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Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2017

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Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Valerie Heitshusen Analyst on Congress and the Legislative Process February 11, 2011March 4, 2013 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL30567 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Summary This report briefly describes current responsibilities and selection mechanisms for 15 House and Senate party leadership posts and provides tables with historical data, including service dates, party affiliation, and other information for each. Tables have been updated as of the report’s issuance date to reflect leadership changes. Although party divisions appeared almost from the First Congress, the formally structured party leadership organizations now taken for granted are a relatively modern development. Constitutionally- specified leaders, namely the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate, can be identified since the first Congress. Other leadership posts, however, were not formally recognized until about the middle of the 19th century, and some are 20th century creations. In the earliest Congresses, those House Members who took some role in leading their party were often designated by the President as his spokesperson in the chamber. By the early 1800s, an informal system developed when the Speaker began naming his lieutenant to chair one of the most influential House committees. Eventually, other members wielded significant influence via other committee posts (e.g., the post-1880 Committee on Rules). By the end of the 19th century, the formal position of floor leaders had been established in the House. The Senate was slower than the House to develop formal party leadership positions, and there are similar problems in identifying individual early leaders. For instance, records of party conferences in the 19th century Senate are not available. Memoirs and other secondary sources reveal the identities of party conference or caucus chairs for some, but not all, Congresses after about 1850, but these posts carried very little authority. It was not uncommon for Senators to publicly declare that within the Senate parties, there was no single leader. Rather, through the turn of the 20th century, individuals who led the Senate achieved their position through recognized personal attributes, including persuasion and oratorical skills, rather than election or appointment to formal leadership posts. The formal positions for Senate party floor leaders eventually arose from the position of conference chair. Owing to the aforementioned problems in identifying informal party leaders in earlier Congresses, the tables in this report identify each leadership position beginning with the year in which each is generally regarded to have been formally established. The report excludes some leadership posts in order to render the amount of data manageable. A bibliography cites useful references, especially in regard to sources for historical data, and an appendix explains the abbreviations used to denote political parties. This report will be updated as changes in House and Senate party leadership positions occur. Congressional Research Service Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Contents Introduction and Methodological Notes .......................................................................................... 1 Identifying House Leaders ........................................................................................................ 2 Identifying Senate Leaders ........................................................................................................ 3 Party Affiliation Designations ................................................................................................... 3 Leadership Posts Excluded ........................................................................................................ 4 House Positions: Descriptions and Historical Tables ...................................................................... 4 Speaker of the House of Representatives .................................................................................. 4 Party Floor Leader ..................................................................................................................... 7 Party Whip ................................................................................................................................. 9 Conference or Caucus Chair .................................................................................................... 11 Senate Positions: Descriptions and Historical Tables .................................................................... 16 President Pro Tempore of the Senate ....................................................................................... 16 Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore ........................................................................................ 23 Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore ......................................................................... 24 Party Floor Leader ................................................................................................................... 24 Conference Chair ..................................................................................................................... 28 Party Whip ............................................................................................................................... 29 Source Notes and Bibliography ..................................................................................................... 32 Tables Table 1. Speakers of the House of Representatives, 1789-2011 2013 ...................................................... 5 Table 2. House Republican Floor Leaders, 1899-2011 2013 .................................................................... 7 Table 3. House Democratic Floor Leaders, 1899-20112013 ................................................................... 8 Table 4. House Democratic Whips, 1901-2011 2013 ............................................................................... 9 Table 5. House Republican Whips, 1897-20112013.............................................................................. 11 Table 6. House Republican Conference Chairs, 1863-2011 2013 .......................................................... 12 Table 7. House Democratic Caucus Chairs, 1849-20112013 ................................................................ 13 Table 8. Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1789-2011 2013 .......................................................... 17 Table 9. Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1977-20112013 .............................................. 24 Table 10. Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1964-20112013 ............................ 24 Table 11. Senate Republican Floor Leaders, 1919-2011 2013 ............................................................... 25 Table 12. Senate Democratic Floor Leaders and Conference Chairs, 1893-20112013 ......................... 26 Table 13. Senate Republican Conference Chairs, 1893-20112013 ........................................................ 28 Table 14. Senate Democratic Whips, 1913-20112013 ........................................................................... 30 Table 15. Senate Republican Whips, 1915-2011 2013 ........................................................................... 31 Congressional Research Service Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Appendixes Appendix. Political Party Abbreviations ...................................................................................... 34.. 35 Contacts Author Contact Information .......................................................................................................... 35 Acknowledgments . 36 Acknowledgments ....................................................................................................................... 35.. 36 Congressional Research Service Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Introduction and Methodological Notes Although party divisions sprang up almost from the First Congress, the formally structured party leadership organizations now taken for granted are a relatively modern development. Constitutionally specified leaders, namely the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate, can be identified since the first Congress. Other leadership posts, however, were not officially recognized until about the middle of the 19th century, and some are 20th century creations. The following tables identify 15 different party leadership posts beginning with the year when each is generally regarded to have been formally established. The tables herein present data on service dates, party affiliation, and other information for the following House and Senate party leadership posts: House Positions 1. Speakers of the House of Representatives, 1789-20112013 2. House Republican Floor Leaders, 1899-20112013 3. House Democratic Floor Leaders, 1899-20112013 4. House Democratic Whips, 1901-20112013 5. House Republican Whips, 1897-20112013 6. House Republican Conference Chairs, 1863-20112013 7. House Democratic Caucus Chairs, 1849-20112013 Senate Positions 8. Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1789-20112013 9. Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1977-20112013 10. Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1964-20112013 11. Senate Republican Floor Leaders, 1919-20112013 12. Senate Democratic Floor Leaders and Conference Chairs, 1893-20112013 13. Senate Republican Conference Chairs, 1893-20112013 14. Senate Democratic Whips, 1913-20112013 15. Senate Republican Whips, 1915-20112013 This information reflects the leadership elections and appointments for the first session of the 112th Congress (made in party organizational meetings held at the end of the 111th Congress, or in the case of the Speaker, occurring on the floor of the House when the 112th Congress convenedat the start of the 113th Congress, as well as changes that occurred during the Congress (as of the date of this report). Congressional Research Service 1 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Included for each post are leaders’ names, party and state affiliations, and dates and Congresses of service. For most Congresses, the report indicates years of service only, except in the tables for the House Speaker and the Senate President pro tempore, both of which include specific dates of service. When a Member died while holding a leadership office, however, the date of death is included as the end-of-service date (except in Table 13). In cases where a leadership change occurs during the course of a Congress, exact dates of service are indicated where possible. With respect to length of service, the report includes all instances in which a Member held a particular leadership post, regardless of whether the Member held the post for the entire Congress or only a portion of it. Official congressional documents (House Journal and Senate Journal, Congressional Record, and predecessor publications) can be used to document the tenure of the constitutionally- specified leaders (i.e., Speaker and President pro tempore). The actions of the party