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Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2017

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Order Code RL30567 Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Party Leaders in Congress, 1789-2003: Vital Statistics Updated January 22, 2003 Paul S. Rundquist and Richard C. Sachs Specialists in American National Government Faye M. Bullock Technical Information Specialist Government and Finance Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Party Leaders in Congress, 1789-2003: Vital Statistics Summary This report presents tables that provide historical data, including service dates, party affiliation, and other information, for 15 House and Senate party leadership posts. This information has been updated to reflect leadership changes in the 107th Congress, as of its issuance date. The report will be updated, as changes in House and Senate party leadership positions Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2007 Updated February 27, 2007 Valerie Heitshusen Analyst in American National Government Government and Finance Division Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2007 Summary This report briefly describes current responsibilities and selection mechanisms for 15 House and Senate party leadership posts and provides tables with historical data, including service dates, party affiliation, and other information for each. Tables have been updated as of the report’s issuance date to reflect leadership changes. The report will be updated as changes in House and Senate party leadership positions occur. Although party divisions appeared almost from the First Congress, the formally structured party leadership organizations now taken for granted are a relatively modern development. Constitutionally-specified leaders, namely the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate, can be identified since the first Congress. Other leadership posts, however, were not officiallyformally recognized until about about the middle of the 19th century, and some are 20th century creations. The Senate was slower than the House to develop a separate, identifiable party leadership. RecordsIn the earliest Congresses, those House Members who took some role in leading their party were often designated by the President as his spokesperson in the chamber. By the early 1800s, an informal system developed when the Speaker began naming his lieutenant to chair one of the most influential House committees. Eventually, other members wielded significant influence via other committee posts (e.g., the post-1880 Committee on Rules). By the end of the 19th century, the formal position of floor leaders had been established in the House. The Senate was slower than the House to develop formal party leadership positions, and there are similar problems in identifying individual early leaders. For instance, records of party conferences in the 19th century Senate are not available. Memoirs and other secondary sources reveal the identities of party conference or caucus chairmenchairs for some, but not all, Congresses after about 1850;, but these posts carried very little authority. It was not uncommon for Senators to publicly declare that within the Senate parties, there was no single leader. Rather, through the turn of the 20th century, individuals who led the Senate achieved their position through recognized personal attributes, including persuasion and oratorical skills, rather than election or appointment to officialformal leadership posts. The development of Senate party floor leaders was, like in the House, one of slow evolution, linked for the most part to the post of conference chairman. Not until 1945 did Senate Republicans specify that the conference chairmanship and floor leader posts must be held by separate Senators. Among Senate Democrats, the floor leader is also chairman of the conference. The tables in this report do not list all Senators and Representatives who have held all leadership posts. Some leadership posts are excluded in order to provide a manageable amount of data. An appendix explains the abbreviations used to denote political parties. This report will be updated when leadership changes occur. Contents Introduction and Methodological Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Leadership Posts Excluded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The formal positions for Senate party floor leaders eventually arose from the position of conference chair. Owing to the aforementioned problems in identifying informal party leaders in earlier Congresses, the tables in this report identify each leadership position beginning with the year in which each is generally regarded to have been formally established. The report excludes some leadership posts in order to render the amount of data manageable. An appendix explains the abbreviations used to denote political parties, and a bibliography cites useful references, especially in regard to sources for historical data. Contents Introduction and Methodological Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Identifying House Leaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Identifying Senate Leaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Party Affiliation Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Leadership Posts Excluded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 House Positions: Descriptions and Historical Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Speaker of the House of Representatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Party Floor Leader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Party Whip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Conference or Caucus Chair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Senate Positions: Descriptions and Historical Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 President Pro Tempore of the Senate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Party Floor Leader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Conference Chair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Party Whip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Appendix: Political Party Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Source Notes and Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 List of Tables Table 1. Speakers of the House of Representatives, 1789-20032007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Table 2:. House DemocraticRepublican Floor Leaders, 1899-20032007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Table 3:. House RepublicanDemocratic Floor Leaders, 1899-20032007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Table 4:. House Democratic Whips, 1901-20032007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Table 5:. House Republican Whips, 1897-20032007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Table 6: House Democratic Caucus Chairmen, 1849-2003. House Republican Conference Chairs, 1863-2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Table 7: House Republican Conference Chairmen, 1863-2003. House Democratic Caucus Chairs, 1849-2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1715 Table 8:. Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1789-20032007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1920 Table 9:. Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1977-20032007 . . . . . . . . . 2726 Table 10:. Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1964-20032007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2826 Table 11:. Senate DemocraticRepublican Floor Leaders and Conference Chairmen, 1903-2003, 1919-2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Table 12. Senate Democratic Floor Leaders and Conference Chairs, 1893-2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Table 12: Senate Republican Floor Leaders, 1911-2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3028 Table 13:. Senate Republican Conference ChairmenChairs, 1893-20032007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3230 Table 14:. Senate Democratic Whips, 1913-20032007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3332 Table 15:. Senate Republican Whips, 1915-20032007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Party Leaders in Congress, 1789-2003: Vital Statistics Introduction and Methodological Notes The 15 tables herein provide33 Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2007 Introduction and Methodological Notes Although party divisions sprang up almost from the First Congress, the formally structured party leadership organizations now taken for granted are a relatively modern development. Constitutionally-specified leaders, namely the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate, can be identified since the first Congress. Other leadership posts, however, were not officially recognized until about the middle of the 19th century, and some are 20th century creations. The following tables identify 15 different party leadership posts beginning with the year when each is generally regarded to have been formally established. The tables herein present data on service dates, party affiliation, and other information for the following House and Senate party leadership posts: House Positions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Speakers of the House of Representatives, 1789-20032007 House DemocraticRepublican Floor Leaders, 1899-20032007 House RepublicanDemocratic Floor Leaders, 1897-20031899-2007 House Democratic Whips, 1901-20032007 House Republican Whips, 1897-2003 House Democratic Caucus Chairmen, 1849-2003 House Republican Conference Chairmen, 1863-2003 2007 House Republican Conference Chairs, 1863-2007 House Democratic Caucus Chairs, 1849-2007 Senate Positions 8. Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1789-2003 2007 9. Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1977-2003 2007 10. Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1964-2003 Senate Democratic Floor Leaders and Conference Chairmen, 19032003 Senate Republican Floor Leaders, 1925-2003 2007 11. Senate Republican Floor Leaders, 1919-2007 12. Senate Democratic Floor Leaders and Conference Chairs, 1893-2007 13. Senate Republican Conference Chairmen, 1897-2003 Chairs, 1893-2007 14. Senate Democratic Whips, 1913-2003 2007 15. Senate Republican Whips, 1915-2003 2007 This information is current through the initial leadership elections and appointments made for the 108th Congress. Although party divisions sprang up almost from the First Congress, the formally structured party leadership organizations now taken for granted are a relatively modern development. Constitutionally-specified leaders, namely the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate, can be identified since the first Congress. Other leadership posts, however, were not officially recognized until about the middle of the 19th century, and some are 20th century creations. The following tables identify 15 different party leadership posts beginning with the year when each is generally regarded to have been formally established. for the first session of the 110th Congress.1 1 This report was originally written and updated by Paul S. Rundquist and Richard C. Sachs, (continued...) CRS-2 Included for each post are leaders’ names, party and state affiliations, and dates and Congresses of service. For most Congresses, the report indicates years of service, rather than service only, except in the tables for the House Speaker and the Senate President pro tempore, both of which include specific dates of service. However, whenWhen a Member died while holding a leadership office, however, the date of death is included as the end of service date. Beginning with the 100th Congress, exact dates of service are indicated in cases -ofservice date (except in Table 13). In cases where a leadership change occurs during the course of a Congress, exact dates of service are indicated where possible. With . With respect to length of service, the report includes all Congressesinstances in which a Member held a CRS-2 a particular leadership post, regardless of whether the Member held the post for the entire Congress or only a portion of it. Official congressional documents (House Journal and Senate Journal, Congressional Record, and predecessor publications) can be used to document the tenure of the constitutionally-specified leaders. However, the (i.e., Speaker and President pro tempore). The actions of the party organizations in choosing other leaders, such as floor leaders, whips, or caucus or conference chairmenchairs, frequently went unacknowledged in these sources, however. In the frequent absence of party caucus records in the latter half of the 19th century, scholars have had to rely on secondary sources, such as memoirs and correspondence, for evidence of party leadership position-holding. Other problems are caused by the changing nature of congressional leadership. For example, it was the common practice of President Thomas Jefferson and his immediate successors to designate a member of the House The concluding portion of this report, “Source Notes and Bibliography,” provides more information about sources and the reliability of leadership lists. Identifying House Leaders The changing nature of congressional leadership provides additional challenges to identifying leaders not constitutionally specified (e.g., floor leader).2 Even for party elected posts, determining who held other positions can be problematic in earlier Congresses. For example, identifying each party’s conference (or caucus) chair often requires reliance on incomplete historical records of conference meetings or inferences made from informal practices (e.g., noting which Member nominated his party’s candidate for Speaker, a motion that often fell to the conference chair). In the House, for example, it was the common practice of President Thomas Jefferson and his immediate successors to designate a Member as their principal legislative spokesman. Often these spokesmen held no other formal leadership position in the House, and Presidents frequently designated new spokesmen, or even specialized spokesmen for individual measures, as their terms progressed. As these, and other, “leaders” were not chosen by a congressional party group or by a party leader such as the Speaker, these presidential designees have not been included here as “party leaders.” 1 (...continued) former Specialists in American National Government at CRS, and Faye M. Bullock, former Technical Information Specialist at CRS. The listed author has updated and expanded this report and is available to respond to inquiries on the subject. 2 See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and citation of the multiple sources used in identifying leaders in the House of Representatives. CRS-3 Most historians who study the 19th century House acknowledge that an informal “positional leadership” system emerged possibly as early as the “War Hawk” Congress (1811-1813) under Speaker Henry Clay. Under this system, the Speaker— Speaker — who at the time designated the chairmen of the standing committees—would committees — would name his principal lieutenant to be chairman of the Ways and Means Committee. After the Appropriations Committee was split from the Ways and Means Committee in 1865, the Speaker’s principal floor lieutenant received either of these chairmanships. chairs. Sometimes, the Speaker chose a rival for the speakership to chair one of these committees in an effort to resolve intra-party disputes. It is somewhat inaccurate, however, to consider these early floor leaders to be majority leaders in the modern sense, and they have not been included here. The position of chairmanchair of the Appropriations or Ways and Means Committee inevitably made the incumbent a powerful congressional figure because of the important legislation reported from these committees. However, these chairmen were not chosenThese chairs were not, however, chosen in a vote by the full party organization, as the majority or minority House leaders are now. Furthermore, other leading congressional figures, such as the Republican leader Thomas Brackett Reed, achieved their positionalpositions of influence within the House by service on other committees, such asin Reed’s casethe post-1880 Rules Committee. The Senate was later than the House in developing a separate, identifiable party leadership. The Identifying Senate Leaders The Senate developed an identifiable party leadership later than the House. The few existing records of party conferences in the 19th century Senate are held in private collections. Memoirs and other secondary sources reveal the identities of party conference or caucus chairmenchairs for some, but not all, Congresses after about 1850; these posts, however, carried very little authority. It was not uncommon for Senators to declare publicly declare that within the Senate parties there was CRS-3 no single leader. Rather, 3 Instead, through the turn of the 20th century, individuals who led the Senate achieved their position through recognized personal attributes, including persuasion and oratory skills, rather than election or appointment to official the current practice of election to most official leadership posts. The development of Senate party floor leaders was, like in the House, one of slow evolution, linked one of slow evolution, like the House, but they arose for the most part tofrom the post of conference chairman. Not until chair. Not until 1945 did Senate Republicans specify that the conference chairmanshipchair and floor leader leader posts must be held by separate Senators. Among Senate Democrats, the floor leader leader is also chairmanchair of the conference. In many secondary sources, Senators are identified identified as “floor leaders” before existing party conference records so identify them. In this report, footnotes to the tables attempt to clarify when a leader was identified through official sources such as caucus minutes or identified through secondary sources. Party Affiliation Designations Another problem in identifying party leaders in early Congresses is the matter of party affiliation. Secondary sources reporting on party leaders often relied upon the information compiled in early editions of the Biographical Directory of the 3 Woodrow Wilson, Congressional Government (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1885), p. 223. CRS-4 United States Congress. As the editors of the 1989 edition of the Biographical Directory noted: The most serious source of error and confusion in previous editions [of the Biographical Directory] were [sic[was] the designations of party affiliation. Many of the party labels added to the editions of 1913 and 1928 were anachronistic, claiming claiming for the two modern parties Senators and Representatives elected to Congress Congress before the [modern] Democratic or Republican parties existed. Other entries entries ignored the frequent shifts in party affiliation during the nineteenth century or omitted reference to short-lived and regional political parties and thus failed to reflect the vigor and diversity of nineteenth-century politics.14 The 1989 and 1997 editions of the Biographical Directory resolved these differences, and their designations of party affiliations are principal sources for this report. The 1997 edition of the Biographical Directory, in particular, included more complete notations where Members changed their party affiliations while serving in Congress.25 The main source for early party affiliations of SenatorsSenator leaders, principally Presidents Pro Tempore pro tempore, is volume four of Senator Robert C. Byrd’s The Senate, 1789-1989. (Historical Statistics, 1789-1992).3 16 An appendix explains the abbreviations used to denote party affiliations in this report. Leadership Posts Excluded The tables in this report exclude some leadership posts in order to render manageable the amount of data provided. Specifically, the Senate and House party conference secretaries, and the chairs of party committees (e.g., steering committees, policy committees, committees on committees, and campaign committees) are not presented here. Junior party whips are also not identified. At least since the 1930s in the House, both parties have selected (or allowed the principal whip to designate) subordinate whips. The lack of adequate records makes it almost impossible to identify all deputy whips, regional whips, and zone whips who have been appointed in the last 70 years. 4 U.S. Congress, Senate, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress 1774-1989: the Continental Congress, September 5, 1774, to October 21, 1788, and The Congress of the United States, from the First through the One Hundredth Congresses, March 4, 1789, to January 3, 1989, inclusive, Bicentennial edition, S. Doc. 100-34, 100th Congress, 2nd sessionCong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1989), p. 3. 25 Biographical Directory of the American Congress 1774-1996 (Washington: CQ Staff Directories, Inc., 1997), p. xi. This commercially published edition of the Biographical Directory is a continuation of earlier, publicly published editions. editions that were published under public auspices. An online, updated, version is also available at [http://bioguide.congress.gov/biosearch/ biosearch.asp]. 36 Robert C. Byrd, The Senate, 1789-1989, A U.S. Senate Bicentennial publication4 vols., S. Doc. 100-20, 100th Congress, 1st session Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1988-1993), vol. 4, Historical Statistics, 1789-1992. Hereafter cited as Byrd’s Historical Statistics. See also, Gerald Gamm and Steven S. Smith, “Last Among Equals: The Senate’s Presiding Officer,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, Sept. 3-6, 1998. CRS-5 House Positions: Descriptions and Historical Tables Speaker of the House of Representatives The position of Speaker is constitutionally specified in Article 1, Section 2. The Speaker is the only party leader who is chosen by a roll-call vote of the full House of Representatives, which occurs after each party has nominated a candidate for the position when a new Congress convenes. House rules give the Speaker various formal duties. These include, for example, administering the oath of office to new Members, signing House-passed bills and resolutions, presiding over the House (and making rulings on the presence of a quorum, points of order, etc.), referring measures to committees, and naming the party’s slate of members for certain committee positions. Each party conference cedes additional powers and responsibilities to a Speaker from its own party, including influence over the makeup of certain standing committees. For more information, consult CRS Report 97-780, The Speaker of the House: House Officer, Party Leader, and Representative, by James V. Saturno, and CRS Report RL30857, Speakers of the House: Elections, 1913-2005, by Richard S. Beth and James V. Saturno. Table 1. Speakers of the House of Representatives, 1789-2007 Speaker Party State Congress Dates Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg N/A PA 1st Apr. 1, 1789Mar. 3, 1791 Jonathan Trumbull N/A CT 2nd Oct. 24, 1791Mar. 3, 1793 Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg N/A PA 3rd Dec. 2, 1793Mar. 3, 1795 Jonathan Dayton N/A NJ 4th-5th Dec. 7, 1795Mar. 3, 1799 Theodore Sedgwick N/A MA 6th Dec. 2, 1799Mar. 3, 1801 Nathaniel Macon N/A NC 7th-9th Dec. 7, 1801Mar. 3, 1807 Joseph B. Varnum N/A MA 10th-11th Oct. 26, 1807Mar. 3, 1811 Henry Clay R(DR)a KY 12th-13th Nov. 4, 1811Jan. 19, 1814b Langdon Cheeves R(DR)a SC 13th Jan. 19, 1814Mar. 3, 1815 Henry Clay R(DR)a KY 14th-16th Dec. 4, 1815Oct. 28, 1820c John W. Taylor R(DR)a NY 16th Nov. 15, 1820Mar. 3, 1821 CRS-6 Speaker Party State Congress Dates Philip Barbour R(DR)a VA 17th Dec. 4, 1821Mar. 3, 1823 Henry Clay R(DR)a KY 18th Dec. 3, 1823Mar. 6, 1825d John W. Taylor R(DR)a NY 19th Dec. 5, 1825Mar. 3, 1827 Andrew Stevenson N/A VA 20th Dec. 3, 1827Mar. 3, 1829 Andrew Stevenson J VA 21st-23rd Dec. 7, 1829June 2, 1834e N/A TN 23rd June 2, 1834Mar. 3, 1835 James K. Polk J TN 24th-25th Dec. 7, 1835Mar. 3, 1839 Robert M.T. Hunter W WA 26th Dec. 16, 1839Mar. 3, 1841 John White W KY 27th May 31, 1841Mar. 3, 1843 John W. Jones D VA 28th Dec. 4, 1843Mar. 3, 1845 John W. Davis D IN 29th Dec. 1, 1845Mar. 3, 1847 Robert C. Winthrop W MA 30th Dec. 6, 1847Mar. 3, 1849 Howell Cobb D GA 31st Dec. 22, 1849Mar. 3, 1851 Linn Boyd D KY 32nd-33rd Dec. 1, 1851Mar. 3, 1855 Amf MA 34th Feb. 2, 1856Mar. 3, 1857 James L. Orr D SC 35th Dec. 7, 1857Mar. 3, 1859 William Pennington R NJ 36th Feb. 1, 1860Mar. 3, 1861 Galusha A. Grow R PA 37th July 4, 1861Mar. 3, 1863 Schuyler Colfax R IN 38th-40th Dec. 7, 1863Mar. 3, 1869g Theodore Pomeroy R NY 40th Mar. 3, 1869h James G. Blaine R ME 41st-43rd Mar. 4, 1869Mar. 3, 1875 John Bell Nathaniel P. Banks CRS-7 Speaker Party State Congress Dates Michael C. Kerr D IN 44th Dec. 6, 1875Aug. 19, 1876i Samuel J. Randall D PA 44th-46th Dec. 4, 1876Mar. 3, 1881 J. Warren Keifer R OH 47th Dec. 5, 1881Mar. 3, 1883 John G. Carlisle D KY 48th-50th Dec. 3, 1883Mar. 3, 1889 Thomas B. Reed R ME 51st Charles F. Crisp D GA 52nd-53rd Dec. 7, 1891Mar. 3, 1895 Thomas B. Reed R ME 54th-55th Dec. 2, 1895Mar. 3, 1899 David B. Henderson R IA 56th-57th Dec. 4, 1899Mar. 3, 1903 Joseph G. Cannon R IL 58th-61st Nov. 9, 1903Mar. 3, 1911 James B. (Champ) Clark D MO 62nd-65th April 4, 1911Mar. 3, 1919 Frederick H. Gillett R MA 66th-68th May 19, 1919Mar. 3, 1925 Nicholas Longworth R OH 69th-71st Dec. 7, 1925Mar. 3, 1931 John N. Garner D TX 72nd Dec. 7, 1931Mar. 3, 1933 Henry T. Rainey D IL 73rd Mar. 9, 1933Aug. 19, 1934j Joseph W. Byrns D TN 74th Jan. 3, 1935June 4, 1936k William B. Bankhead D AL 74th-76th June 4, 1936Sept. 15, 1940l Sam T. Rayburn D TX 76th-79th Sept. 16, 1940Jan. 3, 1947 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. R MA 80th Jan. 3, 1947Jan. 3, 1949 Sam T. Rayburn D TX 81st-82nd Jan. 3, 1949Jan. 3, 1953 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. R MA 83rd Jan. 3, 1953Jan. 3, 1955 Sam T. Rayburn D TX 84th-87th Jan. 5, 1955Nov. 16, 1961m Dec. 2, 1889Mar. 3, 1891 CRS-8 Speaker Party State Congress Dates John W. McCormack D MA 87th-91st Jan. 10, 1962Jan. 3, 1971 Carl Albert D OK 92nd-94th Jan. 21, 1971Jan. 3, 1977 Thomas P. O’Neill, Jr. D MA 95th-99th Jan. 4, 1977Jan. 3, 1987 James C. Wright, Jr. D TX 100th-101st Jan. 6, 1987June 6, 1989n Thomas S. Foley D WA 101st-103rd June 6, 1989Jan. 3, 1995 Newt Gingrich R GA 104th-105th Jan. 4, 1995Jan. 3, 1999 J. Dennis Hastert R IL 106th-109th Jan. 6, 1999Jan. 3, 2007 Nancy Pelosi D CA 110th- Jan. 4, 2007- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Note: A key to all party abbreviations can be found in the Appendix of this report. a. Although the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 identifies these Speakers as Republicans, the party designation “Democratic Republicans” is more widely used and familiar to readers. This designation, R(DR), should not be taken to refer to the contemporary Republican Party, which did not emerge until the 1850s. b. Resigned from the House of Representatives, January 19, 1814. c. Resigned the Speakership on October 28, 1820. d. Resigned from the House, March 6, 1825. e. Resigned from the House, June 2, 1834. f. Speaker Nathaniel P. Banks served in the House three separate times under three different party designations. In the 34th Congress, he served as an American Party Member. g. Resigned from the House, March 3, 1869. h. Elected Speaker, March 3, 1869, and served one day. i. Died in office, August 19, 1876. j. Died in office, August 19, 1934. k. Died in office, June 4, 1936. l. Died in office, September 15, 1940. m. Died in office, November 16, 1961. n. Resigned the Speakership, June 6, 1989; resigned from the House, June 30, 1989. Party Floor Leader At an organizational meeting prior to the beginning of a new Congress, each party conference (or caucus) in the House selects its floor leader (also called majority leader or minority leader, as appropriate) in a secret-ballot vote. The majority party floor leader works closely with the Speaker and is largely responsible for the party’s daily legislative operations, in consultation with other party leaders. Similarly, the minority party floor leader directs the party’s ongoing legislative strategies and operations and typically serves as the spokesperson for the party in the House. Each CRS-9 party assigns additional responsibilities to its respective floor leader. For more information on the majority party floor leader position, see CRS Report RL30665, The Role of the House Majority Leader: An Overview, by Walter J. Oleszek. Table 2. House Republican Floor Leaders, 1899-2007 Floor Leader State Congress Dates Sereno E. Payne NY 56th-61st 1899-1911 James R. Mann IL 62nd-65th 1911-1919 Franklin W. Mondell WY 66th-67th 1919-1923 Nicholas Longworth OH 68th 1923-1925 John Q. Tilson CT 69th-71st 1925-1931 Bertrand H. Snell NY 72nd-75th 1931-1939 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. MA 76th-79th 1939-1947 Charles Halleck IN 80th 1947-1949 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. MA 81st-82nd 1949-1953 Charles Halleck IN 83rd 1953-1955 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. MA 84th- 85th 1955-1959 Charles Halleck IN 86th-88th 1959-1965 Gerald R. Ford MI 89th-93rd 1965-Dec. 6, 1973a John J. Rhodes AZ 93rd-96th Dec. 7, 1973-1981 Robert H. Michel IL 97th-103rd 1981-1995 Richard K. Armey TX 104th-107th 1995-2003 Tom DeLay TX 108th-109th 2003-Sept. 28, 2005b Roy Blunt MO 109th Sept. 28, 2005-Feb. 2, 2006c John Boehner OH 109th, 110th- Feb. 2, 2006- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Note: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the floor leader was also majority leader. a. Resigned from the House on December 6, 1973, after having been confirmed by the Senate to become Vice President to fill the post vacated by the resignation of Spiro T. Agnew. b. Resigned from leader position on September 28, 2005. c. Appointed acting Republican floor leader on September 28, 2005, to replace Tom DeLay temporarily until the conference could hold new elections on February 2, 2006. He continued serving as Republican Whip during this period. CRS-10 Table 3. House Democratic Floor Leaders, 1899-2007 Floor Leader James D. Richardson State Congress Dates TN 56th-57th 1899-1903 th th 1903-1908 John Sharp Williams MS 58 -60 James B. (Champ) Clark MO 60th-61st 1908-1911 Oscar W. Underwood AL 62nd-63rd 1911-1915 th th Claude Kitchin NC 64 -65 1915-1919 James B. (Champ) Clark MO 66th 1919-1921 Claude Kitchin NC 67th Finis J. Garrett IN th 68 -70 John N. Garner TX 71st 1929-1931 Henry T. Rainey IL 72nd 1931-1933 Joseph W. Byrns TN 73rd 1933-1935 William B. Bankhead AL 74 th Sam T. Rayburn TX 75th-76th 1937-Sept. 16, 1940b John W. McCormack MA 76th-79th Sept. 16, 1940-1947c Sam T. Rayburn TX 80th 1947-1949 John W. McCormack MA st 81 -82 1949-1953 Sam T. Rayburn TX 83rd 1953-1955 John W. McCormack MA 84th-87th 1955-Jan. 10, 1962d Carl Albert OK 87th-91st Jan. 10, 1962-1971e Thomas Hale Boggs LA 92nd 1971-1973f Thomas P. O’Neill, Jr. MA 93rd-94th 1973-1977 James Wright TX 95th-99th 1977-1987 1921-1923 th 1935-June 4, 1936a nd th 1923-1929 st 1987-June 6, 1989g Thomas S. Foley WA 100 -101 Richard A. Gephardt MO 101st-103rd 104th-107th June 14, 1989h-2003 Nancy Pelosi CA 108th-109th 2003-2007 Steny H. Hoyer MD th 110 - 2007- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Note: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the floor leader was also majority leader. a. Elected Speaker, filling the vacancy caused by the death of Speaker Joseph W. Byrns. Records indicate that Representative John J. O’Connor of New York, chair of the House Rules Committee, served as acting majority leader during the 14 remaining days of the 74th Congress. O’Connor does not, however, appear to have been formally elected majority leader at that time and therefore is not included in this list. CRS-11 b. Elected Speaker following the death of Speaker William B. Bankhead. c. Elected majority leader on September 16, 1940, to fill post made vacant by the election of Sam Rayburn as Speaker. d. Elected Speaker at the start of the 87th Congress, 2nd session, following the death of Sam Rayburn. e. Elected majority leader at commencement of the 87th Congress, 2nd session, when Majority Leader John McCormack was elected Speaker to succeed Speaker Rayburn. f. Disappeared on a flight from Anchorage to Juneau, Alaska, October 16, 1972. Presumed dead pursuant to House Resolution 1, 93rd Congress. g. Elected Speaker on June 6, 1989, following Speaker James C. Wright’s resignation from that post on the same date. h. Elected majority leader on June 14, 1989, to fill the post made vacant by the election of Thomas S. Foley to be Speaker on June 6, 1989. Party Whip Each House party caucus currently elects its own party whip at organizational meetings as a new Congress begins. House Republicans (or a representative group of their conference) have always elected their party whips; Democrats in the House appointed a chief whip until 1986. Chief deputy whips are currently appointed by the party’s chief whip; additional members to serve in the whip team are either similarly appointed or, instead, elected by subsets of the caucus. The whip organization is responsible for assessing the passage prospects for upcoming measures, mobilizing member support for leadership priorities, informing the party rank-and-file regarding legislative scheduling and initiatives, and informing the top party leadership regarding the sentiment of the rank-and-file. For more information, see CRS Report RS20499, House Leadership: Whip Organization, by Judy Schneider. Table 4. House Democratic Whips, 1901-2007 Whip State Congress Dates Oscar W. Underwooda AL 56th 1901 James T. Lloyd MO 57th-60th 1901-1908b 61st-62nd 1909-1913 N/Ac Thomas M. Bell GA N/Ac 63 rd 1913-1915 64th-65th, 66th 1915-1921 William A. Oldfield AR 67th-70th 1921-Nov. 19, 1928d John McDuffie AL 70th-71st 72nd 1928-1933 Arthur Greenwood IN 73rd 1933-1935 Patrick J. Boland PA 74th-77th 1935-May 18, 1942e Robert Ramspeck GA 77th-79th 1942-Dec. 31, 1945f John J. Sparkman AL 79th 1946-1947 John W. McCormacka MA 80th TN st J. Percy Priest a John W. McCormack MA 1947-1949 nd 81 -82 rd 83 1949-1953 1953-1955 CRS-12 Whip Carl Alberta a State Congress Dates OK 84th-87th 1955-1962 th st LA 87 -91 1962-1971 Thomas P. O’Neill, Jr.a MA 92nd 1971-1973 John J. McFall CA 93rd-94th Thomas Hale Boggs th th 1973-1977 John W. Brademas IN 95 -96 1977-1981 Thomas S. Foleya WA 97th-99th 1981-1987 Tony Coelhog CA 100th-101st 1987-June 14, 1989 st nd June 14, 1989-Sept. 11, 1991h William H. Gray, III PA 101 -102 David E. Bonior MI 102nd-103rd 104th-107th Sept. 11, 1991-Jan. 15, 2002i Nancy Pelosia CA 107th-108th Jan. 15, 2002-2003j Steny H. Hoyera MD 108th -109th 2003-2007 James E. Clyburn SC 110th- 2007- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Note: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the Democratic whip was the majority whip. a. Ascended (or re-ascended) to party floor leader. b. Resigned from position as Democratic whip in 1908 at the conclusion of the 60th Congress. c. For these periods, there is no official record — in the minutes of the Democratic Caucus or elsewhere — of the name of the Democratic whip. Some scholars believe that Representative Thomas Bell may have been the whip from 1909 to 1919; others believe the whip for that period may have been Representative John Nance Garner. See Randall B. Ripley, “The Party Whip Organizations in the United States House of Representatives,” American Political Science Review, vol. 58, Sept., 1964, p. 504. d. Died in office, November 19, 1928. e. Died in office, May 18, 1942. f. Resigned from the House of Representatives, December 31, 1945. g. Representative Tony Coelho was the first elected Democratic whip. h. Resigned from the House of Representatives, September 11, 1991. i. Elected July 11, 1991, but did not assume the House Democratic whip post until his predecessor in the position, William H. Gray, III, resigned from Congress on September 11, 1991. j. Elected on October 10, 2001, but did not assume the position of House Democratic whip until January 15, 2002, the date on which Bonior’s resignation as whip became effective. CRS-13 Table 5. House Republican Whips, 1897-2007 Whip James A. Tawney State Congress Dates MN 55th-58th 1897-1905 th th James E. Watson IN 59 -60 1905-1909 John W. Dwight NY 61st 62nd 1909-1913 Charles H. Burke SD 63rd th 1913-1915 th 1915-1919 Charles M. Hamilton WY 64 -65 Harold Knutson MN 66th-67th 1919-1923 Albert H. Vestal IN 68th-71st 1923-1931 nd Carl G. Bachmann WV 72 1931-1933 Harry L. Englebright CA 73rd-78th 1933-May 13, 1943a Leslie C. Arends IL 78th-79th 80th 81st-82nd 83rd 84th-93rd 1943-1975 Robert H. Michelb IL 94th-96th 1975-1981 th th Trent Lott MS 97 -100 Dick Cheney WY 101st 1989-Mar. 17, 1989c Newt Gingrich GA 101st-103rd Mar. 22, 1989-1995c Tom DeLayb TX 104th-107th 1995-2003 Roy D. Blunt b MO th 108 -109 110th- th 1981-1989 2003d- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Note: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the Republican whip was the majority whip. a. Died in office, May 13, 1943. b. Ascended to party floor leader. c. Elected House Republican whip on March 22, 1989, following Representative Dick Cheney’s resignation from the House on March 17, 1989, to become Secretary of Defense. d. Served concurrently as whip and acting Republican floor leader from September 28, 2005, to February 2, 2006. Conference or Caucus Chair The Republican Conference and the Democratic Caucus are the organizations of the members of the respective parties in the House. Each conference has an elected chair, who presides over its meetings. Decisions made by the conference (and often publicly promulgated by the chair) are generally regarded as the collective sentiment of the respective House party contingent. CRS-14 Table 6. House Republican Conference Chairs, 1863-2007 Chair Justin S. Morrilla State Congress Dates VT 38th-39th 1863-1867 b N/A 40 th 1867-1869 Robert C. Schenckc Nathaniel P. Banksc OH MA 41st 1869-1871 Austin Blair MI 42nd 1871-1873 Horace Maynard TN 43 rd 1873-1875 George W. McCrary IA 44th 1875-1877 Eugene Hale ME 45th 1877-1879 William P. Frye ME 46 th 1879-1881 G.M. Robeson NJ 47th 1881-1883 Joseph G. Cannon IL 48th-50th 1883-1889 st T.J. Henderson IL 51 52nd-53rd 1889-1895 Charles H. Grosvenor OH 54th-55th 1895-1899 Joseph G. Cannon IL 56th-57th 1899-1903 William P. Hepburn IA 58th-60th 1903-1909 st F.D. Currier NH 61 62nd 1909-1913 William S. Greene MA 63rd-65th 1913-1919 Horace M. Towner IA 66th-67th 1919-1923 th Sydney Anderson MN 68 1923-1925 Willis C. Hawley OR 69th-71st 72nd 1925-1933 Robert Luce MA 73rd 1933-1935 Frederick R. Lehlbach th 1935-1937 NJ 74 Roy Woodruff MI th 75 -79 80th 81st Clifford Hope KS 82nd 83rd 84th 1951-1957 Charles Hoeven IA 85th-87th 1957-1963 Gerald R. Ford MI 88 Melvin Laird th th th 1937-1951 1963-1965 WI 89 -90 th 1965-1969 John B. Anderson IL 91st-95th 1969-1979 Samuel L. Devine OH 96th 1979-1981 CRS-15 Chair State Congress Dates Jack Kemp NY 97th-99th 1981-June 4, 1987d Dick Cheney WY 100th June 4, 1987-1989d Jerry Lewis CA 101st-102nd 1989-1993 Richard K. Armey TX 103rd 1993-1995 th th 1995-1999 John A. Boehner OH 104 -105 J.C. Watts OK 106th-107th 1999-2003 Deborah Pryce OH 108th-109th 2003-2007 Adam Putnam FL th 110 - 2007- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Note: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the Republican Party was in the majority. a. Representative Justin S. Morrill is the first officially designated Republican caucus chair. There exists no clear evidence of formal chairs of Republican organizations in earlier Congresses. b. Caucus minutes show three Members (Representatives Nathaniel Banks, Luke Poland, and Samuel Hooper) chairing three separate meetings. c. Caucus minutes show Representative Robert C. Schenck elected chair, but Representative Nathaniel P. Banks chairing two early meetings, possibly in Schenck’s absence. d. On June 4, 1987, Representative Dick Cheney was elected conference chair to succeed Representative Jack Kemp, who resigned from the post. Table 7. House Democratic Caucus Chairs, 1849-2007 Chair James Thompson State Congress Dates PA 31st 1849-1851 32nd 1851-1853 N/Aa Edson B. Olds OH 33rd 1853-1855 George W. Jones TN 34th 1855-1857 35th 1857-1859 36th 1859-1861 37th-40th 1861-1869 41st 1869-1871 42nd 1871-1873 N/Ab George S. Houston AL N/Ac William E. Niblackd Samuel J. Randalld IN PA N/Ae William E. Niblack IN 43rd 1873-1875 Lucius Q.C. Lamar MS 44th 1875-1877 Hiester Clymer PA 45th 1877-1879 CRS-16 Chair John F. House State Congress Dates TN 46th 1879-1881 47th 1881-1883 N/Af George W. Geddes OH 48th 1883-1885 J. Randolph Tucker VA 49th 1885-1887 Samuel S. Cox NY 50th 1887-1889g William S. Holman IN 51st 52 -53rd 1889-1895 nd David B. Culberson TX 54th 1895-1897 James D. Richardson TN 55th 1897-1899 James Hay VA 56th-58th 1899-1905 Robert L. Henry TX 59th 1905-1907 Henry D. Clayton AL 60th-61st 1907-1911h Albert S. Burleson TX 62nd 1911-1913h A. Mitchell Palmer PA 63rd 1913-1915 E.W. Saunders VA 64th-65th 1915-1919 Arthur G. Dewalt PA 66th 1919-1921 Sam T. Rayburn TX 67th 1921-1923 Henry T. Rainey IL 68th 1923-1925 Charles D. Carter OK 69th 1925-1927 Arthur Greenwood IN 70th 1927-1929 David Kincheloe KY 71st 1929-1930i William W. Arnold IL 72nd 1931-1933 Clarence F. Lea CA 73rd 1933-1935 Edward T. Taylor CO 74th 1935-1937 Robert L. Doughton NC 75th 1937-1939 John W. McCormack MA 76th 1939-Sept. 16, 1940j Richard M. Duncan MO 77th 1941-1943 Harry Sheppard CA 78th 1943-1945 Jere Cooper TN 79th 1945-1947 Aime Forand RI 80th 1947-1949 CRS-17 Chair State Congress Dates Francis E. Walter PA 81st 1949-1951 Jere Cooper TN 82nd 1951-1953 Wilbur Mills AR 83rd 1953-1955 John J. Rooney NY 84th 1955-1957 Melvin Price IL 85th-86th 1957-1961 Francis E. Walter PA 87th-88th 1961-May 31, 1963k Albert Thomas TX 88th 1964-1965 Eugene Keogh NY 89th 1965-1967 Dan Rostenkowski IL 90th-91st 1967-1971 Olin Teague TX 92nd-93rd 1971-1975 Philip Burton CA 94th 1975-1977 Thomas S. Foley WA 95th-96th 1977-1981 Gillis W. Long LA 97th-98th 1981-1985 Richard Gephardt MO 99th-100th 1985-1989 William H. Gray, III PA 101st Jan. 4-June 14, 1989l Steny H. Hoyer MD 101st-103rd June 21, 1989-1995m Vic Fazio CA 104th-105th 1995-1999 Martin Frost TX 106th-107th 1999-2003 Robert Menendez NJ 108th-109th 2003-Dec. 16, 2005n James E. Clyburn SC 109th Dec. 16, 2005n-2007 Rahm Emanuel IL 110th- 2007- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Note: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the Democratic Party was in the majority. a. No clear records remain for this Congress. In early practice, the caucus chair often offered the various organizational resolutions at the beginning of a Congress (e.g., the nomination of his party’s candidate for Speaker, or the motion to elect the Speaker); examination of these motions can often help in a determination of who was caucus chair. However, several different Democratic Members offered the organizing resolutions for the 31st Congress. b. No clear data for this period exist. c. No clear data for this period exist. Representative John Hickman nominated Representative F.P. Blair as Speaker in 1861, but no records show whether Hickman was caucus chair. CRS-18 d. Representative Samuel J. Randall nominated the party’s candidate for Speaker. Caucus records, however, show both Representatives William B. Niblack and Randall as having served as chair during the Congress. The caucus records specify no dates of service. e. Representative Fernando Wood nominated the Democratic leadership slate in the House, but there is no other evidence to show he was elected caucus chair. f. Available data show that Representative John F. House offered the Democrats’ nomination for Speaker in the 47th Congress. However, later data show Representative W.S. Rosecrans issuing the next call for a Democratic Caucus meeting; there is no evidence to suggest that Rosecrans was actually elected caucus chair. g. Former Parliamentarian Clarence Cannon’s notes state that “[Representative Samuel J.] Cox died during this Congress and [Representative James B.] McCreary evidently succeeded or acted for him.” Representative Cox died on September 10, 1889, six months after the sine die adjournment of the 50th Congress and the convening of the 51st Congress. h. Caucus records are contradictory for this period. They show the election of Representative James Hay as chair on January 19, 1911, but do not mention a resignation by incumbent chair Henry P. Clayton, nor do they specify that Hay was elected chair for the new Congress. Later, they show the election of Representative Albert S. Burleson on April 11, 1911. i. Resigned from the House, October 5, 1930; there is no record of an election to fill the vacancy as caucus chair. j. Resigned following election as majority floor leader, September 16, 1940; records do not indicate that a successor was chosen during the remainder of the Congress. k. Died in office, May 31, 1963. Caucus chair post vacant until January 21, 1964. l. Representative William H. Gray, III, vacated the caucus chair post when he was elected Democratic whip on June 14, 1989. m. Representative Steny H. Hoyer was elected caucus chair on June 21, 1989, following the June 14, 1989 election of Representative William H. Gray as Democratic whip. n. Representative Robert Menendez resigned from the House on January 16, 2006, after being apppointed to the Senate seat for New Jersey vacated by Jon Corzine when he was elected governor. Representative Menendez had previously resigned from the caucus chair position, to which Representative James E. Clyburn was elected on December 16, 2005. CRS-19 Senate Positions: Descriptions and Historical Tables President Pro Tempore of the Senate Pursuant to Article 1, Section 3, of the U.S. Constitution, the President pro tempore of the Senate is the chamber’s presiding officer in the absence of the President of the Senate (the Vice President of the United States). The President pro tempore is elected by the full Senate as the formal institutional leader, and in current practice, is the longest serving member of the majority party.7 Until 1890, the Senate elected a President pro tempore whenever the Vice President was not in attendance, whether for a day, or permanently, as in the case of the Vice President’s death or resignation. When the Vice President returned, the President pro tempore lost his place. When the Vice President was again absent, the Senate again elected a President pro tempore — in many cases the same Senator who had been chosen before. By the standing order agreed to on March 12, 1890, the Senate declared that the President pro tempore shall hold the office during “the pleasure of the Senate and until another is elected, and shall execute the duties thereof during all future absences of the Vice President until the Senate does otherwise order.”8 The Senate’s President pro tempore is, pursuant to statute, currently third in the line of presidential succession (behind the Vice President and the Speaker of the House). In the Succession Act of 1792, the position was initially designated to serve in line after the Vice President.9 An 1886 act altered the succession line by replacing congressional leaders with cabinet secretaries, but the President pro tempore post was reinstated in the line (in the current position) in 1947.10 As presiding officer, the President pro tempore has the power to decide points of order and enforce decorum on the floor. The President pro tempore has other formal powers (e.g., appointing conferees; appointing certain Senate officers; and serving on, or appointing others to, working groups, commissions and advisory boards); however, because the direction of Senate business has fallen in modern times to the majority leader, almost all of these powers are actually exercised by the majority leader in practice. As explained in the notes to Table 9 and Table 10 below, the Senate has also had past occasion to select a Deputy President pro tempore and a Permanent Acting President pro tempore. For more information on the President pro tempore (and the 7 Electing the longest-serving majority party Senator has generally been the practice since 1890, with some exceptions. The only exception since 1945 has been the election of Senator Arthur Vandenberg in 1947. 8 U.S. Congress, Senate Journal, 50th Cong., 2nd sess., p. 165. See also “President Pro Tempore of the Senate,” Congressional Record, vol. 21 (Mar. 12, 1890), pp. 2144-2150. 9 1 Stat. 240. 10 24 Stat 1; 61 Stat. 380. CRS-20 deputy and acting posts), consult CRS Report RL30960, The President Pro Tempore of the Senate: History and Authority of the Office, by Christopher M. Davis. Table 8. Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1789-2007 Name John Langdon Party State Congress Date Elected Pro-Admin NH 1st Apr. 6, 1789 nd Richard Henry Lee Anti-Admin VA 2 Apr. 18, 1792 John Langdon Pro-Admin NH 2nd Nov. 5, 1792 Mar. 1, 1793 Ralph Izard Pro-Admin SC 3rd May 31, 1794 Anti-Admin R(DR)a VA rd 3 4th Feb. 20, 1795 Dec. 7, 1795 Samuel Livermore F NH 4th May 6, 1796 William Bingham F PA 4th Feb. 16, 1797 William Bradford F RI 5th July 6, 1797 th Nov. 22, 1797 Henry Tazewell Jacob Read F SC 5 Theodore Sedgwick F MA 5th June 27, 1798 John Laurance F NY 5th Dec. 6, 1798 th James Ross F PA 5 Mar. 1, 1799 Samuel Livermore F NH 6th Dec. 22, 1799 Uriah Tracy F CT 6th May 14, 1800 th John E. Howard F MD 6 Nov. 21, 1800 James Hillhouse F CT 6th Feb. 28, 1801 Abraham Baldwin R GA 7th Dec. 7, 1801 VT th 7 Dec. 14, 1802 Feb. 25, 1803 Mar. 2, 1803 Anti-Admin KY 8th Oct. 17, 1803 Jan. 23, 1804 Jesse Franklin R(DR)a NC 8th Mar. 10, 1804 Joseph Anderson R(DR)a TN 8th Jan. 15, 1805 Feb. 28, 1805 Mar. 2, 1805 Samuel Smith R(DR)a MD 9th 10th Dec. 2, 1805 Mar. 18, 1806 Mar. 2, 1807 Apr. 16, 1808 Stephen R. Bradley John Brown R(DR) a Stephen R. Bradley R(DR)a VT 10th Dec. 28, 1808 John Milledge R(DR)a GA 10th Jan. 30, 1809 CRS-21 Name Party State Congress Date Elected R(DR)a PA 11th June 26, 1809 John Gaillard R(DR) a SC 11 th Feb. 28, 1810 Apr. 17, 1810 John Pope R(DR)a KY 11th Feb. 23, 1811 William H. Crawford R(DR)a GA 12th Mar. 24, 1812 MA th 13 Dec. 6, 1813 SC 13th Apr. 18, 1814 Nov. 25, 1814b [no election] Mar. 6, 1817 Mar. 31, 1918 Andrew Gregg a Joseph B. Varnum R(DR) John Gaillard R(DR)a 14th 15th James Barbour R(DR)a VA 15th 16th Feb. 15, 1819 [no election] John Gaillard R(DR)a SC 16th 17th Jan. 25, 1820 Feb. 1, 1822 Feb. 19, 1823 May 21, 1824 Mar. 9, 1825 18th 19th CRR J Nathaniel Macon J NC 19th May 20, 1826 Jan. 2, 1827 Mar. 2, 1827 Samuel Smith J MD 20th 21st May 15, 1828 Mar. 13, 1829 May 29, 1830 Mar. 1, 1831 Littleton Tazewell J VA 22nd July 9, 1832 Hugh L. White J TN 22nd 23rd Dec. 3, 1832 [no election] George Poindexter AJ MS 23rd June 28, 1834 John Tyler AJ VA 23rd Mar. 3, 1835 AL th 27th July 1, 1836 Jan. 28, 1837 Mar. 7, 1837 Oct. 13, 1837 July 2, 1838 Feb. 25, 1839 July 3, 1840 Mar. 3, 1841 Mar. 4, 1841 NJ 27th Mar. 11, 1841 th William R. King J 24 25th D 26th Samuel Southard W Willie P. Mangum W NC 27 28th May 31, 1842 [no election] Ambrose H. Sevier D AR 29th Dec. 27, 1845c CRS-22 Name David R. Atchison Party State Congress Date Elected D MO 29th Aug. 8, 1846 Jan. 11, 1847 Mar. 3, 1847 Feb. 2, 1848 June 1, 1848 June 26, 1848 July 29, 1848 Dec. 26, 1848 Mar. 2, 1849 Mar. 5, 1849 Mar. 16, 1849 30th 31st William R. King D AL 31st 32nd May 6, 1850 July 11, 1850 [no election] David R. Atchison D MO 32nd 33rd Dec. 20, 1852 Mar. 4, 1853 Lewis Cass D MI 33rd Dec. 4, 1854 rd Jesse D. Bright D IN 33 34th Dec. 5, 1854 June 11, 1856 Charles E. Stuart D MI 34th June 9, 1856 James M. Mason D VA 34th 35th Jan. 6, 1857 Mar. 4, 1857 Thomas J. Rusk D TX 35th Mar. 14, 1857 Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 35th Dec. 7, 1857 Mar. 29, 1858 June 14, 1858 Jan. 25, 1858 Mar. 9, 1859 Dec. 19, 1859 Feb. 20, 1860 36th Jesse D. Bright D IN 36th June 12, 1860 Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 36th June 26, 1860 Solomon Foot R VT 36th 37th Feb. 16, 1861 Mar. 23, 1861 July 18, 1861 Jan. 15, 1862 Mar. 31, 1862 June 19, 1862 Feb. 18, 1863 Mar. 4, 1863 Dec. 18, 1863 Feb. 23, 1864 Apr. 11, 1864 38th Daniel Clark R NH 38th Apr. 26, 1864 Feb. 9, 1865 CRS-23 Name Lafayette S. Foster Party State Congress Date Elected R CT 39th Mar. 7, 1865 th Benjamin F. Wade R OH 39 40th Mar. 2, 1867 [no election] Henry B. Anthony R RI 41st Mar. 23, 1869 Apr. 9, 1869 May 28, 1870 July 1, 1870 July 14, 1870 Mar. 10, 1871 Apr. 17, 1871 May 23, 1871 Dec. 21, 1871 Feb. 23, 1872 June 8, 1872 Dec. 4, 1872 Dec. 13, 1872 Dec. 20, 1872 Jan. 24, 1873 42nd Matthew H. Carpenter R WI 43rd Mar. 12, 1873 Mar. 26, 1873 Dec. 11, 1873 Dec. 23, 1874 Henry B. Anthony R RI 43rd Jan. 25, 1875 Feb. 15, 1875 Thomas W. Ferry R MI 44th Mar. 9, 1875 Mar. 19, 1875 Dec. 20, 1875 Mar. 5, 1877 Feb. 26, 1878 Apr. 17, 1878 Mar. 3, 1879 45th Allen G. Thurman D OH 46th Apr. 15, 1879 Apr. 7, 1880 May 6, 1880 Thomas F. Bayard, Sr. D DE 47th Oct. 10, 1881 David Davis I IL 47th Oct. 13, 1881 George F. Edmonds R VT 47th 48th Mar. 3, 1883 Jan. 14, 1884 John Sherman R OH 49th Dec. 7, 1885 John J. Ingalls R KS 49th 50th 51st Feb. 25, 1887 [no election] Mar. 7, 1889 Apr. 2, 1889 Feb. 28, 1890 Apr. 3, 1890d Charles F. Manderson R NE 51st-53rd Mar. 2, 1891 CRS-24 Name Isham G. Harris Party State Congress Date Elected D TN 53rd Mar. 22, 1893 rd Matt W. Ransom D NC 53 Jan. 7, 1895 Isham G. Harris D TN 53rd Jan. 10, 1895 William P. Frye R ME 54th-56th 57th-59th 60th-62nd Feb. 7, 1896 Mar. 7, 1901 Dec. 5, 1907 Charles Curtis R KS 62nd Dec. 4, 1911 Augustus O. Bacon D GA 62nd Jan. 15, 1912 Jacob H. Gallinger R NH 62nd Feb. 12, 1912 nd Mar. 25, 1912 Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. R MA 62 Frank B. Brandegee R CT 62nd May 25, 1912 James P. Clarke D AR 63rd 64th Mar. 13, 1913 Dec. 6, 1915 Willard Saulsbury, Jr. D DE 64th-65th Dec. 14, 1916 th Albert B. Cummins R IA 66 67th-69th May 19, 1919 Mar. 7, 1921 George H. Moses R NH 69th 70th-72nd Mar. 6, 1925 Dec. 15, 1927 Key Pittman D NV 73rd 74th-76th Mar. 9, 1933 Jan. 7, 1935 William H. King D UT 76th Nov. 19, 1940 th Pat Harrison D MS 77 Jan. 6, 1941 Carter Glass D VA 77th 78th July 10, 1941 Jan. 5, 1943 Kenneth D. McKellar D TN 79th Jan. 6, 1945 th Arthur Vandenberg R MI 80 Jan. 4, 1947 Kenneth D. McKellar D TN 81st-82nd Jan. 3, 1949 Styles Bridges R NH 83rd Jan. 3, 1953 th Walter F. George D GA 84 Jan. 5, 1955 Carl T. Hayden D AZ 85th-90th Jan. 3, 1957 Richard B. Russell, Jr. D GA 91st-92nd Jan. 3, 1969 92 nd Jan. 22, 1971 Allen J. Ellender D LA James O. Eastland D MS 92nd-95th July 28, 1972 Warren G. Magnuson D WA 96th Jan. 15, 1979 th Dec. 4, 1980 Milton R. Young R ND 96 Strom Thurmond R SC 97th-99th Jan. 5, 1981 John C. Stennis D MS 100th Jan. 6, 1987 CRS-25 Name Robert C. Byrd Party State Congress Date Elected D WV 101st-103rd Jan. 3, 1989 th th Strom Thurmond R SC 104 -106 Jan. 4, 1995 Robert C. Byrd D WV 107th Jan. 3, 2001e Strom Thurmond R SC 107th Jan. 3, 2001e Robert C. Byrdf D WV 107th June 6, 2001 Ted Stevens R AK 108th 109th Jan. 7, 2003 Jan. 4, 2005 Robert C. Byrd D WV 110th Jan. 4, 2007 Sources: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, pp. 647-653. See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. Notes: A key to party abbreviations can be found in the Appendix of this report. Note that several Senators holding the President pro tempore position were members of (or identified with) different political parties during their congressional careers. This table lists the party with which each individual was affiliated at the time of his service as President pro tempore. In cases in which the historical sources indicate a party “switch” in the midst of a calendar year (without a specific date), it is presumed that the party switch coincided with the beginning of a new Congress. a. Although the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 identifies these Presidents pro tempore as Republicans, the party designation “Democratic Republicans” is more widely used and familiar to readers. This designation, R(DR), should not be taken to refer to the contemporary Republican Party, which did not emerge until the 1850s. b. Senator John Gaillard was elected after the death of Vice President Elbridge Gerry on November 23, 1814, and continued to serve throughout the 14th Congress, as there was no Vice President. c. There was no actual election. Senator Ambrose H. Sevier was “permitted to occupy the chair for the day.” In their table of Presidents pro tempore, Gerald Gamm and Steven S. Smith do not include Sevier’s service. See Gerald Gamm and Steven S. Smith, “Last Among Equals,” “Table 1: Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate,” p.13. d. As noted above, in March 1890, the Senate adopted a resolution stating that Presidents pro tempore would hold office continuously until the election of another President pro tempore, rather than being elected only for the period in which the Vice President was absent. That system has continued to the present. e. When the 107th Congress convened on January 3, 2001, Republican George W. Bush had been elected President. Richard B. Cheney, Vice President-elect, would not be sworn in until January 20, 2001. As a consequence, the Senate was evenly divided, 50 Democrats and 50 Republicans. When Congress convened on January 3, 2001, Vice President Al Gore, a Democrat, remained as President of the Senate, providing Senate Democrats with an effective majority of one. On January 3, 2001, the Senate adopted S. Res. 3, which provided for the election of Senator Robert C. Byrd, Democrat of West Virginia, to serve as President pro tempore from January 3 until the inauguration of President Bush and Vice President Cheney at noon on January 20, at which time Senator Strom Thurmond, Republican of South Carolina, would assume the office of President pro tempore. See “Election of the Honorable Robert C. Byrd as President Pro Tempore and Election of the Honorable Strom Thurmond as President Pro Tempore,” Congressional Record, vol. 147, January 3, 2001, p. 7. f. Party control in the Senate shifted with the decision in May, 2001, of Senator Jim Jeffords to leave the Republican party and to become an Independent, caucusing with Senate Democrats. On June 6, the Senate agreed to S. Res. 100 electing Senator Byrd President pro tempore once again. CRS-26 The Senate has, on occasion, created special offices connected to the position of President pro tempore. These two positions — detailed below — were created for specific individuals under narrow circumstances and are not currently in use. Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore. Pursuant to S. Res. 17 (95th Congress), agreed to January 10, 1977, the Senate established (effective January 5, 1977) the post of Deputy President pro tempore of the Senate to be held by “any Member of the Senate who has held the Office of President of the United States or Vice President of the United States.” Senator Hubert H. Humphrey was Deputy President pro tempore until his death on January 13, 1978. In the 100th Congress, due to concerns over the health of the President pro tempore, Senate John S. Stennis, the Senate agreed on January 28, 1987, to S. Res. 90, authorizing the Senate to designate a Senator to serve as Deputy President pro tempore during that Congress, in addition to Senators who hold such office under the authority of S. Res. 17 (95th Congress). Accordingly, on the same date the Senate agreed to S. Res. 91 (100th Congress), designating Senator George H. Mitchell Deputy President pro tempore. Table 9. Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1977-2007 Deputy President Pro Tempore Party State Congress Dates Hubert H. Humphrey D MN 95th Jan. 5, 1977-Jan. 13, 1978 George J. Mitchell D ME 100th Jan. 28, 1987-Nov. 29, 1988a a. Senator Mitchell served as Deputy President pro tempore until he was elected majority leader for the 101st Congress on November 29, 1988. Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore. This post was initially established in 1963 after Senate Majority Leader Michael J. Mansfield became concerned that the stamina of then-President pro tempore, Senator Carl T. Hayden, would be overly taxed by presiding over the prolonged debate on civil rights legislation. In response, the Senate adopted S. Res. 232 and S. Res. 238 (88th Congress) making Senator Lee Metcalf Acting President pro tempore from December 9, 1963, until the meeting of the second session of the 88th Congress. Continuing concerns over the presiding officer’s responsibilities led the Senate, on February 7, 1964, to authorize Senator Metcalf “to perform the duties of the Chair as Acting President pro tempore until otherwise ordered by the Senate” via S. Res. 296 (88th Congress). Senator Metcalf held the post throughout his remaining 14 years in the Senate. Table 10. Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1964-2007 Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore Lee Metcalf Party D State Congress Dates MT 88th-95th Feb. 7, 1964-Jan. 12, 1978 CRS-27 Party Floor Leader Each Senate party conference selects its floor leader (also called majority leader or minority leader, as appropriate) in a secret-ballot vote at its organizational meeting prior to the beginning of a new Congress. While these positions developed later than (and arose from) the post of conference chair, they now represent the top post in each party. The majority leader is the lead spokesperson for the party in the chamber and is also responsible for scheduling the legislative activity of the Senate. By precedent established in 1937, the majority leader is afforded priority recognition on the floor. The minority leader leads and speaks for the minority party and is consulted by the majority leader in scheduling Senate floor activity; he also has preferential floor recognition, after the majority leader. The rules of each party conference assign additional responsibilities to each floor leader, as well. In current practice, the floor leader for Senate Democrats also serves as the party’s conference chair. (See next section for description of conference chair positions.) Table 11. Senate Republican Floor Leaders, 1919-2007 Floor Leader Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. Charles Curtisa, e a State a, b, c Congress Dates MA th 66 -68 1919-Nov. 9, 1924d KS 68th-70th Nov. 28, 1924-1929 th IN st nd 71 -72 1929-1933 Charles L. McNary OR rd 73 -78 th 1933-Feb. 25, 1944f Wallace H. White, Jr. ME 79th 80th 1945-1949 Kenneth S. Wherry NE 81st-82nd 1949-Nov. 29, 1951g Styles Bridges NH 82nd 1952-1953 Robert A. Taft OH rd William F. Knowland CA 83rd 84th-85th Aug. 4, 1953-1959 Everett Dirksen IL 86th-91st 1959-Sept. 7, 1969i Hugh Scott PA 91st-94th Sept. 24, 1969-1977 James E. Watson a 1953-July 31, 1953h 83 th th Howard H. Baker TN 95 -96 97th-98th 1977-1985 Robert H. Dole KS 99th 100th-103rd 104th 1985-June 11, 1996j Trent Lott MS 104th-106th 107th June 12, 1996 - Dec. 20, 2002k William H. Frist TN 108th-109th Dec. 23, 2002l-2007 Mitch McConnell KY 110th 2007- Sources: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 505, with some details provided by Riddick, Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate, pp. 1-11. See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. CRS-28 Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the floor leader was also majority leader for at least half of the Congress. For example, while the Republicans began the 107th Congress with a controlling majority, party control switched to the Democrats in June of the first session; the 107thCongress is therefore treated as being under Democratic party control in these tables, where applicable. a. Indicates a leader who was also conference chair. Prior to 1945, the Republican conference chair and floor leader positions were held by the same individual. b. While Byrd’s volume provisionally lists Republican Conference Chair Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr, as the first Republican floor leader in practice, some sources treat two previous conference chairs as floor leaders in practice. For example, Riddick includes (in Table III, “Seniority of Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate,” p.11) conference chairs Senator Shelby M. Cullom as majority leader from 1911-1913 and Senator Jacob H. Gallinger as minority leader from 1913 until his death on August 17, 1918. c. Elected conference chair in the 65th Congress on August 24, 1918, to replace Senator Gallinger. Senator Lodge was not officially a floor leader; he was simply reelected to the conference chair post in 1919, and the party had not yet employed the designation floor leader. Scholarly opinion is that his role in the 66th to 68th Congresses, for all intents and purposes, was that of the floor leader, however. Byrd’s volume provisionally lists him as the first majority leader (Table 4-6, p. 506); Riddick includes him in Table III, p.11. Also see Widenor, “Henry Cabot Lodge: The Astute Parliamentarian,” for additional supporting details. d. Died in office, November 9, 1924. e. Senator Charles Curtis was elected conference chair on November 28, 1924, to replace Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr., who died on November 9. On March 5, 1925, the Republican conference also designated him as floor leader, the first Senator to hold the title. f. Senator Charles L. McNary died on February 25, 1944. There is no reference in congressional sources to the formal selection of a new Republican floor leader during the 78th Congress. In his article summarizing “The Second Session of the Seventy-Eighth Congress (January 10December 18, 1944),” American Political Science Review, vol. 39, April 1945, pp. 317-336, Floyd Riddick makes no mention of McNary’s death or the selection of a successor. g. Died in office, November 29, 1951. h. Died in office, July 31, 1953. i. Died in office, September 7, 1969. j. Resigned from Senate, June 11, 1996. k. Elected June 12, 1996, to replace Senator Robert H. Dole, and resigned from majority leader post, December 20, 2002. l. Elected December 23, 2002, to replace Senator Trent Lott. Table 12. Senate Democratic Floor Leaders and Conference Chairs, 1893-2007 Floor Leader State Congress Dates MD 53rd 54th-55th 1893-1898 55th-56th 1898-1901 AL 57th 1901-1902 AR th 57 Arthur P. Gorman MD th 58 -59 Joseph C.S. Blackburnf KY 59th June 9, 1906-1907g Charles A. Culberson TX 60th 1907-1909 Hernando D. Money MS 61 st 1909-1911 Thomas S. Martinf VA 62nd 1911-1913 Arthur P. Gormana, b N/Ac John T. Morganb James K. Jones b d 1902-1903 th 1903-June 4, 1906e CRS-29 Floor Leader John Worth Kernf State Congress Dates IN 63rd-64th 1913-1917 Thomas S. Martin VA 65 66th 1917-Nov. 12, 1919h Oscar W. Underwoodf AL 66th-67th Apr. 27, 1920-1923i Joseph T. Robinson AR 68th-75th 73rd-75th 1923-July 14, 1937j Alben W. Barkley KY 75th-79th 80th July 22, 1937-1949k Scott W. Lucas IL 81st 1949-1951 Ernest W. McFarland AZ 82nd 1951-1953 Lyndon B. Johnson TX 83rd 84th-86th 1953-1961 Mike Mansfield MT 87th-94th 1961-1977 th th th Robert C. Byrd WV 95 -96 97th-99th 100th 1977-1989 George J. Mitchell ME 101st-103rd 1989-1995 Tom Daschlel SD 104th-106th 107th 108th 1995-2005 Harry Reid NV 109th 110th- 2005- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 503. Some additional details are from Riddick’s Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate, p. 111. Initially the Senate Democratic Caucus, the name was officially changed to the Democratic Conference in 1925. Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the floor leader was also majority leader for at least half of the Congress. For example, while the Republicans began the 107th Congress with a controlling majority, party control switched to the Democrats in June of the first session; the 107th Congress is therefore treated as being under Democratic party control in these tables, where applicable. a. Byrd’s identification of the first Democratic conference chair begins with Senator Gorman in the 58th Congress. Other sources, however, rely on unofficial records to give Gorman that title in the 53rd Congress, with Senators Morgan and Jones identified as such in later Congresses (after a period in which reliable sources do not exist); see, for example, Riddick, Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate, Table I, p. 7. b. Riddick identifies Senator Gorman as the first Democratic conference chair in 1893, though Byrd does not designate him as such until the 58th Congress. This is also the case with the designations of Senators Morgan in 1901 and Jones in 1902. c. No reliable records from the caucus exist for this period. d. Senator Gorman’s designation as conference chair in the 58th Congress is the first that can be confirmed from official caucus minutes. e. Died June 4, 1906. CRS-30 f. Secondary sources generally identify Senator Kern as the first Democratic floor leader in the modern sense of the term. See, for example, Oleszek, “John Worth Kern,” p. 10. Others have made a case for designating Senator Blackburn as the first, since he was referred to as the Democrats’ “chosen official leader” in a congratulatory resolution. See Riddick, p. 3. Still others consider Senator Martin an early floor leader; see Oleszek, “John Worth Kern,” note 13. Senator Underwood is the first person to be officially called floor leader in minutes of the party conference, so some sources (e.g., Byrd) treat him as the first Democratic floor leader. g. Elected June 9, 1906. h. Died November 12, 1919. An initial caucus vote to replace Senator Martin resulted in a tie between Senator Gilbert M. Hitchcock and Senator Underwood. Hitchcock briefly was acting leader until Underwood was elected in April of 1920. See Riddick, p. 9, note 2. i. Elected April 27, 1920. j. Died July 14, 1937. k. Elected July 22, 1937. l. In the 107th Congress, Senator Daschle became majority leader on June 6, 2001, following a change in party control of the Senate from Republican to Democratic. Conference Chair Each party has a conference organization consisting of all the elected Senators from that party; it is the main body through which the party contingent at large decides and communicates its legislative priorities. While each party’s conference chair posts were the first formal party leadership positions in the Senate, eventually floor leader positions were established as uppermost in each party’s leadership hierarchy. Since 1945, Republicans have elected their conference chair separately from other leadership posts, but the elected Democratic floor leader also serves as chair of the Democratic Conference. (See Table 12 for the list of Democratic floor leaders / conference chairs.) Table 13. Senate Republican Conference Chairs, 1893-2007 Chair State Congress Dates John Shermana OH 53rd 54th 1893-1897 William B. Allison IA 55th-56th 1897-1901b Eugene Hale ME 57th 1901-1902 Orville Platt CT 57th 1902-1903c Eugene Hale ME 58th th 1903-1904 th William B. Allison IA 58 -59 1904-1906 Eugene Hale ME 59th 1906-1907 William B. Allisond IA 59th 1907-1908 Nelson W. Aldrich RI th 60 1908-1909 Eugene Hale ME 60th-61st 1909-1910 Shelby M. Cullom IL 61st-62nd 1910-1913 Jacob H. Gallinger Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. NH e MA rd th 1913-1918 65 66th-68th 1918-1924 63 -65 th CRS-31 Chair Charles Curtise e State Congress Dates KS 68th-70th 1924-1929 st nd James E. Watson IN 71 -72 1929-1932 Charles L. McNarye OR 73rd-78th 1933-1944 Arthur H. Vandenberg MI 79th 1945-1946 Eugene D. Millikin th CO 80 -82 83rd 84th nd 1947-1956 Leverett Saltonstall MA 85th-89th 1957-1966 Margaret Chase Smith ME 90th-92nd 1967-1972 rd 1973-1974 Norris Cotton NH 93 Carl T. Curtis NE 94th-95th 1975-1978 Robert Packwood OR 96th 1979-1980 James A. McClure ID 97th-98th 1981-1984 th John Chafee RI 99 101st 1985-1990 Thad Cochran MS 102nd-103rd 104th 1991-1996 Connie Mack FL 105th-106th 1997-2000 th Richard J. Santorum PA 107 108th-109th 2001-2006 Jon Kyl AZ 110th- 2007- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 502. Additional detail is from Riddick, Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate, pp. 7-9). Records of the Republican Conference are extant only from 1911. Secondary sources (see Riddick, pp. 7-9) provide information for years prior to 1893. Rothman, in his work, claims that Senator Henry B. Anthony served as Republican caucus chair for an undetermined number of years beginning in 1869 and that Senator George Franklin Edmunds served as chair from 1885 to 1891. See David J. Rothman, Politics and Power: The United States Senate, 1869-1901, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966, pp. 6, 28-30. Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the Republican party was in the majority for at least half of the Congress. For example, while the Republicans began the 107th Congress with a controlling majority, party control switched to the Democrats in June of the first session; the 107th Congress is therefore treated as being under Democratic party control in these tables, where applicable. Except for those individuals who also served as floor leader (as designated in next note), sources do not provide specific dates of conference chair service (e.g., when there was a death or resignation and, as a result, a mid-session election was held). Therefore, this table provides only years of service for each conference chair and gives no specific dates for transitions that occurred within a session. a. Riddick indicates that secondary sources confirm Sherman as the first Republican conference chair (Table I, p.7); Byrd starts his list (Table 4-1, p.502) with Allison’s tenure in the 55th Congress, but notes Sherman’s previous tenure in a footnote. CRS-32 b. Byrd lists Senator Allison’s tenure in the position as 1897-1901, but Riddick maintains that reliable records do not exist for 1898 to 1901. c. Using unofficial sources, Riddick (Table I, p. 7) indicates that Senator George H. Hoar was briefly conference chair in 1903. Byrd does not include him. d. Using unofficial sources, Riddick (Table I, p. 7) indicates Senator Allison was chair; Byrd does not include him. e. Indicates individuals who were simultaneously identified as the floor leader. See Table 11 of this report. Party Whip Senate Democrats first selected a party whip in 1913; Republicans followed in 1915. Some accounts of these early selections imply that the individuals were initially appointed, but other contemporary accounts refer to conference elections for the posts. (Republicans first formally codified their conference procedures in 1944, making it clear that the whip post was elected by the conference.) Today, each party conference elects a party whip, who is also known in the Senate as the assistant majority leader or assistant minority leader, depending on the party. Typically, deputy whips are also appointed to assist the whip operation. The whips communicate leadership priorities to the party rank-and-file (and vice versa), provide leaders an assessment of member support for (or opposition to) pending legislative matters, and mobilize support for leadership-supported measures under consideration. For more information, see CRS Report RS20887, Senate Leadership: Whip Organization, by Judy Schneider. Table 14. Senate Democratic Whips, 1913-2007 Whip James Hamilton Lewisa State Congress Dates IL 63rd-65th 1913-1919 th th 1919-1929 Peter G. Gerry RI 66 -70 Morris Sheppard TX 71st-72nd 1929-1933 James Hamilton Lewis IL 73rd-75th 1933-1939 Sherman Minton th 1939-1941 IN 76 J. Lister Hill AL th 77 -79 1941-1947 Scott W. Lucasb IL 80th 1947-1949 Francis J. Myers PA 81st 1949-1951 TX 82 nd 1951-1953 Earle C. Clement KY 83rd 84th 1953-1957 Mike Mansfieldb MT 85th-86th Lyndon B. Johnson b th th th 1957-1961 Hubert H. Humphrey MN 87 -88 1961-1965 Russell B. Long LA 89th-90th 1965-1969 Edward M. Kennedy MA 91st 1969-1971 WV nd Robert C. Byrd b th 92 -94 1971-1977 CRS-33 Whip State Congress Dates Alan Cranston CA 95th-96th 97th-99th 100th-101st 1977-1991 Wendell H. Ford KY 102nd-103rd 104th-105th 1991-1999 Harry Reidb NV 106th, 107th 108th 1999-2005 Richard Durbin IL 109th 110th- 2005- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 509, with additional detail drawn from Oleszek, Majority and Minority Whips of the Senate. Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the Democratic whip was also the majority whip for at least half of the Congress. For example, while the Republicans began the 107th Congress with a controlling majority, party control switched to the Democrats in June of the first session; the 107thCongress is therefore treated as being under Democratic party control in these tables, where applicable. a. Senator James Hamilton Lewis became the first Democratic Party whip in 1913. In the Congressional Record, Lewis himself referred to his “appointment,” but a press account the next year said he was elected. See Oleszek, Majority and Minority Whips of the Senate, p. 4. b. Indicates individuals who later advanced to floor leader. Table 15. Senate Republican Whips, 1915-2007 Whip State Congress Dates James W. Wadsworth, Jr.a NY 64th 1915 Charles Curtisb KS 64th-65th 66th-68th 1915-1924 Wesley L. Jones WA 68th-70th 1924-1929 st nd Simeon D. Fess OH 71 -72 Felix Hebert RI 73rd c N/A b 1929-1933 1933-1935 th 74 -77 th 1936-1943 th th 1944-1949 Kenneth S. Wherry NE 78 -79 80th Leverett Saltonstall MA 81st-82nd 83rd 84th 1949-1957 Everett M. Dirksenb IL 85th 1957-1959 Thomas H. Kuchel Hugh D. Scott b CA PA th 86 -90 91 st th 1959-1969 1969 CRS-34 Whip Robert P. Griffin State Congress Dates MI 91st-94th 1969-1977 th th Ted Stevens AK 95 -96 97th-98th 1977-1985 Alan K. Simpson WY 99th 100th-103rd 1985-1995 Trent Lottb MS 104th 1995-June 12, 1996d Don Nickles OK 104th-106th 107th June 12, 1996-2003e Mitch McConnellb KY 108th-109th 2003-2007 Trent Lott MS 110th- 2007- Sources: See the “Source Notes and Bibliography” section at the end of this report for a description and full citation of all sources. The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 509, with additional details provided by Oleszek, Majority and Minority Whips of the Senate. Notes: Bolded entries indicate Congresses in which the Republican whip was also majority whip for at least half of the Congress. For example, while the Republicans began the 107th Congress with a controlling majority, party control switched to the Democrats in June of the first session; the 107thCongress is treated as being under Democratic party control in these tables, where applicable. a. Wadsworth was the first Republican whip, but served only one week before Senator Curtis was named his successor. Some sources describe the selections as appointments, but clearly the party eventually elected individuals to the post. The conference rules for such selection were formally codified only in 1944, but the election practice seems to have been occurring prior to this. See Oleszek, Majority and Minority Whips of the Senate, p. 5. b. Indicates individuals who later advanced to floor leader. c. Between 1936 and 1943, the Republican whip post was filled by informal, irregular appointment by the Republican Leader. d. Elected majority leader, June 12, 1996. e. Elected to replace Senator Trent Lott as whip, June 12, 1996. CRS-35 Appendix: Political Party Abbreviations Adams Adams-Clay F Adams-Clay R AJ Am Anti-Admin C CRR D F FL FS I ID IR J JR L LR N N/A NR OP PO PR Pro-Admin R R(DR)a RA S SR U UU W Adams Adams-Clay Federalist Adams-Clay Republican Anti-Jackson American (Know-Nothing) Anti-Administration Conservative Crawford Republican Democrat Federalist Farmer-Labor Free Soil Independent Independent Democrat Independent Republican Jacksonian Jacksonian Republican Liberty Liberal Republican Nullifier Party Unknown or No Party Affiliation National Republican Opposition Populist Progressive Pro-Administration Republican Jeffersonian, Jeffersonian Republican, or Democratic Republican Readjuster Silver Silver Republican Unionist Unconditional Unionist Whig Source: This table is derived from Byrd, Historical Statistics, p. xvi. a. While the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 identifies the party affiliation of certain Representatives in early Congresses as Republicans, the designation “Democratic Republican” is more familiar to readers. This designation, R(DR), should not be taken to refer to the contemporary Republican Party, which did not emerge until the 1850s. CRS-36 Source Notes and Bibliography This report relies heavily on primary congressional sources and authoritative documents such as the privately printed Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774 to 1996, and a similar online adaptation, the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774 to the Present. In addition, over the years, individual Members of Congress, legislative aides, and scholars have gained limited access to party conference journals. Reliable leadership lists have been compiled from these sources. Where these have been published, they have been used as a source in this report. This report also relies on secondary sources developed by scholars. The Congressional Research Service made no attempt to gain access to caucus or conference minutes in collecting data for this report. Inevitably, conflicting interpretations occur in these data, even among sources generally accepted as reliable. For example, there are disparities on the dates of elections and tenure of Senate Presidents pro tempore between Byrd’s history, the 1911 Senate document, and Gamm and Smith’s research. The report attempts to footnote these divergences where they occur. Unless otherwise noted, the following sources were used to compile the tables in this report: Berdahl, Clarence. “Some Notes on Party Membership in Congress.” American Political Science Review, vol. 43 (April 1949), pp. 309-332; (June 1949), pp. 492-508; and (August 1949), pp. 721-734. Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996. Washington: CQ Staff Directories Inc., 1997. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774 to the Present. Available online at [http://bioguide.congress.gov/biosearch/biosearch.asp]. Byrd, Robert C. The Senate, 1789-1989. 4 vols., 100th Congress, 1st session. S. Doc. 100-20. Washington: GPO, 1988-1993. Cannon, Clarence. “Party History.” Remarks in the appendix, Congressional Record, vol. 89 (January 22, 1941), pp. A383-A384. Congressional Directory. Washington: GPO, various years. Congressional Globe. Washington, 1833-1873. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report. Washington: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., various dates. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, 1873-present. CRS Report RL30960. The President Pro Tempore of the U.S. Senate: History and Authority of the Office, by Christopher M. Davis. CRS-37 Deschler, Lewis. Deschler-Brown Precedents of the United States House of Representatives. 16 vols. Washington: GPO, 1977-2000. Galloway, George B. “Leadership in the House of Representatives.” The Western Political Quarterly, vol. 12, no. 2, (June 1959), pp. 417-441. Gamm, Gerald and Steven S. Smith. “Last Among Equals: The Senate’s Presiding Officer.” In Burdett A. Loomis, ed., Esteemed Colleagues: Civility and Deliberation in the U.S. Senate, pp. 105-134. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 2000. Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. New York: Macmillan, 1989. Oleszek, Walter J. Majority and Minority Whips in the Senate: History and Development of the Party Whip System in the U.S. Senate. 99th Congress, 1st session. S. Doc. 99-23. Washington: GPO, 1985. ——. “John Worth Kern: Portrait of Floor Leader.” In Richard A. Baker and Roger H. Davidson, eds., First Among Equals: Outstanding Senate Leaders of the Twentieth Century, pp. 7-37. Washington: CQ Press, 1991. Ripley, Randall B. Party Leaders in the House of Representatives. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 1967. ——. “The Party Whip Organizations in the United States House of Representatives.” American Political Science Review, vol. 58 (September 1964), pp. 561-576. Rothman, David J. Politics and Power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966. U.S. Congress. Hinds’ and Cannon’s Precedents of the House of Representatives of the United States. 11 vols. Washington: GPO, 1907-1908, 1935-1941. ——. House. Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 1789present, various publishers. ——. Senate. Journal of the Senate of the United States, 1789-present, various publishers. ——. Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate: History and Development of the Offices of the Floor Leaders. Prepared by Floyd M. Riddick. 99th Congress, 1st session. S. Doc. 99-3. Washington: GPO, 1985. ——. President of the Senate Pro Tempore. 62nd Congress, 2nd session. S.Doc. 62101. Washington: GPO, 1911. Widenor, William C. “Henry Cabot Lodge: The Astute Parliamentarian,” In Richard A. Baker and Roger H. Davidson, eds., First Among Equals: Outstanding CRS-38 Senate Leaders of the Twentieth Century, pp. 38-62. Washington: CQ Press, 19911993), vol. 4, Historical (continued...) CRS-4 An appendix explains the abbreviations used to denote party affiliations in this report. Leadership Posts Excluded The tables in this report do not list all Senators and Representatives who have held all leadership posts. Some leadership posts are excluded in order to provide a manageable amount of data. Excluded from this report are the Senate and House party conference secretaries, and the chairs of such party committees as steering committees, policy committees, committees on committees, and campaign committees. Junior party whips are not identified. At least since the 1930s in the House, both parties have selected (or allowed the principal whip to designate) subordinate whips. The lack of adequate records makes it almost impossible to identify all deputy whips, regional whips, and zone whips who have been appointed in the last 70 years. Table 1. Speakers of the House of Representatives, 1789-2003 Speaker 3 Party/State Congress Dates Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg N/A–PA 1st April 1, 1789March 3, 1791 Jonathan Trumbull N/A–CT 2nd October 24,1791March 3, 1793 Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg N/A–PA 3rd December 2,1793March 3, 1795 Jonathan Dayton N/A–NJ 4th-5th December 7,1795March 3, 1799 Theodore Sedgwick N/A–MA 6th December 2,1799March 3, 1801 Nathaniel Macon N/A–NC 7th-9th December 7,1801March 3, 1807 Joseph B. Varnum N/A–MA 10th-11th October 26, 1807March 3, 1811 Henry Clay R(DR)–KY* 12th-13th November 4,1811January 19, 1814a Langdon Cheeves R(DR)–SC* 13th January 19, 1814March 3, 1815 (...continued) Statistics,1789-1992, 739 p. Hereafter, cited as Byrd’s Historical Statistics. See also, Gerald Gamm and Steven S. Smith, “Last Among Equals: The Senate’s Presiding Officer,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, 3-6 September 1998. Hereafter, cited as Gamm and Smith, “Last Among Equals.” CRS-5 Speaker Party/State Congress Henry Clay R(DR)–KY* 14th-16th John W. Taylor R(DR)–NY* 16th November 15, 1820March 3, 1821 Philip Barbour R(DR)–VA* 17th December 4,1821March 3, 1827 Henry Clay R(DR)–KY* 18th December 3,1823March 6,1825b John W. Taylor R(DR)–NY* 19th December 5,1825March 3, 1827 Andrew Stevenson N/A–VA 20th December 3,1827March 3, 1829 Andrew Stevenson J–VA 21st-23rd December 7,1829June 2, 1834 N/A–TN 23rd J–TN 24th-25th December 7, 1835March 3, 1839 Robert M.T. Hunter W–VA 26th December 16,1839March 3, 1841 John White W–KY 27th May 31, 1841March 3, 1843 John W. Jones D–VA 28th December 4, 1843March 3, 1845 John W. Davis D–IN 29th December 1, 1845March 3, 1847 Robert C. Winthrop W–MA 30th December 6, 1847March 3, 1849 Howell Cobb D–GA 31st December 22, 1849March 3, 1851 Linn Boyd D–KY 32nd-33rd December 1, 1851March 3, 1855 Am—MAc 34th February 2, 1856March 3, 1857 James L. Orr D–SC 35th December 7, 1857March 3, 1859 William Pennington R–NJ 36th February 1, 1860March 3, 1861 Galusha A. Grow R–PA 37th July 4, 1861March 3, 1863 Schuyler Colfax R–IN 38th-40th John Bell James K. Polk Nathaniel P. Banks Dates December 4,1815October 28, 1820 June 2, 1834March 3, 1835 December 7, 1863March 3, 1869 CRS-6 Speaker Party/State Congress Dates Theodore Pomeroy R–NY 40th March 3, 1869d James G. Blaine R–ME 41st-43rd March 4, 1869March 3, 1875 Michael C. Kerr D–IN 44th December 6, 1875Aug. 19, 1876e Samuel J. Randall D–PA 44th-46th December 4, 1876March 3, 1881 J. Warren Keifer R–OH 47th December 5, 1881March 3, 1883 John G. Carlisle D–KY 48th-50th December 3, 1883March 3, 1889 Thomas B. Reed R–ME 51st December 2, 1889March 3, 1891 Charles F. Crisp D–GA 52nd-53rd December 7, 1891March 3, 1895 Thomas B. Reed R–ME 54th-55th December 2, 1895March 3, 1899 David B. Henderson R–IA 56th-57th December 4, 1899March 3, 1903 Joseph G. Cannon R–IL 58th-61st November 9, 1903March 3, 1911 James B. (Champ) Clark D–MO 62nd-65th April 4, 1911March 3, 1919 Frederick H. Gillett R–MA 66th-68th May 19, 1919March 3, 1925 Nicholas Longworth R–OH 69th-71st December 7, 1925March 3, 1931 John N. Garner D–TX 72nd December 7, 1931March 3, 1933 Henry T. Rainey D–IL 73rd March 9, 1933August 19, 1934f Joseph W. Byrns D–TN 74th January 3, 1935June 4, 1936g William B. Bankhead D–AL 74th-76th June 4, 1936September 15,1940h Sam T. Rayburn D–TX 76th-79th September 16, 1940-January 3, 1947 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. R–MA 80th January 3, 1947January 3, 1949 Sam T. Rayburn D–TX 81st-82nd January 3, 1949January 3, 1953 CRS-7 Speaker Party/State Congress Dates Joseph W. Martin, Jr. R–MA 83rd Sam T. Rayburn D–TX 84th-87th January 5, 1955November 16, 1961i John W. McCormack D–MA 87th-91st January 10, 1962January 3, 1971 Carl Albert D–OK 92nd-94th January 21, 1971January 3, 1977 Thomas P. O’Neill, Jr. D–MA 95th-99th January 4, 1977January 3, 1987 James C. Wright, Jr. D–TX 100th-101st January 6, 1987June 6, 1989j Thomas S. Foley D–WA 101st-103rd June 6, 1989January 3, 1995 Newt Gingrich R–GA 104th-105th January 4, 1995January 3, 1999 J. Dennis Hastert R–IL 106th- January 6, 1999- January 3, 1953January 3, 1955 * Although the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 identifies these Speakers as Republicans, the party designation “Democratic Republicans” is more widely used and familiar to readers. This designation, R(DR), should not be confused with the contemporary Republican Party, which did not emerge until the 1850s. A key to all party abbreviations can be found in the Appendix on page 35. a. Resigned from the House of Representatives, January 19, 1814. b. Resigned from the House of Representatives, March 6, 1825. c. Speaker Banks served in the House three separate times under three different party designations. In the 34th Congress, he served as an American Party Member. d. Elected Speaker, March 3, 1869 and served one day. e. Died in office, August 19, 1876. f. Died in office, August 19, 1934. g. Died in office, June 4, 1936. h. Died in office, September 15, 1940. i. Died in office, November 16, 1961. j. Resigned from the House of Representatives, June 6, 1989. CRS-8 Table 2: House Democratic Floor Leaders, 1899-2003 Floor Leader James D. Richardson State Congress TN 56th-57th th Dates 1899-1903 th 1903-1908 John Sharp Williams MS 58 -60 James B. (Champ) Clark MO 60th-61st 1908-1911 Oscar W. Underwood AL 62nd-63rd 1911-1915 th th Claude Kitchin NC 64 -65 * 1915-1919 James B. (Champ) Clark MO 66th 1919-1921 Claude Kitchin NC 67th IN th Finis J. Garrett 1921-1923 68 -70 th st 1923-1929 John N. Garner TX 71 1929-1931 Henry T. Rainey IL 72nd* 1931-1933 rd* 1933-1935 th 1935-June 4, 1936a Joseph W. Byrns TN 73 William B. Bankhead AL 74 * Sam T. Rayburn TX 75th-76th* 1937-September 16, 1940b John W. McCormack MA 76th-79th* September 16, 1940-1947c Sam T. Rayburn TX 80th 1947-1949 John W. McCormack MA 81st-82nd* 1949-1953 Sam T. Rayburn TX 83rd 1953-1955 John W. McCormack th MA 84 -87 th* 1955-January 10, 1962d Carl Albert OK 87th-91st* January 10, 1962-1971e Thomas Hale Boggs LA 92nd* 1971-1973f Thomas P. O’Neill, Jr. MA 93rd-94th* 1973-1977 James Wright TX 95th-99th* 1977-1987 Thomas S. Foley WA 100th-101st* 1987-June 6, 1989g Richard A. Gephardt MO 101st-103d * 104th-107th June 14, 1989h-2003 Nancy Pelosi CA 108th 2003 * Indicates Congresses in which the floor leader was also Majority Leader. a. Elected Speaker, filling the vacancy caused by the death of Speaker Joseph W. Byrns. Records indicate that Representative John J. O’Connor of New York, chairman of the House Rules Committee, served as acting Majority Leader during the 14 remaining days of the 74th Congress. He does not, however, appear to have been formally elected Majority Leader at that time and therefore is not included in this list. At the commencement of the 75th Congress, Representatives Samuel T. (Sam) Rayburn, James F. O’Connor, John Rankin, and others competed for the post of Majority Leader, with Rep. Rayburn ultimately elected by the Democratic Caucus. b. Elected Speaker following the death of Speaker William B. Bankhead. c. Elected Majority Leader on September 16, 1940, to fill post made vacant by the election of Sam Rayburn as Speaker. d. Elected Speaker at the start of the 87th Congress, 2nd session following the death of Sam Rayburn. CRS-9 e. Elected Majority Leader at commencement of the 87th Congress, 2nd session when Majority Leader John McCormack was elected Speaker to succeed Speaker Rayburn. f. Disappeared on a flight from Anchorage to Juneau, Alaska, October 16, 1972. Presumed dead pursuant to House Resolution 1, 93rd Congress. g. Elected Speaker on June 6, 1989 following Speaker James C. Wright’s resignation from that post on the same date. h. Elected Majority Leader on June 14, 1989, to fill the post made vacant by the election of Thomas S. Foley to be Speaker on June 6, 1989. CRS-10 Table 3: House Republican Floor Leaders, 1899-2003 Floor Leader Sereno E. Payne Congress NY 56th-61st* nd Dates 1899-1911 IL 62 -65 th 1911-1919 Franklin W. Mondell WY 66th-67th* 1919-1923 Nicholas Longworth OH 68th* 1923-1925 John Q. Tilson th James R. Mann CT 69 -71 st* 1925-1931 Bertrand H. Snell NY 72nd-75th 1931-1939 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. MA 76th-79th 1939-1947 Charles Halleck IN 80 th* st Joseph W. Martin, Jr. MA 81 -82 Charles Halleck IN 83rd* th 1947-1949 nd 1949-1953 1953-1955 MA 84 - 85 th Charles Halleck IN th 86 -88 th Gerald R. Ford MI 89th-93rd 1965-December 6, 1973a John J. Rhodes AZ 93rd-96th December 7, 1973-1981 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. * State th rd Robert H. Michel IL 97 -103 Richard K. Armey TX 104th-107th* Tom Delay TX 108th 1955-1959 1959-1965 1981-1995 1995-2003 2003- Indicates Congresses in which the floor leader was also Majority Leader. a. