed Federal facilities. ns alternative If GSA has must build where the supply of such housing is inade- quate to meet the needs of the agency involved, the local community will develop, with E D ' S help, a plan to assure an adequate supply of housing within six months after completion of the Federal facility. :+acial Impact of Low Income Home Ownership Program Ihe 7.S. Comiission on Civii Rights in June issued a report to the President and Congress on their investigation of the social impact of the section 235 low and middle income program. The Commission found that that program had been of substantial help to rntnority families. Nevertheless, because of high construction costs, only 6 percent of all such housing was provided in the Northeastern region of the country. The Commission also concluded that the traditional pattern of separate and unequal housing markets for white and nonwhite families was being repeated in the operation of I'235l1 homeowner subsidy and related programs.67/ FHA was criticized as playing a passive role, permitting abuses and the perpetuation of segregated housing. A number of recommendations were made. The Department was urged to make advice and counseling services available to low income families md community groups on their rights and responsibilities under these programs. The Department was urged to make use of the racial and ethnic data it now collects on participation in its various housing programs to determine the effect the programs are having on racial and ethnic concentrations. Congress was called on to enact legislation authorizing the overriding of local zoning laws and other land use controls to permit the provision of low-cost housing in jurisdictions that do not have a proportionate share of such housing.68/ Finally, in reporting out the Labor appropriation bill on July 29, the Senate CommitLee on Appropriations urged that Federal agencies give particular consideration in the awarding of Federal contracts Lo the employment needs of the area represented by eachbidder. The Committee endorsed all efforts by the Secretary of Labor when other factors are apparently the same, to have the contract awarded to bidders located in the highest areas of unemployment.@I PART IV Good Hones for All Americans Only rarely does the Federal government in its domestic programs explicitly set out quantifiable gods. The Nation's first such speci- fically measurable housing goal was contained in the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 in which Congress determined that by 1978, 26 million housing units should be built, 6 million of these for low and moderate income families. Housing production turned around dramatically in 1970 and 1971 placing the Nation almost in line with the anticipated pace needed to meet the 10-year goal. Total production, including mobile homes, was less than the target, although the starts component was greater. Despite this, in 1970 and 1971, there was explicit recog- nition in Congress and the executive branch of the need for a major redirection of what housing assistance programs should accomplish. The existing housing programs were reported to be in difficulty on several grounds. There was concern over what has been described as run away housing subsidy costs. Existing programs may be contributing to certain problems of social and economic disparity since there is c o n t i n u i n g r z s i s t a n c e t o low and moderate housing p r o j e c t s i n suburban areas. On t h e o t h e r hand, c o s t l i m i t a t i o n s r e s t r i c t t h e u t i l i t y of c u r r e n t housing subsidy programs in l a r g e c e n t r a l c i t i e s . Finally, use of t h e newer programs t o support t h e purchase of r e h a b i l i t a t e d homes and o t h e r e x i s t i n g homes needing r e p a i r s came under s e v e r e c r i t i cism f o r p e r m i t t i n g substandard c o n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s and f o r apparent f r a u d u l e n t behavior by some p r i v a t e b u i l d e r s and Federal employees. Support i s t h e r e f o r e growing f o r a d r a s t i c r e w r i t e of F e d e r a l housing policy. 1970 Developments In 1970 t h e S t a t e s moved a s never b e f o r e t o improve S t a t e and l o c a l c a p a b i l i t y t o d e a l with the inadequate supply of housing. Innovative progr.ms t , e p d u r i n g t h e l a s t few y e a r s range from c r e a t i n g S t a t e housing a g e n c i e s , p r o v i d i n g a i d s t o n o n - p r o f i t sponsors, and a l l o c a t i n g seed money t o acknowledging t h e r o l e of mobile homes. Collectively t h e s e e f f o r t s r e p r e s e n t a comprehensive s e t of t o o l s f o r a p o s i t i v e S t a t e r o l e in providing s h e l t e r . There were only a few s i g n i f i c a n t new programs t o r e p o r t a t t h e F e d e r a l l e v e l a s Congress d i d n o t a c t on Administration p r o p o s a l s f o r a sweeping s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and c o n s o l i d a t i o n cf t h e f i f t y o r more e x i s t i n g housing programs. kt under t h e Zmergency Home Financing Act of 19'70, i t introduced programs of i n t e r e s t r a t e s u b s i d i e s f o r middle income f a m i l i e s and provided f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of two secondary mortgage markets f o r conventional mortgage l o a n s . S t a t e Administration and Finance 4. number cf S%at,es d i r e c t l y e n t e r e d t h e formidable f i e l d s housing & m i n i s t r a t i o n and f i n a n c e i n 1970, Georgia s t r u c k t h e proper tone by a f f i r n i n g t h e n a t i o n a l housing g o a l s and c a l l i n g f o r a " S t a t e Housing GO&. u70/ In m e f f o r t t o a l l e v i a t e t h e c r i t i c a l s h o r t a g e of housing f o r low- and moderate-income f a m i l i e s , Ohio i n 1970 a u t h o r i z e d a major new program f o r a s s i s t i n g housing development by l i m i t e d - p r o f i t and n o n - p r o f i t organizations. The Act c r e a t e d a housing development board t o provide i n t e r e s t - f r e e advances f o r housing c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and t o g u a r a n t e e l o a n s made f o r housing development by any l e n d e r . a/ ~Uso i n 1970, New J e r s e y c r e a t e d a Mortgage Finance Agency t o make l o a n s t o mortgage l e n d e r s f o r t h e f i n a n c i n g of new r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n ; t h e Yline l e g i s l a t u r e a u t h o r i z e d t h e S t a t e housing a u t h o r i t y t o i s s u e revenue bonds and purchase and s e l l f i r s t mortgages i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e housing f o r persons of low income; and % , s s a c h u s e t t s enacted l e g i s l a t i o n prov i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l low-cost housing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and home ownership s u b s i d y programs through t h e S t a t e housing f i n a n c e a u t h o r i t y . New York helped expand mortgage s o u r c e s by c r e a t i n g t h e " S t a t e of New York I\lortgage Agency from >;1,r,l:s 11w which may purchase e x i s t i n g o l d e r mortgages a d may d i r e c t t h e proceeds from l i q u i d a t e d mortgages t o be i n v e s t e d i n neb: mortgages on r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y . The Colorado Housing I;/ Act of 1 ? ? demonstrated ~ ~ the p o t e n t i a l f o r providing S t a t e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e b;. c r e a t i n g a X v i s i o n of Housing w i t h i n t h e Department of Local Affairs. The new division will provide services to local authori- ties to promote more adequate housing. The Act also established a seven-member State housing board--members to be appointed b ~ the - governor-which is authorized to set housing construction and maintenance standards where none exist. The Housing and Urban Development Act of 19'70 authorizes financing of congregate housing with central dining facilities under public housing and FHA programs, with eligibility limited to the elderly, displaced, and handicapped. Dormitory type public housing for low-income single persons is now eligible for financial assistance. The Act also contains provisions consolidating HUD programs of technical advice and assistance on housing. It authorized financial assistance to low- and moderate-income tenant organizations, in addition to non-profit sponsors of multifamily housing. It also authorized $5 million for the technical assistance and counseling programs. Industrialized Housing The 1970 Housing Act consolidates several existing HUD research programs and authorizes the Secretary to undertake and fund programs of research, studies, testing, and demonstration relating to department missions and programs. In an area previously untouched by State involvement, several 1.egislatures in 19'70 sought to reduce housing costs and increase the supply of low and moderate-income housing by encouraging the production of factory-built housing. New York led the way with the establishment of a State version of the Department of Housing and Urban Development's "Operation Breakthr~ugh.'~ In California, the Prefabricated Housing A c t w establishes a State Commission on Housing and Community Development to formulate uniform health and safety standards for factory-built housing and to set up inspection procedures at factory sites that will permit units meeting the standards to be certified there for installation in any California locality. Localities retain their jurisdiction, however, over land use, setbacks, architecture, and esthetics. the State I s Area Planning and Development Commissions In can now provide technical and advisory assistance to help local governments supersede local building codes for specified mass-produced housing projects. homes. Provision is also made for State inspection of factory-built South Carolina adopted HUD standards for factory-built housing, prototypes, materials, and components. In the closely related area of building codes, Rhode Island moved toward uniformity by requiring municipalities to adopt housing codes which meet State standards, and Alabama legislation granted the State the authority to set minimum housing codes. Virginia now allows cities, t o m s , and counties to adopt, by reference, any building, plumbing, electrical, or gas codes. Mobile Homes At a time when housing prices are soaring and a national housing shortage threatens, mobile homes have proven inexpensive and available. Their potential impact on the suburban landscape and on holding populations outside of major metropolitan areas is just now becoming evident with liberalized Federal mortgage insurance and loan coverage for purchasing mobile homes and sites. The 1970 Housing Act sought to make the 1969 FHA mobile home loan program more attractive by providing that when a mobile unit is composed of two or more modules, the maximum insurable mobile home loan under the FHA loan program may be $15,000 (instead of $10,000) and the maximum term may be fifteen years (instead of twelve years). Fecognizing the urgent need for housing in rural areas, the 1970 JIousine Act also amends existing farm housing coverage to authorize the Secret,:lry of Agriculture to include mobile homes as housing. The Secretary is required to prescribe minimum property standards for mobile homes and sites and compliance with local community requirements. kinally, for the first time, the Veteranst Administration is authorized to guarantee loans (up to $10,000) for the purchase of mobile homes, if the home is on a site acceptable to the administrator. The loan amount may be increased (up to $5,000) for purchase of an undeveloped lot, or !up to $7,500) for purchase of a developed lot on which to place a mobile home. The States are Just beginning to legislate in this new field. Vermont has moved aggressively by giving the State authority to grant permits for trailer parks in any town, regardless of local zoning ordinances. Incentives are provided for park operators to build power l i n e s and f u e l s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s underground. Incentives a r e a l s o o f f e r e d f o r f u r n i s h i n g a c e n t r a l r e c r e a t i o n a r e a and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s i n t r a i l e r parks. 76/ In r e l a t e d a c t i o n s , Delawarew provided f o r S t a t e zoning of t r a i l e r park l o c a t i o n s , and C a l i f o r n i a 78/ allowed for r e g u l a t i o n of mobile home s t r u c t u r e s n e c e s s a r y f o r public h e a l t h and safety. 1971 Develowents The Department of Housing and Urban Development took p r i d e in f i g u r e s showing a 700-percent i n c r e a s e i n s u b s i d i z e d housing production during t h e Nixon y e a r s . But t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s Third Annual Report on National Housing Goals was c r i t i c a l of t h e housing i n d u s t r y and e x i s t i n g programs. The Report, submitted by t h e P r e s i d e n t t o t h e Congress on June 29, 1971 confirmed t h e search f o r new d i r e c t i o n s . It was c u r r e n t and r e l e v a n t t o t h e housing i s s u e s f a c i n g t h e n a t i o n , a s opposed t o t h e F i f t h Annual Report of t h e Department of Housing and Urban Development f o r 1969, which although c o n s i s t i n g of e s s e n t i a l l y a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t s of HUD with some g r a n t s t a t i s t i c s f o r calendar year 1969, was i s s u e d 1 6 months a f t e r t h e period f o r which it r e p o r t e d . w The Housing Goals r e p o r t noted t h a t t h e housing c o n s t r u c t i o n outlook both f o r low and moderate income, a s w e l l a s conventional housing, was t h e b r i g h t e s t i n y e a r s . Nevertheless, i n a n open i n v i t a t i o n t o t h e Congress, t h e Report s t a t e d t h a t : ... It is also necessary, however, to begin undertaking a long, deep, and searching look at the basic concept of our national housing programs and policies. Present estimates suggest that by 1978 direct commitments for budgetary outlays for subsidized housing will totalaround $7 billion per year, and loss of tax revenues through various credits and incentives add further to this cost. Serious questions have arisen with respect to the effects of these programs on housing costs, distribution of income, and social and physical environment. Such questions will be a matter of intensive consideration by the administration over the coming year. It is hoped that others will join open-mindedly in a necessary re-thinking. 80/ The preliminary report of the housing section of the White House Conference on Aging made some twenty-five recommendations for a national housing policy for the elderly, the first of these calling for a "fixed proportion of all government funds--Federal, State, and local--allocated to housing and related services, to be earmarked for housing for the elderly; with a minimum production of 120,000 units per year. IT^ Legislation initiated in 1971 both by the Administration and members of Congress contain both major reforms in housing as well as new authorities for revenue sharing, urban renewal, new communities, etc. These latter subjects will be discussed in the next section. Here will be described proposals for private housing aid consolidation, assistance to reduce the problem of abandonment, and support for new State and metropolitan housing assistance mechanisms, as well as accelerated application of housing technology advances. A number of significant reports and appraisals of housing policy pointing to new directions in the administration of housing assistance and moving toward open housing will also be discussed. Housing Subsidy Consolidation and Reform This year's Housing Goals report reminded the Congress that: ... Legislative proposals for 1971 will again seek a consolidation and simplification of the present multitude of confusing and overlapping housing programs operated by the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The Congress has now had a full year to study these proposals. There can be no excuse for further delay in bringing order to the present statutory chaos.82/ The bill proposed by the President is the Housing Consolidation and Simplification Act of 1971 (H.R. 9331 and S. 2049). It would replace some fifty or so statutorily authorized program of private ownership housing financed with FHA-insured mortgages with four basic programs: (1)a nonsubsidized homeownership program; (2) a subsidized homeownership program; (3) a non-subsidized rental housing program; and ( 4 ) a subsidized rental housing program. In the process, all private subsidized housing would receive an interest-rate subsidy, as under the present section 235 homeownership and 236 rental programs. All income limits for subsidized housing would be based on median incomes in local areas. All maximum mortgage limits (although different for different types of housing and programs) would be based on prototype costs for each housing market area. In addition, the Administration bill would clarify the public housing subsidy authority to permit subsidies as needed to cover deficits in operating costs, as well as to amortize the capital debt of housing projedts. The basic intent is to simplify the administra- tion of Federal housing programs for builders and project sponsors. Ln a related subject area, it was announced that the Subcormittee on Housing and Urban Affairs of the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs would hold hearings on October 13 through October 15 on S. 1671, the proposed Housing Institutions Modernization Act of 1971, to amend laws relating to savings and loan associations, to broaden their mortgage credit powers, including provisions involving the Federal chartering of stock savings and loan associations and the conversion of mutual associations to stock associations. The Committee planned to consider the issues raised by the bill in conjunction with the pending report by the President's Commission on Financial Institutions and Regulations, due in December. New Housing Programs The comprehensive Housing and Urban Development Act of 1971 (H.R. 9688) sponsored by the Chairman and 16 other Democratic members of the House Banking and Currency Committee, contains several titles dealing with housing. It would amend the basic 1968 National Housing Goals statute to require that in the President's Annual reports on the goals there shall be a contingency plan to meet mortgage credit requirements, an analys'is of changes in housing costs and an annual analysis of changes in the housing inventory. A new program authorized in this Bill (H.R. 9688) would be designed to counteract the abandonment of housing. It would authorize neighbor- hood preservation grants for programs of various public services and p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s i n designated neighborhoods where t h e p o t e n t i a l spread of housing abandonment e x i s t s . It would a l s o a u t h o r i z e t h e i n s u r a n c e of mortgages on e x i s t i n g p r o p e r t i e s in neighborhood pres e r v a t i o n a r e a s t o owner-resident purchasers (of 2 t o 6 u n i t ~ r o ~ e r t i e s ) and t o cooperatives and non-profit o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( f o r multi-family properties). The r e f i n a n c i n g of t h e e x i s t i n g mortgages should permit improvements t o be made, while precluding r e n t i n c r e a s e s . Owner and t e n a n t counseling s e r v i c e s and improved management i n F e d e r a l l y subsidized housing a r e a u t h o r i z e d and t h e experimental housing allowances program a u t h o r i z e d by t h e Housing and Urban Development Act of 1970 i s expanded. Most innovative a r e t h e p r o v i s i o n s t o completely a l t e r t h e p r e s e n t system of a l l o c a t i n g housing subsidy a u t h o r i z a t i o n , by p l a c i n g c o n t r o l over l o c a t i o n of subsidized housing i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a i n t h e hands of p u b l i c bodies, i n s t e a d of l e a v i n g i t t o t h e i n i t i a t i v e of p r i v a t e developers and l o c a l housing a u t h o r i t i e s . Block g r a n t s of c o n t r a c t u a l Federal housing a s s i s t a n c e a u t h o r i t y would be a l l o c a t e d t o Metropolitan Housing Agencies and t o S t a t e Housing Agencies. These a g e n c i e s , t o be e s t a b l i s h e d pursuant t o S t a t e enabling l e g i s l a t i o n , would r e c e i v e such block g r a n t s on t h e b a s i s of population, housing need and p o v e r t y i n c i dence. They would determine t h e g e n e r a l (i.e . community) l o c a t i o n of s u b s i d i z e d housing and t h e type of housing. They would a l s o s e l e c t t h e p r i v a t e developers o r l o c a l housing a u t h o r i t i e s whose p r o p o s a l s were b e s t s u i t e d t o meet t h e housing needs. T h e r e a f t e r , t h e r e would be r e g u l a r low and moderate income p r o j e c t p r o c e s s i n g by t h e Department of Housing and Urban Development. Local communities working under t h e bletropolitan o r S t a t e Agencies' p l a n s would, among o t h e r b e n e f i t s , r e c e i v e a m e t r o p o l i t a n i n c e n t i v e g r a n t of up t o $3,000 f o r each planned subsidy housing u n i t . The pur- pose of t h i s i n n o v a t i v e and compensatory payment program i s t o h e l p communities t o meet t h e c o s t of providing s e r v i c e s , such a s s c h o o l s and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e low income f a m i l i e s they a c c e p t . H.R. 9688 was d e r i v e d in s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t from t h e l e g i s l a t i v e recommendations of t h r e e p a n e l s of t h e House Banking and Currency Housing Subcommittee which were e s t a b l i s h e d l a s t f a l l t o conduct an i n t e n s i v e s t u d y of t h e o p e r a t i o n s and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e F e d e r a l housing and urban development programs. The t h r e e s t u d y p a n e l s , made up of members of t h e Subcommittee, o b t a i n e d t h e s e r v i c e s of 36 e x p e r t c o n s u l t a n t s t o a s s i s t them i n reviewing and a n a l y z i n g v a r i o u s housing and urban development i s s u e s . The e x p e r t s met with panel members t o d i s c u s s t h e s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a s a s s i g n e d t o them, and then prepared papers f o r submission t o t h e p a n e l s i n e a r l y 1971, now been p u b l i s h e d , These papers and a summary r e p o r t have A sample of t h e t i t l e s r e l a t i n g t o housing pro- d u c t i o n a r e i l l u s t r a t i v e of t h e c o n t e n t : "Housing Needs and N a t i o n a l Coals"; "National Coals and Local P r a c t i c e s : J o i n i n g Ends and Means i n Housing"; I1The Role of Nonprofit Sponsors i n t h e Production of Housing"; "Housing and t h e Role of t h e Large Corporate E n t e r p r i s e " ; ItDesignand Production of Housing"; ItHousingand Manpower in 1970's"; "Abandonment and Rehabilitation : What Is To Be Done?I1; 'IFHA Processing and Fees and Social Purposes;" IfconsumerProtection--The Role of HUD in Protecting the Homeowner.lf The legislation resulting from these deliberations and papers prepared was an excellent illustration of the role that the social sciences can play in contributing to major new directions policy. The panel1s review procedure, later supplemented by the conventional hearing process, resulted in an especially creative legislative package which should improve the quality of public debate on national housing policy within the Congress, by the Congress and w executive branch, in the academic community and in the public at large. The Military Construction Appropriation Bill for fiscal 1972, was signed by the President Thursday, November 18, and designated as Public Law 92-160. This Act appropriates $933,955,000 to be obligated and expended in the Family Housing Management Account. This Act also appropriates $7,575,000 for use in the Homeowners Assistance Fund established pursuant to sec. 1013 of the Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development' Act of 1966 for assistance to military and civilian personnel required to dispose of their homes due to the closing of military installations. Housing Technolo~y The proposed Building Sciences Act of 1971 (H,R. 8393) borrows ideas from bills introduced in previous Congresses and from a host of reform recommendations. These included the reports of the National Commission on Urban ?roblems (the Douglas omm mission) ; the President I s Committee on Urban Housing (the Kaiser committee); the report of the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations on Building Code I'iodernization and the Report and Recommendations of Three Study Panels, cited above. H.R. 8393 proposes the Federal incorporation of a National Institute of Building Sciences as a non-profit, non-governmental entity to be run by a board which shall be "reasonably representative of the various regions of the country, of the various segments of the building community including private industry and labor, all levels ..." of government, of consumer interest, The members of the board are to be appointed by the President with the advice and c0nsen.t of the Senate from lists of %ighly qualified" persons recommended to him by the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and the National Research Council. The Institute is to be financed initially by Federal grants but after the first 5 years to become self-sustaining through contracts, grants, subscriptions, donations and fees. The functions of the Institute are as follows: (1) Development, promulgation, and maintenance of nationally recognized performance criteria, standards, and other technical provisions for maintenance of life, safety, health, and public welfare suitable for adoption by building regulating jurisdictions and agencies, including test methods and other evaluative techniques relating to building systems, sub-systems, components, products, and materials. ( 2 ) Evaluation and p r e q u a l i f i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g and new b u i l d i n g technology i n accordance with paragraph (1). ( 3 ) Conduct of needed i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n d i r e c t supp o r t of paragraphs ( l ) ,( 2 ) ... The I n s t i t u t e would depend upon encouraging cooperation in most areas. However, a l l programs i n v o l v i n g d i r e c t expenditure of F e d e r a l funds f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o r i n developing t e c h n i c a l requirements f o r such use a s w e l l a s F e d e r a l l y - a s s i s t e d programs ( g r a n t s , l o a n guarantees e t c . ) would be r e q u i r e d t o accept t h e f i n d i n g s of t h e I n s t i t u t e o r s t a n d a r d s brought about by t h e L n s t i t u t e ' s a c t i o n s . I n v e s t i ~ a t i o nof Low and Middle Income Mortgage Assistance On February 6 t h e House Banking and Currency Committee published a s t a f f r e p o r t and recommendations on t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and h e a r i n g s on abuses i n Federal low and moderate incane housing programs. The conclusion reached based on t h e r o l e t h a t FHA played i n a l l o w i n g r e a l e s t a t e s p e c u l a t i o n i n t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e "235" low and moderate income homeownership and o t h e r subsidy programs was t h a t t h e Department of Housing and Urban Development and i t s Federal Housing Administration may be well on i t s way toward i n s u r i n g i t s e l f i n t o a n a t i o n a l housing scandal . The recommendations included proposals f o r review of a l l e x i s t i n g s e c t i o n 235 commitments, a p p r o p r i a t e d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n , cont i n u e d General Accounting Office e v a l u a t i o n of major housing programs and an e x t e n s i v e r e t r a i n i n g program t o be undertaken f o r a l l FHA appraisers. W P f t e r an i n i t i a l Department claim t h a t t h e r e p o r t was " i n a c c u r a t e , m i s l e a d i n g , and very i n c o m p l e t e , " major elements of t h e program were t e m p o r a r i l y suspended e a r l y i n 1971 and a HUD i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n i t i a t e d . The HUD i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t , on a sample b a s i s , 42 p e r c e n t of e x i s t i n g homes and 25 p e r c e n t of t h e new homes i n s u r e d under t h e program d i d n o t meet b a s i c HUD requirements.w Bribery i n d i c t m e n t s of c e r t a i n b u i l d e r s and FHA a p p r a i s e r s were i n i t i a t e d by t h e Government, new procedures adopted, and an i n t e n s i v e r e t r a i n i n g program undertaken. Withholding of Apurouriated F'unds I n March, t h e Senate Banking, Housing and Urban A f f a i r s Committee h e l d h e a r i n g s on withholding by t h e P r e s i d e n t of a p p r o p r i a t e d funds f o r housing and urban development programs. The Committee was i n v e s t i - g a t i n g t h e impoundment of over one and one-half b i l l i o n d o l l a r s of a p p r o p r i a t e d funds f o r p u b l i c housing, urban renewal, model c i t i e s , water and sewer, mass t r a n s i t and low and moderate income housing. 87/ The Chairman i n h i s opening statement s t a t e d h i s b e l i e f t h a t t h e s e a c t i o n s were an u n c a l l e d - f o r r e b u f f t o t h e Congress and an undue use of t h e power of t h e Executive t o c o n t r o l t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n s and spendi n g of Government funds which t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n r e s e r v e s t o t h e Congress. 88/ The Office of Management and Budget r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , i n h i s testimony, defended t h e a c t i o n on t h e grounds of s t a t u t o r y power g r a n t e d t o t h e P r e s i d e n t by t h e A n t i d e f i c i e n c y Act, problems r e l a t e d t o budget d e f i c i t s and t h e d e b t limit, s t a t u t o r y o u t l a y c e i l i n g s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e Second Supplemental Act for 1970 (P.L. 91-305), and finally, the need to combat inflation and achieve fiscal stabilization. In May, the Administration indicated that most of the funds would ultimately be made available and, subsequent to the hearings, much of the withheld funds were released for obligation and expenditure.. A similar problem regarding withholding of rural development funds was raised in October, 1971. Freezes on partial withholding of appropriated funds were reported on rural environmental assistance, rural water and sewer %u grants, and rural electrification. PART V Renewing Old Communities and Creating New Communities Inner city areas are in need of rational land use planning and development if their tax base is to be enhanced and if their inventories of housing are to be maintained and augmented. Similarly, development of new towns and major additions to existing communities are crucial and complementary components of any future national urban growth program. 1970 Develo~ments Urban Renewal and State Land Use The 1970 Housing and Urban Development Act liberalized eligibility for urban renewal. Grants are now available for acquisition by local public agencies of vacant or inappropriately used land or space that could be developed for housing or other uses--including schools, hospitals, parks, or public facilities--associated with housing for low and moderate-income families, development of new communities, or other undertakings related to inner city needs including expanded employment opportunities. State redevelopment actions in 1970 included financial assistance, use of air rights, and industrial development controls. Massachusetts increased the mount of urban renewal assistance grants to be paid to cities and towns by the State for Federally aided renewal projects. New York, Louisiana, and Virginia extended air space rights in cities for sale or lease above or below municipal property acquired for street : m i highway purposes. In industrial development, the most comprehensive action was taken i,y !?hods Islandw which created a Statewide Land Development Corpora- tion to acquire, develop, lease, and sell selected areas for industrial expansion through an "industrial land bank." Among its stated legis- lative objectives are preservation of land for future industrial and commercial development, establishment of sound development standards, and implementation of State and municipal urban growth policies. New Communities An increasing national legislative commitment to new town develop- ment was begun througk loan guarantees in 1968 and was brought to fruition in 1970. In what was far and away the most significant urban development legislation of the year, the 1970 Housing Act created a CoAmmity Lkvelopment Corporation within the Department of Housing Urban Development. The Board of Erectors of the corporation consists of five members with the Secretary of HUD as chairman. Through the corporation, a full panoply of guarantees, loans, and grants is authorized for new community development programs. The corporation is authorized to guarantee bonds and other obligations issued by private developers and State land development agencies to finance land assembly, acquisition, and development. In addition, loans may assist new community developers to make interest payments on indebtedness incurred by land acquisition and development. Loans up to $20 million may be made to a single developer; the aggregate may not exceed $240 million. The Community Development Corporation is also authorized to make grants to State land development agencies or State or local public bodies to assist in providing essential public services prior to permanent arrangement for the provision of such services. The Act also authorizes supplementary grants for public facilities, which are not to exceed 20 percent of the total cost of the project. Special planning assistance is provided to new community developers, to cover up to twothirds cf the 2ost of planning new community development programs. Such plarming must assure that the new community development program will be fu1.l~responsive to social or environmental problems related to the public purposes of new community development and will adequately provide for or encourage the use of new or advanced technology. In a separate program, HUD has been authorized to provide to State and local public Sodies grants to cover not more than 75 percent oi' tne cost of acquiring interests in undeveloped or predominantly undeveloped land which, if withheld from commercial, industrial, and residential development, would significantly guide desirable patterns of urban growth. Complementing these actions, State legislation in this promising approach to urban development was passed for the first time in 1970. Arizona authorized creation of new towns improvement districts which can issue special district bonds and established a State Community Development Council. Arizona also authorized private developers of new cities to finance utilities and streets,with general obligation bonds. California provided for planning and land assembly for new communities by redevelopment agencies. The law requires that the approval of the Local Agency Formation Commission must be obtained before redevelopment agencies may plan and develop new communities.92/ Kentucky passed a New Communities Act authorizing new community districts, operating as nonprofit membership corporations, to exercise general governmental powers within a specific area in order to promote private initiative and voluntary participation in planned urbanization. To encourage innovation and experimentation, each new community is exempted from all housing restrictions and building codes. 1971 Develo~ments There are three major bills before the 92nd Congress concerned with reform of existing central city renewal metropolitan develop- ment aids: the Administration's urban community development special revenue sharing proposal; and both House and Senate initiated grant consolidation proposals. The Senate Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Committee held hearings in August and September on the housing and community development legislation before it, as did its counterpart House Committee. Specia1 Revenue Sharing The Community Development Act of 1971 (H.R. 8853, S. l6l8), is the Administration's proposal for special revenue sharing for community development. The four programs which would be combhed to form a new common fund are urban renewal, Model Cities, water and sewer grants, and loans for the rehabilitation of existing structures. Eighty percent of this special revenue sharing fund would be assigned for use in Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Funds would be allocated among and within such metropolitan areas according to a formula to be written into the law. Funding would be to general governments, i.e. cities and States rather than semi-autonomous urban renewal agencies. The President's Message on March 5, 1971 stated that cities could use their share of Urban and Community Development block grants for such purposes as acquiring, clearing, and renewing blighted areas; constructing public works; building streets and malls; enforcing housing codes i n d e t e r i o r a t i n g a r e a s ; r e h a b i l i t a t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s ; funding d e m o l i t i o n p r o j e c t s , and h e l p i n g r e l o c a t e t h o s e d i s p l a c e d from homes o r b u s i n e s s . 5%' I n i t i a l c r i t i c i s m h a s c e n t e r e d on t h e a l l o c a t i o n f o r m u l a and t h e l a c k of p l a n n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n r e v i e w o r o t h e r performance r e q u i r e m e n t s . i?nder t h e f o r m u l a , s u b s t a n t i a l f u n d s would go t o c i t i e s t h a t have n o t been p r e v i o u s l y a c t i v e i n HUD programs. "Hold h a r m l e s s , . . insuring i e t h a t no c i t y g e t l e s s f u n d s t h a n p r e v i o u s l y , may n o t be s u f f i c i e n t f o r c i t i e s i n t r o u b l e , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e i n f l a t i o n and planned e x p a n s i o n i n t h e s e c i t i e s c r e a t e t h e need f o r more f u n d s . The revenue d i s t r i b u t i o n mec.!mlism in rrietropolitan a r e a s does n o t i n c l u d e s h a r e s f o r u r b a n count i e s , o n l y f'or caities. T h i s p r o v i s i o n was t h e r e f o r e opposed by t h e I i a t i o n u l Assoc-iaLion of C o u n t i e s . Finally, there is l i t t l e protection n p a i n s t t,hr, f u n d s b e i n g used f o r low p r i o r i t y p u b l i c works a c t i v i t i e s i n t, he c omnuni ti?. ';here a r e no minimum o r maximum s t a n d a r d s of f a c i l i t i e s t o be p r o v i d e d , t h e r e b y p e r m i t t i n g s e r v i c e s t o be dependent on l o c a l d e c i s i o n s a s t o how f u n d s s h o u l d be used. There a r e no i n c e n t i v e s t o overcome f r a g m e n t a t i o n of l o c a l government w i t h a l l t h e diseconomies which t h a t entails. In f a c t , t h e s p e c i a l revenue g r a n t s could t e n d t o s o l i d i f y p r e s e n t , - n i s d i c t i o n a l l i n e s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . F i n a l l y , q u e s t i o n may be r a i s e d a s t o why o t h e r programs a r e o m i t t e d which a l s o a r e i m p o r t a n t t o community development, such a s open s p a c e and n e i g h t o r h o o d f a c i l i t i e s ? Consistent with the special revenue sharing and housing aid consolidation proposals placed before the Congress, the Secretary on March 1 functionally realigned the internal structure of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Community development assistance programs formerly administered by three different Assistant Secretaries will be headed by an Assistant Secretary for Community Development. All plan- ning and management assistance programs are to be administered by an Assistant Secretary for Planning and Management. Responsibility for housing management activity, which assumes much greater importance as almost a half million units of federally assisted housing are added to the Nation's housing stock each year, is placed under an Assistant Secretary for Housing Management. Senate Community Development Reform Legislation The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs has also introduced a Community Development Assistance Act of 1971 (s. 2333) which ment program. would provide for a block grant community develop- It consolidates 5 HUD categorical programs (urban renewal, open space land, community facilities, public works planning, and public facility loans) and simplifies the application process; increases Federal assistance to 90 percent of program costs; provides greater assurances for localities by authorizing a 2 year contract for community development assistance; a system for regular contract renewals; and a basic community entitlement to funding; and broadens local authority in using Federal funds by expanding the list of assisted activities; eliminating precise geographical boundary requirements; enabling iocalities to link renewal and housing production and rehabilitation activities. It would require that an application be reviewed before grants are made. Such review must be completed in a 90-day period. Its formula for allocation of authorized grant funds would involve a special preferential allocation for those communities which have hitherto been active participants in the categorical community development programs by allocating 75 percent of the authorized funds to localities which now have development programs, and to retain 25 percent for communities which will initiate development programs under the Act, and establishing for each community an annual entitle to development funds based on (1) its prior recent participation in programs consolidated under the Act, and (2) an annual increment of 15 percent. the House (H.R. 9688) and Senate (s. 2333) Both Bills would authorize three- year funding for the programs, subject to annual review for performance and modification of funding commitments of local prog'rams. The Administration 2ill would authorize program funding year by year. The Secretary of HUD urged approval of the Administration proposals which minimized red tape and delay. Grant levels based on previous levels of activity were criticized on the grounds that it would result in more money going to cities that did well in the past, despite current needs and priorities. "The bill's formula appears to be unfair to the many communities whose urgent needs...have outstripped their past ability to capture Federal grant funds. d?d The U. S. Conference of Mayors passed a resolution at their 1971 meeting criticizing the Administration Bill on the grounds that it "would upset the present Federal-local ability to respond to the requirements of many smaller communities and would seriously jeopardize current expectations of future program growth in scores of other cities..." w Robert W. Maffin, executive director, National Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials, endorsed S. 2333 on the grounds that S. 2333 meets the inadequacies and gaps in the present Federal development programs. It consolidates related programs, simplifies Federal requirements, provides linkages to other programs, increases the Federal financial commitment to communicate while guaranteeing the continuity of this commitment, and maintains the national priorities of slum removal, blight prevention and housing production while encouraging flexibility in establishing local programs. This is a different approach--and in NAHROts opinion a far superior one--than that contained in the other major community developent proposal now before the subcommittee, S. 1618, Urban Community Development Revenue Sharing. 96/ Still another Senate entry was S. 1958, a Bill to establish a National Domestic Development Bank. Its purpose is to provide an alter- native source of credit to State and local governments for public facilities. Loans would be made for the following purposes: First, cities, counties, and States would be able to borrow money for basic community facilities at rates comparable to municipal bonds. Second, LO-year loans also will be available to non-profit or quasi-governmental organizations receiving Federal funds and pursuing public purposes for the construction of housing, medical, and other public facilities. T h i r d , l o a n s o v e r a 20-year p e r i o d w i l l be made t o b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r economic development p u r p o s e s in s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d areas. House Community Development Block Grant The Chairman and e i g h t e e n o t h e r members of t h e House Banking and Currency Gommittee have proposed f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n (H.R. 9688),w a b l o c k g r a n t program which would c o n s o l i d a t e a somewhat l a r g e r number of FL:D c a t e g o r i c a l a i d community development programs. A formula block g r a n t a l l o c a t i o n , s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n B i l l , would be used. However, l i k e H.R. 9688, a program a p p l i c a t i o n would have t o be s u b m i t t e d f o r a g e n e r a l r e v i e w t o a s s u r e c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e broad i n t e n t as t o t y p e s of a c t i v i t i e s and n a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s t h a t a r e inherent i n t h e Lasic Federal l e g i s l a t i o n . Provision of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s s u p p o r t i v e of approved community development a c t i v i t i e s would be allowed. k'unds could be used t o match t h e r e l a t e d F e d e r a l g r a n t s . To be e l i g i b l e Tor a b l o c k g r a n t a community would have t o have a b a l a n c e d h o u s i n g pro- gram, which could be p a r t of a S t a t e o r I.4etropolitan Housing Agency Program. Another T i t l e of t h e proposed Housing and Urban Development Act of 1 9 7 1 'H.?.. 9688) would a s s i s t S t a t e and F l e t r o p o i i t a n Development Agencies p a t t e r n e d a f t e r t h e New York S t a t e Urban Clevelopment Corporat i o n w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e x p e n s e s and g u a r a n t e e of t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s . Such p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n s could d e v e l o p and r e d e v e l o p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , n e i g h b o r h o o d s , commercial and i n d u s t r i a l f a c i l i t i e s . men5 :.& An Urban Develop- would be e s t a b l i s h e d t o buy and s e l l t a x a b l e o b l i g a t i o n s o f S t a t e and l o c a l governments. These l o a n s would be designed t o o f f e r an a l t e r n a t i v e t o tax-exempt f i n a n c i n g by l o c a l i t i e s . The l o a n s made by t h e bank would be a t i n t e r e s t r a t e s n o t t o exceed two-thirds of t h e c u r r e n t c o s t of money t o t h e bank. The s u b s i d y involved would be l e s s than t h e l o s s of F e d e r a l revenue involved in tax-exempt f i n a n c i n g . The House Appropriations Committee i n r e p o r t i n g o u t t h e HUD approp r i a t i o n s f o r f i s c a l 1972 r e j e c t e d t h e s p e c i a l revenue s h a r i n g f i n a n c i n g package f o r t h e f i s c a l y e a r . ... The course recommended by t h e Committee seems by f a r t h e p r e f e r a b l e course t o t a k e a t t h i s time. The s p e c i a l revenue s h a r i n g l e g i s l a t i o n submitted by t h e Administration as a p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o some of t h e e s t a b l i s h e d urban a s s i s t a n c e programs, i f e n a c t e d , would h a r d l y be soon enough f o r an o r d e r l y t r a n s i t i o n i n t h e middle of f i s c a l y e a r 1972. 98/ Extension of C e r t a i n HUD Programs I n t e r i m l e g i s l a t i o n t o extend c e r t a i n housing programs and a u t h o r i z a t i o n s , was signed by t h e P r e s i d e n t on December 22, and d e s i g n a t e d a s P u b l i c Law 92-213. This Act extends t h e a u t h o r i t y of t h e S e c r e t a r y of HUD t o e s t a b l i s h FHA mortgage i n t e r e s t r a t e l e v e l s , t h e emergency f l o o d i n s u r a n c e program, and t h e p e r i o d w i t h i n which communities may q u a l i f y f o r a b a s i c water and sewer f a c i l i t i e s g r a n t even though i t s planning program f o r an a r e a wide system, though under p r e p a r a t i o n , has n o t been completed. Any e n t i t i e s e l i g i b l e f o r b a s i c c a t e g o r i c a l g r a n t s a r e a l s o made e l i g i b l e f o r a supplemental g r a n t t o a s s i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n of p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s i n new communities. The a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r t h e comprehensive planning program i s i n c r e a s e d by $50 m i l l i o n and t h e a u t h o r i z a 5 , o n f o r t h e open space program by $100 m i l l i o n . The Act p r o h i b i t s t h e r e d u c t i o n of w e l f a r e payments t o p u b l i c housing t e n a n t s r e c e i v i n g t h e b e n e f i t of t h e 25 p e r c e n t r e n t t o income r a t i o . Kew Communities Regulations The 1970 Housing and Urban Development Act was p o s s i b l y t h e most i n n o v a t i v e p i e c e of urban growth l e g i s l a t i o n enacted t h a t y e a r due t o i t s c r e a t i o n of a new Community Development Corporation. A u t h o r i t y was provided f o r a f u l l panoply of g u a r a n t e e s , l o a n s , and g r a n t s t o be provided f o r e l i g i b l e new community development programs. A t t h e end of J u l y , 1971 t h e Department moved toward i s s u a n c e of proposed r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e Community Development c o r p o r a t i o n . The r u l e s cover t h e a s s i s t a n c e programs proposed f o r funding i n t h e 1972 budget r e q u e s t . The d r a f t r e g u l a t i o n s w r e published i n t h e Federal R e g i s t e r t o permit i n t e r e s t e d persons t o make recommendations p r i o r t o f i n a l i s s u a n c e some time a f t e r September of t h i s y e a r . c r i t e r i a are identified. a broad one. Both g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c The d e f i n i t i o n of new community o f f e r e d was No minimum o r maximum p o p u l a t i o n s i z e i s p r e s c r i b e d b u t i t s s i z e must be s i g n i f i c a n t with comparison t o surrounding developments. P r o j e c t s must have a c c e s s t o o t h e r p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s . A general i n t e r n a l development program must be completed which provides f o r i n t e r n a l diversity. New communities must c o n t a i n a n adequate range of housing. The town must have a f u l l range of governmental powers and be provided with p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . The community need n o t be a s e p a r a t e p o l i t i c a l u n i t b u t may be governed by an e x i s t i n g c i t y o r county. Developers must secure a l l S t a t e and l o c a l approvals r e q u i r e d by law, i n c l u d i n g adoption by t h e l o c a l governing body of t h e new community program. The p r o j e c t must i n c l u d e t h e use of c i t i z e n advisory groups, l o c a t i o n of housing so a s t o avoid s e g r e g a t i o n , and a program of c i t i z e n p a r t i cipation i n project a c t i v i t i e s . w Some i n i t i a l comments i n t h e d r a f t r e g u l a t i o n s noted t h e l a c k of r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e new-town-in-town o b j e c t i v e s of t h e Act, t h e charging of h i g h f e e s t o p u b l i c o r non-profit developers and t h e absence of earmarking low and moderate income housing r e s o u r c e s of HlTD t o new community p r o j e c t s . By J u l y of t h i s y e a r Federal a s s i s t a n c e under 1970 and p r e v i o u s l y enacted a u t h o r i t y had been pledged t o 6 new community p r o j e c t s and over 40 a p p l i c a t i o n s were under c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e Department of Housing and Urban Development's Office of New Communities. 100/ PART V I Strengthening t h e Capacity of General Governments t o Manage t h e Urban Environment I n c r e a s i n g l y recognized a s fundamental t o a l l o t h e r reforms i s t h a t component of t h e new n a t i o n a l urban growth p o l i c y c a l l i n g f o r strengtheni n g t h e c a p a c i t i e s of g e n e r a l government i n s t i t u t i o n s . The Ash Council i n i t s Memoranda f o r t h e P r e s i d e n t on e x e c u t i v e branch r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t a t e d t h e e s s e n t i a l i t y of t h e case f o r F e d e r a l a c t i o n t o a s s i s t S t a t e and l o c a l governments in o v e r a l l management. The need f o r improving t h e management c a p a c i t y and t h e a u t h o r i t y t o manage S t a t e and l o c a l government e x t e n d s a c r o s s t h e e n t i r e range of F e d e r a l l y a s s i s t e d We have adopted a broad d e f i n i t i o n of activities. e x e c u t i v e management support n o t merely t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e v a r i o u s comprehensive planning g r a n t s , b u t because we view t h e f a i l u r e t o r e c o n c i l e p r i o r i t i e s among governments a s a major impediment t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of government a t a l l l e v e l s . This f a i l u r e produces program imbalances and non-responsiveness t o l o c a l needs--both we have found a r e major complaints of t h e c r i t i c s of l o c a l government. 101/ ... A primary o b j e c t i v e of F e d e r a l and S t a t e governments must be t o support o r r e s t o r e t h e managerial and f i s c a l v i t a l i t y of urban government and p r e s e r v e t h e q u a l i t y of an urban environment. Without such c a p a b i l i t y , l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e , c r e a t i v i t y , d i s c r e t i o n , choice, and decision-making e x i s t o n l y i n t h e o l d e r t e x t books, and r e s p o n s i b l e c l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s have l i t t l e o r no d i s c r e t i o n t o a l t e r t h i n g s more than t r i v i a l l y . 1970 Developments F e d e r a l 14anagement P r o g r e s s A t t h e F e d e r a l l e v e l , l e g i s l a t i v e measures were t a k e n in 1970 t o s t r e n g t h e n c o n t r o l i n t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s o f f i c e and i n t h e Congress. The P r e s i d e n t , i n Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970, e s t a b l i s h e d a Domestic Council t o coordinate domestic p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , and an O f f i c e of Xanagement and !3udget t o be h i s p r i n c i p a l arm f o r t h e e x e r c i s e of m a n a g e r i a l functions. I n t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s words: The Domestic Council w i l l be p r i m a r i l y concerned with what we do; t h e O f f i c e of Nmagement and Budget w i l l be p r i m a r i l y concerned with how we do i t . 102/ The c r e a t i o n of t h e s e two new s t a f f o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s intended t o c e n t r a l i z e t h e decision-making power of t h e Federal government w i t h i n t h e Executive Office of t h e P r e s i d e n t . In essence, t h e new OMB absorbed t h e Bureau of t h e Budget--thus transferring the authority f o r making up t h e budget and f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e success and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v a r i o u s programs and l e a d e r s h i p i n e x e c u t i v e management t o a s t a f f w i t h i n t h e White House. The Cabinet Committee on t h e b v i r o n - ment was absorbed i n t o t h e Domestic Council. The L e g i s l a t i v e Reorganization Act of 1970, w among o t h e r t h i n g s , was designed t o s t r e n g t h e n congressional f i s c a l c o n t r o l s and speed a c t i o n on a p p r o p r i a t i o n s . It c a l l s f o r s t a n d a r d i m t i o n and computeriza- t i o n of Federal budgetary and f i s c a l d a t a ; moves toward l o n g e r term f i s c a l and program planning by d i r e c t i n g t h e P r e s i d e n t t o supply Cong r e s s with a f i v e - y e a r f o r e c a s t of t h e f i s c a l impact of each e x i s t i n g and proposed Federal program s o t h a t Congress w i l l have a more a c c u r a t e a p p r a i s a l of programs t h a t w i l l involve major i n c r e a s e s in e x p e n d i t u r e s i n f u t u r e y e a r s ; and d i r e c t s congressional committees t o i n c l u d e f i v e year cost projections i n committee r e p o r t s on all s u b s t a n t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n . To e x p e d i t e a p p r o p r i a t i o n s a c t i o n s , t h e Act r e q u i r e s t h e House Appropria t i o n s Committee t o hold h e a r i n g s within t h i r t y days a f t e r t h e P r e s i d e n t sends t h e budget t o Congress. The Act a l s o s t r e n g t h e n s t h e advance planning, r e s e a r c h , and information r e s o u r c e s of t h e Congress by expandi n g t h e f u n c t i o n s of t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Reference Service of t h e L i b r a r y of Congress, which i s renamed t h e Congressional Research S e r v i c e t o emphasize t h e p o l i c y a n a l y s i s t h r u s t of i t s new s t a f f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . S t a t e Government Modernization More S t a t e s began t o p u t t h e i r own houses i n o r d z r i n 1970 by s t r e a m l i n i n g e x e c u t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and making o f f i c i a l s more accountable t o t h e people. Delaware, Vermont, and Massachusetts r e o r g a n i z e d t h e i r e x e c u t i v e branches i n t o a few broad c a b i n e t departments, c u t t i n g through t h e maze of a g e n c i e s , comnissions, and boards. The v o t e r s i n 14ontana and North Carolina approved r e d u c t i o n s of t h e number of admini s t r a t i v e departments. Kansas, Maryland, and North C a r o l i n a a u t h o r i z e d t h e i r governors t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e i r e x e c u t i v e branches, s u b j e c t t o l e g i s l a t i v e v e t o , b r i n g i n g t o t e n t h e number of governors with t h a t important management t o o l . The decision-making a u t h o r i t y of t h e governor was f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h ened i n Massachusetts by g i v i n g a l l policy-making o f f i c i a l s t h e same terms as t h e governor, i n Colorado by empowering t h e governor t o appoint t h e heads of most c a b i n e t departments and r e v i s i n g t h e e x e c u t i v e budget o f f i c e , and in Kansas and Nebraska, by providing f o r t h e governor and l i e u t e n a n t governor t o run as a team. Annual l e g i s l a t i v e s e s s i o n s were i n i t i a t e d i n Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Maryland, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, and V i r g i n i a ; t h r e e - f o u r t h s of t h e S t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s w i l l now meet every y e a r . S t a t e Revenue Reform While revenue s h a r i n g moved t o t h e c e n t e r s t a g e f o r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l d e b a t e , a number of S t a t e revenue measures of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o urban r e s i d e n t s were a c t u a l l y enacted i n 1970. Ohio provided f o r distribution of State sales taxes to local governments by county budget commissions. The statute incorporated a "need" distribution formula w which is generally based on expenditures of subdivisions minus revenues. In another revenue measure of significance to local governments, New Hampshire acted in the commuter tax field by imposing a 4 percent tax on non-residents who work in New Hampshire. Illinoist new income tax legislation contains a revenue-sharing plan that rebates, with no strings attached, one-twelfth of the State's income tax revenues to municipalities, counties, townships, and special districts. After the first year, the funds will be given to cities and counties only. New York took similar revenue-sharing action by providing 21 percent of State income tax collections for per capita aid to local governments. State Plannine Zoning and land use control are inherent State powers which traditionally have been completely delegated in the name of home rule. In 1969, Oregon and Maine joined Hawaii in establishing State zoning controls. In 1970, Maine extended its statewide zoning power by giving the Environmental Improvement Commission veto power over commercial and industrial development anywhere in the State. Colorado created a State Land Use Commission to recommend a statewide land use map and classification system, and the Virginia General Assembly called for a study to lay the foundation for a State growth and development policy. Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, and Ohio, among others, strengthened t h e i r S t a t e planning c a p a b i l i t i e s . Kentucky adopted l e g i s l a t i o n a u t h o r i z i n g t h e S t a t e Program Development O f f i c e t o d e s i g n a t e s u b - s t a t e r e g i o n s and c o o r d i n a t e r e g i o n a l comprehensive development p l a n s . S i m i l a r a c t i o n has been taken by approximateiy f o r t y S t a t e s through executive order ar l e g i s l a t i o n . P u b l i c S e c t o r Man~ower Although a new 4.5 b i l l i o n d o l l a r p u b l i c s e r v i c e job program was vetoed, Congress passed and t h e P r e s i d e n t signed i n t o law t h e I n t e r governmental Personnel Act of 1970. The p u b l i c s e r v i c e job program would lime permitted S t a t e and l o c a l governments t o h i r e persons unable t o f'ind j o h s i n p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y t o work i n s c h o o l s , h o s p i t a l s , p o l i c e :md S i r e departments, o r i n r e c r e a t i o n , c o n s e r v a t i o n , and t r a n s p o r t a - t i o n programs. The Intergovernmental Personnel Act 108/ i s p o t e n t i a l l y t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t l e g i s l a t i o n enacted d u r i n g t h e y e a r t o upgrade and s t r e n g t h e n t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s of S t a t e and l o c a l governments. It i s i n t e n d e d t o provide t h e f i r s t comprehensive Federal a i d program f o r improving and s t r e n g t h e n i n g S t a t e and l o c a l personnel a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by f o c u s i n g on t h r e e b a s i c problems i n t h e p u b l i c manpower a r e a : t h e i n t e r c h a n g e of F e d e r a l , S t a t e , and l o c a l employees; t r a i n i n g programs i n a range of a d n i n i s t r a t i v e , t e c h n i c a l , and p r o f e s s i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s ; and personnel management. Most r e l e v a n t t o planning a g e n c i e s , e x e c u t i v e o f f i c i a l s , and S t a t e and l o c a l urban a f f a i r s o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e t h e p r o v i s i o n s a u t h o r i z i n g the Civil Service Commission to make grants to State and local governments for planning and improving their systems of personnel administration; for developing and carrying out training plans; and for government service fellowships for employees selected for special graduate-level university training. Federal constraints are removed on the temporary exchanging of personnel between the Federal government and States and local governments. Thus, specific national recognition has finally been given to the need to strengthen core management at the State and local levels by upgrading personnel and personnel administration. 1971 Developments At the end of 1971 there were essentially five major entrants in the legislative field aimed at the objectives of strengthening management capacity for planning and administration at the State and local level. These are Title I1 of the Administration's Urban Community Development Act of 1971 (S. 1618); the Administration's National Land Use Policy Act (S. 992); the National Land and Water Resource Planning Act of 1971 (S. 632); the Public Land Policy Act of 1971 (H.R. 7211); and the National Coastal Estuarine Zone Management Act of 1971 (S. 582, H.R. 2493). Plannin~and Management The Urban Community Development Special Revenue Sharing proposal includa an expanded version of the traditional comprehensive Planning Assistance (701) program under a new Title I1 of S. 1618--Community Planning and 1,hnagement A s s i s t a n c e . T i t l e 11, S t a t e and Local Planning and IJmagement Programs, i s , a s t h e P r e s i d e n t has d e s c r i b e d i t , a new program which s i g n i f i c a n t l y complements a l l h i s revenue s h a r i n g i n i t i a tives. It r e p r e s e n t s a new approach of h e l p i n g S t a t e s and l o c a l i t i e s t o s t r e n g t h e n a l l t h o s e governmental c a p a c i t i e s t h a t a r e b a s i c t o meeti n g growth o b j e c t i v e s and community needs. log/ Cornunity Planning and Management Assistance, a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e Department of Housing and Urban Cevelopment, could be used f o r a wide v a r i e t y of S t a t e e x e c u t i v e branch a c t i v i t i e s geared toward improving governmental management, p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , a c h i e v i n g self-determined S t a t e o r l o c a l o b j e c t i v e s , and engaging i n development planning t h a t i n c l u d e s l a n d u s e , housing, r e s o u r c e s management, areawide and i n t e r governmental c o o r d i n a t i o n , and economic development. S p e c i f i c encourage- ment i s given t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of a s t a t e w i d e development plan designed t o i n t e g r a t e a l l elements of community development. States are also encouraged t o s e t s t a n d a r d s f o r determining which communities o r groups of communities should be considered t o g e t h e r f o r purposes of c a r r y i n g out l o c a l and areawide programs. All of t h e p r e s e n t a c t i v i t i e s e l i g i b l e under t h e 701 program remain e l i g i b l e under t h e Community Planning and Planagement Program. As in t h e r e s t of t h e s p e c i a l revenue s h a r i n g p r o p o s a l , t h e r e would be no S t a t e o r l o c a l matching. 110/ The IJational Governor's Conference and t h e Council of S t a t e Planning Agencies i n t e s t i f y i n g on S. 1618 recommended t h a t t h e planning and management g r a n t s be a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e Executive O f f i c e of t h e P r e s i d e n t , HUD would carry on functional planning programs for housing, urban renewal, open space, etc,; to be financed from 1-1/2 percent earmarking of their regular community development grants. The Intergovernmental Relations Committee of the National Legislative Conference, made up of State legislators, advocated that State legislatures be specifically made eligible for grants under the proposed $100 million program. State Land Use P1,ming The National Land and Water Resources Planning Act of 1971 (S. 632) would establish a more comprehensive national land use policy and set up a program to assist States in developing, implementing and administering statewide land use plans. Similarly, the National Land Use Policy Act of 1971 (S. 992) would authorize grants to encourage States to plan and regulate land use for the protection of areas of critical environmental concern and for control and direction of growth of more than local significance. The Senate Interior and Insular Affairs Committee is considering both S. 632 and S. 992. The first bill, S. 632, was introduced by the Chairman of the Committee. S. 992, proposed i n President Nixon's February 8 message to Congress on the environment, was prepared by the Council on Ehvironmental Quality. S. 632 and S. 992 have compatible major objectives. In general: they encourage the States to take the initiative in comprehensive planning; they provide Federal assistance for the staffing, planning and data gathering as the basis for coherent decisions; they encourage or require State land use control to implement planning decisions in p r a c t i c e ; t h e y contemplate a h i g h e r measure of c o o r d i n a t i o n and compliance of F e d e r a l a c t i o n s with approved S t a t e p l a n s ; and t h e y i n t r o d u c e F e d e r a l review of t h e S t a t e planning e f f o r t a s a c o n d i t i o n t o f u r t h e r planning g r a n t s . The p r i n c i p a l s u b s t a n t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s e two l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l s concern t h e t e r r i t o r i a l e x t e n t of planning. 632, emphasizes comprehensive s t a t e w i d e l a n d use planning. S. The Adminis- t r a t i o n B i l l I S . 992) would a i d S t a t e s i n assuming l a n d use r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t y over a r e a s of c r i t i c a l environmental concern--wetlands and f l o o d p l a i n s , l a n d s around key f a c i l i t i e s such a s major a i r p o r t s and highway i n t e r c h a n g e s , l a r g e r - s c a l e development, l a n d s surrounding new c*omrnunities, and use o r development of r e g i o n a l b e n e f i t . Other d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l u d e t h e l o c u s of a u t h o r i t y i n t h e F e d e r a l Government,--an i n t e r a g e n c y v e r s u s a l i n e agency approach (upgrade t h e Water Iiesources Council i n S. 632, and t h e Department of I n t e r i o r with t h e advice of t h e Department of Housing and Urban Development, with g u i d e l i n e s proposed by t h e Council on Environmental Q u a l i t i e s , i n S. 992). S. 632 provides i n t e r s t a t e forums--the E v e r Basin Commissions-- f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n of t h e S t a t e planning e f f o r t s ; whereas S. 992 p l a c e s t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i o r . S. 6 3 2 ' s i n c e n t - i v e s a r e more s u b s t a n t i a l ($100 m i l l i o n p e r y e a r f o r n o t more t h a n 90 p e r c e n t of c o s t s f o r f i r s t f i v e y e a r s and 66-2/3 percent t h e r e a f t e r ) than S. 9921s '$20 n i l l i o n p e r y e a r f o r f i v e y e a r s n o t t o exceed 50 p e r c e n t of c o s t s ) . Both B i l l s provide f o r p e n a l t i e s r e l a t i v e t o Federal and Federallya s s i s t e d a c t i v i t i e s which have a s u b s t a n t i a l l a n d use impact when no p l a n has been submitted by t h e end of a c e r t a i n p e r i o d ( f i v e y e a r s i n S, 632; December 31, 1974, i n S. 992). S. 6321s " f r e e z e " h a s a temporary suspension procedure i n which t h e P r e s i d e n t can approve t h e a c t i v i t y a s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h , s a f e t y , o r welfare; i n S. 992 " f r e e z e " p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a r e h e l d on each a c t i v i t y and Federal agency f i n d i n g s and comments of t h e S e c r e t a r i e s of I n t e r i o r and HUD a r e a t t a c h e d t o t h e environmental impact statement f o r t h a t a c t i v i t y . I n S. 992, approval o r disapproval of a S t a t e program i s made by t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i o r with approval of t h e S e c r e t a r y of HUD on c e r t a i n items; whereas i n S, 632 t h e Council cannot disapprove without recommendation t o do s o from an i m p a r t i a l ad hoc hearing board e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e P f e s i d e n t . Both S. 632 and S. 992 have t h e p o t e n t i a l of g i v i n g t h e S t a t e s an a c t i v e r o l e with r e s p e c t t o l o c a l land use r e g u l a t i o n s . Proposed amend- ments by t h e National Association of Counties and t h e National Service t o Regional Councils suggested t h e involvement of r e g i o n a l and l o c a l e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s on S t a t e l a n d use planning commissions. They empha- s i z e d t h a t r e g i o n a l c o u n c i l s a r e t h e v e h i c l e s t o a s s u r e l o c a l and r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and a r e r e f l e c t e d in t h e development of S t a t e l a n d use p o l i c i e s , and should be d i r e c t l y funded t o c a r r y o u t t h i s responsib i l it y . C o a s t a l Lands IJanaaement The proposed National Coastal and E s t u a r i n e Zone ??anagement Act 's. 5 8 2 ) r e f l e c t s t h e i n c r e a s e d concern over population t r e n d s t o a p o i n t where now approximately one-half t h e population i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n 50 m i l e s of t h e c o a s t l i n e . The Senate Commerce Committee on Dec. 1 r e p o r t e d o u t t h e b i l l (no f l o o r a c t i o n taken a t t h e end of t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n ) which e s t a b l i s h e s a g r a n t program f o r S t a t e s t o develop and o p e r a t e c o a s t a l zone management programs. The b i l l a l l o w s S t a t e s along t h e A t l a n t i c and P a c i f i c Coasts, t h e Gulf of Mexico, Long I s l a n d Sound and t h e Great Lakes t o e s t a b l i s h c o a s t a l zone management programs and t o a c q u i r e and o p e r a t e estuarine sanctuaries. The B i l l a u t h o r i z e s a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r development of management programs f o r t h e l a n d and water r e s o u r c e s of t h e c o a s t a l and e s t u a r i n e zone. F e d e r a l funds would f i n a n c e up t o two-thirds of t h e o p e r a t i n g c o s t s f o r such programs. In a u t h o r i z i n g a program of bond and l o a n guarantees t o f a c i l i t a t e l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n , l a n d and water development, and r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t s , t h e B i l l p r o v i d e s t h a t t h e aggregate p r i n c i p a l amount of guaranteed bonds and l o a n s never exceeds $140 m i l l i o n . In a d d i t i o n , t h e B i l l a u t h o r i z e s c o s t - s h a r i n g f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n , development and o p e r a t i o n of n o t more than 15 e s t u a r i n e s a n c t u a r i e s . Another measure, t h e Marine P r o t e c t i o n , Research and S a n c t u a r i e s Act 'H.R. 9727),has a t h r e e f o l d purpose: (1)t o f o r b i d t h e dumping of waste material into the oceans or coastal waters without a permit from the EPA; (2) to direct the Secretary of Commerce to initiate a program of monitoring and research regarding the effects of dumping material into the oceans; and (3) to authorize the Secretary to designate marine sanctuaries in ocean or coastal waters. This bill has passed both chambers and was in conference at the end of the first session. Hearings were held in the House in June before the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries. Use of Public Land The proposed Public Land Policy Act (H.R. 7211) received hearings in July before the House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee. It is designed to establish guidelines for the administration of public n part, the findings and recommendations lands. The Bill grew out of, i of the Public Land Law Review Commission in 1970. The objective of the Bill is to protect and promote the interests of the Government and the public and to provide uniformity in the public acquisition and use of Government-owned lands for mining and mineral leasing claims, animal grazing leases, timber harvesting, recreational permits and leases, homesteading and similar public purposes. In this Bill, the Congress would affirm its policy that public lands shall be planned, retained, managed, or disposed of in a manner to provide the maximum benefit for the general public. The s t a t e d g o a l s of t h e E i l l i n c l u d e r e t e n t i o n in Federal owners h i p of t h e bulk of t h e p u b l i c l a n d s ; t h e i r t r a n s f e r t o non-Federal ownership f o r purposes d e s i g n a t e d by s t a t u t e ; t h e i r management i n a manner n o t endangering t h e environmeht; c o o r d i n a t i o n with r e g i o n a l , S t a t e , and l o c a l l a n d management p l a n s ; and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n rulemaking and in a l l procedures l e a d i n g t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of any a r e a of p u b l i c l a n d . The B i l l would r e q u i r e d e t a i l e d r e g u l a t i o n s and rulemaking procedures, p u b l i c h e a r i n g s and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of n a t i o n a l and s u b s i d i a r y a d v i s o r y boards and committees. A n a t i o n a l Federal Public Land Use Coordinating Committee and r e g i o n a l I n t e r s t a t e Land Use Coordinating (;ommissions f o r each of t e n p u b l i c l a n d r e g i o n s would !)e established. 'l'he committees would develop l a n d management p l a n s und a d v i s e t,lie a g e n c i e s i n t h e i r rulemaking. 111/ The A(iministration i n i t s comments on H.R. 7211 d i d n o t support i t s enactment b u t i n s t e a d proposed support f o r t h e proposed N a t i o n a l Resource Land hlanagement Act of 1971 (H.R. 10049) which a p p l i e s o n l y t o l a n d s managed by t h e I n t e r i o r Department's Bureau of Land Management; and t h e National Land Use P o l i c y Act of 1971 (I-I.R. 4332) a s i t r e l a t e s t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s f o r c o o r d i n a t e d planning of p u b l i c and non-public lands. 3evenue Sharing General Revenue Sharing remained i n t h e c e n t e r of g e n e r a l debate. The primary purpose proposed f o r s h a r i n g unearmarked Federal revenues wi5h S t a t e and l o c a l governments i s t o a l l e v i a t e t h e p r e s e n t f i s c a l c r i s i s a t t h e S t a t e and l o c a l l e v e l . General Revenue Sharing program (s. The s i z e of t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s 680, H.R. 4187) n o t r e p o r t e d would be determined by t a k i n g a f i x e d percentage (1.3%) of t h e F e d e r a l i n d i v i d u a l income t a x base. o u t l a y of $5 b i l l i o n . t h e economy. I n i t i a l l y t h i s w i l l provide a f u l l - y e a r This sum i s t o grow w i t h t h e f u t u r e growth of To t h e s e economic arguments t h e P r e s i d e n t h a s added two r e a s o n s which a r e d i r e c t e d t o t h e n a t u r e of our system of government. Given s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s , our S t a t e s and l o c a l i t i e s can be more r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e urban growth needs of t h e people. Revenue s h a r i n g i s a p r o p o s a l t o r e v e r s e t h e t r e n d by which t h e F e d e r a l governmentls r e v e n u e - r a i s i n g powers have g i v e n r i s e t o a h e a v i l y c e n t r a l i z e d government bureaucracy. Its g o a l i s t o r e s t o r e a more proper b a l a n c e t o our F e d e r a l system by s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e c a p a b i l i t y and independence of S t a t e and l o c a l governments. A number of o b j e c t i o n s have been c i t e d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e revenue s h a r i n g p r o p o s a l s . By d i v o r c i n g t a x and spending a u t h o r i t y , revenue s h a r i n g would d i s m a n t l e t h e p r e s e n t ltperformance r e q u i r e m e n t s " system and t h e r e b y encourage w a s t e f u l S t a t e and l o c a l spending. There i s l e s s a s s u r a n c e t h a t F e d e r a l f u n d s w i l l go t o t h e people who most need them. The p r o p o s a l i s (somewhat r e g r e s s i v e i n economic impact. k t h e r m o r e , t h e r e a r e no F e d e r a l income t a x " p r o f i t s f f t o s h a r e w i t h S t a t e and l o c a l governments now o r a n t i c i p a t e d in t h e n e a r f u t u r e . By earmarking a d e s i g n a t e d percentage of t h e F e d e r a l p e r s o n a l income t a x base f o r u n r e s t r i c t e d S t a t e and l o c a l u s e , revenue s h a r i n g would c u t i n t o t h e b u d g e t a r j and t a x p o l i c y f l e x i b i l i t y of t h e P r e s i d e n t and t h e Congress. F i n a l l y , f e d e r a l i z i n g t h e N a t i o n ' s m u l t i p l i c i t y of S t a t e and l o c a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d p u b l i c w e l f a r e systems has been suggested a s a more v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . The P r e s i d e n t p r o p o s a l t h i s y e a r d i f f e r e d from h i s o r i g i n a l 1969 recommendations: For one t h i n g , t h i s y e a r ' s program i s much b i g g e r . Expenditures d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f u l l y e a r of o p e r a t i o n would be t e n t i m e s l a r g e r than under t h e o l d p l a n . Secondly, a g r e a t e r proportion--roughly half--of t h e shared funds would go t o l o c a l governments under t h e In a d d i t i o n , t h e 1971 l e g i s l a t i o n connew proposal. t a i n s a new f e a t u r e designed t o encourage S t a t e s and l o c a l i t i e s t o work out t h e i r own tailor-made formulas f o r d i s t r i b u t i n g revenues a t t h e S t a t e and l o c a l l e v e l . 112/ Hearings on t h e General Revenue Sharing Act of 1971 were h e l d i n June b e f o r e t h e Senate Commerce Committee. Summarizing 1971 lobbying h i g h l i g h t s , t h e Congressional Q u a r t e r l y r e p o r t e d t h a t housing and urban development i n t e r e s t groups . . . p r e f e r r e d t h a t t h e money be given t h e S t a t e s i n block g r a n t s with some Federal c o n t r o l s r a t h e r t h a n v i r t u a l l y f r e e of a l l c o n t r o l s under revenue s h a r i n g . Backing block g r a n t s were t h e N a t i o n a l Urban C o a l i t i o n , Mortgage Bankers A s s o c i a t i o n of America, N a t i o n a l Housing Conference and t h e National League of Cities--U.S. Conference of Mayors. The National Association of Home B u i l d e r s opposed revenue s h a r i n g and t h e National Association of Real E s t a t e Boards supported i t . 113/ Two r e l a t e d b i l l s r e c e i v e d comnittee c o n s i d e r a t i o n . S t a t e and Local Government llodernization Act of 1971 (s. The proposed 24l, H.R. 4617) has a s i t s purpose t h e p r o v i d i n g of F e d e r a l block g r a n t s f o r S t a t e s and localities only where there is a demonstration of State intention to modernize State and local government. S. 1770, the Intergovernmental Revenue Act of 1971 would establish a system of general support grants to State and local governments, authorize Federal collection 0.f State income taxes, and encourage modernization of State tax systems. Both Bills received hearings in June before the House Government Operations Committee. Departmental Reorganization Of the four new departments proposed by the President consolidating seven existing departments and a few related agencies, the Department of Community Development Bills (S. 1430, H.R. 6962) would have the most impact on urban growth, improved management of Federal programs and support of State and local administration concerned with such programs. In the words of HUDts Under Secretary: Under this proposal a single Federal Department would be directly responsible and accountable for strengthening community institutions and for addressing the problems of community growth. This new department would administer Federal assistance to communities for physical and institutional development; for strengthening State and local governmental process; for enhancing the effectiveness of citizen action; and for the planning and building of highways and houses and supporting community facilities. By bringing together these programs, the Department of Community Development would be able to move beyond fragmented categorical program administration and toward a geographically based and c o m i t y oriented approach to problems. The establishment of a unified Federal Department of Community Development would greatly simplify the resolution--by both Federal and local officials--of significant issues of community growth and developnent. 114/ The new department would have major development-related functions now in Transportation, Commerce, Agriculture, and (330. The most massive transfer would be the Federal Highway Construction, Urban Mass Transportation and Highway Traffic Safety programs of the Department of Transportation. Highway interests have expressed opposition to inte- grating highway field and State operations along with other community development programs. From Agriculture would be transferred the Rural Electrification and the Farmers Home Administration programs of water and sewer grants and loans and rural housing. h he Congress on September 30 sent H.R. 10538, which extended these FHA programs permanently, to the President for signing. P.L. 92-133 was approved on October 5.) Also to be included are Commerce's Economic Development Administration and Iiegional Action Planning Comissions; the Appalachian Regional Commission and the Small hsiness Administration's disaster loan programs. The National Grange and the Rural Electric Cooperative Association oppose the latter transfers on the grounds that rural areas would be short changed and the Agriculture Department would begin to be dismantled.Ilr/ Issues would also be raised by transferring the Community Action and Special Impact Programs to the proposed Department. There is a conceivable likelihood that, since KUD, with its Model Cities organization, would be the controlling organization, Community Action Agencies with tiieir citizen participation elements would be subordinated or deemphasized. No effort is made, except in the field of transportation, to consolidate the many comprehensive and functional planning programs having a direct impact on the community development process. At present there are at least 33 such planning programs administered by ten separate agencies. n the housing field are not touched by the reorSeveral programs i ganization proposals and would therefore appear to violate the concept of organization by purpose. The continued autonomy of the VA-guaranteed mortgage loan program and the Federal Home Loan Bank Board are likely to be examined to be satisfied that organizational changes are not needed to prevent overlapping and competition of Federal programs, and instability in local housing markets and in the capital funds and mortgage markets. It has been estimated that if the Presidentts proposal was adopted, the number of committees with major interest in the Department of Community Development would increase from two at present (with HUD) to seven major oversight committees. House and Senate Government Operations Committee hearings on the bills are scheduled for early November. Congress did extend, by P.L. 92-179, for two years the President's authority to transmit reorganization plans to the Congress. In so doing, it limited the President's authority to submit reorganization plans to one plan during any 30-day period. S t r e n g t h e n i n g Federal Aid A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Of s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e t o improved S t a t e and l o c a l management c a p a c i t y was t h e Second Annual Report t o t h e P r e s i d e n t on Federal Assistance Review. Ilc/ The r e p o r t summarized improvements achieved i n grant-in-aid admin- i s t r a t i o n t o S t a t e and l o c a l governments d u r i n g t h e l a s t 18 months. I i i g h l i g h t s i n c l u d e d seven Federal a g e n c i e s f u l l y conforming t o a new uniform system of 1 0 r e g i o n a l boundaries. / Federal Regional Councils with Off i c e of Management and Budget l e a d e r s h i p ) were o p e r a t i n g t h i s y e a r i n t h e headquarter c i t i e s of each of t h e s e s t a n d a r d r e g i o n s . P l a j ~ rd e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of decision-making and t h e p l a c i n g of g r e a t e r r e l i a n c e i n S t a t e and l o c a l governments i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of F e d e r a l programs were r e p o r t e d i n H?3Wts Rnergency School Assistance program, t h e J u v e n i l e Delinquency Prevention and Control Act, and Medicaid and h e a l t h planning. V i r t u a l l y all of t h e programs of t h e Department of Housing and Urban Cevelopment a r e being d e c e n t r a l i z e d below t h e r e g i o n a l o f f i c e l e v e l through e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s u b r e g i o n a l l o c a l s e r v i c e o f f i c e s . The O f f i c e of 14magement and Budget e s t a b l i s h e d procedures f o r r e p o r t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o S t a t e s on all F e d e r a l g r a n t s awarded w i t h i n t h e i r bounda r i e s by F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s , a s r e q u i r e d by t h e Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968. In a d d i t i o n , under new governmentwide i n s t r u c t i o n s , t h e r e a r e now 206 m e t r o p o l i t a n i n f o r m a t i o n c l e a r i n g h o u s e s which review l o c a l l y submitted proposed F e d e r a l grant-in-aid conformance with r e g i o n a l p l a n s . a p p l i c a t i o n s t o determine t h e i r These c l e a r i n g h o u s e s cover 1,600 c o u n t i e s i n which l i v e over 80 p e r c e n t of t h e population. clearinghouses now i n c l u d e a l l 50 S t a t e s . State F i n a l l y , i n February, t h e Office of Management and Budget i s s u e d a r e v i s e d A-95 C i r c u l a r t o expand t h e Federal programs reviewed a t t h e S t a t e and m e t r o p o l i t a n (and non-metropolitan) clearinghouse l e v e l and t o implement t h e r e q u i r e ments of t h e National Environmental P o l i c y Act f o r review of environmental impact statements t o be contained i n a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r Federal aid. On J u l y 29 t h e P r e s i d e n t i s s u e d a statement announcing t h e s e l e c t i o n of twenty c i t i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a "Planned V a r i a t i o n " demonstration t o determine whether l o c a l governments can accomplish more when given g r e a t e r freedom from Federal r e g u l a t i o n s . The experi- ment w i l l have t h r e e f e a t u r e s : -- t h e expansion of Model C i t i e s programs and d i s c r e t i o n a r y funds t o cover slum and b l i g h t e d a r e a s throughout t h e c i t y , r a t h e r t h a n j u s t t h e demonstrat i o n neighborhood; -- t h e e l i m i n a t i o n of a l l b u t s t a t u t o r i l y d e f i n e d Federal requirements and reviews concerning t h e use of Model C i t i e s supplemental funds and, where s t a t u t o r i l y poss i b l e , c a t e g o r i c a l funds i n t h e c i t y ; and -- t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e l o c a l c h i e f executive t o review and comment on r e q u e s t s f o r Federal c a t e g o r i c a l program a i d a f f e c t i n g r e s i d e n t s of h i s community p r i o r t o funding d e c i s i o n s . The Office of Management and Budget has i s s u e d C i r c u l a r A-102 cont a i n i n g s t a n d a r d s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g consistency and u n i f o r m i t y among Federal agencies i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of g r a n t s t o S t a t e and l o c a l governments. A-102 d e a l s with cash d e p o s i t o r i e s , bonding and i n s u r a n c e , retention and custodial requirements for records, and waiver of single State agency requirements. OM3 is currently working on a fifth attachment which deals with financial reporting requirements. A total of 13 to 14 attachments covering all aspects of grant administration are expected. The Subcommittee on Urban Affairs of the Joint Economic Committee in December made a number of recommendationsw for improving the structure of the Federal government. Previous committee investigations had suggested that many of the national social and economic problems could only be solved if the institutional machinery of the public sector is strengtliened. liecommendations for change included the following: 1. Congress should undertake an immediate review of Federal statutes and enact appropriate legislation to strip subordinate officials of statutory authority and place these powers uniformly either in the President or in Cabinet officers. 2. Congress should require by law that all departments dealing with domestic programs; 'a) Establish common administrative regions for administration of programs along the lines of the present 10 administrative regions established by Executive order in 1969. 'bj Provide the sane rank and powers to the regional administrator in each region for each department or agency so as to facilitate cooperation and coordination between the officials of different agencies in each region. Support for Public Sector Manpower Almost all of the previous extensive Federal training and manpower programs have been directed to private sector employment. The Emergency Ehployment Act of 1971 (P.L. 92-54) providing public service employment and signed by the President on July 12, begins to readdress this imbalance. In doing so, the Act directly contributes to carrying out the national urban growth policy component of strengthening the capability of State and local governments. The Mayor of Detroit, representing the U.S. Conference of Mayors, reported, in support of the bill, that local government, itself, was unavoidably adding to unemployment. "In the past year the City has not had the revenue to fill nearly 2000 vacant positions in City government. 118/ In addition, last year I was forced to lay off some 600 City employees." \ The Act, similar to a title of the proposed Employment and Manpower Act (s. 386), 91st Cong., which was vetoed last year by the President, recognized that as a result of a lack of revenue, many governmental units have had to curtail public services or have been unable to implement new services. The Act makes available major new resources for employing persons to meet such needs. Eligible applicants are units of Federal, State and local government, their subdivisions or institutions, and Indian tribes on Federal or State reservations. Combinations or consortia of governmental units and combinations of Indian tribes may also be eligible applicants. There a r e two b a s i c f u n d i n g p r o v i s i o n s s p e c i f i e d in t h e Act. Funds a r e made a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c s e r v i c e employment programs whenever t h e S e c r e t a r y determines t h a t t h e nationwide unemploynent r a t e e q u a l s o r exceeds 4.5 p e r c e n t f o r t h r e e consecutive months. A s of August 1971 t h i s c r i t e r i o n had been met, p e r m i t t i n g o b l i g a t i o n of t h e $750,000 authorized. A program of s p e c i a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r a r e a s with p a r t i c u l a r l y s e v e r e unemployment problems provides t h a t when unemployment h a s r e a c h e d 6 p e r c e n t o r more f o r t h r e e consecutive months an a d d i t i o n a l $250,000,000 may be " t r i g g e r e d v f o r o b l i g a t i o n . I n moving promptly t o implement t h e Act, t h e S e c r e t a r y of Labor decidedw t h a t only l a r g e r governmental u n i t s of s p e c i f i e d s i z e w i l l be e l i g i b l e f o r d i r e c t F e d e r a l g r a n t s . These u n i t s have been i n v i t e d t o a p p l y d i r e c t l y f o r needed a s s i s t a n c e under t h e Act: c i t i e s with a p o p u l a t i o n of a t l e a s t 75,000; c o u n t i e s with a population of a t l e a s t 75,000, n o t counting t h e p o p u l a t i o n of d e s i g n a t e d c i t i e s w i t h i n such counties; a l l States. Examples of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s e l i g i b l e i n c l u d e h e a l t h c a r e , e d u c a t i o n , p u b l i c s a f e t y , crime prevention and c o n t r o l , manpower s e r v i c e s , p r i s o n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , waste d i s p o s a l , housing and neighborhood development, r u r a l development, and o t h e r s . No more t h a n one-third of t h e jobs funded can be p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s . The General Accounting O f f i c e in December r e p o r t e d on implementat i o n of t h e P u b l i c S e r v i c e Program under t h e Act. It q u e s t i o n e d t h e Labor Department procedure of allowing - s t a t e s t o a l l o c a t e funds t o l o c a l a r e a s p r i m a r i l y on t h e b a s i s of p o p u l a t i o n s without c o n s i d e r i n g t h e degree of unemployment in t h e a r e a . 120/ Trends in the Urban Environment 121/ The Second Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Policy contained some useful appraisals of the inferior environment of the inner city. Documentation was provided on the severity of air pollution, water pollution, solid waste, neighborhood deterioration, lack of open space, lead poisoning, rat bites, and adverse impacts of highway construction. Another useful section documented the status and trends nationally. Here the findings were mixed with only slight increase in air and water pollution, a reduction in radiation levels. There was an increased presence of toxic substances, a runaway solid waste problem and a continued loss of wetlands especially around urban areas. The year 1970 was a banner year for Congressional action on environmental issues. Of the 695 bills signed into law during the 91st Congress, 121 were identified as I1environmentoriented." Thus far in the 92nd Congress, attention to urban environmental matters has remained high. At the end of the 91st Congress, a proposal to create a Joint Committee on the fivironment died in conference. Another proposal to create a Joint Committee was reintroduced in the Senate (S.J. Res. 3) was also passed. These proposals would create a 22-member committee which would have a broad responsibility for study and review of environmental problems. No legislation would be referred to the Committee. Several bills were introduced to deal with the problems associated with noise pollution abatement; They included general bills to deal with the total scope of noise pollution and specific measures to address i n d i v i d u a l problems such as machinery n o i s e , o c c u p a t i o n a l n o i s e , and a i r c r a f t and a i r p o r t , n o i s e . One b i l l which r e c e i v e d a c t i o n was S. 1117; t h e purpose of t h i s measure was t o c o n t r o l s o n i c booms. S e n a t e J o i n t R e s o l u t i o n 52 was r e p o r t e d and passed by t h e S e n a t e Lo i n c r e a s e t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n s f o r comprehensive p l a n n i n g g r a n t s and open s p a c e l a n d g r a n t s . The r e s o l u t i o n would a u t h o r i z e t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n of an a d d i t i o n a l $50 m i l l i o n f o r comprehensive p l a n n i n g g r a n t s and an a d d i t , i o n a l $100 m i l l i o n f o r t h e open s p a c e l a n d program. Another measure, t h e Marine P r o t e c t i o n , Research and S a n c t u a r i e s Act I H . H. 3727), h a s a t h r e e f o l d purpose; (1) t o f o r b i d t h e dumping of waste mat,erial i n t o t h e o c e a n s o r c o a s t a l w a t e r s w i t h o u t a p e r m i t from t!ic: b:ilA; l,n d i r e c t , Ll~c 3;c:c:retar;ir o f Commerce t o i n i t i a t e a program ( , I ) of' rnoni1.orinp :ind r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t s of dumping m a t e r i a l ink 1,111: oce:ms; rind ( J ) t,o a u t h o r i z e t h e S e c r e t a r y t o d e s i g n a t e marine smc.t,uririe:; i n o r c m o r c o a s t a l w a t e r s . This b i l l h a s p a s s e d b o t h chamt)err, and was in c o n f e r e n c e a t t h e end of t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n . The House a l s o moved on l e g i s l a t i o n t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l dak,a (H.11. 'I{ ). Conclusion I n t h e c l o s i n g d a j s of 1970 Congress e n a c t e d t h e Housing and Urban ikvelopment Act of 1470 which, a s we have s e e n , had a s t a t e d p u b l i c ob:ective p r o v i d i n g " f o r t h e development of a n a t i o n a l urban growth p o l i c y " a n d f u r t h e r d e f i n e d some e i g h t i n t e r r e l a t e d e l e m e n t s o f such a policy. Adoption of such a Federzl urban growth policy, by itself, does little to achieve the economies of regional service systems, ease the human costs of rural to urban migration, improve the ghetto environment, create balanced new communities, or improve the capability and accountability of local government. Nor, of course, in a large country administered under a separation of powers system, where decentralization is pursued with a vengence, is implementation of an urban growth policy solely or even predominantly a national responsibility. It is also instructive to note that Congress talked in terms of the development of such a policy--not its adoption or implementation. And indeed we are only at the beginnings of wisdom in identifying the specific legislation that would institute an urban growth policy. To illustrate, much of the early discussion of national urban policy concerned population growth. The Commission on Population Growth and American Future, which was created by the 9lst Congress, is due to make its final report in 1972. The interim statement entitled Population and America's Future issued in March of this year limited itself to articulating the fundamental questions that must be answered before an urban growth policy can be determined. ... The concerns of overriding importance are whether population stabilization and redistribution of the population are desirable. ... if population stabilization is desirable and its achievement would require more than eliminating unwanted childbearing, then additional measures can be considered, such as changes in tax laws, the elimination of pro-natalist laws and programs, and educational programs. ... A principal question is the role that Federal and State governments play in population affairs. Although the Federal government does not have .m explicit, comprehensive population distribution policy, many of its policies, prograns and statutes seem to have an impact on population distribution incidental to their main objectives. This inadvertent impact may be seen, for example, not only in the Federal Housing Administration program and Federal procurement policies. Others, such as the Economic Development Administration, the New Communities Act and the urban renewal program, are designed in part to redirect growth. ... We also have many laws directly or indirectly affecting the growth of population, such as those governing immigration, marriage, divorce, contraception and abortion, which require examination. 122/ Despite the awful presence of these and other imponderables the survey of legislative and executive branch developments in 1971 indicates that significant action is taking place this year and will continue in the second session of the 92d Congress--action that collectively constitutes the beginnings of a more reasonably consistent and coherent national urban growth policy. This year's record builds upon the events of 1970 which saw enactment of a new Federal-aid urban highway system, a major urban mass transportation act, solid waste disposal aids, uniform relocation policy, crime insurance and a comprehensive new communities assistance program. In furtherance of recognizing that metropolitan areas, governmentally fragmented though they may be, are social and economic entities, a number of significant Federal developments are cited. These included considera- tion of the special revenue sharing proposals for both transportation and manpower training, improved delivery of health services through seed money grants and loan guarantees for "health maintenance organizations," and finally incentive and demonstration funds for metropolitan interschool district programs and area-wide education parks to reduce the educational disadvantages of minority group isolation. Perhaps the most active component of national urban growth policy this year has been concern for the development of smaller urban centers as an option to present metropolitan growth trends. The list of legis- lative developments is indicative of a new thrust: extension and expansion of the activities of the Economic Development Administration and the Appalachian Commission, Presidential proposals for rural development special revenue sharing, liberalization of farm credit and proposals for new public and private rural community development credit sources, financing of additional rural telephone systems, incentives to get professional health manpower to locate outside of our metropolitan areas, and creation of a new and already active Rural Development %bcommittee in the Senate Agriculture Committee. The poor and minority groups in central cities and elsewhere received attention, though the public policy directions were mixed. New provisions in the bills extending the Economic Opportunity Act ranged from self-help projects to backing for new local community development corporations. Reform of the national welfare system through the Family Assistance Plan, by upgrading minimum payments, are making eligibility more uniform, and give promise of slowing the migration of rural poor to inner city slums. Housing, which h a s been s u g g e s t e d as t h e key t o any n a t i o n a l urban growth p o l i c y , was s u b j e c t t o i n t e n s i v e s c r u t i n y by t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and b o t h h o u s e s of Congress. Examination of p r o p o s a l s f o r c o n s o l i d a - t i o n of h o u s i n g s u b s i d y programs, u s e of new m e t r o p o l i t a n and S t a t e mechanisms and a c c e l e r a t i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l improvements i n h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n gave promise of l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n i n t h e second s e s s i o n of t h e 92nd Congress. S i m i l a r l y , g e n e r a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r e s e n t i n a d e q u a c i e s and gaps i n e x i s t i n g community development programs made major r e f o r m a p p e a r t o be c e r t a i n d u r i n p t h e p r e s e n t Congress. cornmunit; The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s u r b a n development s p e c i a l revenue s h a r i n g p r o p o s a l and House and S m i t e ~ ~ r : uc:onsolidation ?t proposals d i f f e r e d only over important, but l e s s t , h m fundamental i s s u e s : a l l o c a t i o n f o r m u l a s , p l a n n i n g and a p p l i c a - t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s , and r e v i e w f o r performance. The c o n c e p t s of c o n s o l i - dat,ion, f l e x i 3 r j i l i i y , and s u p p o r t of g e n e r a l l o c a l governments were acrepted. A f i n a l element of n a t i o n a l urban growth p o l i c y r e c e i v i n g e x p l i c i t r e c o ~ i t i o nf o r t h e f i r s t time by t h e F e d e r a l Government was s u p p o r t f o r a s s i s t i n g Sta5e and l o c a l governments i n o v e r a l l management. The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n proposed r e v i s i o n and d o u b l i n g of t h e k p a r t m e n t of Housing and ljrban & v e l o p e n t t s Comprehensive P l a n n i n g A s s i s t a n c e program t o e - q l i c i + , l y cover management a s s i s t a n c e , program development and evalua'ion 50 c h i e f e x e c u t i v e s a t a l l l e v e l s o f government. Other pro- p o s a l s , u s i n g t h e p l a n n i n g mechanism, sought t o t h r u s t upon t h e S t a t e s an a c t i v e r o l e in l o c a l l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n . Grant c o n s o l i d a t i o n s , g e n e r a l revenue s h a r i n g , and c r e a t i o n of f o u r super-departments t o r e p l a c e seven e x i s t i n g c a b i n e t l e v e l agencies and a h o s t of l e s s e r Federal management reforms made up t h e r e s t of an ambitious agenda designed t o improve S t a t e and l o c a l c a p a b i l i t y and v i a b i l i t y . Thus, t h e evidence accumulates t h a t t h e Federal government and t h e S t a t e s a r e beginning t o come t o g r i p s with i t s most complex domestic challenge--to f i n d e f f e c t i v e ways of guiding and d i r e c t i n g t h e i n e v i - t a b l e migration growth and development t h a t w i l l occur f o r t h e foreseeable future. Footnotes IJ'Ijlloynihan, h i e l P. Toward a N a t i o n a l Urban P o l i c y . V . 2, no. 1 0 , August 1900: 3-4. i Aovalachia, l e , William, 1 1 Urban P e p o r t : Both P a r t i e s Ready t o Scrap Grant Programs in Favor of I f c i t y S t r a t e g y " Package of Aid. N a t i o n a l J o u r n a l , v. 3, no. 27, J u l y 3, 1 9 7 i : 1393-1397. . F/U S. P r e s i d e n t (Nixon? Third Annual iieport on N a t i o n a l Housing June 29, 1971, Goals. 92d Cong., 1st S e s s . House Doc. no. 92-136. p. 21. 4/1iesolutions of t h e 1 9 7 1 Annual Meeting of t h e U. S. Conference o f Mayors. C o n ~ r e s s i o n a lRecord, 92d Cong., 1 s t S e s s . , June 30, 1971: S10393-S10394. U P o l i c y P o s i t i o n s of t h e N a t i o n a l Governors 1 Conference. l x d o p t e d a t i t s 62d Annual Meeting h e l d September 12-15, 1971 a t San Juan, P u e r t o ?.icoL/ September, 1971. L i e , William, 111 Washington P r e s s u r e s : Suburban Leaders from Action Lobby t o Grab Share of Mayors1 I n f l u e n c e . N a t i o n a l J o u r n a l , v. 3 , no. 37, September 11, 1971: 1885-1888. UP.L. 91-605. ~ P . L . 91-453. 2/Maryland, Ch. 526, 1970. 1 0 / ~ e n n s y l v a n i a , Act 120 o f 1970. Il/fihode I s l a n d , Ch. 111, 1970. 1 2 / 2 e l a w a r e , 13514, . v. 57, 1970. m . i a r y l a n d , Ch. 520, 1970. I&Pennsylvania, Act No. 262, 1970. w r i e n t u c k y , 11. 4 l 4 , l Q 7 0 . MI' L, .91-518. 17/r.~. 91-258. 18/P. L . 91-296. w ~ e w J e r s e y , Ch. 60 ( s e n a t e No. 2 9 l ) , 1970. ~ P . L .91-431. 21/P.L. 91-512. 22/p.L. 9 1 - 6 4 , w ~ h i as n a l y s i s of t h e planning contained i n s p e c i a l revenue s h a r i n g proposals i s e s s e n t i a l l y taken from Nicholas P. Thomas: Adrninistrat i o n t s S p e c i a l Revenue Sharing Planning Features Are Not C o n s i s t e n t and Do Not Lead t o Coordinated National P o l i c i e s , P a r t 11. U P Newsl e t t e r , v. 6, no. 7 , J u l y 1971: 8-13. & ~ d v i s o r y Commission on Intergovernmental R e l a t i o n s . S p e c i a l Revenue Sharing: An Analysis of t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t s J o i n t Consolidation Proposals. Washington, December, 1971. pp. 26-27. UU. S. P r e s i d e n t . ( ~ i x o n ) Message From t h e P r e s i d e n t of t h e United S t a t e s R e l a t i v e t o I n i t i a t i n g a National Health S t r a t e g y . 92d Cong., 1st Sess. House Doc. no. 92-49. February 18, 1971, p. 6. WU.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and P u b l i c Welfare. Ehergency School Aid and Quality I n t e g r a t e d Education Act of 1971. S. 1557. Senate Report No. 92-61. 92d Cong., 1st Sess. A p r i l 14, 1971. pp. 16-17. 2 7 / ~ . S . Dept. of Commerce News e el ease ~ ~ 7 1 - 3 4 ) .March 3, 1971. .&/coalition f o r Rural America: An Important New P o l i t i c a l Force. Congressiondl Zecord, 92d Cong., 1 s t S e s s . , September 1 5 , 1971: S14323-S14326. 22/v.S. . 38/~. S, . P r e s i d e n t ( ~ i x o n ) The P r e s i d e n t ' s Message t o t h e Senate Returning S. 575 Without His Approval and Urging Passage of t h e Ehergency Enployment Act of 1971 and Appalachian Regional Development L e g i s l a t i o n , June 29, 1971. Weekly C o m ~ i l a t i o nof P r e s i d e n t i a l Documents, v. 7, no. 27: 1005-1007. P r e s i d e n t ( ~ i x o n ) Message From t h e President of t h e United S t a t e s Proposing a System of Special Revenue Sharing f o r Rural Community Development. House Doc. no. 92-66, March 1 0 , 1971. p. 3. 29/d.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Agriculture and F o r e s t r y . Subcommittee on Rural Development. Rural Development: Hearings on S. 1612. P a r t I , 92d Cong., 1 s t Sess. April 23, 1971. 0 2 . S. Congress. House. Agricultural-Environmental and Consumer Prot e c t i o n Programs, F i s c a l Year 1972. Conference Report t o Accompany II.!?. 9370. 92d Cong., 1 s t Sess. House Report no. 92-376, J u l y 22, 19'71 p. 7. . LJil . !;. Congress. House. Committee on I n t e r s t a t e and Foreign Commerce. Comprehensive Health Manpower Training Act of 1971 : Report t o 8629. 92d Cong., 1st Sess. House Doc. no, 92-258. Acc:ompany 11.1:. .'une 9 , 19'71. p. 37. ~/1bid, . pp. 34-35. &creation of New Subcommittee on Rural Development. ?.ecord, February 1 7 , 1971 : 3 3 9 7 . &L. Congressional S. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e and U. S. Cept. of Housing and Urban Development. Annual Zeport of Assistance Furnished i n FY 1971 by t h e Departments of A g r i c u l t u r e and Housing and Urban Development f o r Nonmetropolitan Planning and Development D i s t r i c t s . September, 1971. p. 1. &.",eport on t h e Location of New Federal O f f i c e s and Other F a c i l i t i e s - Fessage FYom t h e P r e s i d e n t . C o n ~ r e s s i o n a lRecord, 92d Cong., 1 s t Sess. , September 1 4 , 1971 : Sl.4235. &U. S. Congress. House. Message From the President of the U. S. Transmitting His Second Manpower Report. 92d Cong., 1st Sess. House Doc. no. 92-86, April 7, 1971. pp. 142-143. U ~ a t i o n a lAcademy of Engineering. Committee on Telecommunications. Communications Technology for Urban Lmprovement: Report to the Department of Housing and Urban Development. (Contract No. H-1221) June, 1971. pp. 4-5. W ~ e York, w Ch. 493, 1970. S1/california, Ch. 917, A. 1248, 1970. 52/~ewJersey, Ch . 210 (~ssemblyNo. l204), 1970. Z2/california, Ch. 1317, A. 1189, 1970. u ~ a l i f o r n i a ,Ch. 1280, A. 2033, 1970. 56/~conomicOpportunity Amendments of 1971--Veto Message, Conaressional Record, 92d Cong., 1st Sess., December 10, 1971: S21129-S21130. WU. S. Congress. Senate. Committee on La3or and Public Welfare. Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1971: Report to Accompany S. 2007. 92d Cong., 1st Sess., Senate Report no. 92-331. July 30, 1971. pp. 22-23. S. Congress. House, Committee on Education and Labor. Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1971: Report to Accompany H.R. 10351. 92d Cong., 1st Sess. House Report no. 92-471. September 8, 1971. p. 21. WU. S. General Accounting Office. Improvements Needed in Management of Projects to Develop Business Opportunities for the Poor, Office of Economic Opportunity. Reports to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States. B-130515, Washington, July 20, 1917. WNational Association of Counties. Welfare Recommendations Adopted by the National Association of Counties, Board of Directors. April 5, 1971. W U . S. President (Nixon). The President s News Conference of February 17, 1971. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, v, 7, no. 8: 239. P r e s i d e n t (Nixon). Federal P o l i c i e s R e l a t i v e t o Equal Housing Opportunity. Statement by t h e P r e s i d e n t , June 11. 1971. Weekly Compilation of P r e s i d e n t i a l Documents, v. 7 , no. 24: 900-901. w 2 . S . u ~ h U.S. e Department of Housing and Urban Development i s s u e d on J u l y 26, 1971 a compilation of documents r e l e v a n t t o t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s June 11, 1971 p o l i c y statement. It i n c l u d e s statements by Administ r a t i o n spokesman a s well a s proposed HUD g u i d e l i n e s and c r i t e r i a . d ~ e s o l u t i o n sof t h e 1971 Annual Meeting of t h e U.S. Conference of Mayors. Connressional Record, 92d Cong., 1st Sess. June 30, 1971: SlO396. b o / ~ e s ~ o n sby e Public I n t e r e s t Groups t o Administration's Pronouncements on Equal Housing Opportunity. Connressional Record, 92d Cong., 1st S e s s . , October 1 3 , 1971: E10812. WU.S. Commission on C i v i l Rights. Home Ownership f o r Lower Income Families; a Report on t h e Racial and Ethnic Impact of Section 235 Programs. U.S. Covt. P r i n t . Off., Washington, June, 1971. p. 89. 68/Ibid. , pp. 90-92. ~ v . s Congress. . Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Departments of t a b o r and Health, Education, and Welfare and Related Agencies Appropriation B i l l , 1972. 92d Cong., 1st Sess. Senate Report no. 92-316. J u l y 29, 1971. p. 3. 7 0 / ~ e o r ~ i aS., Hes. 248, H. Res. 560, 1970. 7 2 / ~ e wYork, Ch. 612, 1970. w ~ o l o r a d o ,Ch. 65 (House B i l l No. 1 0 5 5 ) , 1970. 7&california, Ch. 714, A. 1571, 1970. M ~ e r m o n t ,Public Act No. 291 (H. 4 3 3 ) , 1970. 7 7 / ~ e l a w a r e , H. Con. Res. 43, 1970. W ~ a l i f o r n i a ,Ch. 969, S. 777, 1970. WU. S. Congress. House. Fifth Annual Report of the Department 0f Housing and Urban Development for the Calendar Year 1969, 92d Cong 1st Sess. House Document no. 92-97. April 22, 1971. ., 80/~. S. Congress. House. Third Annual Report on National Housing Goals, Pursuant to the Provisions of Section 1603 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968. 92d Cong., 1st Sess. House Document no. 92-136. Sune 29, 1971. p. 3. 81/~ousin~ Recommendations: White House Conference on Aging. Congressional Record, 92d Cong., 1st Sess. December 14, 1971: S21620S21621. Q/u.S. Congress. House. Committee on Banking and Currency. Papers Submitted to Subcommittee on Housing Panels on Housing Productions, Housing Demand, and Developing a Suitable Living Environment and Housing and The Urban Environment: Report and Recommendations of Three Study Panels. 92d Cong., 1st Sess. 84/U. S. Congress. House. Committee on Banking and Currency. Investigation and Hearings of Abuse in Federal Low and Moderate Income Housing Programs: Staff Report and Recommendations. 91st Cong., 2d Sess. 8Z/U. S. Congress. House. Committee on Banking and Currency. Hearing on HUD Investigation of Low and Moderate Income Housing Programs. 92d Cong., 1st Sess. March 31, 1971. WHUDReport Upholds Banking and Currency Committee on Section 235 Housing Program. Congressional Record, 92d Cong., 1st Sess., September 13, 1971: H8361. WU. S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs, Subcommittee on Housing and Urban Affairs. Hearings on Withholding of Funds for Certain Housing and Urban Development Programs for the Remainder of Fiscal Year 1971. 92d Cong., 1st Sess. March 3, 4, 1971. p. 1. w~dministrationWithholding Funds for Programs in Rural America. Congressional Record, 92d Cong., 1st Sess., October 7, 1971: E10594E10595. g0/~hodeIsland, Ch. 276 of the Public Laws of 1970. 42/?.S. P r e s i d e n t (Nixon). Message From t h e P r e s i d e n t of t h e United S t a t e s Proposing a System of S p e c i a l Revenue Sharing f o r Urban Community Development. 92d Cong., 1st S e s s . House Document no. 92-61. )larch 5 , 1971. W.S.Congress. S e n a t e . Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban A f f a i r s . Subcommittee on Housing and Urban A f f a i r s . Hearings on Proposed Housing and Urban Development L e g i s l a t i o n f o r 1971. 92d Cong. , 1 s t Sess. August 2 and 3 , 1971. p. 38. ~ ~ e s o l u t i o nofs t h e 1 9 7 1 Annual Meeting of t h e U.S. Conference o f b y o r s . C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, 92d Cong., 1st S e s s . : 220397. U l 2 . s . Congress. S e n a t e . Subcommittee on Housing and Urban A f f a i r s . i l e a r i n g s on Proposed Housing and Urban Development L e g i s l a t i o n f o r lWl.. . O D . c i t . , p. 120. . 1)7/Yor t,l!e d e r i v a t i o n of t h i s b i l l (H.R. 9 6 8 8 ) , s e e above pp. 47-48. '?8/1:. S. (:cng r e s s . IIouse. Committee on A p p r o p r i a t i o n s . Department o f iIousinc m d Ilrban Development, Space, S c i e n c e , Veterans and C e r t a i n Independent k e n c i e s A p p r o p r i a t i o n B i l l , 1972. Report t o Accompany ii.l!. 9382. 92d Cone,, 1st Sess. House Report no. 92-305. June 23, 1971. pp. 2-3. W 1 . S . Dept. of Housing and Urban Development. General C r i t e r i a f o r New Communities. S u b p a r t B, Sec. 32.6. F e d e r a l R e g i s t e r , v. x x x v i , nc. 1 4 8 , J u l y 31, 1971: 14207-14209. 1 0 0 / ~ e wCommunities: Vital P o i n t o f N a t i o n a l Growth P o l i c y . HUD no. 71-411, J u l y 8, 1971 : 2. KUD News, l G 1 / P r e s i d e n t l s Advisory Council on E x e c u t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n . Memoranda f o r t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e United S t a t e s . E s t a b l i s h m e n t of a Department of N a t u r a l Re'sources : O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l and Economic Programs. Washington, 1h;r 1 2 , 1970. p. 148. 102/~0Improve A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e Government--Message from t h e P r e s i d e n t of t h e United S $ a t e s . House Document No. 91-275. Cong r e s s i o n a l Record, March 1 2 , 1970: H1761. ~ ~ o u n c ofi lS t a t e Governments. 69. October, 1969. 39 p p . l0b/1llinois, Public Act 76--2588 S t a t e Executive Reorganization 1967- (Senate B i l l 1476), 1970. W M a i n e , Chapter 571 (H. P. 1458--L. D. 1834), 1970 WU. S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban A f f a i r s . Subcommittee on Housing and Urban A f f a i r s . Hearings on Land Use Planning, and Management Programs--S.J. Res. 52 and T i t l e 11, S. 1618. 92d Cong., 1st Sess., J u l y 1 2 , 1 3 , and 1 4 , 1971. p. 45. W ~ h o m a s ,Nicholas P. Revenue Sharing: What W i l l be i t s Impact on Planning? P a r t I. AIP Newsletter, v. 6, no. 6, June 1971: 6-10. 1 1 1 / ~ . S . Congress. House. Committee on I n t e r i o r and I n s u l a r A f f a i r s . Subcommittee on t h e Environment. Hearings on H.R. 7211 t o E s t a b l i s h Public Land Use p o l i c y ; t o E s t a b l i s h Guidelines f o r I t s Administrat i o n and f o r Other Purposes. 92d Cong., 1 s t Sess. S e r i a l no. 92-20. J u l y 26, 27, 28, 29, and 30, 1971. p. 78. WU. S. Congress. House. Message From t h e P r e s i d e n t of t h e United S t a t e s R e l a t i v e t o Revenue Sharing. 92d Cong., 1st Sess. House Doc. 92-44. February 4, 1971. p. 5. W ~ o b b yHighlights : 1971 C o l l i s i o n s S e t Stage f o r '72, Housing and Urban Development. Connressional Q u a r t e r l y , v. xxx, no. 1, January 1, 1972. p. 12. MU. S. Congress. Senate. Subcommittee on Housing and Urban A f f a i r s . Hearings on S. J . Res. 52 and T i t l e 11, S. 1618, OD. c i t . , pp. 43, 44. 1 1 S / ~ i l l e y , Wiliam, 111. White House Report: Community Development Proposal W i l l Test Nixon1s C r e d i b i l i t y and Power. National J o u r n a l , V, 3 , no. October 9 , 19'71: 2030-2038. a, MU. S. Executive Office of t h e P r e s i d e n t . O f f i c e of Management and Budget. Restoring t h e Balance of Federalism: Second Annual Report t o t h e P r e s i d e n t on t h e Federal. Assistance Review. Washington, June, 1971. S. Congress. J o i n t Economic Committee. Subcommittee on Urban A f f a i r s . R e s t o r a t i o n of E f f e c t i v e Sovereignty t o Solve S o c i a l Problems. 92d Cong., 1st S e s s . , December 6, 19'71. p. 9. 118/~. S. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor. S e l e c t Subcommittee on Labor. Hearings on H.R. 1 7 , H.R. 29, and H.R. 3613. Q2d Cong., 1 s t S e s s . February 24, 25; March 2, 3 , 4, and 1 7 , 1971. p. 285. 1 1 9 / G u i d e l i n e s of t h e U. S. Department of Labor f o r Developing Programs Under t h e Emergency Employment Act of 1971. Manpower I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e Reference F i l e . Bureau of N a t i o n a l Affairs, I n c . , Washington. p. 91:1?25. 120/~. S. General Accounting O f f i c e . A l l o c a t i o n of Funds f o r t h e P u b l i c Ehployment Program Under t h e Einergency Employment Act o f 1971. Dept. of Labor. Report of t h e Congress by t h e Comptroller General of t h e United S t a t e s . B-163922. Washington, December 1 7 , 1971. 1 2 1 / ~ o u n c i l on Environmental Q u a l i t y . Second Annual Report on Environm e n t a l Q u a l i t y . Washington, August, 1971. 1 2 2 / ~ o r n m i s s i o non P o p u l a t i o n Growth and America's F u t u r e . An I n t e r i m Report t o t h e P r e s i d e n t and t h e Congress. Washington, March 1 6 , 1971. pp. 25-30. CRS-133 Appendix A Housing and Urban Development Act of 1970 P.L. 91-609 Title VII--Urban Growth and New Community Development Part A--Development of a National Urban Growth Policy To provide for the establishment of a national urban growth policy, to encourage and support the proper growth and development of our States, metropolitan areas, cities, counties, and towns with emphasis upon new community and inner city development, to extend and amend laws relating to housing and urban development, and for other purposes. Housing and Urban Development Act of 1970. Be it enacted bv the Senate and House of Re~resentativesof the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the "Housing and Urban Development Act of 1970." TITLE VII--URBAN GROWTH AND NEW COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PART A-- DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL URBAN GROWTH POLICY FINDINGS AND DECLARATION OF POLICY Sec. 702. (a) The Congress finds that the rapid growth of urban population and uneven expansion of urban development in the United States, together with a decline in farm population, slower growth in rural areas, and migration to the cities, has created an imbalance between the Nation's needs and resources and seriously threatens our physical environment, and that the econanic and social development of the Nation, the proper conservation of our natural resources, and the achievement of satisfactory living standards depend upon the sound, orderly, and more balanced development of all areas of the Nation. (b) The Congress further finds that Federal programs affect the location of population, economic growth, and the character of urban development; that such programs frequently conflict and result in undesirable and costly patterns of urban development which adversely affect the environment and wastefully use our natural resources; and that existing and future programs must be interrelated and coordinated within a system of orderly development and established priorities consistent with a National Urban Growth Policy. ( c ) To promote t h e g e n e r a l w e l f a r e and p r o p e r l y apply t h e r e s o u r c e s of t h e F e d e r a l government i n s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e economic and s o c i a l h e a l t h of a l l a r e a s of t h e Nation and more a d e q u a t e l y p r o t e c t t h e p h y s i c a l environment and conserve n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , t h e Congress d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e F e d e r a l Government, c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of S t a t e and l o c a l government and t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r , must assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e development of a n a t i o n a l urban growth p o l i c y which s h a l l i n c o r p o r a t e s o c i a l , economic, and o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r s . Such p o l i c y s h a l l s e r v e a s a guide i n making s p e c i f i c d e c i s i o n s a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l which a f f e c t t h e p a t t e r n of urban growth and s h a l l provide a framework f o r development of i n t e r s t a t e , S t a t e , and l o c a l growth and s t a b i l i z a t i o n p o l i c y . ( d ) The Congress f u r t h e r d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l urban growth p o l i c y should-(1)f a v o r p a t t e r n s of u r b a n i z a t i o n and economic development and s t a b i l i z a t i o n which o f f e r a range of a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s and encourage t h e wise and balanced use of p h y s i c a l and human r e s o u r c e s i n m e t r o p o l i t a n and urban r e g i o n s a s w e l l a s i n s m a l l e r urban p l a c e s which have a p o t e n t i a l f o r a c c e l e r a t e d growth; (2) f o s t e r t h e continued economic s t r e n g t h of a l l p a r t s of' t h e United S t a t e s , i n c l u d i n g c e n t r a l c i t i e s , suburbs, s m a l l e r communities, l o c a l neighborhoods, and r u r a l a r e a s ; ( 3 ) h e l p r e v e r s e t r e n d s of m i g r a t i o n and p h y s i c a l growth which r e i n f o r c e d i s p a r i t i e s among S t a t e s , r e g i o n s , and c i t i e s ; ' 4 ) t r e a t comprehensively t h e problems of p o v e r t y and employment ( i n c l u d i n g t h e e r o s i o n of t a x b a s e s , and t h e need f o r b e t t e r community s e r v i c e s and job o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) which a r e a s s o c i a t e d with d i s o r d e r l y u r b a n i z a t i o n and r u r a l d e c l i n e ; 1 5 ) develop means t o encourage good housing f o r a l l Americans without regard t o r a c e o r creed; ( 6 ) r e f i n e t h e r o l e of t h e Federal government i n r e v i t a l i z i n g e x i s t i n g communities and encouraging planned, l a r g e - s c a l e urban and new community development; ( 7 ) s t r e n g t h e n t h e c a p a c i t y of g e n e r a l governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o balanced urban growth and s t a b i l i z a t i o n ; and '8) f a c i l i t a t e i n c r e a s e d c o o r d i n a t i o n in t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of F e d e r a l programs so a s t o encourage d e s i r a b l e p a t t e r n s of urban growth and s t a b i l i z a t i o n , t h e prudent use of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , and t h e p r o t e c t i o n of t h e p h y s i c a l environment. URBAN GROWTH REPORT Sec. 703. ( a ) I n o r d e r t o a s s i s t in t h e development of a N s t i o n a l u r b a n Growth P o l i c y , t h e P r e s i d e n t s h a l l u t i l i z e t h e c a p a c i t y of h i s o f f i c e , adequately organized and s t a f f e d f o r t h e purpose, through an i d e n t i f i e d u n i t of t h e Domestic Council, and of the departments and agencies within the executive branch to collect, analyze, and evaluate such statistics, data, and other information (including demographic, economic, social, land use, environmental, and governmental information) as will enable him to transmit to the Congress, during the month of February in every even-numbered year beginning with 1972, a Report on Urban Growth for the preceding two calendar years which shall include-(1)information and statistics describing characteristics of urban growth and stabilization and identifying significant trends and developments; (2) a summary of significant problems facing the United States as a result of urban growth trends and developments; (3) an evaluation of the progress and effectiveness of Federal efforts designed to meet such problems and to carry out the national urban growth policy; ( 4 ) an assessment of the policies and structure of existing and proposed interstate planning and developments affecting such policy; (5) a review of State, local, and private policies, plans, and programs relevant to such policy; (6) current and foreseeable needs in the areas served by policies, plans, and programs designed to carry out such policy, and the steps being taken to meet such needs; and (7)recommendations for programs and policies for carrying out such policy, including such legislation and administrative actions as may be deemed necessary and desirable. (b) The President may transmit from time to time to the Congress supplementary reports on urban growth which shall include such supplementary and revised recommendations as may be appropriate (c) To assist in the preparation of the Report on Urban Growth and any supplementary reports, the President may establish an advisory board, or seek the advice from time to time of ternporary advisory boards, the members of whom shall be drawn from among private citizens familiar with the problems of urban growth and from among Federal officials, Governors of States, mayors, county officials, members of State and local legislative bodies, and others qualified to assist in the prepartion of such reports, . Supplementary reports, transmittal to Congress. Advisory board, establishment. CRS-136 Appendix B Agricultural Act of 1970 P.L. 91-521, Title IX--Rural Development To establish improved programs for the benefit of producers and consumers of dairy products, wool, wheat, feed grains, cotton, and commodities, to extend the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, as amended, and for other purposes. Agricultural Act of 1970. Be it enacted bv the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the "Agricultural Act of 1970." TITLE IX--RURAL DEVELOPMENT C O E ~ ~ I ~OFN CONGRESS T Sec. 901. (a) The Congress commits itself to a sound balance between rural and urban America. The Congress considers this balance so essential to the peace, prosperity, and welfare of all our citizens that the highest priority must be given to the revitalization and development of rural areas. LOCATION OF FEDERAL FACILITIES Report to Congress (b) Congress hereby directs the heads of all executive departments and agencies of the Government to establish and maintain, insofar as practicable, departmental policies and procedures with respect to the location of new offices and other facilities in areas of communities of lower population density in preference to areas or communities of high population densities. The President is hereby requested to submit to the Congress not later than September 1 of each fiscal year a report reflecting the efforts during the immediately preceding fiscal year of all executive departments and agencies in carrying out the provisions of this section, citing the location of all new facilities, and including a statement covering the basic reasons for the selection of all new locations. PLANNING ASSISTANCE (c) The Secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Secretary of Agriculture shall submit to the Congress a joint progress report as to their efforts during the immediately preceding fiscal year to provide assistance to States planning for the development of rural multicounty areas not included in economically depressed areas under authority of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968. The first such annual report shall be submitted not later than December 1, 1970, and shall cover the period beginning August 1, 1968, the date of enactment of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968, and ending June 30, 1970. Report to Congress . 82 Stat. 476. 12 USC 1701t note . INFOFNATION AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE (d) The Secretary of Agriculture shall submit to the Congress Report to Congress. a report not later than September 1 of each fiscal year reflecting the efforts of the Department of Agriculture to provide information and technical assistance to small communities and less populated areas in regard to rural development during the immediately preceding fiscal year. The first such annual report shall be submitted not later than December 1, 1970, covering the period beginning July 1, 1969, and ending June 30, 1970. The Secretary shall include in such reports to what extent technical assistance has been provided through land-grant colleges and universities, through the Extension Service, and other programs of the Department of Agriculture. GOVERNMENT SERVICES (c) The President shall submit to the Congress a report not Report to later than September 1 of each fiscal year stating the availabilCongress. ity of telephone, electrical, water, sewer, medical, educational, and other government or government assisted services to rural areas and outlining efforts of the executive branch to improve these services during the immediately preceding fiscal year. The President is requested to submit the first such annual report, covering the fiscal year ending June 30, 1970, on or before Decernber 1, 1970. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE &port to Congress. (f) The President shall report to Congress on the possible utilization of the Farm Credit Administration and agencies in the Department of Agriculture to fulfill rural financial assistance requirements not filled by other agencies. The President is requested to submit the report requested by this section on or before July 1, 1971, together with such recommendations for legislation as he deems appropriate. Approved November 30, 1970. Appendix C Annotated Bibliography of Monographic and Periodical L i t e r a t u r e Relevant t o Urban Growth and Rural Developent P a r t I. E f f e c t i v e Use of Resuurces i n Urban Regions. P a r t 11. Urban-Rural Balance and Economic Growth. P a r t 111. Problems of Urban Poverty. Part IV. Good Homes f o r A l l Americans. P a r t V. Renewing Old Conmnities and Creating New Communities. P a r t VI. Strengthening the Capacity of General Governments t o Manage t h e Urban Environment. P a r t I. (cont 'd) -- llono--ra-hs . U.S. Congress, %mate, ~ o i a i 6 t e ao n I n t e r i o r aad Insular Affairs. P r o b l e m s of e l e c t r i c a l p o u e r p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e Southvest. H e a r i n g s , 92d Con?., 1 s t sess. lashington, U.S. C o v t . P r i n t . o f f . , 1971. 4 v. H e a r i n q s h e l d i n L a s Veqas, AFV., n a y 25, 1971; S a l t L a k e C i t y , Hay 2 6 : D n r a n q o , C o l o . , May 2 7 ; Page. Ariz., Nay 28. E l e c t r i c p o v e r p l a n t s - - [ S o u t h v e s t (U. S.) ] / Air p o l l u t i o n - [ s o u t h u e s t (U. S.) ] / E l e c t r i c u t i l i t i e s - - [ S o u t h v e s t (U.S.) 1 / C o a l mines a n d minrnq--[Southmest (O.S.) ] / I n d i a n s - - [ S o u t h w e s t (U. S. ) ] / E n v i r o n m e n t a l e n g i n e e r i n g - - u. s. 1 / U.S. Dept. of t h e I n t e r i o r . Office of . a t e r Pesosrces Research. b n l t lonal u r b n n wa t e t r e ? o u r c e s r ;- a r c h p r o g r a m . % a s n ~ n a t o n .F o r s a l - by t h e S u p t . Q ' ' cc's., U.S. Guvt. 1971. 54 p. Frlnt. Off., **...p r r s e n t l ';I a p r o j r i m o f ~ c ~ e a r cdhe s i g n e d t o i m ~ r o v c .w a t e r r e s o u r c e s manaqement i n t h e u r b a n environment. The proposed r e s e a r c h program w i l l c a l l u p o n t h e physical, b i o l o g i c a l . s o c i a l , a n d enqlneerlng s c i e n c e s t o develop t h e knovledge cequlred t o shape s o l u t l o n a t o present and f u t u r e . " w a t ~ rp r o h l c W a t e r r t . ~ U L L W ~u a v e ~ o p w n r - - 1u.3. j--Research / E n v r r o n e e n t a l engineering--[U.S. 1 - - 8 e s e u c h / Orban a r e a s - - [ - -. U. S. G e n e r a l A c c o a a t i n g Off icm, Proqress and problems of urban and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n r n g , 3 e p a r t m e n t o f B o u s i n g a n d Urban Development. D e p a r t a e n t o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; r e p o r t t o t h e C o n g r e s s by t h e Comptroller General o f t h e United States. 36 p. [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1971. -8-17U182, Uov. 19, 1971U r b a n p l a n n i n g - - [ U.S.] / Urban transportation--[U.S. ] / U r b a n p l a n n i n g - - [ D e t r o i t m e t r o p o l i t a n area 1 / U r b a n t r a u s p o r t a t i o n - - [ Detroit m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a ] / P e d e r a l a i d t o c i t i e s - - [ 0.S. ] / O.S. Dept. o f H o u s i n g a n d U r b a n Dept. of t r a n s p o r t a t i o m . D e v e l o p m e n t . / 0. S. J ,' -I-C . m u w :m m a L G u r r m r J a ?@\IP. w - r c r ( P 0 n n ~ : a o r ~ m r r - o nI-0 P 0 J P C P r a ' l i m O n a D m 1 0 u n m a L t 0 \ 0 0 l n 1 0 r n m o w m l n r $*PI- r n r m r w n D n < P P @ ( P a r n u r q ~ r + -0 0, m s : n U ~ v n o Pv D V I 1 c e a n I m m r ~ p nr w ( L I ~ Y . Y I r e w ~ . V I D P L - r n I I > & I I ~ r O . P 0 0 s r r r n n n qI *-,c m \ m a r ~ D . V n f l U I P 1 - . nv;, 0 0 m B D rt 5 r r w c nm w v n a D n 0 P P r L a P 0 r m m n a m P I D O ..I n n n c n o c l r u . a w Q - a P . ,; m m c b @ P - U P D L ' I , ~ B u m r t r L L r n u Q r c & VI c l -"L i W n v ~ o r r m m W P D ' f f i n c o m r r n U D w w uu 9 ) n \'I V l1Q C 0 rr P w r . 9 1 r I - n x a u r n I . r o a \ o u , D I u ~ - c r c . n r a m o n n P r l n U ) r w m v m n w r n r m m n o r m \ ZPZn . vim1 I . I - 10 r ' l P . u 0 m , I ~ u I- urn I rn ~ n m m m a u I I r \ P, l-0 0 Y I I P VIP n z *I- c C'P - P & * P I I -I . 1 c \ . , Via P n r' 0 a P r n. r - V I P . n m u :r\ g 0 x n 4 -Llr m a n r y e P a r t I. #*. (cont'd) . -Periodicals M a n h e l l , Wallace. Makrng c o r r P z t r J n i c o a u u n l t y a q e n c y . C r r m e and d e l ~ n q ~ ~ e n cv.y , 1 7 , J u l y 1971: 281-288. .a p r d c t r c a l p r o g r d m t o r l n t e j r a t i n 3 correction r a t 3 t h e s y s t e m o f s o c ~ a la q e n c l e s 1s outlrned." ] / I n t e r ~ o r e r n m e n t a lr s l a t l o n s - - [ U. S. ] Prlsons--[U.S. N a n t e l l , Edmund 8. Econoorc b r a s e s i n urban t r a n s p o r t a t i a n planning and rapleaentatlon. T r a f f i c q u a r t e r l y , v. 25, J a n . 1 9 7 1 : 117-130. U n d e r - v a l u a t r a n of l a n d a n d o t h e r costs a n d g r e a t e r a v a r l a b r l i t y of F e d e r a l f u n d s f o r h i g h u a y s t h a n f o r o t h e r t o r m s o f t r a n s p o r t a t r o n a r e amonq t h e f a c t o r s polnted out. U.S. 1--Plnance / Urban highways-Urban t ransportatron--[U.S. ] / F e d e r a l a r d h i g h w a y program--[U.S. ] / L a n i use-] / Resource allocation--[U.S. ] . [ U.S. l a r k o v i t z , J o n i K. Transportatron needs of t h e elderly. Traffrc q u a r t e r l y , v. 2 5 , Apr. 1911: 237-255. "The p u r p o s e o f t h i s a r t r c l e . . . i s to s t u d y t h e t r a v e l p a t t e r n s of the e l d e r l y to determine t h e l r r n t e n s r t y o t t r a n s p o r t a t t o n demand, how well t h i s demand IS met, a n d w h e t h e r t h e i r m o b i l i t y c a n b e lmproved through b e t t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c r l i t r e s , o r by b r r n g i n q t h ? o p p o r t o n i t r e s c l o s e r t o t h e m o r by s o m e c o m b l n a t l o n o f t h e two.[ P a r t of a l a r g e r r e p o r t , THE LLDERLY: SOCIAL, E C 0 1 3 l I C A U D THANSPOBTATION REEDS, r n t e r l m t e c h n r c a l r e p o r t 4 1 8 1-5250. T r r - S t a t e T r d n s p O r t a t l ~ nC o a m r s s l o n , June 1970). A q r d - - [ New York m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a ] / U r b a n t r a n s p o r t a t r o o - h e w York m e t r o p o 1 1 t d n a r e a ] E c o l o g y t o . l L l y , v. 1, 3ay n a r k s , David. C a b l n s and o3nt i l n z r s c u t c o n q e s t I p n . Xeu s c ~ o n t l s t a n d s c l r n c r j o u r n d l , v . UH, Dec. 1 9 7 : : 5 4 2 - 5 4 4 . " C ~ t r ~j rs ~ n t i t o J h a l t a s t r l t r l z j ~ n s.%law trinripurt t o s t ~ n d s t r l la n d s h , > r t a y e o f s p a c e s a k e s ~t r m p o s s l b l e t o p a r k a t t h e e n 3 o f a journey. T h e s e p r o b l e m s of t h e t u e n t 1 e t . h c e n t u r y h a v e b e e n a t t a c k e d s o t a r o n l y by s o l u t r o n s f r o m ~ c o m p a n r e s h'ivf? come u p t h e p a s t ; ~ J tW w German w i t h new i 3 r a s f 3 r m a k i n g c o n q e s t r o n less a t a m e n t a l and f i n a n c i a l r r r i t a n t . " n a s s r a p i d t r a n s i t / Urban t c a n s p o r t a t i o n Nines, Samuel. The mas:; transit 3?ss. 1971: 11-13, UU-US. Y a s s r a p ~ d t r a n s r t - - I U.S. 1 P a l m e r . L a n s i n g Peed. T h e r e g u l a t i o n I € r n m m u t P r railroads: a s t u d y o f t h e Sew Y o r k m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . Boston Universrty law r e v i e w , v . 50, f a l l 1970: 5 5 2 - 5 7 6 . n a i l r o d 3 c o n m u t r n g t r d f f r c - - [ M e w York m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a ] / R a r l r o a d s and s t a t e - - [ l e u P o r k / S t a t e ] / Urban t r a n s p o r t a t r o n - - r 0 . S. 1 R a p x d t r a n s i t m a k e s progress i n a n u p h r l l f r q h t . U.S. n e v s 6 w o r l d r e p o r t . 1. 7 1 , ~ a c . 6, 1971: 82-83. "Rare c r t ~ e sh a v e b e e n won o v ~ rt o ~ m p r o v l n q mass t r a n s r t . But c3sts a r e s o a r r n q , l o s s e s P l l l n g up. V o t e r s r e l e c t r n y s u m irJn 1 L ~ s u ~ . ; . T r o u b l e s abound.a o n a n , Y ~ L l l a aJ. U e w p r i o r i t i e s f o r urban transportatiom. Becord o f t h e Association o f t h e B a r o f t h e C i t y o f l e u T o r t . v. 2 6 , Apt. 1971: 284-291. " T h e time h a s come f o r US t o m a k e t h e same m a j o r commitment t o m a i n t a i n nrban t r a n s i t r i q h t s of-way o n r a i l . a s we h a r e x n o t h e r f o r m s o f travel." Speech d e l r v e r e d a t t h e House o f t h e A s s o c i a t r o m of t h e B a r o f t h e C i t y o f l e v l o r k om Peb. 23, 1971. Urban t ransportatiom-[ l k m lork/City ] . S a v a s , I. 5 . R u n x c ~ p a lmonopoly. H a r p e r *s m a q a x i n e . 1. 213. D e c . 1971: 55-60. is a -The r n e f f i c i e n c y o f mmnicipal s e r v i c e s . . n a t u r a l c o n s e q a e n c e ~ f a monopoly system,. and "much o f t h e r a l f u n c t i o a l n g o f m u n i c i p a l momopolies c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c r r i l s e r v i c e s y s t e m i t s e l f is d e f e c t i v e . n a n i c r p a l services--[U.S. ] / llonicipal o f f i c i a l s aad 1 / I m L c i p a l p o l i t i c s and goverraee-employees--[U.S. j 0.5. ] / Oomopolies--[@.$. ] t a s k e r , l r d r i c C. R e p a i r i n g t h e r a v a g e s o f am a r b a n e x p r e s s w a y . City. r . 5 , f a l l 1971: 1 3 - 2 7 . -The F e d e r a l Highway A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f i n a m c e s a p l a n t o p u t b a c k t o g e t h e r some o f t h e p i e c e s o f a Miami g h e t t o n e i g h b a r h o o d d i v i d e d a n d a m a r l y d e s t r o y e i by a n e l e v s t e d i n t e r s t a t e . " / F e d e r a l a i d highway program / Pelocatroo--[Iliami] I n t e r s t a t e h i q b w l ? systmms--[Florida ] / Orban renewal-P e 3 e r a l Uighmay A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . [ N i a m r ] / U.S. Part 1. (cont'd) -Periodicals T h e Agony of t h e commuter. marsweek, 1. 77. 18, 1971: 44-49. U r b a n t r a n s p o r t a tion--[U. S. 1 / C~mmuting--[O.S. ] -... Jan- CRS-14 7 t h e P o r t a e b o r i t j battbs its c c i t l c m . Bmrir8s week, n o . 2 1 7 0 , Apr. 3, l t f l z 48-51,., "They want t h e c o m t r o v e r s i a l a g e n c y t o h e l p s o l v e t h e mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n crisis." Urban mass t r a n s i t - - [ l e u I o r k m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a ] / P o r t a u t h o r i t i e s - - [ H e r York m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a ] / T o b i n , A u s t i n J . / P o r t o f Uer York A u t k o r i t y . .- T o M r i l i s , Amtlwy t . Orban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o j e c t s : t h e m u l t i - p s r p o s e Aiqh s p e e d g r o u n d u n d e r t a k i n g s o f modern times. t r a n s p o r t a t i o n j o u r n a l , v. 5, u i n t e r - s p r i n g 1971: 43-52. a major change has t a k e n p l a c e d a r i n g t h e l a s t f e u y e a r s i n u r b a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n terms o f t h e size o f u r b a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n s a n d p r o j e c t s a n d i n terms o f t h e n a t u r e a n d f e n c t i o n s o f s u c h p r o jects w i t h i n m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n s . a O r b a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n / Urbam ~ l a n n i n a 1 ~ 1C a r l,a . Orbam mass t r a n s i t : a m u l t i - b i l l t o m d o l l a r investment. G o v e r n m e n t e x e c a t i r e , v. 3, J u n e 1971: 3133. An i n t e r v i e r w i t h t h e h e a d o f DOT'S O r b a n U a s s T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A 3 m r n r s t r a t i a n who d i s c u s s e s w h e r e o v e r 1 1 0 b i l l i o n a p p r o p r i a t e d by C o n g r e s s rill b e spent. l a s s r a p i d t r a n s i t - - ( 0,s. ) / U r b a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - - [ U.S. ] / U. S. Urban B a s s T r a n s p o r t m t i o m A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . uachs, Rattin. F o s t e r i n g t e z h n a l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n i n urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems. T r a f f i c q u a r t e r l y , r. 25, J a n . 1971: 39-53. Author q u e s t i o n s t h e c o n d i t i o n s needed f o r g e n u i n e l y i n n o v a t i v e t e c h n o l o g i e s t o overcome i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e s , a s i n s p a c e and d e f e n s e a r e a s , a n d s u g g e s t s a p p r o a c h e s t o make Urban ! l a s s T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Act of 1964 more p r o d u c t i v e . r e c h n o l o g i c a l innovations--[U.S.] / Urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - [ U . s. ]--Research / U a s s r a p i d t r a n s i t - - r U . S. I--Research - E a s b r i s , C w r q a J. Decentralizing c i t y services. Ranagerent i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e , 1. 3, J u n e 1971: u h o l e i s s u e . This report adascribas decentralized cityA follouup report s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s i n 1 2 cities. w i l l cover c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n within these programs. l o m i c i p a l services--[O.S. 1 / R u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c s and government--[U.S. ] / U e i g h b o r h o o d q o r e r n m e n t - - r U.S. 1 Oegg, h l b o t . C i t y , v. 5 , T h e sweet s e a g o i n g b u e s o f S e a t t l e , R a y - J a n e 1971: 99-51. "The W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e f e r r i e s , t h r i v i n g d e s p i t e r e p e a t e d a s s a u l t s by t h e h i g b w a y m n , make c o m m u n t i n g a positire p l e a s u r e . * Commntinq--f S e a t t l e ] / Waterways--[Oregon ] "... W i c k s t f a . C.org. 1. Defining balanced tramsportation--a qaestion of T r a f f i c q u a r t e r l y . v. 25, J u l y 197 1: 337opportunity. 349. U r b a n transportation--[EashLnLJton m e t r o p o l i t a n area] / Urban planning--[Washingto. m t r o p o l i t a a a r e a ] / Coamoting-. - [ W a s h i n g t o n m e t r o p o l i t a n arma] Eohl, Rartin. l a s t s o m e t h i n g be dome a b o u t t r a f f i c c o n g a s t i o n ? T r a f f i c q o a r t e r l y , v. 2 5 , July 1971: 403-418. a r e d a c t i o n i n c o a g e s t i o n cm b. a c h i e v e d - by h i g h r a y or t r a n s i t s y s t e m e x p a n s i o m , b y i m p o s i n g c o n g e s t i o n t o l l s , by b r s m i n g ant-. o r by s t a g g e r i n g work h o u r s - - b u t u l t i m a t e l y t h e r e i s a That p r i c e r a y t a k e t h e form of i n c r e a s e d price. r e s o u r c e c o m m i t m e n t s , ~f i n c r e a s e d i m c o n v e n i e n c e a n d d i s c o m f o r t , or o f r e d u c e d p l e a s a r e a n d utility.C o s t ef f e c t i r e n e s s - - 1 U . S . ] / Orban transportation--[0.9.) I -=t- r. n .c '3 P :: ;L - T c r a n :: za.!r.ur. r c - 2 T~ & - n P b- IC r. 4 M C C. 0 P '3 C r li ' - 2 - - . .-*,= - 2 !,,-?I, * 1c. I ?L : ,- I :., z ; r1 2 7 3 ,> 7 I C t ' Y * t - ; +- P r , C :: , . P,, . I- ,..I-- J 1-* - ' : C '?, r. . ; 2 . .- t,> It6-: ... \J r. - 5' 1 .A CT, m w n m P D n n u s m m m D W P * C D UI w a r. Part 11. ] (cont ' d ) Congros:;. 1 - - Monographs Senate. - . -2,3 5 1P.7 1) ? 1 CRS- l z t z:css._ to!^:., . Off., ,L'.LQLIL+J~~L: 5 ' 1 O r t ,' t & a 5 = 2 ( 2 - dcvc,Lo::r.ent --- ," i'rint. C o m m i t t e e o n P u b l i c Works. U.S. Congress, Senate. C o m m i t t o o on C o v r r n n e n t Operat ions. R e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f r u r a l and o t h e r e c o n o m i c a l l y H e a r i n g s , 9 2 d Cong., 1 s t sess.. o n d i s t r e s s e d areas. s . 10. P a r t 1. Apr. 27 a n d 28, 1971. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. ~ o v t . P r i n t . O f f . , 1971. 1 9 7 p. "A b i l l t o e s t a b l i s h a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y r e l a t i v e t o t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of r u r a l a n d o t h e r e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s t r e s s e d a r e a by p r o v i d i n g i n c e n t i v e s f o r a more e v e n and p r a c t i c a l g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h a n d a c t i v i t y a n d d e v e l o p i n g manpower t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s t o meet t h e n e e d s o f i n d u s t r y , a n d for o t h e r purposes." R e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c development--1U.S. ] / Location of ] / R u r a l e c o n o m i c development--[U.S. ] / industries--[U.S. l a n p o v e r t r a i n i n g programs--[U.S. ] / Rural-urban a i g r a t i o n - - a , -~ v.':.!c: n lL'I1. '1 ',?let y . " r e q i o n a l a i r p o r t s t o r the ~ - . ' , : ~ : ; a l , ~ c h i . ~dirl)otts..--i!;.;~rinij, n ').!d ! . t d r ; h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. U.S. -[ 0,s. .. - - -. -- ~ ~- "Scrial no. 92-i!4" - - - - - -- . . E ~ - a r i o , : ~ U u 2 I c _ l l p.an: d . 2 . 1 9 7 1, L o s --_ A n g c l o s ; A P T . 5 , A l L ~ ~ q u c r ~ ~5u. e W , x.; A?r. 6 , .~. .~. 5 1 n t d CC, ~ ~ . - K c x L .. E c o r : o r . i c ~ c ~ v c . l o ! , : i ! f : n t - - [ i J . s . :--Law and l e g i s l a t i o n / U r b a n *'mgf)Y O r W C ~ Z Y [ J . ~ - - ~ umiiucLs&i,l,, Il t-- r 11 5 - i I n d i d n - - - [ :ie 2 ' : c . x i c o ] / H e q i o n a 1 e c o n o m i c i f v ~ ? l d [ J : : ~t-" . ,/ ?d11~ . ; i ~ ~ k ~ & ~ ~ L E c o n o n i~ c~I~:LeL o p r n c i i t ttt A c [ 2.3. 1 -Co~aFttc.: on ::utritln~ U.S. Corngrass.. S m ~ a t m . C m i t t r r o m k b l i c Wort.. S m b a o m n i t t e e o n momoak k m l a p n m t . r a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c d e w e l o p m e n t program, p a r t 3. H e a r i n g s , 9 2 6 Cong., 1 s t sess. Y a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. 1561-2651 p. P r i n t . Off., 1971. f l e a r i n g s h e l d Apr. 19 a n d 15, 1971, S e a t t l e ; Apr. 16, F a i r b a n k s , A l a s k a ; Apr. 1 7 , Anchorage, A l a s k a ; Apr. 1 9 , B e t h e l a n d lome, A l a s k a . ] / Unamployment-R e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c development--[0,$. [ P a s h i n g t o n / S t a t e ] / Economic development-/ E c o n o m i c development--[ A l a s k a ] Cnn:rrss.-Se.?ate.Selrct [ Y a s .h-i n - gton/State] U . 5.- a n d 1:uoaz IGeeds. i;" P a r t 11. U r b a n - R u r a l B a l a n c e a n d Economic Growth -... Cochran, Clay. B u r a l houslng: nee1 an3 nonresponse. Poverty C h u l a n r e s o u r c e s , v . 5 , Nov.-Dec. 1970: 5-15. Author urqes t h a t a l l Federal subsidrzed houslng pcojraas s h o u l i be placed under one agency and t h a t s e r v r c e s of t h a t aqency should be e a s l l y a c c e s s ~ b l et o a l l . ] / F e d e r a l a l d t o h o u s l n g - - [ 0.5. ] / d u c a l houslny--1iJ.S. Low-locome housrng--[U.S. 1 / P u b l r c houslng--[O.S. ] / U.S. t n r a e r s ' Home X i m ~ n r s t r a t l o n . 1 . S. Cochraa, Clay. Our r u r a l s c ~ n d a l :t u o - t h r r d s of t h e U a t l o n l s bad h o u s ~ n q IS o u t t h e r e . S o u t h t o d a y , v. 2 , n a r . 1 9 7 1 : 5 8. Rura 1 poverty--[U.S. ] / F e d e r a l a r d t o housrng--[U.S. ] / F a r m e r s ' Home A d m l n r s t c a t i o n . C a t a n e s e . A n t h o n y James. Home a n d w o r r p l a c e s e p a r a t r o n I n f o u r UKbdn r S x q l o n s . J o u r n a l o f t h e A a e r l c a n Institute o f P L a n n e r s , v. 37, S e p t . 1 9 7 1 : 331- 3 j 7 . Research z l r r l e d o u t l n New York, L a s Anqeles, nllwaakee, anl Phlladelph~d. B l b l 1 o ~ r 3 p h y : p. 3 3 7 . ] / C o n m u t ~ n g - - [ U. 5. ] ~ ? u s l n q - - [ U.S. ] / E u p l o y a e n t - - L O . ; . B r i t t , R o b e r t D. The A p p a l a c h i a n r e g r o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t program: promises and accomplishments. G r o w t h a n d c h a n g e , v. 2 , J u l y 1 9 7 1 : 3-13. R e g l o n a l economic levelopment--[Appalachia] / A p p a l a c h i a n R e q l o n a 1 Commission. -11.5. .&N'&,L. L l o y d D. G r e e n , B e r a a l L, C a a p b O l l . P e S P. T r i c k l e - d o w n a n d l e a k a g e i n t h e war o n p o v e r t y ; a case s t u d y . G r o w t h a n d c h a n g e , v. 2, dct. 1 9 7 1 : 3 4 - 3 1 . Study o f t h e e f f e c t s of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n t h e O z a r t s Economic Development Region s ~ p g e ~ t s in-migrants tended to i n t e r v e n e betmeen that j o b s a n d t h e r u r a l p o o r who w o u l d b e t a r g e t s f o r a n i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n program." B u r a l poverty--[Sonth Central S t a t e s ] / I n t e r n a l migcation-[ 0. S. ] / I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n - - [ S o u t h C e n t r a l S t a t e s ] / L a b o r m o b i l i t y - - [ U. S. ] / E e g i o m a l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p n e n t - - U.S. 1 / O z a r k s R e q i o n Borden, E l b e r t I. The t h e o r y and t h e p r d c t l c e a t c e q 1 3 n a ~ d r v e l o p m c n t econonics. L a n d c c o n o m l c s , V. 4 7 , y a y 1 9 7 1 : 113-~,JJ. d e g i o n a 1 e c o n o m i c d e v e l s p m e n t - - [ u .s. ] R? llonal plannlnJ-1 / U - S . Economic D e v e l o p m e n t A r i m l n l s t c l t i ? n . --CRS-156 Periodicals 1912: a mixed b a g t o r Key I n d m s t r r e s . ousinejs w e e k , n o . 2 2 0 8 , De-. 2 5 , 1971: 44-49. P r o s p e c t 3 c ~ ;ce v 2 c 1 n d u s t r 1 e z ~ n 1 ° 7 2 . I n J u s t r y - - [ J.S. ] / C h 2 m ~ z i A ~ n d u s t r l e s - - [ U . S . J / B u l l d l n q ma t e r l a l s l n 3 u s t c y - - i J . S . ] / E l e z t r o n l z ~ n d u s t r l ? s - - [ U . S . ] / n a c h i 3 - ~ n q u s t r ya n 1 t r a d e - - ; J . ; . ] / 2ub11: u t ~ l ~ t r a s - ] / A?rospaze - u . S . ] / Textile r n l u s t r y a n d f a b r r c s - - [ U . S . i n * u s t r l e s - - [ U . S. 1 1 A n d e r s o n , U a A l a c e L.. a n 1 othacs. Journal o f s o i l and RCCD, l o c a l p e o p l e i n a z t i o s . water c o n s e r v a t i o n , v. 26, l a y - J u n e 1 9 7 1 : 9 1 - 1 0 1 . Contents.--South c e n t r a l l e u Y o r k RCSD p r o j e c t , by R. D w y e r . - - B u l l - T o r k L a k e l a n d RCSD p r o j e c t , b y A. B o o h e r . - - L i n c a l n H i l l s ECCD p r o j e c t , b y El. Hass1er.--Uasmin RCtD p r a j e c t . by li. O e m i c h e n a n d L. R o s s . - - N o r t h e r n R i o G r a n d e RCED p r o j e c t , b y P. L a v a t o . - - U p p e r U i l l a m a t t e B Z G D p r o j e z t , b y R . Bonk. R u r a l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t - - j O.S. ] / S o i l c o n s e r r a t a o n - - :0 , s . A n n u a l l o o k a t x n d u s t r ~ a ld e v e l o p m e n t . Natlonss b u s i n e s s , v. 5 9 , O c t . 1 9 7 1 : 66-90. s & ~ r c lr -~p la r r > t t 3 u r a r t 1 ~ 1 ~o ~n 5~ n i ;u t r l % l I c v1.1opment. L o c i t ~ o n o t ~ n l l u s t r 1 3 i - - [ ; J . S . J / Pollution c o n t r o l - - [ U.S. ] P o r ~ l j n~ n v e s t n e n t i - - 1J . S . ] / A q = a c m l t a r e i n d u t r y o p e n i n g t h e war f o r h n a d r o d s of jobs. C o a m r c c a t o d a y , v. 2, P o i . 29. 1971: 14-17. "Ocean f a r m i n g a s c a r r i e d o n i n t h e P a c i f i c n o r t h w e s t may b e o n e a n s w e r t o e c o n o m i c s u c c e s s el~ewhere.~ Aquaculture--[Northwestern S t a t e s ] / Regional economlc development--[Northwestern S t a t e s ] B a h l , B o y U. Firestimm, Robort. P h u e s . Donald. Industrial d i v e r s i t y i n u r b a n a r e a s : a l t e r n a t i v e measores and rntermetropolitan comparisions. Economic g e o g r a p h y , v . 4 7 , J u l y 1971: 4 1 4 - 9 2 5 . E c o n o m r c r e s e a r c h - - [ U. S. ] / l r b a n e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e a t - . U.S. 1 - - R e s e a r c h B e l l , C h r i s t o p h e r J. C o n t r o l l l n y r e s r J e n t r a 1 development on t h e ucoan f r l n q e : s t . L o u r s Z o u n t y , a ~ s s 3 u r l . J o u r n a l o f 3lrSin l i w , v. 48, l s s u e 2 , 1 9 7 1 : 4 3 9 - U U 7 . ;t. 1 3 ~ C1 o u~n t y 1s 5 u c c r e d 1 n q ~ n " c u r b l n q t h e worst e f t e c t s o r u r b i n s p r i v l " w l t h t h e h e l p o f s e v e r 3 1 r e l a t l v e l y nc,w p l d n n l n ~ a n 1 z o n r n q t e c h n l c l u e s , ~ s p e z ~ +y l t l h "~n o n - u r o a n h o l d r n q z o n e " i n d t h ~ " p l a n n e d ~ n v l r u n a e n tu n l t p r o c e l u r e . " 3rSan pllnnlng--[St. L ~ u l ss 2 t r o p a l r t a n a r n a ] / L a n J u s e - ; t . L o u i s m e t r o p o l l t a n a c e d ] / L o n l n j a n i z o n ~ n qlaw-, t . Louis a t s t r d p o l l t i l r a r e a ] 2.0 r t t-a aw r r r P a m m c m P' i\ .. .0 i h ~ C ) G c : n o o m a = ~ ~ m m m u ro u n m r m d m n ;E C i D y~ . - E 0 ~ l a o o rw rr. 1.1 w e m w ; r . w G , r . L r i l l l l In w m wc. w r l ~ s o wrt n s e m r r WCIW m u m w a N nltrom n a a m ~ m o CIDPC),. rn a 5 n w a r. c I D c z m r w m r m I n 4 1 0 m ?' D U 'x-0.- L. v.. : ;-T : ZI-n t , " (0 P e v a z r , r m e l P r a W c3v t P ~ ; i i G i l r r . < r ; m O n O O n o s c w w w n m a m a m f l u o m n w ~ r U P m t n ~ - ~ 1 m v o r O rw o r r t n D O P 0' C 1 U O I - 0 n 4 P U U @ " U S w m n a o & U P ! n r 7 9 p i s * m e Vlm r N R m U P P W W B O G ~ O S s m ~ W W O O ~ O C ? ~ ~ D D W ~ ~ Ca V I 4 4 41 m a 3 Im ~ r c l ~ r a r r r n w S * V m n o o r n u w G . * V r T P P e m u e ~ U m m ~ o n ~ 1 Y e m a 0 0 C rtcp y me' P n ,nw n -g W m C ~ L o n t n u U I r w e r o r & a m P ~ l m c wv ~ o u W O w C 1 w k w i D C C r m m c p P O D Y d D V ~ ~ C a 9 0 r 0 n a u C 1 P Q.D mn I P w o w @ * O r n n m ~ . m 0 m P B n 0 5 O U I b - 0 m. .am P C( - 5r.a CT rr '5 c w n 2.0 w . . ~ a n t a e r 0 tnn r.w W @ a n u-4 n a a O W " W O D C V l r r w r * a c * * m w m a c kwmcoarrrk-r a 0 Fr 0 s' o w \a ow u u n m v n o r r a a m - 0 0 - .- (D (D m o w n ~ n gu az cm C1.u n lo srrn !2gm + w w '1 W tn F (0 n P 0- :z 5' taw m s l cl P w i n d a m w n n 65 r 2a V) e 8r .% 0 0 r a P a 0 r .. . g 2 r w aI r 1 0 1 : 1 1 m o .r CUD- y). u ' z 10 C w 0 WW a 0. w D PI V 4 0 --elm 4 lD ~ w . . a a D mp m h' < 5 m a n ? P I- ~ r n n P a r t 11. (cont'd) -Periodicals Par.8. C l a d * C. R u r a l i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h i n t h e 1960's. American j o u r n a l o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e c o n o m i c s . v. 52. hog. 1970: 431-437. W h i s a r t i c l e relies o n u n p u b l i s h e d d a t a f r o m ongoing research and v a r i o u s s p e c i a l i n d a s t r y and small-area s t u d i e s t o assay dimensions and explore i m p a c t s o n r u r a l America o f g r e a t l y a c c e l u a t e d i n d u s t r i a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n t h e 1960*s.. B i b l i o g r a p h y : p. 4 3 6 - 4 3 7 . R u r a l e c o n o m i c d a r e l o p e n t - - [ 0.S. ] / l o c a t i o n of a a r l e y , Bon. A v a l l e y weeps. Parm q u a r t e r l y , v. 26, h a y - J u n e 1971: 10-13. E x p l a l n s haw u n m a n d y e d u t b a n r z 3 t r o n h 3 s devoured the Sdnta Clara Valley, one of C a l i f o r n i a ' s most n o t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s . [ . a n 4 use--[ C a l i f o r n i a ) / P a r m l a n d s - - [ C a l i f o r n i a ] / Regional planning--[Lalriornid] / Agrrculture-[ C a l i f o r n i a ] / urban areas--[California ] n a r c s , lichael. A m e r i c a n c l t r e s : t h e new r e s e r v a t i o n s . C i t y , v. 5. nar.-Apr. 1 9 7 1 : 45-46. T h e a r t i c l e d r s c u s s e s t h e m i g r a t i o n of I n i i a n s to t h e cities. I n d i a n s - - [ U.S. ] / U r b a n Life--[O.S. 1 Binds. D a d l e y S. b t l a n t a economrc r e v i e w , v. New c i t i e s f o r Z e o r 7 r a . 2 1 , O c t . 1971: d-15. "...some a c t r o u has to b e t l k e n soon t o channel m o r e w i s e l y t h e additions of p o p u l a t i o n a n d economrc a c t r v i t y t h a t t h r e a t e n t o inundate o u r r e g i o n and r u i n o u r s t r u c t u r e of p r o s p e r i t y and enjoyable living.population--[Georgia] / Rural-urban migration--[Saorqra] / Metropolitan areas--[Georyra] / New touns--[Georgia] / Urban plannrnq--[ A t l a n t a 1 Bunphref, Babest B o r a t i o . N a t i o n a l D o m e s t i c D e v e l o p m e n t Bank A c t o f 1 9 7 1 . Remarks i n t h e S e n a t e . Congressional record [ d a i l y e d . ] v. 1 1 7 , Nay 26, 1971: S 7 7 8 5 - S 7 7 9 0 . -A b i l l t o e s t a b l i s h a National Domestic D e v e l o p m e n t Bank t o p r o v i d e a n a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e of c r e d i t t o S t a t e and l o c a l governments f o r t h e purpose o f f i n a n c i n g p u b l i c and quasi-public f a c i l i t i e s of a l l t y p e s , a n d f o r o t h e r purposes." ]--Finance / Development c r e d i t P u b l i c works--[U.S. institutions--[U.S. 3 / S t a t e finance--[O.S. ] / Local ] / Urban economic developrent--[U.S. I-F i n a n c e / N a t i o n a l D o m e s t i c D e v e l o p m e n t Bank ( P r o p o s e d ) f inance--[U.S. -. E r u t e r , J e r a l d P. Preserving r u r a l land resources: t h e California Yestside. E c o l o g y law q u a r t e r l y , v. 1. s p r i n g 1971: 330-373. * T h i s c o n s e n t w i l l f o c u s upon s t a t e l e g i s l a t i o n , r n c l u d i n g s u b d i v i s i o n acts, open s p a c e and easement l e g i s l a t i o n , and t h e Williamson ..rn . , t n d u p o n t h e p r o g r a m s o f l o c a l y o v e r n m e n t , including plannrng, zoning, taxinq, and s t r u c t u r a l powers, whrch c a n b e used a s t o o l s t o s h a p e l a n d u s e decisions and patterns." L a n d u s e - - [ C a l i f o r n i a ] / Open s p a c e l a n d s - - [ C a l i f o r n i a ] - S t a t e laws / l a t e r resources development--[California] / Limited a c c e s s highuays--[Calrfornia] / Zoning and zoning l a w - - [ C a l i f o r n i a ] / Uater r e s o u r c e s d e v e l o p m e n t -... J o h n s o n , A. B r u c e . P e l e r a l a r d and a r e a redevelopment. J o u r n a l o t law 6 r c o n o m l c s , v . 14, Apr. 1971: 275-18U. a s h o r t r e p o r c u~ L ~ i a : i n l ~ n o~f su research project that evaluated the actual d e c r s i o n s a b o u t t h e a l l o c a t i o n of a r d made by t h e Ar en S P d o v ~ l n n m e n t A l m i n l < * r a t 1 on a ? c o m n a r e d w l t h t h e apparent r n t e n t o f t h e l e g r s l a t u r e rn c r e a t r n g t h l s agency." R u r a l economrc development--10.S.p-Research / Urban e c o n o m l c d e v e l o ~ 3 c ~ t - -U.[ 5 . ] - - P ~ s e 3 r c h / F e d e r a l a l d programs--[U.S.)--Research / U.S. Area Redevelopment Adminrstratron. Joroff, Sheila. lavarro, Vicente. f l ? j i c a l m3np3wer: d m u l t i v a r i a t e a o d l y s i s o f t h e d i s t r r ~ u t i o no f p h y s r c i a n s r o u r b a n Unl t e d S t ~ t e s . , : , . 2 i c a l c a r e , v. 9 , Sq?t . - o c t . 19-71: U ) Y - U < ~ . "Thrs s t u d y is a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f physicrans d i s t r i b u t i o n i n urban United S t a t e s w h i c h e x a m i n e s t h e r e l a t r o n s h i p b e t ween communrty c h d r a c t e r i s t i c s i n 279 Z t l n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t l n S t a t i s t i c a l i r e a s and 27 p h y s i c i a n s - p o p u l a t i o n r a t i o s l i s t e d by t y p e o f m e d i c a l p r a c t i c e and specialty." P h v s i c i a n s - - [ U. S . ] / U r b a n a r e a s - - [ U . S. ] K a r p , B e r b e r t II. n r g r a t i o n a n d f u n c t i o n a l e x p a n s i o n : am e c o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of population redistribution. Land e c o n o m i c s , v. 4 7 , Nov. 1 9 7 1 : 365-372. U r b a n growth--[U.S. ]--Besearch / I n t e r n a l migration-1--Research ' U.S. m w dua C'FI B O P . 4 0 a0 u u-.s mnom-** n - o r 7 IY . N . . I \ Ln" 9 . Ct: P w mu* rp I-. um (Dm 9 4 wm *r 0m 0 9 ,- nm wrp (D I n nw 0 n0 n .Ich (D u m R a w I 5 m =r nr C 0. C 6 D I) r s w a M O O l W l I a 3 -7. a > vr,l c. i=km Ln r, V) *i x- - w v o r* C U s a w n r , r.pl ~ m 5 w d ZQ r WPI 0 0 T* 0 PC. m m u - ~ nlip --CTU - > % kt I- 0 or; .zrr.', & I I P. C 7 r. c :k :2s ), s I C I 1.. I 1- .: :: T ,- :.. ; F. :< 7 *3L., Ll . 2 p. l :> +.. & : r rl 2. 3 ;, F b J k- . :x !-. , - r >J I>2 c, L. 1 13 1' i+ J . . ,. .- , Ct $I' ' 0 $ 1 ,. 0 I : <, ' I I I I il I .z I tr .3 'v ,, .: 0 .,: ;: :, 3 '.?'.,..L,., 3 0 4 I I-+ rr? .." 2 I-' .. 0 ;t .: 0 . . I .. ? c; ::. k, i ? . : i ' & r2. -r, C F2 S, *,> r 1 b. b I. . +-I. t 1.. ,A I - 1 I o P .- :-. k -- '3 6 -. Id.. 1-: 2 . ,. . . .., .. , .. -. < I . ': f .: .a d , r 2 , : -8 0 - b l VI 9 a o r l 4 i - W * o d w * m 7 1 " C w Y b W w w >, ~:.> :., . I.. o w . ~ r n u e wm D w w m i-f 0 ' w c. o n a W b P ., r. f a .: '? 4 -,-,* 1 r r a r \ : ,- :i t, I. ;:' ; . > , A !' ' . I . , *' 1 .*, ,-"2 <- - . CCI fn n s " , ; r - r * . ( D r k;;g ~ m s w c o o a r * a~ m m o I r ~ c ~ . u n n m o w a - a m -4 a c ct-rmm a w c 1 o q n n c m 0.1 u-=erffirm=CI:Z b t d e ~ ~ ~ p L O h O D n L C 1r5 ?: S D n m n a b m ~ G M O a m m m w ~ Q r D t - r o *r 0 0 n ~ ~ w p n o r + n n b P Q on- r t - r & o m m n 01 i - - vl -3 dl- m 8 G o t r i a . v o a . (Ow a m OoacLParrn er o r . & ' T w m m o c; i-. u n t r c ~ m c s r t.moCmcffiuBn r.,a1+,zny,aarIDr plat71 U1PIlDbdh\U rncoe.r r n o p. t-omoco wc-rtin nase, n c r u m e w 9 0 4 0 O M . =c. C -.Y t-0 w a d rr).. O r m V W o uuOn"+u w m m e o r o l o E rmnco C: - 0 w01w o z e o * n w wmn m 4 n P w C: a CT IIT - P * w rGi n m w N @ *, c r m r~ D O C c ma n 4 0. 0 a t a 0 Crow = a m . a w c, RCI. I o r a m -n r e m a a z m i*miLs; ,j. C P W O W * (P n w m n n p m m c m a w n m n P ~ . e a) r m m xF 8 C C a P D C b Cb n o r P a r t 111. (cont'd) P,.riodicals L a n d l o r d a n d ternrat--bardem o f p r o o f r r g u i r e d to e s t a b l i s h d e f e n s e on r e t a l i a t o r y e v i c t i o n . lisconsin lam r e v i e w . r. 1 9 7 1 , no. 3 , 1971: 939-951L a n d l o r d a n d t e n a n t - - [ U i s c o n s i n ]--Legal c a s e s / ~ i c k h u tV. uocton Authority L e l a n d , DeGrasse. P u b l i c housrnq: duz p r o c e s s and t e r m m a t i o n o f t ~ n a n c y . Howard l l u j o u r n a l , v . 16, s p r l n g 1971: 6 1 0 617. nThe Government c a n n o t d e p r r r e a p r l r l t p c l t r z e n of h i s c o n t r n u e d t e n a n c y An a p u b l ~ c housing prolect uithout aifor3lny h l s adequate procedural safequards, even 1E publlc housrng c o u l d b e d e e a e d t o be a p r ~ v l 1 e g - a . ~ P11bl1c housing--[New 7orrr/Crty p-Legdl c a s e s / Lan919r3 ~ n t le n a n t - - [ N e w Y o r k / C ~ t y) - - L e g a l c d s e s / Due p r o c e s s 3 f l-lm--[Mew Y o r k / c l t y ] - - L e r j a l c a s e s / 9 o l l e v. New l o c k C l t y S o u s r n g h u t h o r l t y / e s c a l e r a v . N P W Yock C i t y H o u s r n q L e g a l a r d symposiua. A a s r i c a r n O a i r e r s i t y Amw c e v r e w , r. 20. l u g . 1970: 5-73. Partlal contents.--Cr~sslng s t a t e l i n e s t o p r a c t r c e law: t h e p o v e r t y l a u r e r a n d i n t e r s t a t e y r a c t l c e . b p 1. L y t o o n . --The f a r m w o r k e r - - t h e b e g r n n i n y o f a new a w a r e n e s s , by C. T n o s t r o n z a . - T e n a n t s a n d t h e l a u : 1 9 7 0 , by P. Bolsman. L e g a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e poor--(U.S.] L e f coe, George. BUD'S a u t h o r i t y t o m a n d a t e t e n a n t s * r i g h t s i n p u b l i c housing. T a l e lam joaraal, r. 80, J a n . 1971: r(63-514. -We w i l l f i n d . . . t h a t BOD h a s some s p e c i f i c b a s e o f authocity, d e r i v e d from e i t h e r t h e housinq statutes or recent constitutional decisions, f o r mandating many--although n o t all--of the n e g o t i a t o r s * agreements. B u t we w i l l a l s o see t h a t RUD c o u l d p r o b a b l y n o t t a k e t h e n e x t l o g i c a l s t e p a n d i m p o s e its own l e a s e a n d g r i e v a n c e m o d e l s on L o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . " L a n d l o r d a n d t e n a n t - - [ 0. S. ] / P e 3 e r a l - l o c a l r e l a t i o n s - - U.S. ] / P u b l i c h o u s i n g - - [ 0 . S . ] / U.S. Dept. of Boasing and Urban Derelopnent. CRS-176 L a n d l o r d a s d u t y t o p r o t e c t t e s a n t s fro8 c r i ~ i a a l a c t s o f t h i r d p a r t i e s : t h e v i e w f r o m 1500 l a s s a c h u s e t t s Arenae. G e o r g e t o u n Law j o u r n a l , v, 59, n a y 1971: 11531203. L a n d l o r d a n d tenant--[U.S. ] - - L e g a l c a s e s / L i a b i l i t y (Law) ] / K l i n e r. 1500 / Crime and crimrnals--[U.S. l l a s s a c h u s e t t s Avenue A p a r t n e n t C o r p o r a t i o n -1 U.S.] L a n d l o r d ' s r i o l a t i o m o f h o o s i r n g c o d e d u i n g lease term i s b r e a c h o f i m p l i e d w a r r a n t y o f h a b i t a b i l i t y c o n s t i t u t i n g p a r t i a l or t o t a l d e f e n s e t o a n e r i c t i o n a c t i o n b a s e d on nonpaymeat of rent.--Javims v. P i t s t r a t i o n a l R e a l t y Corp. B a r r a r a law r e v i e w , r. 81, Jan. 1971: 7 2 9 - 7 4 6 . L a n d l o r d a n d tenant--[U.S. 1 - - L z y d l c a s e s / Bent--[ U.S. ]-Leaal cases P m b l i c n a n a g a m e n t , v. 53. Aug. Law a n d t h e c i t l . 1971: 2-15. P a r t i a l c m t e n ts. --Are t h e c o u r t s m a n a g e a b l e ? , city a t t o r n e y : w h a t ' s by E. P r x e s e n , J r . - - T h e a h e a d ? . b y B. B a i d a . - - P o v e r t y lam vs. c i t y h a l l : 3 y n a m i c d ~ m e n s x o n si n t h e demand f o r c h a n g e , by 0. Pess1er.--The c i t r a t t o r n e y : haw h i s r e s p o n s i b l l i t l e s g r e w , b y C . Bhyne. A l m i n l s t r a t i o n of j u s t l c e - - [ U .S. ] / ? u n l c r p a l p o l r t l c s a n 3 ] / F e d e r a l a t d t o c r t l e s - - [ U. 3 . ] / L e 3 d l jovernment--[U.S. 1 a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e poor--[U.S. Lauson, Slmpson. ~ r v .,Il n June: t h e gredt houslny debate. City, v. 5, s u m m e r 1 9 7 1 : 1 7 - 2 1 . *Th+ P r e s l i e n t e n u n c r d t e s a p o l l c y a n d t h e 111housed 4 e 5 c r i b e t h e d r m e n s l o n s o t t h e need a s e q u a l dccess t o s h e l t e r 1 . e x p l o r e d l n a n u n p r e c e q e n t e d a r r a r o f forums.- --- -- - -- - L e v i s , l a r r e a I. C i v l l rrghts--housrng--Federal p r o g r a a s f o r low- a n d moderate-rncome f a m ~ l i e s - - a p p r o v a l of a p r o j e c t site w l t h o u t e r a l u a t r n j t h e e t r e c t o t the p r o j e c t o n r a c r a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n v r o l d t e s t h e C l v i l Bights lcta--Shannon 1 . HUD, 436 2d 809 ( 3 6 C r r . 1 9 7 0 ) . George Uashrngton l b u r e v l e u , r. 3 9 , J a l y 1971: 1 2 2 9 - 1 2 1 0 . Low- I n c o m e h o u s l n y - - ( U. S. 1--LsJnL c a s e s / Open h o u s i n g - . U. 5 . ] - - L e g a l c a s e s / r e d e r a 1 a l d t o h o u s i n g - - [ U. S. ]-L e g a l c a s e s / O r b a n p l a n a ~ n g - - [ l J . S . ]--Legill cases / S h a n n o n v. 0.5. U e p t . of B o u s r a g a n d U r b a n D e r e l o p a e n t ' I m w D r :cl? m rrr O m n Y rr m r. I- D P w Vim Clur 1 m r . o r . ~ n - V I > o c w a r r a m CIS - ulo I E) r e u r n *'I v 'Iaon O P W r. a w R w -. $4 ; 1 . db; U) m ., U . w e n v n r r w r.0 O R D r ' m m ., . 0, u r*r r C Ia m c a ~ o w * + w v o n o e v v r a L a '0 - 3 a L Q w Y -l= Lao CI 8 r ' \m=c~ 0 ' I9 a W ' r . d m 8 .YK w u E 2; D 4 w d D r r m .I m a r w r t n Lom V U ,\ - * :$ w )F c m D a ,1 r' r. < * r' n N & #-,I r ' a I+ f 'EI 0 0 E l- r-rr " , 5 : n r m m LC 4 R 4 \ P n P 0 a- 0 r a ' U V R R I 0 0 m MIn e a m r o r r I n ' a ," 7 : - 0 0 U U) m w ao a 1 m a I r-0 r O -m 'I c w Vi VI \ R 4 0 m C v Q r v U o v m a mu; 6 W D W . Ia D O P ' 0 : m 0 m . \ - m ) n\ ~ w s 9 w C *La m i*n "2 I e, n a - c @ m n 27% ,- o r , r.E!? D 0 0 r . &! . D Im * P C WI- 0 reo m G C CT P r ." .' y F 0 O n w I-' e , w - m rl 4 el. > u- r 7) m m m a r r C r r P * m @ D O U D l O R W O'uCll S D D m n a m r r P r n O O ( O V r row < DL4 L?L? rr o P n D #m m lo O ~ n - 0 q8 P CVl 'I a v w o n * .vu an* a R 0 r r.R W O * R 0 - m r n a m * 4 m w r'u F 0 5 R w rtr) I-. q fl *. v -: il inm r * *w \Omw w v I r a o a: VIm- :: 1 n r 4 r - r.cn9u a c 0 , a t n w ' I r r r , r r n mn ~ S W C . R 'I90 wml-R m R m y olnrro p m w a I 0 D =w C * I . :n0"';;4.7Z m m v u ' I m m. mmrr * U Q ' I ~ * 0 rr. m r . O m C w * wn P P O . w n ~ w r n ~ r . r * acr a R W r,r( m u u O D * e w m n a - - ~ w m r m t n r = C w ~r c r.m rrtn > G O R @ c #-' 0 R C I Q u-Y in i l U l n . l 'Dm -n 9) m r1 w D W - v,ral=mnZb;'F * . - 0 m I r.m r, P n w c 0 0 z D C 0 *t Ir :ia r ,p l n r w h5rn --a a10 r w w CI+-o r u r . ~ a o r r r , m ~ e n u I-- m a n r r m r . I < =U P - D l w m w w u a w c r..cI ~ I WID D :'Pow;t::' r* r . w a V c n a t Q W w w 4 ul - r . + C L r s * o mw o w r'r*r.< or'*-. u.. - m u R&o P 4 - 0 % m wow Q (0 O d e , * D W O U a n e w n w om r uc aloa r . 1 - WPI n R r' w ul .' Part 111. (cont'd) -Periodicals P i o m s , B i c h a r d I. Policy and public administration: t h e l e g a l s e r v i c e s p r o g r a m i n t h e war o n p o v e r t y . P o l i t i c s and society, v. 1, Ray 1971: 3 6 5 - 3 9 1 . **...an a c c o u n t o f p o l i c y m a k i n g i n o n e i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l con tract system, t h e L e g a l S e r v i c e s Program." L e g a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e poor--[Q.S. ] / I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l ] relations--[U.S. P o r a m b o . Eon. l o t when t h e y d i d h i m l i k e t h a t . Washington m o n t h l y , v. 3 , O c t . 1971: 40-48. Discusses t h e conditions f o r Blacks i n leuark using t h e vehicle of a p o l i c e k i l l i n g . l.J.1 / P o l i c e - c o m m u n i t y Negroes I n urban areas--[levark, l.J. ) relations--[Mewark. P r o b l e m s o f economic grorth i n t h e B l a c k commumity: some a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s e s . Review o f B l a c k p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m y , v. 1, s u m m e r 1 9 7 1 : 75-109. 1 / Urban e c o n o m i c development--[U.S. ] / ;hettos--[U.S. N e g r o employment--[U.S. ] P r y o r , P r e d e r i c I. An e m p i r i c a l n o t e o n t h e t i p p i n g p o i n t . Land e c o n o m i c s , v. 4 7 , Nor. 1971: 413-U17. ] / Segregation--[U.S. J / Beal e s t a t e Dpen h o u s i n g - - [ U . S . business--[ U. S. ] / T i p p i n g p o i n t EP EBZ/CJR/l2/20/7 1 LBS71-16855 - P u b l i c h o e s i n g is a l i v e amd u e l l am4 growimg.. J o u r n a l o f h o a a i n g , 1. 28, S e p t . 13, 1971: 397-e39. S p s c i a 1 i s s u e o n p u b l i c h o u s i n g 9.. .carries r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o r i e s from a l l over t h e coemtry attesting to the vitality, flexibility, i n n o v a t i v e n e s s , a n d g r o u l n g demand f o r p u b l i c housing today. P u b l i c h o u s i n u - - I 0 . S. ] / L o u - i n c o m e housinq--[lJ.S. ] 453. P a p a p o r t . B e n r y I. T h e h o u s i n g c r i s ~ s . R e c o r d of t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e B a r o f t h e C i t y o f l e u T o r k , v. 26, J u n e 1971: 440P a p e r p r e s e n t e d as p a r t o f p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n o n Rev Yort C i t y r e n t c o n t r o l . H o u s i n g - - [ Neu Y o r k / C i t y ] / L a n d l o r d a n d t e n a n t - - [ l e u York/City ] T o r k / C i t y ] / Rent--[Yew P a y , G i l b e r t P. D.C. H o u s i n g R e g u l a t i o n s , Article 2 9 0 , S e c t i o n 2902: c o n s t r u e d p u r s u a n t t o B r o w s v. s o u t h a l l R e a l t y Co. a n d new d a y f o r J a v i n s v. F i r s t n a t i o n a l R e a l t y Core.--a t h e u r b a n t e n a n t ? Howard l a w j o u r n a l , v. 1 6 , w i n t e r 1971: 3 6 6 - 3 7 9 . " S e c t i o n 2902 h a s i n t r o d u c e d c o n t r a c t u a l i n g r e d i e n t s i n t o a l e a s e , i.e.. d a m a g e s , r e n t s u s p e n s i o n . etc., a n d s h o u l d i t b e c o n s t r u e d pursuant t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n encouraged here, it w i l l p r o v i d e t h e u r b a n t e n a n t more e f f e c t i v e m e a n s b y w h i c h t o i n d u c e r e p a i r w h i l e a t t h e s a m e time, a f f o r d i n g a d e q u a t e s a f e q n a r d s f o r t h e landlord." f l o u s i n q - - [ D i s t r i c t o t C o l u m b i a ] - - L e g a l cases / L a n d l o r d a n d t e n a n t - - [ District o f Columbia ]--Legal c a s e s / J a v i n s v. F i r s t N a t i o n a l B e a l t y C o r p o r a t i o n - B e a t e r s t u r n militamt. S a v i m g s a n d loam news, 92, l a r . 1971: 28-35, " T e n a n t u n r o n s a n 3 r e n t s t r i k e s p o s e new problems f o r mortgage lenders, underscore need f o r s o u n d a p a r t m e n t f i n a n c i n g c r l t i r i a .a Rent strikes--[U.S. ] / Bent control--[U.S.] / Landlord and t e n a n t - - [ U.S. ] P i v k i m , Ialcolm D. Breaking through t h e suburban barrier. Urban land, v. 3 0 , l a y 1 9 7 1 : 9-14, A u t h o r s u g g e s t s t h r e e a v e n u e s t h a t show some promise i n breaking t h e suburban housing barrier: t h e PUD ( P l a n n e d U n i t D e v e l o p m e n t ) c o n c e p t o f b u i l d i n g by w h i c h a d e v e l o p e r c a n p u t up t o w n h o u s e s or a p a r t m e n t s o n l a n d zoned f o r s i n g l e f a m i l y u s e ; t h e c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e o f t h e power s t r u c t u r e i n t h e s u b u r b s ; and t h e F e d e r a l programs t o b e c a r r i e d o u t u n d e r S e c t i o n s 235 and 236 of t h e R o u s i n g Act of 1 9 6 8 . Dpen h o u s i n g - - 1 0 . S. ] / Z o n i n g a n d z o n i n g law--[ 11. S. ] / L O U i n c o m e housing--[O.S. ] / Suburbs--[U.S. ] / Federal a i d t o h o u s i n q - - [ 0.S. 1 Roisman, F l o r e n c e , T e n a n t s a n d t h e law. American U n i v e r s i t y law r e v i e u , v. 20, Aug. 1970: 58-73. A r e v i e w a f c a s e s t e s t i n g v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s of l a u under which t e n a n t s 8 p o s i t i o n vis-a-ris l a n d l o r d s may b e s t r e n g t h e n e d . ] L a n d l o r d a n d tenant--[O.S. - I . -w a . U VI 0 0 mu 5 (DO nrr P a r t 111. (cont'd) -Periodicals CRS-182 m h i t e h o a a . B a l p L , Jr, A f t e r two r e a r s . C h i c a g o ' s seesaw b a t t l e o v e r l o v C i t y , v. 5, summer I n c o m e h o u s i n g is ( a l m o s t ) s e t t l e d . 1971: 8, 10. 12. Describes maneuvers o f Chicago Rousing A u t h o r i t y , mayor. c i t y c o u n c i l , D e p a r t m e n t of U r h n Renewal, Community L e g a l C o a a c i l , A a e r i c a n C i v i l L i b e r t i e s U n i o n , a n d AI)D d a r i n g a t t e m p t s t o r e s l o v e r e l o c a t i o u a n d s i t e select i o n p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n " u o r k a h l e program" a p p l i c a t i o n . / F e d e r a l a i d to housing-P u b l i c housing--[Chicago] [ Chicago] P i n e g a r d e n . C. P. I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n 3 f t h e " B l a c k economy." Review o f ~ l d c kp o l i t i c a l e c o n o m y , r . 1 , a u t u m n 1970: 2 6 - 4 6 . Neqro busrnesses--[0.3. ] / Yegro economic conditions-- T r r m o l i a s k ~ . Adam. R e a s s u r i n g t h e s a a l l homeowner. Public interest, no. 22, w i n t e r 1971: 1 0 6 - 1 1 0 . P a r t of o p p o s i t i o n t o h o o s b g i n t e g r a t i o n might b e disarmed and "block-bastinga speculation c u r b e d , a o t h a c t h i n k s , i f home-oraers* e q u i t i e s were p r o t e c t e d w i t h g o v e r n m e n t - b a c k e d i n s u r a n c e . 1 / Real e s t a t e b a s i n a s s - Government insurance--[U.S. 11.5. ] / Open h o u s i n g - - [ U . 5. ] - - F i n a n c e E 185 G 5 EBZ/CJU/2/26/7 1 LBS71-1120 Tasprn, B o b u t . P r o p e r t y i n s u r a n c e a n d t h e Amerrcan g h e t t o : a s t u d y In social r r r e s p o n s l b ~ l l t y . S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n l a l a u r e v i e w , v. O U , f a l l 1970: 2 1 8 - 2 7 4 . ] / Blots-; h e t t o s - - [ O.S. ] / P r o p e r t y r n s u r a n c e - - [ U . S . ] [ U.S. - P a r t IV. Good Homes f o r A l l Americans -- Monographs B r o c k ~ a y , Barbara. P h e l o c a l h o u s i n q a u t h o r i t y : i t s f u n c t i ~ na n d operation. [ n a d i s o n , ldls., D e p t . o f L o c a l A f f f i r s a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 7 1 ? ] 4 1 p. 1 / l l o u s i n g authorities--1u.S. ] P u b l i c housing--[U.S. Brown, S a m a e l L o r i t t . P r i c e v a r i a t i o n i n n e w PffA h o u s e s : 1 9 5 9 - 1 9 6 1 ; a r e p o r t o f r e s e a r c h i n m e t h o d s of c o n s t r u c t i n q p r i c e indexes. [ W a s h i n g t o n ] U.S. B u r e a u o f t h e C e n s u s , 1971. 9 7 p. U S Bureau o f t h e Census. Working p a p e r 31) Housing--[U.S. ] - - S t a t i s t i c s / Prices--[U.S. ]--Statistics N o r t g a g e s - - [ U. S. ] - - S t a t i s t i c s / H o u s e p r i c e s Candilis, P r a y 0. V a r i a b l e rate mortgage plans. Uashinqton, American B a n k e r s A s s o c i a t i o n [ c l W 1 ] 40 p. A r e s e a r c h p a p e r p r e p a r e d tor t h e N o r t q a q e F i n a n c e Committee. N o r t g a g e i n t e r e s t rates--[U.S. ] 1 \)> ~cr-12'l v ______- - Carley, J u d r t h A. ~ o n ref-110, t t ! o u C , l n j: an e l e m e n t - o t s t a t e p l a n n i n g . - I , 7 1 1 3 p. ( c o u q c 1 1 o t P l a ~ r ~ ~ lLr1lblr a c ~ c ! p . S . :r c l ~ ~ n c _ l e - ! 1 r h l z o ~ r ~ i p h y _ _ 2 - 1 4 ) -- -f I o u ; ~ r ~ t j - - [ J.!i. ] - - C l b i ~ ~ y r a p h y / Hey i o ~ a l:)lan111 nq--(U. S . I-- C o o p e r . James B. Can t h e 1968-1978 n a t l o n a l h o u s i n g g o a l s b e achieved? U r b a n a , Commi t t e e o n H o u s i n g R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s at Urband, 1971. 5 7 p. "An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t ! l e econ,,mlc, s o c i a l . a n d p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s which a f f e c t t h e e f f i c i e n t p r o d u c t i o n o f h o u s i n g t o meet t h e n e e d s o f a l l Americans." ] / P u b l i c housinq--[U.S. ] / F e d e r a l a i d t o housing--['J.S. L o u - i n c o m e h o u s i n g - - [ U. S. ] / R e n t s u b s i d i e s - - [ U. S. ] / N o r t g a q e i n t e r e s t . rates--[U.S. ] / Residential r e h a b i l i t a t i o n - - [ 0.5. ] ,- ,. ;r i r t o r :: I + . # I I rI , L: c " I.. ?-., ,.- ; .. 2 L;L>c 7 - < -. +-,2 ,*. r :: c ..-.. , , L ,.% 5.:.7,* :, 1,. : y, < :- :..-. C" ,3 1 .3 .-I: C G t . >: '2 J: 1 i-'. ua tr n Cd 0 c 3 CL w r? A e c U r. 0 1 +I w t- i-', 3 7 r. 3 * VI , ' ., I- .:c L I.. 7 .A 3 . -2 r. 0 n P. rt 0 . c ="F r < -r- .- 5 P I o m * 5 XY- . ~b I 1 c r, b j ; ; . , C ';C f? * 11 n , O r , r n o rr -.I h.. ; ? , * w n w 0 G r.(n 0 r. a m I- r. a 5) ~r - . -urn Im m u r*l ;1 r , 0rl (1 3 r . ~ a r . c v La 0 a.3.C 0 0 C1 r rat 3 G n c I a r % t e on a* O R . e 'a. n x 0 m r o ~ n 1 in* -0 0 m CI1 a-a (D U1 r+ I- (0 0 0 a c o m w ~ r i C i rt n u a I: 6 rrq C r,m m * ow mo Pium r n ~ t a r y m u w r ~~ r r m - c u w u . n u s w m a u nwrrmw 4 r m n ~ rr.. x u n(D r - 0 m w P w 4 * * w 0 r.r.n Y n T w m w e u - u P c * n o w I P S onmm m m u I rr o P, a m w u - L A O - l a mmnrr O r . n V 1 g ~ y ) . r > 0 . r ~ r n w * .r n n u m mnwm o r u,iF.;i;lmo n c * * W t P t - n g w e ~ ~ m r l m m y i 01 'dUlOL2 rr n e n ~ o m c r r u o U1OOL-Q* r' m o w 13 a m mrpnv r.r- m m r o 10 N Q ~1 r. 01 D W 7:a m i ~ l n = w 3 m w o m m n o r r r nw Q P'rrw w m a * a m C. tn O C l u O& w D a UI. I Ln I . '-4- C \ Ln ' a2 u 0 \ tn C' CO 1 m9 m m n r' w D a C PI 5) 2 w n n 0 I C. I 0- ;: 2- m P'. u p!!2 ?, a o o n\ n u w 9 m (Pa m m n P, u IC 4 o w n o m s m u * C w m m r, n o n P'. Q I- r' Doer r mQ m r.Pn n o w W C W 0 m rr P' D D la -9 n u m p w m v u m w w a m m a- * 00 . w m m m n D VI u rc D a OP'ID r+. C D I 0 ua P, C. D CSO . a m u . UP 0 n w m n a C C err* w w w O W @ n tn w " w Wua w d LI x .- .. . 0 O D 9 m o m L. c 0 * r l u v I r I P v L v D a N rrr3c. Q U O L w m r Q P coma V1 O W r r e w e n 0 n V V ) P * u r O u m u m r (Dm t-or m e Q U I O . n :,*.fa P I 5 A U0W.N o m m u o a w v m !SF ,..ern a a n v (0 n * e n I-,-* m e r I o P 0 0 d m D c c K! u m yd *4 0 w k,i o o i or c n m r . 4 mmr* cow v UI n I- n a ' u n I ~ D W Pn I p-m nv w n - 4 r' . a me (D mm I-C ar B P (r I rt C. w C * it. n n n o a n = m n n R w w a w r?- UI 5 8 r ' * r . 0 r.rp I o n n m m I 5v)rp.nw I l u r o o w I ~ m e a -- u R I-. ppz'";n . UlVi r. w II ORc.0 ~ , Part V. : Beckman, l o r m a n . E a r d i a q . Sasam. The s t a t e s and u r b a n - d e v e l o p m e n t . S t a t e government, v. 4 U , s p r i n g 1971: 1 2 1 - 1 2 9 . 'This a r t l c l e d e s c r i b e s r e c e n t t r e n d s i n s t a t e l a g i s l a t i o n i n t h e a r e a s of housing, p o v e r t y , u r b a n r e d e v e l o p m e n t d n d new c o m m u n i t i e s , a n d general governmental institutions.S t a t ? - l o c a l relations--[U.S. ] - - S t a t e l a w s / Urban p o v e r t y - U.S. ] - - S t a t e l a w s / C o a m u n i t y d e v e l o p a e n t - - [ U.S. ] - - S t a t e l a w s / UrDan r e n e w a l - - [ U.S. ] - - S t a t e l a w s / Open h o u s i n g - [ U.S. ] - - S t a t e l a w s / R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n q - - 1 0 . 5 . ] - - S t a t e l a w s A s h l e y , T h o m a s L. The O r b a n G r s w t h a n d New Communltp D e v e l o p m e n t A c t . M o r t g a g e b a n k e r , v. 31, P e b . 1971: LO, 22-23. New t o w n s - - [ U . S . ]--Law a n d legislation / U r b a n p l a n n i n g - -U.S. ]--Law a n d l e g i s l a t i o n / I n t e r n a l m i g r a t i o n - - [ U . S . ] / H o u s i n g a n d U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t Act ; U. P-a1 A s h ~ c y , T h o m a s J. .;,d communitles an3 pr3pecty t a r d t l o n . Journdl of s o l 1 a n 3 w a t e r z o n a e r v a t l ~ n , v. 25, J u l y - l d y . 1 ~ 7 0 : 1 1 2 136. -TO e n c o u r a j e 3 new c u ~ n u n r t yb u i l i z r t o l e v e l o p h i s p r o p ? r t y i n ways c o m p a t i b l e w i t h h i y h e s t a n d b e s t u s e criteria, a new t e c h n r y u e f o r r a t i n g t h e v a l u e o f u n d e v e l o p e 3 l a n d must b e instituted. Present property t a x approaches a r e i l l - s u i t e 3 t o h e l p i n g b e t t e r p l a n n e d new communities materla1rze.p r o p e r t y tax--[U. S. ] / L a n d use--1U.S. ] / N z v t o w n s - S. ] - - F i n a n c e A p g a r , R a h l o s , IT. New b u s i n e s s f r ~ new s towns? Harvdrd b u s l n e s s r e v i e w , v. 49, J a n . - P e b . 1971: 90-109. " T h i s a r t r z l e ex::,sz; t h e s i t u a t i o n , shows w h a t t h e c o n c e p t is t r y r n g t o a c c o m p l i s h , d e s c r i b e s t h e economic, soci21, an3 p o l r t i c d l 3 y n a m i c s o t t h e b u s r n e s s , a n 3 e x p l a r n s why t h e 3 u t h o r t h i n k s t h e Y e i e c d l Government s h o u l d tdKe f u r t h e r i n i t i a t i v e t o remove s D m e of t h e s u b s t a n t i a l r 3 a d b l ~ c k st o p r i v a t e - s e c t o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 'I New t o w n s - - [ U . S . ] / Y u s i n e s s a n d s o c r a l p r o b l e m s - - [ U.S. ] / U r b a n p l a n n r n g - - [ U . S. ] CRS-207 Renewing Old Communities and Creating New Communities -- Periodicals A g t h e , D o n a l d G. Estimating returns t o profrt-motivated, privately operated i n d u s t r i a l parks. I n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , v. 1 4 0 , n a y - J u n e 1971: 10-13. A u t h o r e x p l o r e s i n d e p t h t h e r e ~ s o n sb e h i n d varying earning p a t t e r n s i n i n d u s t r i a l park ievelopment. I n d u s t r ~ a lp a r k s - - [ U.S. ] / P r o f i t - - 1 U . S . ] .. ." .-. Aiken. l i c h a e l . A l f o r d , R o b e r t P. Communitp s t r u c t u r a a n d i n n o v a t i o n : t h e c a s e o f urban renewal. A m e r i c a n s o c i o l o g r ~ a lr e v i e w , v. 35, Aug. 1 9 7 0 : 6 5 0 - 6 6 5 . - T h e p r e s e n c e o f , a n d s p e e i of application f 3 r , a n d number of A o l l a r s r e s e r v e d f o r , F a f a r 3 1 urban rjnewal prograas (the measures of rnnovation) a r e a n a l y z e d f ~ 5c8 2 A m e r i c a n c i t i e s o v e r 2 5 , 0 3 0 Prndlngs: o l d e r and l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n i n 1950. c i t i e s a n d t h o s e w r t h low l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n a n d i n c o m e , h i g h u n e m p l o y m e n t , f ~ w e ra 3 n 3 g 2 r s a n d o f f i c i a l s , a n 1 1 3 u 1 - v e l s 3 f i ~ - ~ i j r a t i oa nn d g r o w t h a r e m3re i n n a v a t i v e . . U r b a n ranewal--[U.S. ]--Easearch / Comaunrty o r g a n i z a t l o n - - U.S. ] - - R e s e a r c h terms." Pi1gw.y. F r a n c e s S. A l l g o o d , l i l l i a m I. R a n p o w e r , v. 3, J u l y S w e a t r n g o u t b u s i n a s s Loans. 23-27. D e s c r i b e s t h e ? f € o r t s o f C6S C o m a u n i t y Development C o r p o r a t i o n , a s u b s i d i a r y o f t h e C i t i z e n s and S o u t h e r n U a t i o n a l Bank ( A t l a n t a ) o r g a n i z e d b y C S S e s p r e s i 3 e n t . R i l l s 8. L a n e , Jr.. i n h e l p i n g a G e o r ~ i a ' s 1 3 w i n c o m e g r o u p s Own t h e i r homes a n d b u s i n e s s , u s i n g r e l a x e d c r e d i t s t a n d a r d s wrth emphasis on c h a r a c t e r , along with e x t e n i e 3 B u s r n e s s a n d s o c i a l p r o b l e m s - - [ G e o r g i a 1 / Low-income housrng--[ G e o r g r a ] / Development c r e d i t i n s t i t u t i o n s - . S e o r g i a ] / CGS Community D e v e l o p m e n t Z o r p o r a t i o n . A n t o n . T h o m a s J. T h r e e models s f c o l a u n i t y development r n t n e urrltr.1 States. P u b l i u s , v. 1 , no. 1 , 1971: 11-37. O u t l i n e o f major developments r n t h r e ? models: Lincolnwoo3, I l l . 1829-1925, Lincolnwood, I l l . 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 5 6 a n d L e v i t t o w n , N. J. 1 / Suburbs--[U.S. ] community d e v e l o p m e n t - - I U . S . : Berkeley, E l l e a Perrr. T h e new p r o c e s s - i n B a r t f o r d * ~N o r t h End. C i t y , r. 5 , s g m m e r 1971: 36-37. Uc b a n r e n e w a l - - [ H a r t f o r d ] / Z o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t - H d r t t o r d ] / Ghettos--[ H a r t f o r d ] / South A r s e n a l Nerqnborhood Development C o r p 3 r a t i o n . / S r e l t e r R a r t f o r d Process. roc m m vir a " m 1 U) I I n m m 4 n c~ *a v "*I-' a m I - C 0 0 o v 1 m , . m 0 R C . . 1 p l IDPI I- PIP r v , a. par- V. (cont'd) -- P z r i 5 S s a l s D a m f o r t h , B i c h a r d S. The c e n t r a l c i t y a n d t h e f a r g o t t e n American. ~ o u r n a lo f t h e A m e r i c a n r n s t l t u t e o f P l a n n e r s . v. 36, NOV. 1970: 426-428. I n s t e a d o f pursulng t h e u s u a l patchwork a p p r o a c h zn r e b u i l d i n g c e n t r a l c i t i e s , t h e a u t h o r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g programs t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t ~ r *c r t y "on t h e b a s i s o f a s o u n d a n d a d e q u a t e p h y s r c a l master p l a n n w i l l yield better results. Recommends p r o g r a m s t o h a l t t h e d e c a y o f t h e p h y s i z a l a n d social e n v i r o n m e n t o f m i d d l e class c r t r z e n s t o h a l t t h s e x o i u s t o t h e s u b u r b s a n d t o " r e m a k e t h e c e n t r a l cities o f America i n t o s t a b l e , h e a l t h y , a n d d e s i r a b l e p l a c e s r n which t o live.Urban - B a l a n c i n g publi: purposes: a n e g l e c t e d problem r n condemnation. Albany a e v i e u v. 35, no. 4 , 19.11: 769-781. Article re=ommends c r e a t i o n o f s t a t e h o a r d o f c o o d e m o a t i o n r e v i e w t o r e c o n c i l e legitimate b u t conflicting interests. E m i n e n t fomain--[D. S. J / U a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s - - [ u. s. ] / A d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedure--[U.S. ] , - ~ - - - F i a l ~ a . J o h n .Palkland: a propass3 superdevelopment. dashington s t a r , J a n . 31, 1 9 7 1 , p. A l , A12; F e b . 1 , p. 8 1 , A10; P e b . 2, p. 1 1 , AS. ~ e r r e s3f t h r e e a c t r c l e s o n a p r o p o s e d s u p e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n S i l v e r spring, n d . a n d r t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e people and communities involved. U r b a n p l a n n i n g - - [ W a s h i n g t o n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a ] / L a n d use-$ W a s h i n g t o n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a ] / Z o n i n g a n d z o n i n g law-W a s h i n g t o n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a ] / Suburbs--[ Washing t o n metropolitan area] Frederick, Brian. T h e l e g a l i t y of a f f i r m a t i v e m e a s u r e s t o a c h i e v e a n d m a i n t a i n i n t e g r a t i o n i n a new town. G e o r g e t o w n lam j o a r n a l , v. 59, Nor. 1970: 3 3 5 - 3 5 3 . " T h i s comment d e a l s w i t h t h e u s e o f r a c i a l q u o t a s r n housing, a l a v i c e employed t o a c h i e v e t h e s a l u t o r y end o f i n t e g r a t i o n , a n d q u e s t i o n s o o t n t n e l r r i i ~ c a s ya n d t h e i r c o a s t i t ~ t i o n a 1 i t p . 3pen housing--[District o f Colombia] / Urban planning-o f C o l u m b ~ a1 r District ~ s b e r g ,B e ~ j 8 ~ h Berman 7 . P a r k e r ; C ~ n g r e s s , t h e C o u r t , G t h e p u b l i c P o l i t y , r. 4 , f a l l 1971: 48-75. purpose. -...this paper examines urban redevelopment i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a by f o c u s i n g o n t h e D i s t r i c t of C o l u m b i a B e d e v e l o p m e n t Act o f 1945, a n d t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t 8 s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Act. I t is t h e a r g u m e n t o f t h i s p a p e r t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h a t law 3nd t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n were b o t h c r u c i a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h e outcome of u r b a n r e n e w a l i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f Columbia, a n d i m p o r t a n t ~ r e c e d e n t sf o r t h e n a t i o n a l u r b a n r e d e v e l o p a e n t program." o t C o l u m b i a ] - - L a w a n d legislation Urban r e n e w a l - - [ D i s t r i c t / U r b a n renewal--[District o f C o l u m b i a ] - - L e g a l c a s e s / Berman v. P a r k e r / District o f C o l u m b i a R e d e v e l o p m e n t Act 6 0 t t s ~ h U ,ShiDaC i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i m t h e d e ~ 8 l o p m e n t o f new towns: a c r o s s - n a t i o n a l view. S o c i a l s e r v i c e review. v. 45, J u n e 1971: 194-204. he p a p e r i s b a s e d o n s t u d i e s of new t o w n d e v e l o p a e n t i n Israel, I n g l a n d a n d German1 i n 1970c l t i ~ e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n / Sew t o w n s / D n i s i o a m a k i n g . Barrington, Ilichaelwoosing and t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r . A r c h i t e c t u r a l foru*, v. 1 3 4 , Hay 1971: 32-33. -A s t r o n g a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t t h e v i e w t h a t t h e b a s i c task of uroan r e h a b i l i t a t i o n belongs t o private enterprise. F e d e r a l a i d t o housing--[U.S. ] / U r b a n r e n e w a l - - [ U . 5. ] - - . A a s s , B r u c e I. B r i t a r n ' s new t ~ w n s . . L o o r r n g b a c h , L o o r i n g t o r u d r d , lookinq around. f l o r t ~ d g eb d n k e r , v. 32, O c t . 1 3 7 1 : 687 0 , 7 2 , 7 4 , 76. 7 8 , 80, 8 2 . " A s t h e ' n e w t o w n ' c o n c e p t y a i a s r n popularity h e r e i n t h e United S t a t e s , the author describes t h e B r i t i s h new t o w n p l a n a n d p o l n t s o u t some oC the s u c c e s S e s a n d p r o b l e m s u h r c h h i v e b r ~ o n i n c u r r e d durlng t h e 25 y e a r s s i n c e the enactment o f B r i t a i n ' s N e w Town A c t o f 19U6.u N e w towns--[Gt. Brit. ] Borkem, F r a n P. Are new towns a c u r e f o r u r b a n i l l s ? C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e m o n i t o r . S e p t . 1 7 , 1 9 7 1 , p. 9. The F i n n s , Swedes, E n g l i s h , a n d t h e French--who a r e b u i l d i n g f i v e o u t s i d e Paris--say *yes.' T o t a l l y p l a n n e d a n d f i n a n c e d by p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e means, new t o w n s a r e i n t e n d e d t o d o v e p r e s e n t problems, f i l l f u t u r e needs, and complement t h e envir~nment.~ Neu towns--[ W e s t e r n E u r o p e ] / U r b a n p l a n n i n g - - [ Q e s t e r n r * c 0 r'tn nnm n u c a o 0 . P 9 smI-nn W D I o m c n l CO 1w - n VI p. I- a r' R . n . n o o n m ~ tnnur m 8v 0 D a u a e o m c m I N I-' I-' 4 0 n nm m \(DO n c n r'v. - C D nrPi Y 1r 1 " a P m C o < a C ) m n o wm c t n r u artn O W r W D ~ - N Wm w 1 a P a r t V. (cont 'd) -- P e r i o d i c a l s Smeal, P r a n k P. IBA c h a l l e n g e s n e e d o f U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t Bank. C o m m e r c i a l a n d f i n a n c i a l c h r o n i c l e , v. 214, S e p t . 16, 1971: 5. uSpolresman f o r p r e s t i g i o u s t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n vigorouely opposes t h e concept t h a t a Federal a g e n c y is r e q u i r e d t o a s s u r e b o n d f i n a n c i n g b y l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s a t a *reasoaable cost.'g Development c r e d i t ~ n s t i t u t i o n s - - [ U . S . ] / F e d e r a l a i d t o ] / Urban D e v e l o p m e n t Bank ( P r o p o s e d ) / crties--[U.S. I n v e s t m e n t B a n k e r s A s s o d a t i o m o f America. CRS-212 S t e r n l i e b , G e o r g e S. Are b i g c i t i e s w o r t h s a v i n g ? U.S. news E w o r l d r e p o r t , v . 7 1 , J u l y 2 6 , 1971: 42-46, 49. - I n t e r v i e w w i t h G e o r g e S. S t e r n l i e b , D i r e c t o r , C e n t e r f o r Urban P o l i c y R e s e a r c h , D u t g e r s University. " Urban a r e a s - - [ U . S . ] / Urban p l a n n i n g - - [ U . S . ] / Sternlieb. G e o r q e S. 262-263. S t o r e s , C a r l 8. Saving t h e c l t ~ a s . Playboy, v. Id, .Jan. 1911: 148. Clravo, 4r.Lab. S t o c k s , lip.1. F i n a n c i a l a n a l y s i s nmd t o w n c e n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t . U r b a n s t u d i e s , 1. 8. 1971: 255-269. -The main p u r p o s e o f t h b a r t i c l e i s t o d r a w t o g e t h e r t e c h n i q u e s t h a t h a v e f o r t h e most p a r t a l r e a d y b e e n made o p e r a t i o n a l a n d t e s t e d elsewhere, and to d i s c u s s t h e i r application i n a The article h a s d e a l t town p l a n i n g c o n t e x t . s p e c i f i c a l l y rith toma c e n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t . U r b a n p l a o o i n g / Commamity f a c i l i t i e s - - F i n u c e : 031- Urban p l a n n i n g - - ( C l e v a l a u 3 ] / F e d e r a l a l d t o c l t i e s - [ C l e v e l a n d ] / Urban r e n e w a l - - [ C l e v e l a n d ] / Urban l i f e - 0.5. ] / C l e v e l a n d r a t e , A l b e r t , Jr. L e g a l c r i t e r i a of d a m a g e s a n d b e n e f i t s - - t h e measurement o f t a k i n g - c a u s e d damages t o unta ken property. L o u i s i a n a l a w r e v i e w , v. 31, Apr. 1971: 450. P r o p e r t y - - [ Louisiana p - S t a t e l a w s / E n i m e n t domain-[ L o u i s r a n a ]--State L a r s / Government l i a b i l i t y - [ L o u r s i a n a J / Land u s e - [ U . S . ] The g r o w i n g - c r i s i s La l e u York c o n d e m n a t i o n law: d e f i c i e n c i e s of t h e p r e s e n t system and r e c e n t p r o p o s a l s f o r its m o d i f i c a t i o n a n d reform. Syracuse 13w revleu, v . 2 1 , summer 1970: 1193-1208. E m i n e n t domain--[ New T o r k / S t a t e ] l a a l l s t y o r , Arvo. T a k i n g o r d a m a g i n g b y p o l i c e power: t h e s e a r c h f o r S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a law i n v e r s e condemnation c r i t e r i a . r e v i e w , r. 44, f a l l 1970: 1-73. I d e n t i f i e s " t h e p r a c t i c a l c r i t e r i a and p o l i c y e l e m e n t s which c h a r a c t e r i z e e x e r c i s e of g o v e r n m e n t a l r e g a l a t o r y power f o r w h i c h c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r r e s u l t i n g e c o n o m i c l o s s e s is constitutionally required. * Government regulation--[U.S. ] / Land use--[U.S. I--Law a n d l e a i s l a t i o n / E m i n e n t d o m a i n - - I n . S. 1 / P r o p e r t y - - [ U.S. ] Waroar, Larkin. U r b a n r e n e w a l i n I c l l e s t e r , Oklahona. Oklahoma b u s i n e s s b u l l e t i n , v. 39. nay 1971: 26-32. C a s e s t u d y o f F e d e r a l r e n e w a l a n d Clodel C i t i e s programs i n one s m a l l c i t y , d e s c r i b i n g r u l e s p r o c e d u r e . and i m p a c t from l o c a l v i e w p o i n t . / F e d e r a l a i d t o cities-Urban r e n e u a l - - [ O k l a h o m a ] - Oklahoma ] W e i n s t e i n , B e r n a r d L. Programs f o r c i t i e s . n a t i o n a l c l r i c r e v i e w , v. 59, Oct. 1970: 473-476, SOU. "New T o r k S t a t e h a s b e e n i n n o v a t i v e i n p a s s i n g l e g i s l a t i o a t o promote urban redevelopment, and h a s s e v e r a l programs designed t o f o s t e r i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n a n d employment. * Development c r e d i t i n s t i t u t i o n s - - [ l e v York/State] / StateJab l o c a l relations--[New Y o r k / S t a t e ] / Mew York ( S t a t e ) . D e v e l o p m e n t Aqency. / l e v York ( S t a t e ) . Urban J o b I n c e n t i v e B o a r d . / Urban D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n . Part VI. F- .- -_- ~ L : -- > 1 2 2 p. - y ~ u,;. u~ j - -ij , j. ;)oiicy--[ 2 . S. I L L Broaks-iael. S o c i , ~ l; l l d n n i n g a n d c i t y p l n n n i r : , ~ . [ c i ! i c ? , ; o , _ 1s-ti.;. r 1Ci7i:_6f - J ~ ~ - , c . r i ~ : ; l n S o c i ~ : t y_ o t p l ~ r l ~ : ! i r . r ; 3f-: Contents.--Social ?l.:nn lr.,; i n t h e i : n i t e d r f fr - n ~ i d l r . l ; l n ; Urban p l x ~ n n i n g - - [ L'. 5 . ] / S o c i a : - w 1--5 t & 197C. a L - ~ LI.x, D o m d d 1 . B o l t o n , Charles I;. & s e l e c t e d bibliography o n p l a n n e d change a n d community p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e : making t h i n g s happen. n o n t i c e l l o , Ill., 1971. 2 1 1. (Council o f Planning Librariaas. E x c h a n g e b i b l i o g r a p 7 228) Communitr developneat--[U.S. 1--Bibliographl / Conmanity o r g a n i z a t i o n - - [ U. S. ] - - B i b l i o g r a p h y / Community l i f e [ U.S. ] - - B i b l i o g r a p h y / Planning--[U.S. ?-Bibliography CRS-213 Strengthening Lh; Capacity of General Governments -- Monographs to Manage thc Urban Environment--- 92d C o n q . , A m e r i c a n E n t e r p r i s e I n s t i t u t e for P u b l i c P o l i c y R e s e a r c h . - -- G c \ n < ' r d l r e y r n a e s h i i r ~ n l . & r _ o p ~ s a l s . 1 ; a s ; l ~ n q t o n____ 1 1 4 7 11 4 1. ( A m e r i c a n Enterprise Institute f o r ch. I.< U a t 1 v c - a r . d l 1 s t s c s s . , no. 7 ) analyses, - I B e b o u t , J o h n I. D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and t h e c i t y c h a r t e r . Detroit, C i t i z e n s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f N i c h i g a n , 1971. 2 1 p. ( C i t i z e n s Research Council of nichigan. Bemorandum no. ? 19) m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c s a n d government--[U.S. ] / Neighborhood government--[0.S. ] / f l e t r o p o l i t a n p o l i t i c s a n 3 government-0. S. ] [ U . S . ] / Ombudsman--[ r -Lar 5. - _ - -- _ _ - _ -Frnal report. [Sacrdaento] [CallLornla ] l ) w s p a ~ q - - r 2 , .--- ~ - ~ b : ~ I , ~ ~ 0 6 <GO II rr. fl ULn a Pi r . n m a & cu E)e r .~n mQ yir.rtm n rp e r . 9 a 0 IC O. I D O (O fl J t? 6 - 31.3 7 a r . m m ? k : * a nr.pr.nrt3 0 r . W s r . 0 I m v r o w m f l w. I rD?rrnncr r3 0 O r , * 1 r . o n , r c s 3 m ~ u , D v W 2 1 r < m a s m m n v a 5 7 L U~ ~ m s a c 0 t-+ c (Oz tI s ar p o nr on Ln . swno r nnnoo r . P mc-J e ,-.'":'.n@3 E) *as z 0 - -.+ z 6 2 m m m $ E d $ Z - m E v a n n u r . r n a c ~ 3 ~ m r . u e r . r . a n o ; wcn a m D ar.c n a m - R R ~ , * - m a s o a nq u a r . r . r a r m o q v ( O a - o n n 9 n U v ~ orln- C G u o 3 0 r m 0 ? a v o m mwwm m o c '.an r w a , n-cn a v 04 -0 * D J a m gmnw 4 f'nammnr. w.30 P O < -.C nr.DumfG(O b n+V r-0 D v a r.v vg * a o * n u u r n u v rn v n P rr u s *a I-r u n v n , or. 4 ern =am n n T(O'IV) w m om r.v+-3rnm ui +In mc.wm9 1 mwr. $ 4: * I am rrm n r a -.c; +=A, Id. V) iim a w r Inm I 9 * a v 4 c m 4 v - - ,. * (0 .- !$6.6E. ' mu1 *,, a r p 1 6 v a Y b- -. '.. P 7. : f" 8 : 1 . ,.i :- < ,. <* > ,. 2 L '0 , ,,,;-$ % ; ,-c. n 3 1, 1- <? r -1 .; I i ; n tr a m c In 0 or. w n P e , r.0 a en ma 4 r r n m v a ? n G r w m r i Z ) m awl-rlm a r a m m.a 1 &YI W W W f f rr P m n r l m c r . w e, m m m m ar.p w w. o e, Ul l-r. V ~ C I Y 1 w m Y I 0 0 I r t W m n .. ;qmr. a r. r* W O * r * W m*",m WY I m m v U l * o m z *LTR w o m r i k 6 ",Pa r.w r*m Y l n 1 110 wrl OYI ~ O ~ - - - ~ .- .-.-.. E o l l u d e r , Armold Potor, H i g h d e n s i t y e n v i r o n u s t s : some c a l t u r a l , phy;ioloqical and p s y c h o l o g i c a l consiberations--an annotated brbliography. R o n t ~ c e l l o , I l l . , 1 9 7 1. 34 1. ( C o u n c i l of P l a n n i n g L i b r a r i a n s . Exchange b i b l i o g r a p h y 221) Suman e c o l o g y - - - B i b l i o g r a p h y / P o p u l a t i o n e x p l o s i o n - B i b L i a g r a p h y / Orban p l a n n i n g - - B i b l i o g r a p h y - H u l c S e r , Y c n d c l l E. .-'.'L'A& .;,. # I?j ' *-, sy ~ ~ ~ ( 1 1 1 r ; L ) - r U t & 2 - 0 1 0 ~ : L .. . . .. ...,-. L ,-\'-' >..-.?rica:: f ~ , l ~ i ? l i : ; ?an:1 . how i t -::ctr: the: n , c's o f o u r .~.C I Z.. . : ! . :ta::, . Z. 5. To:.t. ; J S ~ , j) l c . ?rict. OLf., 1 2 7 1. I? ( " 2 . i c-.,::. 1;: .-,.-.- . Docc:-?r.t ::.I. ':2-1 2 ) m -I... , ;.+. L f L ; ~ % : ; v . . r ~ ; ' y .:; , 1 rn:-;r..:,,2,,.-....\ 2- . i ?*tr:c:r> . . :!.>v.)~,:rlrn. :cq:o;.:*j r ~ 7 Lausom. Simpaom P. ad. Workshop on u r b a n o p e n space. W a s h i n g t o n , 0.5. D e p t . o f H o u s i n g a n d U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t [ 1 9 7 1 ] 4 7 p. B e p o r t of w o r k s h o p d i s c u s s i o n s h e l d i n W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.. March 2 8 - 3 0 , 1 9 6 9 s p o n s o r e d by American S o c i e t y of Landscape A r c h i t e c t s P o u n d a tion. Community development--[U.S. 1 / Plalgrounds--[U.S. ] / Ghettos--/O.S. ] / Parks--[U.S. ] / Urban planning--[U.S. 1 @ t 8 ' . . . . . 7 1 c - :!! t,,,: .r.llr.;.: L O ; cit i:ct!:l vc;tic.~tL,,n i:! ~ ; o ~ ~ ~ t l ~ ~ r ~ u i t - ? L ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 2 1 ~ ~ 1 1~~ti~'~0l_~~!:'-' i L : c : ~ r : t ~ : ~ i : ~of ~ a it i . ? ~ ~ t e r ~ ; o v . ~ ~~~ ~. ~!. j~t .~i o: ~: ~:- ~ - [ :~; ; .~ /> ..',-#Ai :c..:. 3 i c t . n t , ~ : 1 . 1 ; . 11 Co:..;i:;sio:~. . A Part VI. (con: t d ) .-- l.ior-ol'r .pI.s / C e m e t e ~ i e sa n d f u n e r a l s - - L e a s h e r , el el^. 8M i l l w a r d . l o k t I, Cemetaries and urban l a n d u s : a p r e l i m i n a r y 1 3 p. bibliography. n o n t i c e l l o , I l l . , 197 1. ( C o u n c i l o f P l a n n i n g Librarians. E k c h a n g e b i b l i o g r a p h y 2U8) L a n d use--[ U.S. 1 - - B i b l i o y r a p h y [ U. S . ] - - B i b l i o g r a p h y . --- - t,, ".v:h3--r ..-. - 1 7 :'. . L . --- r -. .: o I - ,:L i ! s r ? ~ Y o r k ] 177b. 1 0 p, ,,.* .n . l s s t ~ t t ~ ' - of ~ ~:ro>o::.?;.? : ~ t ~ J o h n Vliet. o r n ! ~ ~ -- - .__- ~ .-- ~ flason, J o s e p h Barry. I c c ! sct!,i_ b i l ~ l i o g ~ _ u h y ~ ~ o n - i n t g r c ! 1 n n g e ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~.1 .< 1 i o 1 ~ 1 ~ n t and l a n 4 I I : ; ~ c o n t r o l s . n o n t i c c ? l l o , I l l . , 1971. 12 1. ( ~ o u ! ~ c io lf P l < i n r ~ l : ! ~ L i ! ) r . z r i ~ d n : ; 3xc:i-dngc1 . bi:)lioqra[)!,y 212) -- ~ B i ~ i il. n l ~ r . i ~ l i 1 . j " , ,.L--(\j < J ! l u , ;2~ x ; ~ ~ j ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~il,! !l;. < I--? ~ - - r mi^[!i.S. 1 - - ; ~ i h l i o ! j r d p h y / Z o n r l ~ g a n d z o c i n g l a w - - j U . S . ]-- -- -- I l a z z i o t t i , D o n a l d ?. Advocacy p l a n n i n g - - t o w a r d t h e development of theory and s t r a t e g y . P l o n t i c e l l o , I l l . , 1971. 8 1. (Council o f Planning Librarians. Exchange b i b l i o g r a p h y 241) Planning-Bibliography / Community p o w e r - - 8 i b l l o g r a p h y / C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t ion--Bibliograph y - .- l a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e of T e c h n o l o g y . P a p e r s o n n a t i o n a l l a n d u s e p o l i c y issues. Prepared f o r t h e Committee on I n t e r i o r a n d I n s u l a r A f f a i r s , United S t a t e s Senate, by Plassachosetts I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y , Moods H o l e o c e a n o g r a p h i c I n s t i t u t i o n [ a n d 1 Boston University. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. G o v t . p r i n t . Off., 1971. 21U p. A t h e a d o f t i t l e : 92d Conq., 1 s t sess. Senate. P a r t i a l contents.--Guidelines for s t a t e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new c o m m u n i t i e s i n ~assachusetts.--The crisis i n s h o r e l i n e recreation. --Pricing p o l i c i e s f o r public r e c r e a t i o n lands.--Ecological problems of c o a s t a l l a n d use.--Powerplant s i t i n g i n coastal areas. 0.S. ] / R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g - - [ U a s s a c h u s e t t s ] / L a n d use-[ U r b a n p l a n n i n g - - [ F l a s s a c h a s e t t s ] / S e a s h o r e e c o l o g y - - [ U.S. ] / Estuaries-[U.S. ] / C o a s t a l z o n e management--[U.S. ] / R e c r e a t i o n a r e a s - - [ U.S. ] / E l e c t r i c p o w e r p l a n t sites-- CRS-217 ~ .. <, - oL:c!: L , J ~ o , I; . ~ ? : ; ~ , 3 2-.:tc?r;ic:! -. tor .,:; of , yo~): Levy, !lis!.del E. DeTorres, Juan. r . > ; . . r j l r r v c n . l c : : : , , l r i r . l w i + I, t h stater;: ~ ?r9bl+*:z ! i [ :;:; ' i r s i ; C o . ~ t ~ ' r + . : l Cs!,d:,i e [ C j ??(.I ' :dl( io-:,>.i :r. i ~ : : t r i . r l C,.>:,:,.zr.nc,-. Lo.ir<,. S t u . ; i ~ ! ; I!: ' . I ku:;:!lt,;l-; ccor.o.ric;;, I;<;. 7 1'4) Z L . -... ~- :o,ir>!?~hy:.-;.21'j:Y17-Intcr;ovc.znr.-ntal t l x rc:l.ltio!l:;--! ti.'. / !nt(.r:;ov( r - : i : ? r ; t . ~ l t a x r,-1,:tior:s--[ Forolg,'r.j ..--- - . ---. . ~ City. - .-. ... Licdsay, - - - - C e g l e r , John_B.--- --- - . <,o-c c r l t l c a 1 c o ~ n c n t so n p r o p e r t y t d x a t l o n a s a n L A r 5 +LO I I i 5 ; . bt-ttf~__ f o r 3 r f l . t n ,I:?(! 2 c 3 ~ ; i o r i a l S t u d ~ e s , C a s h i n y t o r ? i l n i v e r s i t y ] 1'47 !; -2 b~ I) -f,:.;<, . . ,1 l ~ . u ~ q t ~ ~ ~ J i ~ i v ~ - ~ r t2- ~- Li .?t~ci y~ -s 3 I:;:;tltllte t o r UrL.tr: d n d R c q i o n a l S t u d i e s . ;lorking ,. ,. :'~Ll":z, -1.:d.-7) Urb.i;: ~ ~ I I I * - . ~ ~ ~ - - ][ U/ - S R -e a l p r o p e r t y - - [ U . S . ] / Land v a l c e :j. 1 ~ ~ CV".; x J q l t : l ~ , f > , 8 r .il!: C ~L; , I :s-s .-- ',- " 1 1 r. :. + f . 3 - .. 1 :' . 6 t-. 3 .i c . \ ' . - , . ., L7pp ., 3 P. s ? ; ' -: 2 - 7 .-.I ,.-. r, A - i6 L? I r I!; ?- .,. ' 2 -- ..7 n : r r ,- r 2 r;r. - - -- - .4 .:.- 3 5 ' :; 2 p r I - 1 2-1 ,- R C r.a G ,-- T. : 2 ,3 :. L- I - ' ': 1 4': c 7 ' ,--, I I Lq -7 r ; r' * e-, n s: C U I-' 3 \ 8 , t LQ C n r :. I 1. ?. it 1 3 L: 'h a tL; 3 . 5 L, 2 \on- 0 pa *m mP r. m y rl w. e L4-Y) CUI . C I-: I.-'.: +- 0 :, , ,.. . - . -,---~, r * -- -- -+ * ,. c . - ..: :. ....... - .. c : 7 . - 1 L L 1- a -. r ; - A ^ *:::: - * w r.\ W n o n m a - ; T I UI D m 1 n o r . 1 0 0 4 - w . :p a 3 (2 . C.. , y w:. < : n - : ~ 7 d .- ,. - =:.r,-.v : ,.;m ;: . ,, . .. -. r ' r . ,..; : = P a i R ::, .. : I > Y l . * t? :. a - -.-. i,-l i .-. .r. y ;2 7 . ..: 5' :. , L? *:' L:,' -L-P !> > " rt- 5 . - - - I I C .: L? .+ . i 5 a -:- - : ; .': *?V C r ' 3 .- r: I ;,; r z.013 e r n ,R a m - - rO * ., c:: r r ?: L ,- 5 ' . " P . I ? I G lr ,? c:.3 v - ,,-: -z 0 2. ' E L'C. y,. r.q c . ? g yr u. 0 0 ' 1 ,I 0 I-.<= m 0 r ' w C v l r r i l I-. c n -- 3 36:: :1 :1r* ,' ?; i.13'C :j 1:. ,.. ,f?. t P b . F - P C : , I-: +-, 3.1 r. 0 I- ,- F,. :1 :,I-n , t+ ,* f* IJ :: i .s --r 'a5 n :: C 1.. 7 . I ., I . '.. ,,> - : < .- ,..- ;~> c , , I-' , . ,-. 2 G:.,2 - * z -!L "? 2 , ;: I:. . y, I . ;j -.'.; :. -. .* - ? y .-.. . . . -. L: -. , . - rt : :; , ' . . - , 3 2 : : I ' ,, ,c 3 ,. : > . . . ., Pi 1- , : ,? . . A , - r. ,,<, "' *. '7- c : c. .: ' ,. - 6 - 1 he- ,' >; .>, ;..'. ,, .: rr .. . ,, -. . . . , '. ,-, ,-I *; 8' A. . , :t ..A 1 .->, *,;. - r ! , - P - T h i s r e p o r t , a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e J u n e 1971 l a r g e - c i t y U S r e p o r t , f o c u s e s o n t e c h n i q u e s for implementing an e f f e c t i v e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f c i t y s e r v i c e s through c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t of e f f e c t i v e management t e c h n i q u e s . S. ] m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s - - [ U.S. ] / C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n - - [ a . S. 1 / m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c s a n d government--[U.S. ] / Ombudsman-[ U . S. ] / B e i g h b o r h o o d government--[Us -- 3 7 .. ,. . -- , ,:a ---..A,. . S., . 1. ,; . -- and o t h e r s . I 9::~:': - I." . - ~ , 7 , < L A . ! l : . :tc:., . L l O . 7 !:I&.;.: - 1. ?.'I-: ~ / J '. . ' :::zt:t.1:*-.: :.. ~,!.y-';~,,* ::.,:,::: ) . . ,;{ t * ! "ct-!. [ 1,;7,:; - ' .r ~ .- ,?f ~ ~- - . : ? , - -.. , 11.-,-- / . - .-.... - - .. ; r ~ : - . : - - [',.::. .....-.............. : . . ? , ] P T ~ : ,: i l,ro - c o : : : .; .,- --:,,.: ::; ,>,; ::,: j - < c : : : - . . >,*. : t . . . . ::;--::(:~.-, L z : :: L : . ~ . t ; . .;;?:;+.,~:----~;r:,.-;:.:,:~. LC;:,,.1 r. :: ? Lc:,:;::L..:; . . . iyi,,.;.- - , - . ! ' : :+ - - ::< :,--'> . - - - .~ . . c.:..rl::,:t.j,rq - , ;L-";r<i::;. , -. r<>:-.,.j-,T:;,.: !l:i,ttl!;:: . : .:.!oloio :':. i:: 2 ,. !: ,.,: :.;, lpc:,l;z ' ., l'. -- - ~ -~ h o i v y , ;OZC::I - . ~ . - .- ;rl,~.:l L:y,,i-;--i :T.-:. j / 1 . , s + -. -- m.mom err0 m c w o o g m a r r a r r r r * m n w u a v e l - u . a - 4 ln P 1 m m 0 I 1 r r m o a w . 4nrr - m w m C I n 0 0 n p \ o m I r . m m r ) w n 0 m n o p l O r . m c w w r - c tn tn r . n 1-r.0a vrmm cn D n o a no ~ u a m n * m n a r r Im mr mm r er m n D w 0 n n nr.r. I - . F * m W . 0 0 u om: Gn W .' r? C w u n 0 ~ -,- U P n mn 1P a m \ m arg e m w a r m n m w C.C a nn w w r n w nr. m v r n DL4 rr r.w O D ~a - w 0 01-Q- e r m r . P s ylmn mol-rrmr. n n n w n +w 3 r . r e 0 02 P c p w r . ~ cu m m o a m a r . D 0 n m w n w w V * O L M m U w w m n C O m u m urgm o m DI-. m u m G an n n a w m o D O a o n o w V) v a r m ClCP n a o m w m 4. w n o a w n v rr N W VPPr. o m O D 0 m a 0 Cr LI w G n o c a ~ w um m z m m n ICT n 3 C I- . P n u O P r n l n r mc*. n U m a c An n 4 3 I tn n m z 0 .o P n~ l w a m ' m a 0 a. rr C - w - l r l P'.Flrnrr W H O m m o r . w o n~ a c o - c w ,& y rr mo wr . wr oc mm mm n m .r 0 1 m r . r . m r n-a o m n r w v 'w r.1o CI. r. *r (C w i w a n c , ~ ~ - m r' ~ ~ r n .r a mI P W . I CI.SR C> 1 - c * I w w z P r I,-~I-(D \-pi I I 0 r . r r c r ~ w o m p i ' ~ mw r ~ c ~ n ( D o w c w r ~ w n n n a c n o r o orno F a a m W r . D w m m a .. . - . P I - ~ D D W-n) e r r . ~ e & a v r o r I r . m cu m r . m OrVluam l m J c * r r \ p l m o r c w v l r ~ r ' m n ~ * r + r w w n a n n r r.w -c rrc4 rra o n r P w 2. @ ar ' n w a * I s - O r - s ei r r r\aoY.CIay. ru 3 C. - I-OPG \ m a * o r w 'A*= a Q C C(EN u r . 3 r . a w m n n m n a o ~t t - r t r r r r q r. a r.P D V, 0 B u r r IC a w w r P e m 0 m a \4L\ \ m4 n o w V C P ' l 0 I zg.01 r a o v D = ' \ w 'Y I0 L W C r a m m Eel w r nn o L$K3 * @ . .,. n 0 -rc i-6bke 5 - (+a w 0 b ~ \ 0 n 0 L v aw m w v * C V O w o m v a m W I - P I-w n wnV) co r r 0'0 a u m -a; n o w K V v w m e 0 C. 0 v DUI- V1mm wmm v C. w a C'a 0 In r.r C. 0 P. u 0 . 4 m YLrs 1 - 0 m - w n rr a a ~ n C O P . D2 n m fl m m ~i n pi C. n n u r rnm R C I-or? o ~ n m m o nr m r C * o a u n W C Q r l a ~ r o m m 1 0 n m c n d o r r r m r r ' r m m n n n n r m m p i m m u a ~ D m m r t r l : m m a m B a s O F 0 n v m r n m m m - w n n W 3 1 0 r O - 3 < a v ~ m n n C : a P i w . . O W *w E l n a n m ? . a v w m l T n r t n m . r m r o r v ~ m u * r . r r r o n n1PmV L n L m O I m n P 0 0 0 m P D C * OOW 3 w ~ ~ m m u a w ar m m r m n e a r - * t o n w a n l a a 3 (U V I > 3 U c v v r a ua.3mn-l c < a . . ~ r n ~ n u m r r off-r V.QD(DPi0 C I ( D L ' F m n s m a v . nv Il n ~ ~ m r n WOOPilQU U G L P v m t A r ( O n O 0 nE3rrnm h 3 c n w c " pircr'um r e n r ~ m m lvo r n n w r s n l ~ w c(u r w r r r m n N n n D D) u p 0 r a o r n a PI r m y 0C.r.C. R e p * e m A*V nil ~ U C O U r w r r r w m ~ w r r . w r r m >PC&? m r - m w 41-w O W o * r.r.r.. v VI UI 0 a a w w n e o Ir w r + r r a a ~ m n w a L I V l e 4 v D 0 r . m ~ m o w w c " rA D a I-n m n o E P o ~ 4 a m a - I - d m g z LO wIP rr r , w rrn ' U P l n n r r w m r . o n O I D U m m 5 w v n m ( ~ a a m n *w O D C . D O (PUlnCerrG-' rr w w o n a n v r 0 P i o v 4 e a m D u a m d n r. m a ID *an r n r m m r r m m r. r r c m o ~ v sa o u e n n an m u m m * m I r' 9 r . r . . c ~ o m rrDWY)rl,UU =I 0 = m c m u r r m m o m w a D a r m = . ; Kg *\ c m c v A : ~ ? f l I-m 0 w n w O ~ e I+ ' r l n ~ o l r . 0 ~ ~ r . a * m a ~ e m m r u a 8 * m n u D n o l *ID On w l v~ c a v ~ v e , r ra * n n wr v I n I n ~ a I -w m - a m r m n ~ ~ rI ~ l 0 m m ~ ~ n m In w u V I r . r . m m w n r.prC) D D ~ m ~ a , ' a m p r r ' u w w G n y, I D. 5 n m m r r \r+ l a or,. 0nn* w n a r+ M V Q ~ r r m c r c ~ . 2 ., !' E w :'-: . :zk:=:,,-:E D O * O ID 0 L ~ **or, R2n ID m m n w n w U I n n m ErC)r(*CC-r'O UI W I \ 1 - w O *V lO t o- 0r 1~ Pv P v Oo ~ mW r m ~ ) m r . ~ n r n P - ~ ~ u Ir .' w v m 1-0 (1 r.* 4\n l I w I- 0 m Q?. n I a UD (Dv W l r a r - 1 w o m n d U I . ffi - n m n m a m w e * n o m c r* n w r. I err -. 1 - 0 Ln m u m W G r * c. L : - In* v u w r . o o r w m ' O u . c m 4 min m o a m maw: o m r 0 , m .. . rtua in r . m ~r r w a 414. 9 - m m D P C ' * i* u w m n e m a r i0m.i; 0 'Om 0 w run r.m Q p :zm wr. w n u @ w. a m m w w r. o a w r rSr' o u un stu r n - a w s m m n + 9 - n r~r ~ ~. r w u m e v w m r. r. n w m a v r. P q w o u r,mcon u n m r . ~ m a n m w a w a c w n o ~ u a a r w s i-t-m w C O *' Part VI. (cont'd) -Periodicals lox. G e r a l d 6, , I n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m s and decision-saking. Public management, v. 5 3 , O c t . 1971: 9-11, mComputers can a g g r e g a t e and a r r o r q e massive d a t a t o make i n f o r m a t i o m a v a i l a b l e f o r e f f e c t i v e problem s o l v i n g i n urban a r e a s . Imformatiem is one o f t h e p r i m a r l r e s o u r c e s o f urban governments. T h e i r e f f e c t i v e n a s s l a p e n d s upon t h e efficient management, coatrol. a n d u s e o f t h i s r e s o u r c e , j u s t as s u r e l y a s it d e p e n d s u p o n t h e maaagememt o f men, money. a n d material^.^ I n f o r m a t i o n s t o r a g e a s d r e t r i e v a l systems--go.$, ] / D e c i s i o n m a k i n g / U r b a n areas--[U.S. ] / Urban planming-- ; U.S. 1 Prankel. lax. lev Iork Revenue s h a r i n g is a c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o 8 , t i n e s m a g a z i n e , k p r . 2 5 , 1971: 28-29, 87-91. Author c r i t i z e s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s r e v e n u e s h a r i n g p l a n a s o n e b e i n g t h r u s t upon t h e s t a t e s a s a " h a s t y i n j e c t i o n o f m i s c e l l a n e o a s moneysm w h i c h w i l l o n l y s e r v e t o r e i n f o r c e t h e i r worst h a b i t s , r a t h e r t h a n t o encourage s t r u c t u r a l reform a t a l l l e v e l s of government. R e v e n u e s h a r i n g - - [ U.S. ] P r e d e r i c k a , W i l l i a m 6. no, t o r e v e n u e s h a r i n g . n a t i o n a l r e v i e w . v. 23. J u l y 1 3 , 1971: 754-757. R e v e n u e s h a r i n g would (1) s t r e n g t h e n t h e P e d e r a l Government a t t h e e x p e n s e o f s t a t e a n d l o c a l governments, (2) s t r e n g t h e n t h e P r e s i d a n t a t t h e e x p e n s e o f C o n g r e s s , (3) f o s t e r t h e - f r e e lunchm i l l u s i o n by b r e a k i n g coumection betueon s o u r c e s a n d u s e s o f r e v e n a e . (4) a g g r a v a t e environment problem, and (5) v i o l a t e t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t w t h o s e who e n j o y s p e n d i n g p u b l i c money s h o w l d b e e x p o s e d t o t h e d a n g e r s of c o l l e c t i n g it.w R e v e n u e s h a r i n g - - [ U .S. ] 7 r i e d m a n n , .john. ? h e L a c o r e o r : a m p r e h e n s l v e u r b a n planning: a -rrrtlque. 'no~1:: a c l m ~ n l s t r a c r o n c e v l e w , v. 3 1 , .Yay~ u n e3 9 7 3 : - 1 5 - 3 2 6 . ) r o a n plannrng--1U. S. : F a l i e r , J a m e s C,, J r . C o a s k a l l a n d ase d e v e l o p m e n t : a p r o p o s a l f o r c u m u i a t i v e area-wide noniag. i'orth C a r o l i n a law -~ ..~ v - e u Y; = S " ,;ug. 1971: 966-888. 3Eter r e v i e w i n g o t h e r statesJ c o a s t a l t o n i n g i s a s ; 7 r c p o s e s s t a t e s u p e r v i s i o n o f C o a s t a ~z o n i n g ir! P o r t h C a r o l i n a . 3 s a s t a L z o n e management--[ l o r t h C a r o l i n a ] / Lana ass-C a r o l i n a i /' Z o n i n g a n d z o n i n a L a r - ! Morth C a r o l i n a j :4orth G a l p e r , Harvey. P e t e r s e n , John. An a n a l y s i s a f s u b s i d y p l a n s t o s u p p o r t s t a t e a n d l o c a l borrovlnq. N a t i o n d l t a x j o u r n a l , v. 2 4 , J u n e 1971: 205-234. Nathenaticil nodel i n d i c a t e s 3 suggested plans would be e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e . B i b l i o g r a p h y : p. 233-234. Tax-exempt securities--[U.S. ] / S t a t e f i n a n c e - - [ U . S. ] / L o c a l finance--[O.S. ] / Subsidies--[U.S. ] / Intergovernmental f i s c a l relations--[U.S. ] G i n s b u r g . A l a n L. M i l e n s k y . G a i l B. Reforming T l t l e I--a s t u l y i n g r a n t design. N a t l o n a l t a x j o u r n a l , v. 2U. J u n e 1971: 235-249. -The p r i n c i p a l c o n c l u s r o n s a r e : ( 1 ) c h i l d r e n f r o m f a m l l i e s b e l o w t h e SSA p o v e r t y l i n e s h o u l d b e counted i n s t e a d 3f th3Se belov t h e subpoverty $2000 level o r t h o s e o v e r t h e a r b i t r a r y c r i t e r i a 3 f a t l ~ d s tf 2 0 0 0 i n w e l f a r e : ( 2 ) p3yment r a t e s s h o u l d r e f l e c t t h a a v e r a g e d o l l a r amount r e q u i r e d t o r a i s e achievement and l o c a l c o s t v a r i a t i o n s ; a n d ( 3 ) a v a r i a b l e m a t c h i n g program. w i t h m a t c h i n g r a t i o s reflecting the probability that funds m i l l be matched and d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o c a l f i s c a l c a p a c i t i e s , should be introduced. ] / P e d e r a l a i d t o e d u c a t i o n - - [ U.S. ] Gran ts-in-aid--[U.S. G l a s s . Andrew J, M i l l s p a n e l d e v i s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e t o l i r o n * s revenues h a r i n g plan. l a t i o e a l j o u r n a l , r. 3, J u l y 10, 1971: 1460-1464. - W i l b u r B i l l s ' Ways a n d Pleaas C o m m i t t e e is w o r k i n g o n a p l a n t o a i d c i t i e s , towms a n d counties, with a t a r q e t d a t e i n t h e e a r l l f a l l . The f i n a l product--depending o n o n e a s viewpoint-w i l l o r r i l l n o t b e a revenue-sharing bill.)--law a n d l e g i s l a t i o n / P e d e r a l a i d Revenue sharing--[U.S. t o c i t i e s - - [ U.S. ]--Law a n d l e g i s l a t i o n - o w c. C. I\: E C n V, o ' P - W ~n IP'4 W P r i m 0 9 O - n v1 r P n u 0 O I-" (Po D . 01 G m t-s w m a c w 01 0 at o a n I-. I- D- ri r I w a t I w 0 1 a r r 1010 m w D e 10 0 0 r P a r t VI. (cont ' d ) -.- P e r i o d i c a l s Ilill, B. Steru, Iuam, ILlliaa P.. ONIGOV: t h e f i r s t y e a r . B a t i o n a l c i v i c r e v i e w , v. 6 0 , J u n e 1971: 310-314. -Survey o f a c h i e v e m e n t s a n d p r o b l e a s o f consolidated government i n I n d i a n a p o l i s and Marion C o u n t y s i n c e it b e g a n o p e r a t i o n i n J a n u a r y 1970.* / Coantj l e t r o p o l i t a n p o l i t i c s and government--[fndiaaa] p o l i t i c s and government--[Indiana] / Indianapolis B o a d l e y , Wyn 1. netropolitan councils: t h e St. Louis experience. N a t i o n a l c i v i c r e v i e w , v . 6 0 , P e b . 1971: 79-85. m e t r o p o l i t a n p o l i t i c s a n d government--[St. Louis metropolitan area ] P o g g a n , D a n i e l 8. T h e money g a p - - c a n s t a t e s f i l l i t ? l a t e r s p e c t r u m , v . 3 , f a l l 1971: 38-44. Considers t h e p r o b l e m o f v h e t h e r s t a t e a n d local g o v e r n m e n t s a r e c a p a b l e o f a s s u m i n g a l a r g e r s h a r e of t h e burden a f f i n a n c i n g w a t e r p r o j e c t s . Y a t e r r e s o u z c e s l o v e l o p m n n t - - [ U . S. ]--?in a n c ~/ I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l f i s c a l relations--[0.S. 1 EP [ B o s v e l l ) BPT/UBJ/10/12/7 1 LES71-13470 Bomer, P o r t e r I. Public D e l i v e r i n g technology t o l o c a l governments, m a n a g e m e n t , v . 5 3 , P e b . 1 9 7 1 : 6-7. -A t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y n o r e x i s t s w h i c h c a n b e u t i l i z e d i n l o c a l governments with b e n e f i t s Local government a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t o everyone. p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s seem r e a d y t o r e c e i v e a n d The b u s i n e s s a n d s c i e n t i f i c u t i l i z e technology. communities appear mLlling and anxious t o provide B h a t is n o t so o b v i o w . b u t technology. n e v e r t h e l e s s a m a j o r o b s t a c l e , is t h e l a c k Of a n e f f e c t i v e d e l i v e r y system f o r u s u a b l e local government technology. T e c h n o l o g y - - [ 0 , s . ] / L o c a l govecnment--[O.S. ] B n e f n e r , B o b e r t P. n u n i c i p a l bonds: t h e c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f a n alternative. N a t i o n a l t a x j o u r a a l , v. 23, Dec. 1970: 407-416. " W h e t h e r or n o t t h e i n c r e a s e d t a x c o l l e c t i o n s cover the i n t e r e s t subsidy, t h e s h i f t t o subsidized taxable s e c u r i t i e s rill achieve e f f i c i e n c i e s i n Federal f i n a n c i a l s u p p a r t to s t a t e It v i l l a l s o r e d u c e t h e and Local governments. t a x i n e q u i t i e s of t h a ? r e a p t i o n , " a u t h o r c o n c l u d e s on b a s i s o f geometric a n a l y s i s of markets f o r taxexempt bonds. ] / Intergovernmental t a x Tax-exempt securrties--[U.S. ] r e l A t i o n s - 5 U. S . ] / I n v e s t o r s - - [ O . S . Eyde. P l o ~ d8. Government: is it m a s t e r o r s e r v a n t o f t h e p e o p l e ? H o r t g a g e b a n k e r , v. 32, O c t . 1 9 7 1 : 10, 12, 14, 16, 1819. A d d r e s s by BUD a s s i s t a n t s e c r e t a r y i n c h a r g e o f comaunity development programs. Community development--[U.S. ]--Finance / Revenue s h a c l n j - [U.S. ] / I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s - - C U S S . 1 I n g m i r e , T h o m a s J. Patri, Tito. An e a r l y w a r n i n g s y s t e n f 3 r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . J o u r n a l o t t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , v. 37, Nov. 1 9 7 1 : 403-410. nstudg o f increased m e t r o p o l i t a n growth p r e s s u r e on t h e S a n t a Z r u z Mountain range. a v a l u a b l e and r e l a t i v e l y undeveloped open s p a c e r e s o u r c e i n t h e S a n P r a u c i s c o Bay r e g i o n , l e d t o development o f t h e B l r l y Warning System, a model v h i c h can b e u s e d by p l a n n e r s f o r p r e d i c t i n g f u t u r e c o n f l i c t s between l a n d development and e c o l o g r c a l processes.* / Land u s e - - [ C a l i f o r n i a ] / Open s p a c e l a n d s - - [ C a l i f o r n i a ] Regional planning--[California ] duuse tit.: Ld.,d,' L1.i' 70, q L J 1 t Lrfe, v. 10 11: ~ ~ ~ I I ~ JA LLi ? L s ~ J a n . 3, J a a t s o n , Beiner. Z o n r n g to r e g u l a t e on-water r e c r e a t i o n . Land e c o n o m i c s , v. 4 7 , l o r . 1971: 382-388. P r o p o s e s z o n i n g water f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ( S h o r e l i n e A c t i v i t y Zone, Open Water Zone a n d W i l d l i f e z o n e ) w i t h v a r y i n g a c t i v i t i e s p e r m i t t e d on e a c h . 3 u t d o o r recreation--[U.S. ] / R e c r e a t i o n aceas--[U.S. ] / t e r r e s o u r c e s d e v e l o p m e n t - - [ 0 . S. ] / Z o n i n g a n d z o n i n g lam--[ U.S. J Ua " ' d r J a c k s o n , Donald. T h l s l a n d 1s 3 u r l a n d . 32-43. .,, L e o p o l d v r 9 t e I n 1 9 4 8 , ' b e c a u s e we r e g a r d ~t a s a c o m m o d r t y b e l o n q r n g t o us. Uhen we s e e l a n d a s a c o m m u n i t y t o v h l c h we b e l o n g , ve may b e j r n t o u s e ~t l b d . rLdtc,t. T!,CKP 1s no 0 t h - r f o r l a n d t o s u r r l v e t h e l a p a c t of m e c h a n r z e d mdn.' T h e p r o b l e a w a s s e r i o u s t h e n , when me h a d no It i s e v e n o v e r a l l land polrcy and fev alarums. more s e r l o u s t o d a y , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , b e c a u s e ve d o have a policy. I t s o u t l r n e s v e r e c h a r t e d by t h e P u b l i c Land L*w B e v r e v C o a n r s s r o n I n a r e p o r t r e l e a s e d s i x months ago.N P u b l l c lands--[U.S. ] / C o n s e r v a t ~ o no f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s - ] / E n v i r o n m e n t a l p o l i c y - - [ U . S. ] [ U.S. zl i \ n y m w'\ m G ' 0 r n w u vl EL, D 4\ d m & . a w D vla :'iiinm ' G W P ~ D d'u D a 0 1P ~ n m i o o r . m c a a u n o n q n n r n * n co m ~ n r . l r ~ n cr a p a a o \ m ~ m n e r . r . w e e a v o r s a v o g r 9 E a = u Q r n m m u W V M ~ I - M ~r w m r ' n n o w o m O o C O ~ n ' u * m n m . a n w m v r m r w r . n n w - * w 0 Ia in 0 C i a m m m u .o n n m 'un o ~ n n w nm i - & O O O a v mr'* V * a a m a r m m e r'a r . Q rt r . n m r . a 0 D, E O ~ u O V I m v . w +-01 m n n n rr' ¶ P. 3 c u v, P O 0 XI r . u u w o u a o ~ m P I V 1 0 0 0 mpl m mI--* m LO r n r ~ . m o Im m o n p 9 C u w n r t n-n u R pi W P B ' n r . w t r - i n r 0 N I- b.-pl~ 0 G 0~r I m R m amir;oLT0 ~1 o P Q m r.- o e o c r . 0 w m r' I,0u4mID4:: -0 r n m m m ' nu r e w w m a m 0 0 IO a V Q - N a r PI 4 4 r - n m o m r,um n o m n nu) V) P O rnt-70 t n c w ear. r r.0 5 n o ? . pirtaIDLom U T "*OR9 3 d % P D rnn * m c o m f a P r , n t-s u u v a m * -0 I- r + Y O 7 W N 0 + - P ID a 0 w ffi a n < GClL-rOG m m a 1 o I D m a G D r w m i n I - . 0 mI- O i n C. u w a n \ C . C O m u 0 m m ~ u 0 u P n -. a a*' Part V I . (cont'd) - - P z r i c d c a l s ~ CRS-244 O l e s z e k , salter J. F e d e r a l a l d t o s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s : p r o b l e m s and potential. N e b r a s k a l a u r e v i e w , v. 50, f a l l 1 9 7 0 : 153 0. ' T h i s a r t i c l e gs p u r p o s e is t o d i s c u s s some of t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s o f s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s a n d some s u g g e s t e d a p p r o a c h e s t o e l i m i n a t i n g or a t l e a s t alleviating those deficiencies with federal assistance.S t a t e legislatures--[U.S. ] / L e g i s l a t i v e refereace services--[U.s. ] / F e d e r a l a i d programs--[U.S. ] / Pegerals t a t e relations--[U.S. ] Papamarcos, John. S h d r l n q- r l g . hts-of-way. P o w e r engineering, v. 7 4 . June lCJ10: 16-33. " U t l l ~ t yc o o p e r d t r 3 n ~ n c r e a s e s ; r e c r e a t l o n d l use n u l t r p l r e s ; u t r l r d o r s g e t rncreased a t t e n t r o n ; b u t sharlng urth hrqhuays remarns a major point o f controversy.' n~ght-~i-uay--ig.S.] / Public utilities--Lu.s.] / Electric p o w e r distribution--[U.S. ] h U r b u and s o c i a l c b g e P a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy. r e v i e w , v. 3 , s p r i n g 1 9 7 0 : 2-19. Contents.--Power t o t h e people--polltical The e v o l u t i o n o r r e v o l u t i o n ? , b y . 0. Lowry.-m o v e m e n t : d r s c o r e r i a g w h e r e ~ t ' sa t a n d how t o g e t r t , b y J. L a u e . - - P a r t r c i p a t o r y democracy: n e t w o r k s a s a s t r a t e g y f a r c h a n j e , b y L. D u h l a n d J . Vo1kman.--Urban poblic policy participation n e t w o r k s , by D. B a r k e , J r . , 8 . P o s t e r , J r . a n d P. Bash. t i t r z e n p a r t r c l p a t r o n - - [ U. S , ] / D e m o c r a c y - - [ 0. S. ] / U r b a n ] / Commumity o r g a n i z a t i o n - - [ U . S ] planning--[O.S. ,. pechman, J o s e p h A. P r s c d l f c ~ J r r a l ~ , mt ~ t rh ? 1 1 ' 7 ' s . 'i i t r o n d l t d x j o u r n a l , v. LU, \ e p t . 1 3 1 1 : L n l 290. P a p e r p r e d 7 n t z 1 3 t Yat l o n a l T a x A r , 5 o c ~ i t l O n Semlnar on 1 1 i n c ~ n qO u r F t a d e r a l - 5 t 3 t e - L o c a l P ~ s c a l< , y s t e m , U ~ s h r nj t o n , J u l y 2 2 , 1 9 7 1 . A u t h o r rnilys?s " t l v t b b i L C d ~ t i c l ~ n c l rl n. t p r e s e n t t l . . c d l sy',temn dl11 ? u ] y e s t I ~lell.' Also p u b l l s h e r l 3 c t . 1 9 7 1 b y B r o o k l n f i I n s r t u t r o n a s a e p r r n t no. L 1). S t a t e t ~ n a n c e - [ U . S . ] / S t a t e taxnt~on--CUSS. ] / L jcal ] / R e t r o p o l l t a n trnan-e--[U.S. ] / taratlon--[U.S. I n t e r qorernmental t a x relat~ons--[').a. ] P e c h m n . J o s e p h A. R e v e n u e sharing r e v l s l t e d . I n F l i l d n ~ l I I s~t a t e a n d l o c a l governments. [ B o s t o n ] Pederal Reserve dank o t B o s t o n [ 1 9 7 0 1 p . 9- 1 6 . A u t h o r r e s t a t e s c a s e L o r r e v e n u ~ - s h a r i n a~ o d e l sponsored by hlmself and Walter Heller, and e n d o r s e s Nrxon v e r s l o n . I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l t a x r ~ l a t ~ o u s - - [ I ] . $ .] P h l l i p s , B o m a l d J. Technoloyy u t l l r z a t i o n : supplyrng t h e blueprrnt s. b l r c m a n d g e m e n t , v. 5 3 , P e b . 1 9 7 1 : 18-22. The a u t h o r s u g g e s t s some g u i d e l r n e s f o r blueprints t o b e u s e d b y c l t l e s r n o b t a ~ n l n g s u c c e s s t u l l y u t r l l z r n g e l t h e r n e w t ~ r h n o l o g ya n d a d a p t l n q e x l s t l n q t e z h n ~ l o g ya n d r n d r c a t e s t h o r r o l e t h a t t h e P e l z r a l GDvernment c a n p l a y r n e h e l p r n y c l t les a c h r e v e s c l e n c e - t e c h n o l o g y a b l l r t les. r r c h n o l o q y - - [ U.S. ] / U r b a n p l a n n ~ n g - - [ U . s . ] P h i p p e n , G e o r g e it. A new c o u r s e t:) A r a r a t . Y a t e r s p e c t r u m , v . 3, summer 1971: d-15. " T h e g l a n n l ~ ~ q1, m p L t ~ m c ~ n t )ar it, ~ a n d > p e r ~t ion a n d m a ~ n t e n a n o r 3 t a p r o g r a m p ~ o v l d l nI d p p r o p r ~ l t e f l o o d p l a r n d s e c o m b l n e s m a n d q f . a r n t of b o t h l i n l a n d w a t e r L n t D a s r n q l p r f t o r t : t l o o l ,)111? manaqement. " Flood control--[U.S. ] / Lantl us,--[U.>. ) P o r t e o a s , J. D o u g l a s . Deslgn u r t h people: t h e g u a l r t y o f t h e urban eovlronment. E n v l r o n m e n t a n d b e h a v i o r , 1. 3, June 1971: 155-178. "ALL uibdn problems have an envrronmental q u a l l t y component. U r b a n environmental q u a l r t y r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n d ~ s c o u r a g e du n t r ~r e c e n t l y b y t h e c o m r ~ l e r r t yo f t h e u r b a n s c e n e . * Envrronmental engrneering / Jrban planning P o w e l l , E e l D. T h e p l i n n l n q a n 1 z ~ n l n . i~y n d r o a e : I ] u i ~ c l a l i l r b a n l a w y e r , V. 2 , P L ~ ~ 1I 0] 1 ~ : 2'44LQ7. 1rltr,rr$r--t.1t1on. of " k J r t , s e n t ~ u d r c l a l~ n t ~ r p r e t a t rh ~d zn t h q ' * - t t t s c t l m p l y ~ n gt h a t a l l t h e w ~ s d o mo f p l a o n l n q v h e n t h e 7 o n 1 n q map was d d o p t ~ i . " d--[J.J. j L U L I ~ I Il d ~ ?,--'7-c>4 zonlnq dnd Pmblic i n t e r e s t groaps. P m b l i c mamagemomt. 1 . 53. D e c . 1 9 7 1 : 3-19. P a r t i a l contents.--rhe b i g s i x - - & now f o r c e o n t h e W a s h i n g t o n s c e n e , --On b e h a l f o f t h e p u b l i c interest.--City m a n a g e r s a n d t h e l e a g u e o f C a l i t o r n r a clties. - - I n t e r o r g a m i z a t i o n a l cooperatron: purpose. programs, r e s u l t s . S o c r a l y o v e r n m e n t - - [ O.S. ] / L s s o c i a t i o m s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , e t c . --[ U . S. ] / L n t e r g o v e r n m e m t a l r e l a t i o n s - - [ U . S . ] - *m * C or- v . 0 % z .: wd E C r* Q w GI-r( nnddmr * F a r.. n n s I 5 . a 0 C ram r u n a m r -fa P . w . m c D W n n 8 3 a' w n m Q a 1 m n. )UP 0 UI- m a * v ..- r n r -. r. *. D rp 1 I a 0 9 -I- r. m m r p Drr cno a z w c m m m n a o n * W Y a+, P a r t VI. (cont'd) -2criri :i:3!~s ---- Stern, Hima. R e g i o n a l parks. S l e r r a C l u b b u l l e t i n , r. 5 6 , J u n e 1971: 18-21. - I n t h e e a r l y t h i r t i e s , c i t i z e n s of Alameda C o u n t y s o u g h t t o a c q u i r e t h e l a m d w h i c h i s aow T i l d e n R e g i o n a l P a r k f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a l use, a n d a u t h o r i z e d t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e E a s t Bay R e g i o n a l P a r k D i s t r i c t as t h e a d m i n i s t e r i n g b o d y i n t h e f a l l o f 1934.* C a l i f o r n i a ] / Open s p a c e l a n d s - - [ C a l i f o r n i a ] Parks--[ -- - Revenue s h a r i n g ; a d d r e s s . I n Remarks o f G a y l o r d Nelson. C o n g r e s s i o n a l r e c o r d [ d a i l y e d . ] v. 1 1 7 , n a y 24, 1 9 7 1: S 7 6 5 9 - S 7 6 5 2 .Remarks b e f o r e E x e c u t i v e s ' C l u b o f C h i c a g o r n opposition t o general revenue sharing. J Revenue sharing--[U.S. -- - - S t o c k e r , r r e d e r l c k D. -w f f -e-c -t s o t t a x a t l o o o n u r b a n l a n d u s e . A p p r a i s a l j o u r n a l , v. 39, J a n . 1971: 57-69. F e d e r a l Income t a x h a s g e n e r a l l y o p e r a t e d to s t r m u l a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t , t h o u g h no i n d i r e c t r o n of g r z a t ? s t n e e d ; t h e p r o p e r t y t a x , hoverer, tends t b discourage inrestment, especially I n o l d e r u r b a n a r e a s . J / L ~ c a lfinance--[U.S.) / Income R e a l p r o p e r t y tar--[U.S. tax--[U.S, ] / Land use-[U.S. J S t u a r t , D a r w i n 6. Te.ta, R o b e r t B. Who p a y s f o r w h a t : a c o s t - r e v e n u e a n a l y s i s o f subarban land use alternatives. U r b a n l a n d , r . 30, H a r . 1 9 7 1 : 3-16. Using a Chlcayo suburb (Barrington, I l l . ) a s a r e a l - l i f e example. a u t h o r s d e v e l o p a b a s i c f r a m e w o r k f o r a c a s t - r e v e n u e a n a l y s i s t o determine t h e r e a l c o s t s of sllburbao land use a l t e r n a t i v e s . ] / Cost e f fectireness--[U.S. ] / Urban L a n d use--[U.S. ] / H u n i c l p a l s e r v i c e s - - [ U . S . ]--Finance planning--[U.S. Submrban l e a d e r s from a c t i o n l d b y to g r a b s h a r e o f l m t i a a l j o a r m a l , r. 3, S e p t . 11. mayors* i n f l u e n c e . 1971: 1 8 8 5 - 1 8 8 8 . Lobbyists--[U.S. ] / County p 3 l r t l c s and g3rernment--[U.S.] / Mat i o n a l A s s o c ~ a t l o no f C o u n t r e s . Sussna, Stephen. B l e n d l n q h o u s l n j a a d open s p a c e ; t h e c a s e f o r planned u n l t development. Current munlclpal problems, v . 1 3 , b o v . 1911: LJ3-,210. ] / U r b a n planningZ o n r n g a n d z o n r n g lau--[U.S. R e a l e s t a t e business--[U.S.] / Land use--[U.S.] S r u r s n a , S tepkem. Aeu t o o l s f o r o p e n s p a c e p r e s e c v a t l o n . Urban l a w y e r , r . 2, u i n t s r 1 9 7 0 : 87-94. A s a c a s e study, author d i s c u s s e s t h e Green Acres P r o g r a m o f Ueu J e r s e y a n d o t h e r s t e p s t a k e n by t h e l e g i s l a t u r e t o f u r t h e r open s p a c e objectives. Doen s p a c e l a n d s - - [ N e w J e r s e y ] - - S t a t e l a v s 1 S y ~ p o s i a mo n P e d e r a l f i s c a l s a p p o r t f o r s t a t e r - f@ l o c a l governments. l a t i o n a l t a x j o a r n a l , r. 24. J a n * 1971: w h o l e i s s u e . R e v e n u e s h a r l n g - - [ U. S. ] / I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l f i s c a l relatrons--[U.S. ] / S t a t e finance--[O.S. ] / Local finance-- : U.S. ray7 , Ron. u b 4 r v r d ~ n gt h e u l l d e r n e s s . S r e r r a Club b u l l e t ~ n , v . 5 6 , J a n . 1971: 4-9. "Too many 3 f t h e L e c r e a t l o n a l s u b d ~ v l r i e r s c r e a t e a paradox: t h e y e l t h e r c o n v e r t open l a n i s t o a u s e t h a t 1s n o n - u s e , d e r e l o p l n g p r o m o t r o n a l s u b d l v r s r o n s t h a t s t a n d virtually e m p t y , o r t h e y t u r u u o o a ~ a u dL e t r e a t s l r k e Lake *iitd tian an j u n g l e s , r n t o r e s ~ r t sf ~ l l e dr l t h c o n d o m l n r u m s , n l g h t c l u b s , g a s s t a t l o n s and h o t doq s t a n d s . " n n e n s n a r e I a n I s - - ( C a l i f o r n i a ) / R e c r e a t ~ o na teas-[California ] / Land a s e - - [ C a l l f o r n l a ] / R e a l p r o p e r t y - - C a l r f o r n l a ] / R e g r o o d plamning--[Californra ] . .. . . T h e A r r p l a n e LS h e r e t l mtay. I n d u s t r i a l rolb., 1. 1 4 0 , l a y - J o m e 1971: 2-9. .Excerpts from t h e p r o c e e d l a g s o f t h e Socond A. A n n u a l seminar o n D e l e l o p l n q P l y - l n P o t e n t i a l . a. Conway, Jr.. d ~ s c u s s e sp l a n u m g g r o M d f a c l l i t ~ e sf o r f l y - l a p r o j e c t s . Dam Bobertsom.. t e l l s how a l a r t i r l l a r i e t t r s o b r i d i a r y d e v e l o p e d l a n d a d j a c e n t t o a n a i r p o r t i n t o 8n ~ n d u s t r i a lp a r k . l a c Long.. emplasires th i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o r l d i n g c o m p l e t e termiul facllztles a t general arxatlon airports. 8. 0 . Ualther...points up a rise l a l a n d v a l o e s o f real e s t a t e a d j a c e u t t o a i r p o r t s . . . B o s s IcUamer p r e r n t s m p l e a f o r a i r p o r t p l a n n o r s t o work w i t h c o n s e r r a t iomistc Airports--[O.S. ] / L o a t i o n 02 I . d ~ t ~ i m s - - [ U . S . 1/ Lad nne--I U.S. ) / C o m m e r c i a l a r l a t i o m - - [ O . S . ] P a r t VI. (cont'd) -Periodicals CRS-249 T h e B c o m o u c r r of p o l i t i c a l d e c e ~ t r a l i z r t i o o , l m e r i c r n c c o n 0 8 i c rmvimm, 1. 6 1 , Hay 1971: 910-067. Papers presented t o t h e 83rd annual meeting of t h e American Economic A s s o c i a t i o n , D e t r o i t , D e c , 28-30, 1970. Con t e n t s . - - T o w a r d s a p r e d i c i t i v e theory of i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l g r a n t s , by D. B r a d f o r d a a d U. 0ates.--State and l o c a l r e s p o n s e to f i s c a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , by A. H e i n s . - - C e n t r a l i z a t i o n a n d d e c e n t r a l i r q t i o n : t h e p o l i t i c a l economy o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m s , by 0 . D a v i s a n d K. A o r t a n e k . I n t e r g o r e r n m e n t a l f i s c a l relations--[a. S. ] / G r a n t s - i n - a i d -[ 0 . 5 . ) / Revenue sharing--[U.S. ] / Education--[U.S. ] The 6 o r e r n m e n t i a man-environment r e s e a r c h . Desigm 8 e n v i r o n m e n t , v. 2 , s m m m e r 1971: 21-44. (*A s e r s n s e c t i o n r e v i e w of t h e F e d e r a l g o r e r m m e m t * ~role i. manenvironment r e s e a r c h , t h e complex a e 8 f i e l d t h a t p r o m i s e s t o pimpoimt t h e social and p s r c h o l o g i c a l i m p a c t o f t h e e m r i r o m m e n t om ma..") 4uman ecology--[O.S. ] / Environmental e n q l n e e r i n g - - [ U . S . ] ] R e S e 3 r c h / Housing--[U. S. ] / Urban b e a u t ~ lfc a t i o n - - [ U . S . Human e n q i n e e r i n q - - r U . S . ] / .- T h e G r e e n i n g o f p a b l i c p o l i c y : plamnimg the ~ 8 t U r l l environment. J o u r n a l o f t h e Anmrican I a s t i t m t e O f P l a n n e r s , v. 37, J u l y 1971: 209-286. "This l s s u e e x p l o r e s p l a n n i n g a n d p u b l i c p o l i c y a s p e c t s o f t h e newly a n t e d n a t i o n a l c o n s e n s u s o n t h e n a t u r a l environment Partral contents.--Interpretation i n s ~ g k t si n t o p o l l u t i o n , by 8 . L. l e i e r . - - B c o l o g y and planning, by S. C. t l o l l i n g a n d a. A . G o l d b e t g , - Bnrironmental q u a l i t y a s a p o l i c y and planaimg ob j e c t i v e , b y II. I. Ruf s c h m i d t .--lieu d i r e c t i o n s i n s t a t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . by B. Baskell.-T h r e e f r o n t s o f P e d e r a l e n v i r o n m e a t a l p o l i c y , by B. E. A n d r e a s . - - P l a n n i a g l i t e r a t u r e and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l crisis: a c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s , b y 2. D. G a l l o w a y a n d P. J. H u e l e t e r , 1 / ? 3 n v i r o n ~ e n t a le n g i n e e r i n g - E n v i r o n m e n t a l policy--[Il.$. [U.S. p - B i b l i o g r a p h y / Ecology--[O.$. ] / n a t u r a l rmsoerces-[ 0. S. ] / Land use--[U.S. ] / Planning--[U.S. ] / Pollutioi ] control--[U.S. The Land squeeze i n C a l i f o r n i a . Farm i n d e x , v . , 9. Dec. 1970: 4-6. "Though a l a n d s h i t r t a g e i s n o t i m m i n e n t , some o f t h e b a s t l o n s of C a l i f o r n i a ' s a g r i c m l t u r e v i l l h a v e t o make room for .ore p e o p l e n e e d i n g p l a c e s t o l i r e and ~ o r k . ~ Land use--[ C a l i f o r n i a ] / Farm l a n d s - - [ C a l i f o r n i a ] / A g ~ i c u l t u t p leconomics--[ C a l i f o r n i a 1 The l e v p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . P u b l i c management, v. 53, l o r . 1971: 2-23. P a r t i a l c3n ten ts.--Creating tomorrov's p u b l i c administration.--The changing p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t of urban administration.--Perspectives of public managers: t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p u b l i c s e r v i c e i e l i v e r y systems.--lev public administration, humanism, a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a 1 b e h a v i o r . P u b l i c administration--[U.S.] / Plunicipal services--[U.S.] ] / lunicipal u o l i t i c s a n d qovernment--1U.S. 1 / M u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s a n d employees--[U.S. C K P C / C J 1 / 5 / 2 5/71 18371-5931 T h e P m b l i c w o r k s a c c o l o t a t i m p r o p o s a l ; am i n a p p r o p r i a t e amti-recessioa momsure. Federal spending f a c t s b u l l e t i n . no. 263, Ray 17. 1971: 1-1, P u b l i c s e r v i c e employment--[O.S. ] / Unemplo~ment--/U.S. 1 / P u b l r c w o r k s - [ U. S. 1 H D 5 7 0 6 O.S. T h e B e s u r g e a c e o f s t a t e power, B a s i a e s s week, no, 2146, O c t . 17. 1970: 102. 109. F e d e r a l - s t a t e r e l a t i o n s - - f U. 5. 1 / R e q i o n a l planning--[ U.S,] The S p r a w l o f t h e mild. l o s a i c , w. 2, m i n t e r 1971: 2-13. Tvo r e s e a r c h g r a u p s l n C a l i t o r n i a a n d B o n t a n a a r e s e a r c h i n g t o r ways t o p r o m o t e harmony between aan and n a t u r e . one g r o u p i s l n v e s t i g a t i n y e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n t h e Lake Tahoe Basin. The o t h e r g r o u p i s i n v e s t i n g a t i n g t h e i m p a c t o f a l a r g e r e c r e a t i o ~ ld e v e l o p m e n t on a s e a l - p r i m i t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t - - r e f e r s t o t h e Big S k y R e c r e a t i o n a l Development i n l o n t a n a . E c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h - - [ l e s t (U. S . ) ] / Land u s e - - [ l e s t (U.S.) ] / N a t u r e c o n s e r r a t i o n - - [ Yest ( 0 , s . ) J / Open s p a c e (U.S.) ] / Lakes--[Calrfornia ] / Recreation Lands--[Hest areas--[lantana] / L a k e s - - [ N e v a d a ] / Lake Tahoe / G a l l a t i n R i v e r / Big S k y R e c r e a t i o n a l Development 4 The S t a t e s : a r e t h e y r e a d y f o r retemue s h a r i n g ? C o n g r r i r s i o 8 a i q a a r t o r l y m e e k l y report. v, 29, Jane 25, 1971: 1391-1399. ] / S t a t e finance--[U.S. ] / State Revenue sharing--10.5. p o l i t i c s and governments--[ 0 . S . ] - O O R I C 1 . nor. 'us n o s a. O 0 , I"\ n , a C . P O mrrm c u o n u ~w , m 0 ' CI DI n .U ' D n c N w o o w o o 01 r c ~ m w n I w a LI*UIm O O W P m z 8 g < uC'P r m u r w n mo 'F) @fk? r W L d B cr I- & C g m