organizations in choosing other leaders, such as floor leaders or caucus or conference chairs, frequently went unacknowledged in these sources, however. In the frequent absence of party caucus records in the latter half of the 19th century, scholars have had to rely on secondary sources, such as memoirs and correspondence, for evidence of party leadership position-holding. The concluding portion of this report, “Source Notes and Bibliography,” provides more information about sources and the reliability of leadership lists. Identifying House Leaders The changing nature of congressional leadership provides additional challenges to identifying leaders not constitutionally specified (e.g., floor leader).1 Even for party elected posts, determining who held other positions can be problematic in earlier Congresses. For example, identifying each party’s conference (or caucus) chair often requires reliance on incomplete historical records of conference meetings or inferences made from informal practices (e.g., noting which Member nominated his party’s candidate for Speaker, a motion that often fell to the conference chair). In the House, for example, it was the common practice of President Thomas Jefferson and his immediate successors to designate a Member as their principal legislative spokesman. Often these spokesmen held no other formal leadership position in the House, and Presidents frequently designated new spokesmen, or even specialized spokesmen for individual measures, as their terms progressed. As these and other “leaders” were not chosen by a congressional party group or by a party leader such as the Speaker, these presidential designees have not been included here as “party leaders.” Most historians who study the 19th century House acknowledge that an informal “positional leadership” system emerged possibly as early as the “War Hawk” Congress (1811-1813) under Speaker Henry Clay. Under this system, the Speaker—who at the time designated the chairmen of the standing committees—would name his principal lieutenant to be chairman of the Ways and Means Committee. After the Appropriations Committee was split from the Ways and Means Committee in 1865, the Speaker’s principal floor lieutenant received either of these chairs. Sometimes, the Speaker chose a rival for the speakership to chair one of these committees in an effort to resolve intra-party disputes. 1 See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and citation of the multiple sources used in identifying leaders in the House of Representatives. Congressional Research Service 2 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 It is somewhat inaccurate, however, to consider these early leaders to be majority leaders in the modern sense, and they have not been included here. The position of chair of the Appropriations or Ways and Means Committee inevitably made the incumbent a powerful congressional figure because of the important legislation reported from these committees. These chairs were not, however, chosen in a vote by the full party organization, as the majority or minority House leaders are now. Furthermore, other leading congressional figures, such as the Republican leader Thomas Brackett Reed, achieved their positions of influence within the House by service on other committees, such as—in Reed’s case—the post-1880 Rules Committee. Identifying Senate Leaders The Senate developed an identifiable party leadership later than the House. The few existing records of party conferences in the 19th century Senate are held in private collections. Memoirs and other secondary sources reveal the identities of party conference or caucus chairs for some, but not all, Congresses after about 1850; these posts, however, carried very little authority. It was not uncommon for Senators to declare publicly that within the Senate parties there was no single leader. 2 Instead, through the turn of the 20th century, individuals who led the Senate achieved their position through recognized personal attributes, including persuasion and oratory skills, rather than the current practice of election to most official leadership posts. The development of Senate party floor leaders was one of slow evolution, like the House, but they arose for the most part from the post of conference chair. Not until 1945 did Senate Republicans specify that the conference chair and floor leader posts must be held by separate Senators. Among Senate Democrats, the floor leader is also chair of the conference. In many secondary sources, Senators are identified as “floor leaders” before existing party conference records so identify them. In this report, footnotes to the tables attempt to clarify when a leader was identified through official sources such as caucus minutes or through secondary sources. Party Affiliation Designations Another problem in identifying party leaders in early Congresses is the matter of party affiliation. Secondary sources reporting on party leaders often relied upon the information compiled in early editions of the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. As the editors of the 1989 edition of the Biographical Directory noted: The most serious source of error and confusion in previous editions [of the Biographical Directory] [was] the designations of party affiliation. Many of the party labels added to the editions of 1913 and 1928 were anachronistic, claiming for the two modern parties Senators and Representatives elected to Congress before the [modern] Democratic or Republican parties existed. Other entries ignored the frequent shifts in party affiliation during the nineteenth century or omitted reference to short-lived and regional political parties and thus failed to reflect the vigor and diversity of nineteenth-century politics.3 2 Woodrow Wilson, Congressional Government (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1885), p. 223. U.S. Congress, Senate, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress 1774-1989: the Continental Congress, September 5, 1774, to October 21, 1788, and The Congress of the United States, from the First through the One Hundredth Congresses, March 4, 1789, to January 3, 1989, inclusive, Bicentennial edition, S.Doc. 100-34, 100th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1989), p. 3. 3 Congressional Research Service 3 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 The 1989 and 1997 editions of the Biographical Directory resolved these differences, and their designations of party affiliations are principal sources for this report. The 1997 edition of the Biographical Directory, in particular, included more complete notations where Members changed their party affiliations while serving in Congress.4 The main source for early party affiliations of Senator leaders, principally Presidents pro tempore, is volume four of Senator Robert C. Byrd’s The Senate, 1789-1989. (Historical Statistics, 1789-1992).5 An Appendix explains the abbreviations used to denote party affiliations in this report. Leadership Posts Excluded The tables in this report exclude some leadership posts in order to render manageable the amount of data provided. Specifically, the Senate and House party conference secretaries, and the chairs of party committees (e.g., steering committees, policy committees, committees on committees, and campaign committees) are not presented here. Junior party whips are also not identified. At least since the 1930s in the House, both parties have selected (or allowed the principal whip to designate) subordinate whips. The lack of adequate records makes it almost impossible to identify all deputy whips, regional whips, and zone whips who have been appointed in the last 70 years. House Positions: Descriptions and Historical Tables Speaker of the House of Representatives The position of Speaker is constitutionally specified in Article 1, Section 2. The Speaker is the only party leader who is chosen by a roll-call vote of the full House of Representatives, which occurs after each party has nominated a candidate for the position when a new Congress convenes. House rules give the Speaker various formal duties. These include, for example, administering the oath of office to new Members, signing House-passed bills and resolutions, presiding over the House (and making rulings on the presence of a quorum, points of order, etc.), referring measures to committees, and naming the party’s slate of members for certain committee positions. Each party conference cedes additional powers and responsibilities to a Speaker from its own party, including influence over the makeup of certain standing committees. For more information, consult CRS Report 97-780, The Speaker of the House: House Officer, Party Leader, and Representative, by Valerie Heitshusen, and CRS Report RL30857, Speakers of the House: Elections, 1913-20112013, by Richard S. Beth and Valerie Heitshusen. 4 Biographical Directory of the American Congress 1774-1996 (Washington: CQ Staff Directories, Inc., 1997), p. xi. This commercially published edition of the Biographical Directory is a continuation of earlier editions that were published under public auspices. An online, updated, version is also available at http://bioguide.congress.gov/biosearch/biosearch.asp. 5 Robert C. Byrd, The Senate, 1789-1989, 4 vols., S. Doc. 100-20, 100th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1988-1993), vol. 4, Historical Statistics, 1789-1992. Hereafter cited as Byrd’s Historical Statistics. See also, Gerald Gamm and Steven S. Smith, “Last Among Equals: The Senate’s Presiding Officer,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, September 36, 1998. Congressional Research Service 4 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Table 1. Speakers of the House of Representatives, 1789-20112013 Speaker Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg Jonathan Trumbull Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg Party State N/A PA 1st Apr. 1, 1789- Mar. 3, 1791 CT 2nd Oct. 24, 1791- Mar. 3, 1793 PA 3rd Dec. 2, 1793- Mar. 3, 1795 Dec. 7, 1795- Mar. 3, 1799 N/A N/A Congress Dates Jonathan Dayton N/A NJ 4th-5th Theodore Sedgwick N/A MA 6th Dec. 2, 1799- Mar. 3, 1801 Nathaniel Macon N/A NC 7th-9th Dec. 7, 1801-Mar. 3, 1807 Joseph B. Varnum N/A MA 10th-11th Oct. 26, 1807- Mar. 3, 1811 Henry Clay R(DR)a KY 12th-13th Nov. 4, 1811- Jan. 19, 1814b Langdon Cheeves R(DR)a SC 13th Jan. 19, 1814- Mar. 3, 1815 Henry Clay R(DR)a KY 14th-16th Dec. 4, 1815- Oct. 28, 1820c John W. Taylor R(DR)a NY 16th Nov. 15, 1820- Mar. 3, 1821 Philip Barbour R(DR)a VA 17th Dec. 4, 1821- Mar. 3, 1823 Henry Clay R(DR)a KY 18th Dec. 3, 1823- Mar. 6, 1825d John W. Taylor R(DR)a NY 19th Dec. 5, 1825- Mar. 3, 1827 Andrew Stevenson N/A VA 20th Dec. 3, 1827- Mar. 3, 1829 Andrew Stevenson J VA 21st-23rd Dec. 7, 1829- June 2, 1834e N/A TN 23rd June 2, 1834- Mar. 3, 1835 J TN 24th-25th Dec. 7, 1835- Mar. 3, 1839 W WA 26th Dec. 16, 1839- Mar. 3, 1841 KY 27th May 31, 1841- Mar. 3, 1843 VA 28th Dec. 4, 1843- Mar. 3, 1845 Dec. 1, 1845- Mar. 3, 1847 John Bell James K. Polk Robert M.T. Hunter John White John W. Jones W D John W. Davis D IN 29th Robert C. Winthrop W MA 30th Dec. 6, 1847- Mar. 3, 1849 Howell Cobb D GA 31st Dec. 22, 1849- Mar. 3, 1851 Linn Boyd D KY 32nd-33rd Dec. 1, 1851- Mar. 3, 1855 Amf MA 34th Feb. 2, 1856- Mar. 3, 1857 James L. Orr D SC 35th Dec. 7, 1857- Mar. 3, 1859 William Pennington R NJ 36th Feb. 1, 1860- Mar. 3, 1861 PA 37th July 4, 1861- Mar. 3, 1863 Dec. 7, 1863- Mar. 3, 1869g Nathaniel P. Banks Galusha A. Grow R Schuyler Colfax R IN 38th-40th Theodore Pomeroy R NY 40th Mar. 3, 1869h James G. Blaine R ME 41st-43rd Mar. 4, 1869- Mar. 3, 1875 Michael C. Kerr D IN 44th Dec. 6, 1875- Aug. 19, 1876i Samuel J. Randall D PA 44th-46th Dec. 4, 1876- Mar. 3, 1881 J. Warren Keifer R OH 47th Dec. 5, 1881- Mar. 3, 1883 John G. Carlisle D KY 48th-50th Dec. 3, 1883- Mar. 3, 1889 Congressional Research Service 5 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Speaker Thomas B. Reed Charles F. Crisp Party State R ME 51st Dec. 2, 1889- Mar. 3, 1891 GA 52nd-53rd Dec. 7, 1891- Mar. 3, 1895 Dec. 2, 1895- Mar. 3, 1899 D Congress Dates Thomas B. Reed R ME 54th-55th David B. Henderson R IA 56th-57th Dec. 4, 1899- Mar. 3, 1903 Joseph G. Cannon R IL 58th-61st Nov. 9, 1903- Mar. 3, 1911 James B. (Champ) Clark D MO 62nd-65th April 4, 1911- Mar. 3, 1919 Frederick H. Gillett R MA 66th-68th May 19, 1919- Mar. 3, 1925 Nicholas Longworth R OH 69th-71st Dec. 7, 1925- Mar. 3, 1931 John N. Garner D TX 72nd Dec. 7, 1931- Mar. 3, 1933 Mar. 9, 1933- Aug. 19, 1934j Henry T. Rainey D IL 73rd Joseph W. Byrns D TN 74th Jan. 3, 1935- June 4, 1936k William B. Bankhead D AL 74th-76th June 4, 1936- Sept. 15, 1940l Sam T. Rayburn D TX 76th-79th Sept. 16, 1940- Jan. 3, 1947m Joseph W. Martin, Jr. R MA 80th Jan. 3, 1947- Jan. 3, 1949 Sam T. Rayburn D TX 81st-82nd Jan. 3, 1949- Jan. 3, 1953 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. R MA 83rd Jan. 3, 1953- Jan. 3, 1955 Sam T. Rayburn D TX 84th-87th Jan. 5, 1955- Nov. 16, 1961m John W. McCormack D MA 87th-91st Jan. 10, 1962- Jan. 3, 1971 OK 92nd-94th Jan. 21, 1971- Jan. 3, 1977 MA 95th-99th Jan. 4, 1977- Jan. 3, 1987 Jan. 6, 1987- June 6, 1989n Carl Albert Thomas P. O’Neill, Jr. D D James C. Wright, Jr. D TX 100th-101st Thomas S. Foley D WA 101st-103rd June 6, 1989- Jan. 3, 1995 Newt Gingrich R GA 104th-105th Jan. 4, 1995- Jan. 3, 1999 J. Dennis Hastert R IL 106th-109th Jan. 6, 1999- Jan. 3, 2007 Nancy Pelosi D CA 110th-111th Jan. 4, 2007- Jan. 3, 20112012 John Boehner R OH 112th- Jan. 5, 2011- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Notes: A key to all party abbreviations can be found in the Appendix of this report. a. Although the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 identifies these Speakers as Republicans, the party designation “Democratic Republicans” is more widely used and familiar to readers. This designation, R(DR), should not be taken to refer to the contemporary Republican Party, which did not emerge until the 1850s. b. Resigned from the House of Representatives, January 19, 1814. c. Resigned the Speakership on October 28, 1820. d. Resigned from the House, March 6, 1825. e. Resigned from the House, June 2, 1834. f. Speaker Nathaniel P. Banks served in the House three separate times under three different party designations. In the 34th Congress, he served as an American Party Member. Congressional Research Service 6 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 g. Resigned from the House, March 3, 1869. h. Elected Speaker, March 3, 1869, and served one day. i. Died in office, August 19, 1876. j. Died in office, August 19, 1934. k. Died in office, June 4, 1936. l. Died in office, September 15, 1940. m. Died in office, November 16, 1961. n. Resigned the Speakership, June 6, 1989; resigned from the House, June 30, 1989. Party Floor Leader At an organizational meeting prior to the beginning of a new Congress, each party conference (or caucus) in the House selects its floor leader (also called majority leader or minority leader, as appropriate) in a secret-ballot vote. The majority party floor leader works closely with the Speaker and is largely responsible for the party’s daily legislative operations, in consultation with other party leaders. Similarly, the minority party floor leader directs the party’s ongoing legislative strategies and operations and typically serves as the spokesperson for the party in the House. Each party assigns additional responsibilities to its respective floor leader. For more information on the majority party floor leader position, see CRS Report RL30665, The Role of the House Majority Leader: An Overview, by Walter J. Oleszek. Table 2. House Republican Floor Leaders, 1899-20112013 Floor Leader Sereno E. Payne State Congress Dates NY 56th-61st 1899-1911 IL 62nd-65th 1911-1919 Franklin W. Mondell WY 66th-67th 1919-1923 Nicholas Longworth OH 68th 1923-1925 John Q. Tilson CT 69th-71st 1925-1931 Bertrand H. Snell NY 72nd-75th 1931-1939 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. MA 76th-79th 1939-1947 Charles Halleck IN 80th 1947-1949 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. MA 81st-82nd 1949-1953 IN 83rd 1953-1955 James R. Mann Charles Halleck MA 84th- 85th 1955-1959 IN 86th-88th 1959-1965 Gerald R. Ford MI 89th-93rd 1965-Dec. 6, 1973a John J. Rhodes AZ 93rd-96th Dec. 7, 1973-1981 Robert H. Michel IL 97th-103rd 1981-1995 Richard K. Armey TX 104th-107th 1995-2003 Tom DeLay TX 108th-109th 2003-Sept. 28, 2005b Roy Blunt MO 109th Sept. 28, 2005-Feb. 2, 2006c Joseph W. Martin, Jr. Charles Halleck Congressional Research Service 7 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Floor Leader John Boehner Eric Cantor State Congress Dates John Boehner OH 109th, 110th-111th Feb. 2, 2006-2011 Eric Cantor VA 112th- 2011- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the floor leader was also majority leader. a. Resigned from the House on December 6, 1973, after having been confirmed by the Senate to become Vice President to fill the post vacated by the resignation of Spiro T. Agnew. b. Resigned from leader position on September 28, 2005. c. Appointed acting Republican floor leader on September 28, 2005, to replace Tom DeLay temporarily until the conference could hold new elections on February 2, 2006. He continued serving as Republican Whip during this period. Table 3. House Democratic Floor Leaders, 1899-20112013 Floor Leader State Congress Dates James D. Richardson TN 56th-57th 1899-1903 John Sharp Williams MS 58th-60th 1903-1908 James B. (Champ) Clark MO 60th-61st 1908-1911 Oscar W. Underwood AL 62nd-63rd 1911-1915 Claude Kitchin NC 64th-65th 1915-1919 James B. (Champ) Clark MO 66th 1919-1921 NC 67th 1921-1923 IN 68th-70th 1923-1929 John N. Garner TX 71st 1929-1931 Henry T. Rainey IL 72nd 1931-1933 Joseph W. Byrns TN 73rd 1933-1935 William B. Bankhead AL 74th 1935-June 4, 1936a Sam T. Rayburn TX 75th-76th 1937-Sept. 16, 1940b John W. McCormack MA 76th-79th Sept. 16, 1940-1947c Sam T. Rayburn TX 80th 1947-1949 MA 81st-82nd 1949-1953 TX 83rd 1953-1955 John W. McCormack MA 84th-87th 1955-Jan. 10, 1962d Carl Albert OK 87th-91st Jan. 10, 1962-1971e Thomas Hale Boggs LA 92nd 1971-1973f Thomas P. O’Neill, Jr. MA 93rd-94th 1973-1977 James Wright TX 95th-99th 1977-1987 Thomas S. Foley WA 100th-101st 1987-June 6, 1989g Richard A. Gephardt MO 101st-103rd 104th-107th June 14, 1989h-2003 James B. (Champ) Clark Claude Kitchin Finis J. Garrett John W. McCormack Sam T. Rayburn Congressional Research Service 8 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Floor Leader State Nancy Pelosi Steny H. Hoyer Nancy Pelosi Congress Dates CA 108th-109th 2003-2007 MD 110th-111th 2007-2011 VACA 112th- 2011- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the floor leader was also majority leader. a. Elected Speaker, filling the vacancy caused by the death of Speaker Joseph W. Byrns. Records indicate that Representative John J. O’Connor of New York, chair of the House Rules Committee, served as acting majority leader during the 14 remaining days of the 74th Congress. O’Connor does not, however, appear to have been formally elected majority leader at that time and therefore is not included in this list. b. Elected Speaker following the death of Speaker William B. Bankhead. c. Elected majority leader on September 16, 1940, to fill post made vacant by the election of Sam Rayburn as Speaker. d. Elected Speaker at the start of the 87th Congress, 2nd session, following the death of Sam Rayburn. e. Elected majority leader at commencement of the 87th Congress, 2nd session, when Majority Leader John McCormack was elected Speaker to succeed Speaker Rayburn. f. Disappeared on a flight from Anchorage to Juneau, Alaska, October 16, 1972. Presumed dead pursuant to House Resolution 1, 93rd Congress. g. Elected Speaker on June 6, 1989, following Speaker James C. Wright’s resignation from that post on the same date. h. Elected majority leader on June 14, 1989, to fill the post made vacant by the election of Thomas S. Foley to be Speaker on June 6, 1989. Party Whip Each House party caucus currently elects its own party whip at organizational meetings as a new Congress begins. House Republicans (or a representative group of their conference) have always elected their party whips; Democrats in the House appointed a chief whip until 1986. Chief deputy whips are currently appointed by the party’s chief whip; additional members to serve in the whip team are either similarly appointed or, instead, elected by subsets of the caucus. The whip organization is responsible for assessing the passage prospects for upcoming measures, mobilizing member support for leadership priorities, informing the party rank-and-file regarding legislative scheduling and initiatives, and informing the top party leadership regarding the sentiment of the rank-and-file. For more information, see CRS Report RS20499, House Leadership: Whip Organization, by Judy Schneider. Table 4. House Democratic Whips, 1901-20112013 Whip Oscar W. Underwooda James T. Lloyd State N/Ac Congressional Research Service Dates AL 56th 1901 MO 57th-60th 1901-1908b 61st-62nd 1909-1913 63rd 1913-1915 64th-65th, 66th 1915-1921 N/Ac Thomas M. Bell Congress GA 9 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Whip State Congress Dates William A. Oldfield AR 67th-70th 1921-Nov. 19, 1928d John McDuffie AL 70th-71st, 72nd 1928-1933 Arthur Greenwood IN 73rd 1933-1935 Patrick J. Boland PA 74th-77th 1935-May 18, 1942e Robert Ramspeck GA 77th-79th 1942-Dec. 31, 1945f John J. Sparkman AL 79th 1946-1947 John W. McCormacka MA 80th 1947-1949 J. Percy Priest TN 81st-82nd 1949-1953 John W. McCormacka MA 83rd 1953-1955 OK 84th-87th 1955-1962 LA 87th-91st 1962-1971 MA 92nd 1971-1973 John J. McFall CA 93rd-94th 1973-1977 John W. Brademas IN 95th-96th 1977-1981 Thomas S. Foleya WA 97th-99th 1981-1987 Tony Coelhog CA 100th-101st 1987-June 14, 1989 William H. Gray, III PA 101st-102nd June 14, 1989-Sept. 11, 1991h David E. Bonior MI 102nd-103rd 104th-107th Sept. 11, 1991-Jan. 15, 2002i Nancy Pelosia CA 107th-108th Jan. 15, 2002-2003j Steny H. Hoyera MD 108th -109th 2003-2007 SC 110th-111th 2007-2011 MD 112th- 2011- Carl Alberta Thomas Hale Boggsa Thomas P. O’Neill, Jr.a James E. Clyburn Steny H. Hoyer Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the Democratic whip was the majority whip. a. Ascended (or re-ascended) to party floor leader. b. Resigned from position as Democratic whip in 1908 at the conclusion of the 60th Congress. c. For these periods, there is no official record—in the minutes of the Democratic Caucus or elsewhere—of the name of the Democratic whip. Some scholars believe that Representative Thomas Bell may have been the whip from 1909 to 1919; others believe the whip for that period may have been Representative John Nance Garner. See Randall B. Ripley, “The Party Whip Organizations in the United States House of Representatives,” American Political Science Review, vol. 58, September 1964, p. 504. d. Died in office, November 19, 1928. e. Died in office, May 18, 1942. f. g. h. i. Resigned from the House of Representatives, December 31, 1945. Representative Tony Coelho was the first elected Democratic whip. Resigned from the House of Representatives, September 11, 1991. Elected July 11, 1991, but did not assume the House Democratic whip post until his predecessor in the position, William H. Gray, III, resigned from Congress on September 11, 1991. Elected on October 10, 2001, but did not assume the position of House Democratic whip until January 15, 2002, the date on which Bonior’s resignation as whip became effective. j. Congressional Research Service 10 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Table 5. House Republican Whips, 1897-2011 Whip State Congress Dates James A. Tawney2013 Whip James A. Tawney James E. Watson John W. Dwight State Congress Dates MN 55th-58th 1897-1905 James E. Watson IN 59th-60th 1905-1909 John W. Dwight NY 61st 62nd 1909-1913 62nd Charles H. Burke Charles M. Hamilton Harold Knutson Albert H. Vestal SD 63rd 1913-1915 Charles M. Hamilton WY 64th-65th 1915-1919 Harold Knutson MN 66th-67th 1919-1923 Albert H. Vestal IN 68th-71st 1923-1931 1931-1933 Carl G. Bachmann WV 72nd 1931-1933 Harry L. Englebright CA 73rd-78th 1933-May 13, 1943a Leslie C. Arends IL 78th-79th 80th 81st-82nd 83rd 84th-93rd 1943-1975 Robert H. Michelb IL 94th-96th 1975-1981 Trent Lott MS 97th-100th 1981-1989 Dick Cheney WY 101st 1989-Mar. 17, 1989c Newt Gingrich GA 101st-103rd Mar. 22, 1989-1995c Tom DeLayb TX 104th-107th 1995-2003 Roy D. Bluntb MO 108th-109th 110th 2003d-2009 Eric Cantorb VA 111th 2009-2011 Kevin McCarthy CA 112th- 2011- Roy D. Bluntb Eric Cantorb Kevin McCarthy 110thTrent Lott Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the Republican whip was the majority whip. a. Died in office, May 13, 1943. b. Ascended to party floor leader. c. Elected House Republican whip on March 22, 1989, following Representative Dick Cheney’s resignation from the House on March 17, 1989, to become Secretary of Defense. d. Served concurrently as whip and acting Republican floor leader from September 28, 2005, to February 2, 2006. Conference or Caucus Chair The Republican Conference and the Democratic Caucus are the organizations of the members of the respective parties in the House. Each conference has an elected chair, who presides over its meetings. Decisions made by the conference (and often publicly promulgated by the chair) are generally regarded as the collective sentiment of the respective House party contingent. Congressional Research Service 11 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Table 6. House Republican Conference Chairs, 1863-20112013 Chair Justin S. Morrilla State VT N/Ab Congress Dates 38th-39th 1863-1867 40th 1867-1869 1869-1871 Robert C. Nathaniel P. Banksc OH MA 41st Austin Blair MI 42nd 1871-1873 TN 43rd 1873-1875 IA 44th 1875-1877 ME 45th 1877-1879 William P. Frye ME 46th 1879-1881 G.M. Robeson NJ 47th 1881-1883 Joseph G. Cannon IL 48th-50th 1883-1889 T.J. Henderson IL 51st 52nd-53rd 1889-1895 OH 54th-55th 1895-1899 Joseph G. Cannon IL 56th-57th 1899-1903 William P. Hepburn IA 58th-60th 1903-1909 F.D. Currier NH 61st 62nd 1909-1913 William S. Greene MA 63rd-65th 1913-1919 Horace M. Towner IA 66th-67th 1919-1923 Schenckc Horace Maynard George W. McCrary Eugene Hale Charles H. Grosvenor Sydney Anderson MN 68th 1923-1925 Willis C. Hawley OR 69th-71st 72nd 1925-1933 Robert Luce MA 73rd 1933-1935 Frederick R. Lehlbach NJ 74th 1935-1937 Roy Woodruff MI 75th-79th 80th 81st 1937-1951 Clifford Hope KS 82nd 83rd 1951-1957 84th Charles Hoeven Gerald R. Ford Melvin Laird John B. Anderson IA 85th-87th 1957-1963 MI 88th 1963-1965 WI 89th-90th 1965-1969 IL 91st-95th 1969-1979 1979-1981 Samuel L. Devine OH 96th Jack Kemp NY 97th-99th 1981-June 4, 1987d Dick Cheney WY 100th June 4, 1987-1989d Jerry Lewis CA 101st-102nd 1989-1993 Congressional Research Service 12 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Chair State Richard K. Armey State Congress Dates TX 103rd 1993-1995 OH 104th-105th 1995-1999 J.C. Watts OK 106th-107th 1999-2003 Deborah Pryce OH 108th-109th 2003-2007 Adam Putnam FL 110th 2007-2009 Mike Pence IN 111th 2009-2011 Jeb Hensarling TX 112th- 2011 2011-2013 Cathy McMorris Rodgers WA 113th- 2013- John A. Boehner Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the Republican Party was in the majority. a. Representative Justin S. Morrill is the first officially designated Republican caucus chair. There exists no clear evidence of formal chairs of Republican organizations in earlier Congresses. b. Caucus minutes show three Members (Representatives Nathaniel Banks, Luke Poland, and Samuel Hooper) chairing three separate meetings. c. Caucus minutes show Representative Robert C. Schenck elected chair, but Representative Nathaniel P. Banks chairing two early meetings, possibly in Schenck’s absence. d. On June 4, 1987, Representative Dick Cheney was elected conference chair to succeed Representative Jack Kemp, who resigned from the post. Table 7. House Democratic Caucus Chairs, 1849-20112013 Chair James Thompson State PA Congress Dates 31st 1849-1851 N/Aa 32nd 1851-1853 Edson B. Olds OH 33rd 1853-1855 TN 34th 1855-1857 N/Ab 35th 1857-1859 George S. Houston 36th 1859-1861 37th-40th 1861-1869 41st 1869-1871 N/Ae 42nd 1871-1873 42nd 1871-1873 George W. Jones PA Congress AL N/Ac William E. Niblackd Samuel J. Randalld IN PA N/Ae William E. Niblack IN 43rd 1873-1875 Lucius Q.C. Lamar MS 44th 1875-1877 Hiester Clymer PA 45th 1877-1879 John F. House TN 46th 1879-1881 47th 1881-1883 N/Aa Edson B. Olds George W. Jones AL N/Ac William E. Niblackd Samuel J. Randalld IN PA N/Af George W. Geddes OH 48th 1883-1885 J. Randolph Tucker VA 49th 1885-1887 NY 50th 1887-1889g Samuel S. CoxOH 48th 1883-1885 VA 49th 1885-1887 N/Af George W. Geddes J. Randolph Tucker Congressional Research Service 13 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Chair State Congress Dates Samuel S. Cox NY 50th 1887-1889g William S. Holman IN 51st 52nd-53rd 1889-1895 David B. Culberson TX 54th 1895-1897 James D. Richardson TN 55th 1897-1899 James Hay VA 56th-58th 1899-1905 TX 59th 1905-1907 Henry D. Clayton AL 60th-61st 1907-1911h Albert S. Burleson TX 62nd 1911-1913h A. Mitchell Palmer PA 63rd 1913-1915 E.W. Saunders VA 64th-65th 1915-1919 Arthur G. Dewalt PA 66th 1919-1921 Sam T. Rayburn TX 67th 1921-1923 Henry T. Rainey IL 68th 1923-1925 OK 69th 1925-1927 IN 70th 1927-1929 David Kincheloe KY 71st 1929-1930i William W. Arnold IL 72nd 1931-1933 Clarence F. Lea CA 73rd 1933-1935 Edward T. Taylor CO 74th 1935-1937 Robert L. Doughton NC 75th 1937-1939 John W. McCormack MA 76th 1939-Sept. 16, 1940j Richard M. Duncan MO 77th 1941-1943 Harry Sheppard CA 78th 1943-1945 TN 79th 1945-1947 Aime Forand RI 80th 1947-1949 Francis E. Walter PA 81st 1949-1951 Jere Cooper TN 82nd 1951-1953 Wilbur Mills AR 83rd 1953-1955 John J. Rooney NY 84th 1955-1957 James D. Richardson James Hay Robert L. Henry Charles D. Carter Arthur Greenwood Jere Cooper Aime ForandHarry Sheppard Jere Cooper Melvin Price IL 85th-86th 1957-1961 Francis E. Walter PA 87th-88th 1961-May 31, 1963k Albert Thomas TX 88th 1964-1965 NY 89th 1965-1967 1967-1971 Eugene Keogh Dan Rostenkowski IL 90th-91st 1967-1971 Olin Teague TX 92nd-93rd 1971-1975 Philip Burton CA 94th 1975-1977 Thomas S. Foley WA 95th-96th 1977-1981 Eugene Keogh Dan Rostenkowski Congressional Research Service 14 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2011 Chair State Gillis W. Long Congress Dates2013 Chair Thomas S. Foley State Congress Dates WA 95th-96th 1977-1981 LA 97th-98th 1981-1985 Richard Gephardt MO 99th-100th 1985-1989 William H. Gray, III PA 101st Jan. 4-June 14, 1989l Steny H. Hoyer MD 101st-103rd June 21, 1989-1995m Vic Fazio CA 104th-105th 1995-1999 Martin Frost TX 106th-107th 1999-2003 Robert Menendez NJ 108th-109th 2003-Dec. 16, 2005n James E. Clyburn SC 109th Dec. 16, 2005n-2007 Rahm Emanuel IL 110th 2007-2009 CT 111th-112th 2009-2013 CA 113th- 2013- Gillis W. Long 2009- Richard Gephardt John B. Larson Xavier Becerra Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the Democratic Party was in the majority. a. No clear records remain for this Congress. In early practice, the caucus chair often offered the various organizational resolutions at the beginning of a Congress (e.g., the nomination of his party’s candidate for Speaker, or the motion to elect the Speaker); examination of these motions can often help in a determination of who was caucus chair. However, several different Democratic Members offered the organizing resolutions for the 31st Congress. b. No clear data for this period exist. c. No clear data for this period exist. Representative John Hickman nominated Representative F.P. Blair as Speaker in 1861, but no records show whether Hickman was caucus chair. d. Representative Samuel J. Randall nominated the party’s candidate for Speaker. Caucus records, however, show both Representatives William B. Niblack and Randall as having served as chair during the Congress. The caucus records specify no dates of service. e. Representative Fernando Wood nominated the Democratic leadership slate in the House, but there is no other evidence to show he was elected caucus chair. f. Available data show that Representative John F. House offered the Democrats’ nomination for Speaker in the 47th Congress. However, later data show Representative W.S. Rosecrans issuing the next call for a Democratic Caucus meeting; there is no evidence to suggest that Rosecrans was actually elected caucus chair. g. Former Parliamentarian Clarence Cannon’s notes state that “[Representative Samuel J.] Cox died during this Congress and [Representative James B.] McCreary evidently succeeded or acted for him.” Representative Cox died on September 10, 1889, six months after the sine die adjournment of the 50th Congress and the convening of the 51st Congress. h. Caucus records are contradictory for this period. They show the election of Representative James Hay as chair on January 19, 1911, but do not mention a resignation by incumbent chair Henry P. Clayton, nor do they specify that Hay was elected chair for the new Congress. Later, they show the election of Representative Albert S. Burleson on April 11, 1911. i. Resigned from the House, October 5, 1930; there is no record of an election to fill the vacancy as caucus chair. j. Resigned following election as majority floor leader, September 16, 1940; records do not indicate that a successor was chosen during the remainder of the Congress. Congressional Research Service 15 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2013 k. Died in office, May 31, 1963. Caucus chair post vacant until January 21, 1964. l. Representative William H. Gray, III, vacated the caucus chair post when he was elected Democratic whip on June 14, 1989. Congressional Research Service 15 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2011 m. m. Representative Steny H. Hoyer was elected caucus chair on June 21, 1989, following the June 14, 1989 election of Representative William H. Gray as Democratic whip. n. Representative Robert Menendez resigned from the House on January 16, 2006, after being apppointed to the Senate seat for New Jersey vacated by Jon Corzine when he was elected governor. Representative Menendez had previously resigned from the caucus chair position, to which Representative James E. Clyburn was elected on December 16, 2005. Senate Positions: Descriptions and Historical Tables President Pro Tempore of the Senate Pursuant to Article 1, Section 3, of the U.S. Constitution, the President pro tempore of the Senate is the chamber’s presiding officer in the absence of the President of the Senate (the Vice President of the United States). The President pro tempore is elected by the full Senate as the formal institutional leader, and in current practice, is the longest -serving member of the majority party.6 Until 1890, the Senate elected a President pro tempore whenever the Vice President was not in attendance, whether for a day, or permanently, as in the case of the Vice President’s death or resignation. When the Vice President returned, the President pro tempore lost his place. When the Vice President was again absent, the Senate again elected a President pro tempore—in many cases the same Senator who had been chosen before. By the standing order agreed to on March 12, 1890, the Senate declared that the President pro tempore shall hold the office during “the pleasure of the Senate and until another is elected, and shall execute the duties thereof during all future absences of the Vice President until the Senate does otherwise order.”7 The Senate’s President pro tempore is, pursuant to statute, currently third in the line of presidential succession (behind the Vice President and the Speaker of the House). In the Succession Act of 1792, the position was initially designated to serve in line after the Vice President.8 An 1886 act altered the succession line by replacing congressional leaders with cabinet secretaries, but the President pro tempore post was reinstated in the line (in the current position) in 1947.9 As presiding officer, the President pro tempore has the power to decide points of order and enforce decorum on the floor. The President pro tempore has other formal powers (e.g., appointing conferees; appointing certain Senate officers; and serving on, or appointing others to, working groups, commissions, and advisory boards); however, because the direction of Senate business has fallen in modern times to the majority leader, almost all of these powers are actually exercised by the majority leader in practice. As explained in the notes to Table 9 and Table 10 below, the Senate has also had past occasion to select a Deputy President pro tempore and a Permanent Acting President pro tempore. For more information on the President pro tempore (and the deputy and acting posts), consult CRS Report 6 Electing the longest-serving majority party Senator has generally been the practice since 1890, with some exceptions. The only exception since 1945 has been the election of Senator Arthur Vandenberg in 1947. 7 U.S. Congress, Senate Journal, 50th Cong., 2nd sess., p. 165. See also “President Pro Tempore of the Senate,” Congressional Record, vol. 21 (March 12, 1890), pp. 2144-2150. 8 1 Stat. 240. 9 24 Stat 1; 61 Stat. 380. Congressional Research Service 16 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2011 2013 As explained in the notes to Table 9 and Table 10 below, the Senate has also had past occasion to select a Deputy President pro tempore and a Permanent Acting President pro tempore. For more information on the President pro tempore (and the deputy and acting posts), consult CRS Report RL30960, The President Pro Tempore of the Senate: History and Authority of the Office, by Christopher M. Davis. Table 8. Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1789-20112013 Name Party State Congress Date Elected John Langdon Pro-Admin NH 1st Apr. 6, 1789 Richard Henry Lee Anti-Admin VA 2nd Apr. 18, 1792 John Langdon Pro-Admin NH 2nd Nov. 5, 1792 Mar. 1, 1793 Ralph Izard Pro-Admin SC 3rd May 31, 1794 Henry Tazewell Anti-Admin VA 3rd Feb. 20, 1795 R(DR)a 4th Dec. 7, 1795 F NH 4th May 6, 1796 PA 4th Feb. 16, 1797 July 6, 1797 Samuel Livermore William Bingham F William Bradford F RI 5th Jacob Read F SC 5th Nov. 22, 1797 Theodore Sedgwick F MA 5th June 27, 1798 John Laurance F NY 5th Dec. 6, 1798 James Ross F PA 5th Mar. 1, 1799 4th Dec. 7, 1795 John Langdon Pro-Admin Mar. 1, 1793 Ralph Izard Henry Tazewell Pro-Admin Anti-Admin R(DR)a Samuel Livermore F NH 4th May 6, 1796 William Bingham F PA 4th Feb. 16, 1797 William Bradford F RI 5th July 6, 1797 Jacob Read F SC 5th Nov. 22, 1797 MA 5th June 27, 1798 NY 5th Dec. 6, 1798 Mar. 1, 1799 Theodore Sedgwick John Laurance F F James Ross F PA 5th Samuel Livermore F NH 6th Dec. 22, 1799 Uriah Tracy F CT 6th May 14, 1800 John E. Howard F MD 6th Nov. 21, 1800 James Hillhouse F CT 6th Feb. 28, 1801 Dec. 7, 1801 Dec. 14, 1802 John E. Howard James Hillhouse F F Abraham Baldwin R GA 7th Dec. 7, 1801 Stephen R. Bradley R(DR)a VT 7th Dec. 14, 1802 Feb. 25, 1803 Mar. 2, 1803 John Brown Anti-Admin KY 8th Oct. 17, 1803 Jan. 23, 1804 Jesse Franklin R(DR)a Joseph Anderson R(DR)a NC 8th Mar. 10, 1804 Joseph Anderson R(DR)a TN 8th Jan. 15, 1805 Feb. 28, 1805 Mar. 2, 1805 Samuel Smith R(DR)a MD 9th Dec. 2, 1805 10th Mar. 18, 1806 Mar. 2, 1807 Apr. 16, 1808 Stephen R. Bradley R(DR)a Congressional Research Service VT 10th Dec. 28, 1808 Congressional Research Service 17 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Name Party John Milledge R(DR)a Andrew Gregg R(DR)a John Gaillard R(DR)a State Congress Date Elected GA 10th Jan. 30, 1809 PA 11th June 26, 1809 State Congress Date Elected Apr. 16, 1808 Stephen R. Bradley R(DR)a VT 10th John Milledge R(DR)a GA 10th Dec. 28, 1808 Jan. 30, 1809 Andrew Gregg R(DR)a PA 11th June 26, 1809 John Gaillard R(DR)a SC 11th Feb. 28, 1810 Apr. 17, 1810 John Pope R(DR)a KY 11th Feb. 23, 1811 William H. Crawford R(DR)a GA 12th Mar. 24, 1812 Joseph B. Varnum R(DR)a MA 13th Dec. 6, 1813 John Gaillard R(DR)a SC 13th Apr. 18, 1814 14th Nov. 25, 1814b 15th [no election] Mar. 6, 1817 Mar. 31, 1918 James Barbour John Gaillard Nathaniel Macon 15th Feb. 15, 1819 16th [no election] 16th Jan. 25, 1820 17th Feb. 1, 1822 18th Feb. 19, 1823 CRR J 19th May 21, 1824 J 19th R(DR)a R(DR)a VA SC Mar. 9, 1825 NC May 20, 1826 Jan. 2, 1827 Mar. 2, 1827 Samuel Smith J MD 20th May 15, 1828 21st Mar. 13, 1829 May 29, 1830 Mar. 1, 1831 Littleton Tazewell Hugh L. White J J VA 22nd July 9, 1832 Hugh L. White J TN 22nd Dec. 3, 1832 23rd [no election] George Poindexter AJ MS 23rd June 28, 1834 Mar. 3, 1835 George Poindexter AJ John Tyler AJ VA 23rd Mar. 3, 1835 William R. King J AL 24th July 1, 1836 25th Jan. 28, 1837 26th Mar. 7, 1837 27th Oct. 13, 1837 D July 2, 1838 Feb. 25, 1839 Congressional Research Service 18 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Name Party State Congress Date Elected July 2, 1838 Feb. 25, 1839 July 3, 1840 Mar. 3, 1841 Mar. 4, 1841 Samuel Southard W NJ 27th Mar. 11, 1841 Willie P. Mangum W NC 27th May 31, 1842 28th [no election] Ambrose H. Sevier D AR 29th Dec. 27, 1845c David R. Atchison D MO 29th Aug. 8, 1846 30th Jan. 11, 1847 31st Mar. 3, 1847 Feb. 2, 1848 June 1, 1848 June 26, 1848 July 29, 1848 Dec. 26, 1848 Mar. 2, 1849 Mar. 5, 1849 Mar. 16, 1849 William R. King D AL 31st May 6, 1850 32nd July 11, 1850 [no election] David R. Atchison D MO 32nd 33rd Dec. 20, 1852 Mar. 4, 1853 33rd Lewis Cass D MI 33rd Dec. 4, 1854 Jesse D. Bright D IN 33rd Dec. 5, 1854 34th June 11, 1856 Charles E. Stuart D MI 34th June 9, 1856 James M. Mason D VA 34th Jan. 6, 1857 35th Mar. 4, 1857 Charles E. Stuart James M. Mason D D Thomas J. Rusk D TX 35th Mar. 14, 1857 Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 35th Dec. 7, 1857 36th Mar. 29, 1858 Thomas J. Rusk Benjamin Fitzpatrick D D June 14, 1858 Jan. 25, 1858 Mar. 9, 1859 Dec. 19, 1859 Feb. 20, 1860 Congressional Research Service 19 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2011 Name Jesse D. Bright Benjamin Fitzpatrick Solomon Foot Party D D R State Congress Date Elected2013 Name Party State Congress Date Elected Dec. 19, 1859 Feb. 20, 1860 Jesse D. Bright D IN 36th June 12, 1860 Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 36th June 26, 1860 Solomon Foot R VT 36th Feb. 16, 1861 37th Mar. 23, 1861 38th July 18, 1861 Jan. 15, 1862 Mar. 31, 1862 June 19, 1862 Feb. 18, 1863 Mar. 4, 1863 Dec. 18, 1863 Feb. 23, 1864 Apr. 11, 1864 Daniel Clark R NH 38th Apr. 26, 1864 Feb. 9, 1865 Lafayette S. Foster Benjamin F. Wade Henry B. Anthony R R R CT 39th Mar. 7, 1865 Benjamin F. Wade R OH 39th Mar. 2, 1867 40th [no election] 41st Mar. 23, 1869 42nd Apr. 9, 1869 Henry B. Anthony R RI May 28, 1870 July 1, 1870 July 14, 1870 Mar. 10, 1871 Apr. 17, 1871 May 23, 1871 Dec. 21, 1871 Feb. 23, 1872 June 8, 1872 Dec. 4, 1872 Dec. 13, 1872 Dec. 20, 1872 Jan. 24, 1873 Matthew H. Carpenter R WI 43rd Mar. 12, 1873 Mar. 26, 1873 Dec. 11, 1873 Dec. 23, 1874 Congressional Research Service 20 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2011 Name Henry B. Anthony Party R State Congress Date Elected RI 43rd Jan. 25, 18752013 Name Party State Congress Date Elected Dec. 11, 1873 Dec. 23, 1874 Henry B. Anthony R RI 43rd Jan. 25, 1875 Feb. 15, 1875 Thomas W. Ferry R MI 44th Mar. 9, 1875 45th Mar. 19, 1875 Feb. 15, 1875 Thomas W. Ferry R Dec. 20, 1875 Mar. 5, 1877 Feb. 26, 1878 Apr. 17, 1878 Mar. 3, 1879 Allen G. Thurman D OH 46th Apr. 15, 1879 Apr. 7, 1880 May 6, 1880 Thomas F. Bayard, Sr. D DE 47th Oct. 10, 1881 David Davis I IL 47th Oct. 13, 1881 George F. Edmonds R VT 47th Mar. 3, 1883 48th Jan. 14, 1884 John Sherman R OH 49th Dec. 7, 1885 John J. Ingalls R KS 49th Feb. 25, 1887 50th [no election] 51st Mar. 7, 1889 John Sherman John J. Ingalls R R Apr. 2, 1889 Feb. 28, 1890 Apr. 3, 1890d Charles F. Manderson R NE 51st-53rd Mar. 2, 1891 Isham G. Harris D TN 53rd Mar. 22, 1893 Matt W. Ransom D NC 53rd Jan. 7, 1895 Isham G. Harris D TN 53rd Jan. 10, 1895 William P. Frye R ME 54th-56th Feb. 7, 1896 57th-59th Mar. 7, 1901 60th-62nd Dec. 5, 1907 Dec. 4, 1911 Matt W. Ransom Isham G. Harris William P. Frye D D R Charles Curtis R KS 62nd Dec. 4, 1911 Augustus O. Bacon D GA 62nd Jan. 15, 1912 Jacob H. Gallinger R NH 62nd Feb. 12, 1912 Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. R MA 62nd Mar. 25, 1912 Frank B. Brandegee R CT 62nd May 25, 1912 James P. Clarke D AR 63rd Mar. 13, 1913 64th Dec. 6, 1915Frank B. Brandegee R Congressional Research Service 21 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2011 Name Willard Saulsbury, Jr. Albert B. Cummins George H. Moses Key Pittman Party D R R D State2013 Name James P. Clarke Party D State AR Congress Date Elected DE 64th-65th Dec. 14, 191663rd Mar. 13, 1913 64th Dec. 6, 1915 Dec. 14, 1916 Willard Saulsbury, Jr. D DE 64th-65th Albert B. Cummins R IA 66th May 19, 1919 67th-69th Mar. 7, 1921 69th Mar. 6, 1925 70th-72nd Dec. 15, 1927 73rd Mar. 9, 1933 74th-76th Jan. 7, 1935 NH NV William H. King D UT 76th Nov. 19, 1940 Pat Harrison D MS 77th Jan. 6, 1941 VA 77th July 10, 1941 78th Jan. 5, 1943 Jan. 6, 1945 Carter Glass D George H. Moses Key Pittman William H. King Pat Harrison Carter Glass R D D D D NH NV Kenneth D. McKellar D TN 79th Jan. 6, 1945 Arthur Vandenberg R MI 80th Jan. 4, 1947 Kenneth D. McKellar D TN 81st-82nd Jan. 3, 1949 Styles Bridges R NH 83rd Jan. 3, 1953 Walter F. George D GA 84th Jan. 5, 1955 Carl T. Hayden D AZ 85th-90th Jan. 3, 1957 Richard B. Russell, Jr. D GA 91st-92nd Jan. 3, 1969 LA 92nd Jan. 22, 1971 MS 92nd-95th July 28, 1972 WA 96th Jan. 15, 1979 Dec. 4, 1980 Allen J. Ellender James O. Eastland Warren G. Magnuson D D D Milton R. Young R ND 96th July 28, 1972 Carl T. Hayden Richard B. Russell, Jr. Allen J. Ellender D D D James O. Eastland D MS 92nd-95th Warren G. Magnuson D WA 96th Jan. 15, 1979 Milton R. Young R ND 96th Dec. 4, 1980 Strom Thurmond R SC 97th-99th Jan. 5, 1981 John C. Stennis D MS 100th Jan. 6, 1987 Robert C. Byrd D WV 101st-103rd Jan. 3, 1989 Strom Thurmond R SC 104th-106th Jan. 4, 1995 Jan. 3, 2001e Strom Thurmond R Robert C. Byrd D WV 107th Jan. 3, 2001e Strom Thurmond R SC 107th Jan. 3, 2001e Robert C. Byrdf D WV 107th June 6, 2001 Ted Stevens R AK 108th-109th Jan. 7, 2003 110th-111th Jan. 4, 2007g 111th- June 28, 2010 Ted Stevens R Robert C. Byrd D WV Daniel K. Inouye D HIRobert C. Byrd D WV 110th-111th Jan. 4, 2007g Daniel K. Inouye D HI 111th-112th June 28, 2010 h Patrick J. Leahy D VT 112th- Dec. 17, 2012 Sources: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, pp. 647-653. See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Congressional Research Service 22 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2013 Notes: A key to party abbreviations can be found in the Appendix of this report. Note that several Senators holding the President pro tempore position were members of (or identified with) different political parties during their congressional careers. This table lists the party with which each individual was affiliated at the time of his service as President pro tempore. In cases in which the historical sources indicate a party “switch” in the Congressional Research Service 22 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2011 midst of a calendar year (without a specific date), it is presumed that the party switch coincided with the beginning of a new Congress. a. Although the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 identifies these Presidents pro tempore as Republicans, the party designation “Democratic Republicans” is more widely used and familiar to readers. This designation, R(DR), should not be taken to refer to the contemporary Republican Party, which did not emerge until the 1850s. b. Senator John Gaillard was elected after the death of Vice President Elbridge Gerry on November 23, 1814, and continued to serve throughout the 14th Congress, as there was no Vice President. c. There was no actual election. Senator Ambrose H. Sevier was “permitted to occupy the chair for the day.” In their table of Presidents pro tempore, Gerald Gamm and Steven S. Smith do not include Sevier’s service. See Gerald Gamm and Steven S. Smith, “Last Among Equals,” “Table 1: Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate,” p.13. d. As noted above, in March 1890, the Senate adopted a resolution stating that Presidents pro tempore would hold office continuously until the election of another President pro tempore, rather than being elected only for the period in which the Vice President was absent. That system has continued to the present. e. When the 107th Congress convened on January 3, 2001, Republican George W. Bush had been elected President. Richard B. Cheney, Vice President-elect, would not be sworn in until January 20, 2001. As a consequence, the Senate was evenly divided, 50 Democrats and 50 Republicans. When Congress convened on January 3, 2001, Vice President Al Gore, a Democrat, remained as President of the Senate, providing Senate Democrats with an effective majority of one. On January 3, 2001, the Senate adopted S.Res. 3, which provided for the election of Senator Robert C. Byrd, Democrat of West Virginia, to serve as President pro tempore from January 3 until the inauguration of President Bush and Vice President Cheney at noon on January 20, at which time Senator Strom Thurmond, Republican of South Carolina, would assume the office of President pro tempore. See “Election of the Honorable Robert C. Byrd as President Pro Tempore and Election of the Honorable Strom Thurmond as President Pro Tempore,” Congressional Record, vol. 147, January 3, 2001, p. 7. f. Party control in the Senate shifted with the decision in May, 2001, of Senator Jim Jeffords to leave the Republican party and to become an Independent, caucusing with Senate Democrats. On June 6, the Senate agreed to S.Res. 100 electing Senator Byrd President pro tempore once again. g. Senator Robert C. Byrd died on June 28, 2010. That day, the Senate adopted S.Res. 567, electing Senator Daniel K. Inouye President pro tempore. h. Senator Daniel K. Inouye died on December 17, 2012. That day, the Senate adopted S.Res. 619, electing Senator Patrick J. Leahy President pro tempore. The Senate has, on occasion, created special offices connected to the position of President pro tempore. These two positions—detailed below—were created for specific individuals under narrow circumstances and are not currently in use. Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore Pursuant to S.Res. 17 (95th Congress), agreed to January 10, 1977, the Senate established (effective January 5, 1977) the post of Deputy President pro tempore of the Senate to be held by “any Member of the Senate who has held the Office of President of the United States or Vice President of the United States.” Senator Hubert H. Humphrey was Deputy President pro tempore until his death on January 13, 1978. In the 100th Congress, due to concerns over the health of the President pro tempore, SenateSenator John S. Stennis, the Senate agreed on January 28, 1987, to S.Res. 90, authorizing the Senate to designate a Senator to serve as Deputy President pro tempore during that Congress, in addition to Senators who hold such office under the authority of S.Res. 17 (95th Congressional Research Service 23 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2013 Congress). Accordingly, on the same date the Senate agreed to S.Res. 91 (100th Congress), designating Senator George H. Mitchell Deputy President pro tempore. Congressional Research Service 23 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2011 Table 9. Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1977-20112013 Deputy President Pro Tempore Party State Congress Hubert H. Humphrey D MN 95th Jan. 5, 1977-Jan. 13, 1978 George J. Mitchell D ME 100th Jan. 28, 1987-Nov. 29, 1988a a. Dates Senator Mitchell served as Deputy President pro tempore until he was elected majority leader for the 101st Congress on November 29, 1988. Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore This post was initially established in 1963 after Senate Majority Leader Michael J. Mansfield became concerned that the stamina of then-President pro tempore, Senator Carl T. Hayden, would be overly taxed by presiding over the prolonged debate on civil rights legislation. In response, the Senate adopted S.Res. 232 and S.Res. 238 (88th Congress) making Senator Lee Metcalf Acting President pro tempore from December 9, 1963, until the meeting of the second session of the 88th Congress. Continuing concerns over the presiding officer’s responsibilities led the Senate, on February 7, 1964, to authorize Senator Metcalf “to perform the duties of the Chair as Acting President pro tempore until otherwise ordered by the Senate” via S.Res. 296 (88th Congress). Senator Metcalf held the post throughout his remaining 14 years in the Senate. Table 10. Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1964-20112013 Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore Lee Metcalf Party State Congress Dates D MT 88th-95th Feb. 7, 1964-Jan. 12, 1978 Party Floor Leader Each Senate party conference selects its floor leader (also called majority leader or minority leader, as appropriate) in a secret-ballot vote at its organizational meeting prior to the beginning of a new Congress. While these positions developed later than (and arose from) the post of conference chair, they now represent the top post in each party. The majority leader is the lead spokesperson for the party in the chamber and is also responsible for scheduling the legislative activity of the Senate. By precedent established in 1937, the majority leader is afforded priority recognition on the floor. The minority leader leads and speaks for the minority party and is consulted by the majority leader in scheduling Senate floor activity; he also has preferential floor recognition, after the majority leader. The rules of each party conference assign additional responsibilities to each floor leader, as well. In current practice, the floor leader for Senate Democrats also serves as the party’s conference chair. (See next section for description of conference chair positions.) Congressional Research Service 24 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Table 11. Senate Republican Floor Leaders, 1919-20112013 Floor Leader State Congress Dates Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr.a,b,c MA 66th-68th 1919-Nov. 9, 1924d Charles Curtisa,e KS 68th-70th Nov. 28, 1924-1929 James E. Watsona IN 71st-72nd 1929-1933 Charles L. McNarya OR 73rd-78th 1933-Feb. 25, 1944f Wallace H. White, Jr. MEJames E. Watsona Charles L. McNarya 79th 80th 1945-1949 Wallace H. White, Jr. ME Kenneth S. Wherry NE 81st-82nd 1949-Nov. 29, 1951g Styles Bridges NH 82nd 1952-1953 Robert A. Taft OH 83rd 1953-July 31, 1953h William F. Knowland CA 83rd 84th-85th Aug. 4, 1953-1959 Everett Dirksen IL 86th-91st 1959-Sept. 7, 1969i Hugh Scott PA 91st-94th Sept. 24, 1969-1977 Howard H. Baker TN 95th-96th 97th-98th 1977-1985 Robert H. Dole KS 99th 100th-103rd 104th 1985-June 11, 1996j Trent Lott MS 104th-106th 107th June 12, 1996 - Dec. 20, 2002k William H. Frist TN 108th-109th Dec. 23, 200l-2007 Mitch McConnell KY 110th- 2007- Sources: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 505, with some details provided by Riddick, Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate, pp. 1-11. See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the floor leader was also majority leader for at least half of the Congress. For example, while the Republicans began the 107th Congress with a controlling majority, party control switched to the Democrats in June of the first session; the 107thCongress is therefore treated as being under Democratic party control in these tables, where applicable. a. Indicates a leader who was also conference chair. Prior to 1945, the Republican conference chair and floor leader positions were held by the same individual. b. While Byrd’s volume provisionally lists Republican Conference Chair Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr, as the first Republican floor leader in practice, some sources treat two previous conference chairs as floor leaders in practice. For example, Riddick includes (in Table III, “Seniority of Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate,” p.11) conference chairs Senator Shelby M. Cullom as majority leader from 1911-1913 and Senator Jacob H. Gallinger as minority leader from 1913 until his death on August 17, 1918. c. Elected conference chair in the 65th Congress on August 24, 1918, to replace Senator Gallinger. Senator Lodge was not officially a floor leader; he was simply reelected to the conference chair post in 1919, and the party had not yet employed the designation floor leader. Scholarly opinion is that his role in the 66th to 68th Congresses, for all intents and purposes, was that of the floor leader, however. Byrd’s volume provisionally lists him as the first majority leader (Table 4-6, p. 506); Riddick includes him in Table III, p.11. Also see Widenor, “Henry Cabot Lodge: The Astute Parliamentarian,” for additional supporting details. d. Died in office, November 9, 1924. Congressional Research Service 25 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 e. Senator Charles Curtis was elected conference chair on November 28, 1924, to replace Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr., who died on November 9. On March 5, 1925, the Republican conference also designated him as floor leader, the first Senator to hold the title. f. Senator Charles L. McNary died on February 25, 1944. There is no reference in congressional sources to the formal selection of a new Republican floor leader during the 78th Congress. In his article summarizing “The Second Session of the Seventy-Eighth Congress (January 10-December 18, 1944),” American Political Science Review, vol. 39, April 1945, pp. 317-336, Floyd Riddick makes no mention of McNary’s death or the selection of a successor. g. Died in office, November 29, 1951. h. Died in office, July 31, 1953. i. Died in office, September 7, 1969. j. Resigned from Senate, June 11, 1996. k. Elected June 12, 1996, to replace Senator Robert H. Dole, and resigned from majority leader post, December 20, 2002. l. Elected December 23, 2002, to replace Senator Trent Lott. Table 12. Senate Democratic Floor Leaders and Conference Chairs, 1893-20112013 Floor Leader State Arthur P. Gormana,b State MD Congress Dates 53rd 54th-55th 1893-1898 55th-56th 1898-1901 AL 57th 1901-1902 AR 57th 1902-1903 Arthur P. Gormand MD 58th-59th 1903-June 4, 1906e Joseph C.S. Blackburnf KY 59th June 9, 1906-1907g Charles A. Culberson TX 60th 1907-1909 Hernando D. Money MS 61st 1909-1911 Thomas S. Martinf VA 62nd 1911-1913 John Worth Kernf IN 63rd-64th 1913-1917 VA 65th 1917-Nov. 12, 1919h Arthur P. Gormana,b MD N/Ac John T. Morganb James K. Jonesb John Worth Kernf Thomas S. Martin 66th Oscar W. Underwoodf AL 66th-67th Apr. 27, 1920-1923i Joseph T. Robinson AR 68th-75th 73rd-75th 1923-July 14, 1937j Alben W. Barkley KY 75th-79th 80th July 22, 1937-1949k Scott W. Lucas IL 81st 1949-1951 Ernest W. McFarland AZ 82nd 1951-1953 Lyndon B. Johnson TX 83rd 1953-1961 Mike Mansfield MT 87th-94th 1961-1977 Congressional Research Service 84th-86thTX 83rd 1953-1961 Lyndon B. Johnson 84th-86th Mike Mansfield Congressional Research Service MT 87th-94th 1961-1977 26 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Floor Leader State Congress Dates Robert C. Byrd WV 95th-96th 97th-99th 100th 1977-1989 George J. Mitchell ME 101st-103rd 1989-1995 Tom Daschlel SD 104th-106th 107th 108th 1995-2005 Harry Reid NV 109th 110th- 2005- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 503. Some additional details are from Riddick’s Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate, p. 1-11. Initially the Senate Democratic Caucus, the name was officially changed to the Democratic Conference in 1925. Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the floor leader was also majority leader for at least half of the Congress. For example, while the Republicans began the 107th Congress with a controlling majority, party control switched to the Democrats in June of the first session; the 107th Congress is therefore treated as being under Democratic party control in these tables, where applicable. a. Byrd’s identification of the first Democratic conference chair begins with Senator Gorman in the 58th Congress. Other sources, however, rely on unofficial records to give Gorman that title in the 53rd Congress, with Senators Morgan and Jones identified as such in later Congresses (after a period in which reliable sources do not exist); see, for example, Riddick, Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate, Table I, p. 7. b. Riddick identifies Senator Gorman as the first Democratic conference chair in 1893, though Byrd does not designate him as such until the 58th Congress. This is also the case with the designations of Senators Morgan in 1901 and Jones in 1902. c. No reliable records from the caucus exist for this period. d. Senator Gorman’s designation as conference chair in the 58th Congress is the first that can be confirmed from official caucus minutes. e. Died June 4, 1906. f. Secondary sources generally identify Senator Kern as the first Democratic floor leader in the modern sense of the term. See, for example, Oleszek, “John Worth Kern,” p. 10. Others have made a case for designating Senator Blackburn as the first, since he was referred to as the Democrats’ “chosen official leader” in a congratulatory resolution. See Riddick, p. 3. Still others consider Senator Martin an early floor leader; see Oleszek, “John Worth Kern,” note 13. Senator Underwood is the first person to be officially called floor leader in minutes of the party conference, so some sources (e.g., Byrd) treat him as the first Democratic floor leader. g. Elected June 9, 1906. h. Died November 12, 1919. An initial caucus vote to replace Senator Martin resulted in a tie between Senator Gilbert M. Hitchcock and Senator Underwood. Hitchcock briefly was acting leader until Underwood was elected in April of 1920. See Riddick, p. 9, note 2 i. Elected April 27, 1920. j. Died July 14, 1937. k. Elected July 22, 1937. l. In the 107th Congress, Senator Daschle became majority leader on June 6, 2001, following a change in party control of the Senate from Republican to Democratic. Congressional Research Service 27 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Conference Chair Each party has a conference organization consisting of all the elected Senators from that party; it is the main body through which the party contingent at large decides and communicates its legislative priorities. While each party’s conference chair posts were the first formal party leadership positions in the Senate, eventually floor leader positions were established as uppermost in each party’s leadership hierarchy. Since 1945, Republicans have elected their conference chair separately from other leadership posts, but the elected Democratic floor leader also serves as chair of the Democratic Conference. (See Table 12 for the list of Democratic floor leaders / leaders/conference chairs.) Table 13. Senate Republican Conference Chairs, 1893-20112013 Chair John Shermana State OH Congress Dates 53rd 54th 1893-1897 William B. Allison IA 55th-56th 1897-1901b Eugene Hale ME 57th 1901-1902 Orville Platt CT 57th 1902-1903c Eugene Hale ME 58th 1903-1904 William B. Allison IA 58th-59th 1904-1906 ME 59th 1906-1907 IA 59th 1907-1908 RI 60th 1908-1909 Eugene Hale ME 60th-61st 1909-1910 Shelby M. Cullom IL 61st-62nd 1910-1913 Jacob H. Gallinger NH 63rd-65th 1913-1918 Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr.e MA 65th 66th-68th 1918-1924 Charles Curtise KS 68th-70th 1924-1929 James E. Watsone IN 71st-72nd 1929-1932 Charles L. McNarye OR 73rd-78th 1933-1944 Arthur H. Vandenberg MI 79th 1945-1946 Eugene D. Millikin CO 80th-82nd 83rd 84th 1947-1956 Leverett Saltonstall MA 85th-89th 1957-1966 Margaret Chase Smith ME 90th-92nd 1967-1972 Norris Cotton NH 93rd 1973-1974 Carl T. Curtis NE 94th-95th 1975-1978 Robert Packwood OR 96th 1979-1980 James A. McClure ID 97th-98th 1981-1984 John Chafee RI 99th 1985-1990 Eugene Hale William B. Allisond Nelson W. Aldrich Congressional Research Service 28 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Chair State Congress Dates 101st Thad Cochran MS 102nd-103rd 104th 1991-1996 Connie Mack FL 105th-106th 1997-2000 Richard J. Santorum PA 107th 2001-2006 Richard J. Santorum 108th-109th Jon L. Kyl AZ 110th 2007-Dec. 6, 2007f Lamar Alexander TN 110th-112th Dec. 6, 2007f- 108th-109thJan. 26, 2012g John Thune SD 112th- Jan. 26, 2012- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 502. Additional detail is from Riddick, Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate, pp. 7-9). Records of the Republican Conference are extant only from 1911. Secondary sources (see Riddick, pp. 7-9) provide information for years prior to 1893. Rothman, in his work, claims that Senator Henry B. Anthony served as Republican caucus chair for an undetermined number of years beginning in 1869 and that Senator George Franklin Edmunds served as chair from 1885 to 1891. See David J. Rothman, Politics and Power: The United States Senate, 1869-1901, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966, pp. 6, 28-30. Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the Republican party was in the majority for at least half of the Congress. For example, while the Republicans began the 107th Congress with a controlling majority, party control switched to the Democrats in June of the first session; the 107th Congress is therefore treated as being under Democratic party control in these tables, where applicable. Except for those individuals who also served as floor leader (as designated in next note), sources do not provide specific dates of conference chair service (e.g., when there was a death or resignation and, as a result, a mid-session election was held). Therefore, this table provides only years of service for each conference chair and gives no specific dates for transitions that occurred within a session. a. Riddick indicates that secondary sources confirm Sherman as the first Republican conference chair (Table I, p.7); Byrd starts his list (Table 4-1, p.502) with Allison’s tenure in the 55th Congress, but notes Sherman’s previous tenure in a footnote. b. Byrd lists Senator Allison’s tenure in the position as 1897-1901, but Riddick maintains that reliable records do not exist for 1898 to 1901. c. Using unofficial sources, Riddick (Table I, p. 7) indicates that Senator George H. Hoar was briefly conference chair in 1903. Byrd does not include him. d. Using unofficial sources, Riddick (Table I, p. 7) indicates Senator Allison was chair; Byrd does not include him. e. Indicates individuals who were simultaneously identified as the floor leader. See Table 11 of this report. f. Senator John L. Kyl was elected party whip on December 6, 2007; Senator Lamar Alexander was elected on that day to serve as conference chair. g. In September, 2011, Senator Lamar Alexander announced his intention to resign from the post, effective January, 2012. Senator John Thune was elected to the position on December 13, 2011, effective January 26, 2012. Party Whip Senate Democrats first selected a party whip in 1913; Republicans followed in 1915. Some accounts of these early selections imply that the individuals were initially appointed, but other contemporary accounts refer to conference elections for the posts. (Republicans first formally codified their conference procedures in 1944, making it clear that the whip post was elected by the conference.) Today, each party conference elects a party whip, who is also known in the Congressional Research Service 29 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2013 Senate as the assistant majority leader or assistant minority leader, depending on the party. Typically, deputy whips are also appointed to assist the whip operation. The whips communicate leadership priorities to the party rank-and-file (and vice versa), provide leaders an assessment of member support for (or opposition to) pending legislative matters, and mobilize support for Congressional Research Service 29 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2011 leadership-supported measures under consideration. For more information, see CRS Report RS20887, Senate Leadership: Whip Organization, by Judy Schneider. Table 14. Senate Democratic Whips, 1913-20112013 Whip State Congress Dates James Hamilton Lewisa IL 63rd-65th 1913-1919 Peter G. Gerry RI 66th-70th 1919-1929 Morris Sheppard TX 71st-72nd 1929-1933 James Hamilton Lewis IL 73rd-75th 1933-1939 Sherman Minton IN 76th 1939-1941 J. Lister Hill AL 77th-79th 1941-1947 Scott W. Lucasb IL 80th 1947-1949 Francis J. Myers PA 81st 1949-1951 Lyndon B. Johnsonb TX 82nd 1951-1953 Earle C. Clement KY 83rd 84th 1953-1957 Mike Mansfieldb MT 85th-86th 1957-1961 Hubert H. Humphrey MN 87th-88th 1961-1965 Russell B. Long LA 89th-90th 1965-1969 Edward M. Kennedy MA 91st 1969-1971 Robert C. Byrdb WV 92nd-94th 1971-1977 Alan Cranston CA 95th-96th 97th-99th 100th-101st 1977-1991 Wendell H. Ford KY 102nd-103rd 104th-105th 1991-1999 Harry Reidb NV 106th, 107th 108th 1999-2005 IL 109th 110th- 2005- Morris Sheppard James Hamilton Lewis Sherman Minton Richard Durbin 97th-99th 100th-101stJ. Lister Hill Scott W. Lucasb Francis J. Myers Lyndon B. Johnsonb Richard Durbin Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 509, with additional detail drawn from Oleszek, Majority and Minority Whips of the Senate. Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the Democratic whip was also the majority whip for at least half of the Congress. For example, while the Republicans began the 107th Congress with a controlling majority, party control switched to the Democrats in June of the first session; the 107thCongress is therefore treated as being under Democratic party control in these tables, where applicable. Congressional Research Service 30 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2013 a. Senator James Hamilton Lewis became the first Democratic Party whip in 1913. In the Congressional Record, Lewis himself referred to his “appointment,” but a press account the next year said he was elected. See Oleszek, Majority and Minority Whips of the Senate, p. 4. b. Indicates individuals who later advanced to floor leader. Congressional Research Service 30 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2011 Table 15. Senate Republican Whips, 1915-20112013 Whip State Congress Dates James W. Wadsworth, Jr.a State Congress Dates NY 64th 1915 Charles Curtisb KS 64th-65th 66th-68th 1915-1924 Wesley L. Jones WA 68th-70th 1924-1929 Simeon D. Fess OH 71st-72nd 1929-1933 73rd 1933-1935 74th-77th 1936-1943 78th-79th 1944-1949 81st-82nd 83rd 84th 1949-1957 85th 1957-1959 Charles Curtisb Felix Hebert RI N/Ac Kenneth S. Wherryb NE 66th-68th 80th Leverett Saltonstall MA Wherryb NE 78th-79th 80th 1944-1949 Leverett Saltonstall MA 81st-82nd 83rd 84th 1949-1957 Everett M. Dirksenb IL Thomas H. Kuchel85th 1957-1959 CA 86th-90th 1959-1969 Hugh D. Scottb PA 91st 1969 Robert P. Griffin MI 91st-94th 1969-1977 Ted Stevens AK 95th-96th 97th-98th 1977-1985 Alan K. Simpson WY 99th 100th-103rd 1985-1995 Trent Lottb MS 104th 1995-June 12, 1996d Don Nickles OK 104th-106th 107th June 12, 1996-2003e Mitch McConnellb KY 108th-109th 2003-2007 Trent Lott MS 110th 2007-Dec. 6, 2007f Jon L. Kyl AZ 110th-112th Dec. 6, 2007f-2013 John Cornyn TX 113th- 2013- Thomas H. Kuchel Hugh D. Scottb Dec. 6, 2007f- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 509, with additional details provided by Oleszek, Majority and Minority Whips of the Senate. Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the Republican whip was also majority whip for at least half of the Congress. For example, while the Republicans began the 107th Congress with a controlling majority, party control switched to the Democrats in June of the first session; the 107thCongress is treated as being under Democratic party control in these tables, where applicable. a. Wadsworth was the first Republican whip, but served only one week before Senator Curtis was named his successor. Some sources describe the selections as appointments, but clearly the party eventually elected individuals to the post. The conference rules for such selection were formally codified only in 1944, but the Congressional Research Service 31 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2013 election practice seems to have been occurring prior to this. See Oleszek, Majority and Minority Whips of the Senate, p. 5. b. Indicates individuals who later advanced to floor leader. c. Between 1936 and 1943, the Republican whip post was filled by informal, irregular appointment by the Republican Leader. d. Elected majority leader, June 12, 1996. Congressional Research Service 31 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2011 e. Elected to replace Senator Trent Lott as whip, June 12, 1996. f. Senator Jon L. Kyl was elected to the position on December 6, 2007, replacing Senator Trent Lott, who resigned from the Senate soon thereafter (on December 18, 2007). Source Notes and Bibliography This report relies heavily on primary congressional sources and authoritative documents such as the privately printed Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774 to 1996, and a similar online adaptation, the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774 to the Present. In addition, over the years, individual Members of Congress, legislative aides, and scholars have gained limited access to party conference journals. Reliable leadership lists have been compiled from these sources. Where these have been published, they have been used as a source in this report. This report also relies on secondary sources developed by scholars. The Congressional Research Service made no attempt to gain access to caucus or conference minutes in collecting data for this report. Inevitably, conflicting interpretations occur in these data, even among sources generally accepted as reliable. For example, there are disparities on the dates of elections and tenure of Senate Presidents pro tempore between Byrd’s history, the 1911 Senate document, and Gamm and Smith’s research. The report attempts to footnote these divergences where they occur. Unless otherwise noted, the following sources were used to compile the tables in this report: Berdahl, Clarence. “Some Notes on Party Membership in Congress.” American Political Science Review, vol. 43 (April 1949), pp. 309-332; (June 1949), pp. 492-508; and (August 1949), pp. 721734. Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996. Washington: CQ Staff Directories Inc., 1997. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774 to the Present. Available online at http://bioguide.congress.gov/biosearch/biosearch.asp. Byrd, Robert C. The Senate, 1789-1989. 4 vols., 100th Congress, 1st session. S. Doc. 100-20. Washington: GPO, 1988-1993. Cannon, Clarence. “Party History.” Remarks in the appendix, Congressional Record, vol. 89 (January 22, 1941), pp. A383-A384. Congressional Directory. Washington: GPO, various years. Congressional Globe. Washington, 1833-1873. Congressional Research Service 32 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2013 Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report. Washington: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., various dates. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, 1873-present. CRS Report RL30960, The President Pro Tempore of the Senate: History and Authority of the Office, by Christopher M. Davis. Congressional Research Service 32 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2011 Deschler, Lewis. Deschler-Brown Precedents of the United States House of Representatives. 16 vols. Washington: GPO, 1977-2000. Galloway, George B. “Leadership in the House of Representatives.” The Western Political Quarterly, vol. 12, no. 2, (June 1959), pp. 417-441. Gamm, Gerald and Steven S. Smith. “Last Among Equals: The Senate’s Presiding Officer.” In Burdett A. Loomis, ed., Esteemed Colleagues: Civility and Deliberation in the U.S. Senate, pp. 105-134. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 2000. Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 17891989. New York: Macmillan, 1989. Oleszek, Walter J. Majority and Minority Whips in the Senate: History and Development of the Party Whip System in the U.S. Senate. 99th Congress, 1st session. S. Doc. 99-23. Washington: GPO, 1985. ——. “John Worth Kern: Portrait of Floor Leader.” In Richard A. Baker and Roger H. Davidson, eds., First Among Equals: Outstanding Senate Leaders of the Twentieth Century, pp. 7-37. Washington: CQ Press, 1991. Ripley, Randall B. Party Leaders in the House of Representatives. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 1967. ——. “The Party Whip Organizations in the United States House of Representatives.” American Political Science Review, vol. 58 (September 1964), pp. 561-576. Rothman, David J. Politics and Power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966. U.S. Congress. Hinds’ and Cannon’s Precedents of the House of Representatives of the United States. 11 vols. Washington: GPO, 1907-1908, 1935-1941. ——. House. Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 1789-present, various publishers. ——. Senate. Journal of the Senate of the United States, 1789-present, various publishers. ——. Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate: History and Development of the Offices of the Floor Leaders. Prepared by Floyd M. Riddick. 99th Congress, 1st session. S. Doc. 99-3. Washington: GPO, 1985. ——. President of the Senate Pro Tempore. 62nd Congress, 2nd session. S.Doc. 62-101. Washington: GPO, 1911. Congressional Research Service 33 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2013 Widenor, William C. “Henry Cabot Lodge: The Astute Parliamentarian,” In Richard A. Baker and Roger H. Davidson, eds., First Among Equals: Outstanding Senate Leaders of the Twentieth Century, pp. 38-62. Washington: CQ Press, 1991. Congressional Research Service 3334 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 Appendix. Political Party Abbreviations Adams Adams Adams-Clay F Adams-Clay Federalist Adams-Clay R Adams-Clay Republican AJ Anti-Jackson Am American (Know-Nothing) Anti-Admin Anti-Administration C Conservative CRR Crawford Republican D Democrat F Federalist FL Farmer-Labor FS Free Soil I Independent ID Independent Democrat IR Independent Republican J Jacksonian JR Jacksonian Republican L Liberty LR Liberal Republican N Nullifier N/A Party Unknown or No Party Affiliation NR National Republican OP Opposition PO Populist PR Progressive Pro-Admin Pro-Administration R Republican R(DR)a Jeffersonian, Jeffersonian Republican, or Democratic Republican RA Readjuster S Silver SR Silver Republican U Unionist UU Unconditional Unionist W Whig Source: This table is derived from Byrd, Historical Statistics, p. xvi. a. While the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 identifies the party affiliation of certain Representatives in early Congresses as Republicans, the designation “Democratic Republican” is more Congressional Research Service 3435 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20112013 familiar to readers. This designation, R(DR), should not be taken to refer to the contemporary Republican Party, which did not emerge until the 1850s. Author Contact Information Valerie Heitshusen Analyst on Congress and the Legislative Process vheitshusen@crs.loc.gov, 7-8635 Acknowledgments This report was originally written and updated by Paul S. Rundquist and Richard C. Sachs, former Specialistsspecialists in American National Government at CRS, and Faye M. Bullock, former Technical Information Specialisttechnical information specialist at CRS. The listed author has updated and expanded this report and is available to respond to inquiries on the subject Congressional Research Service 3536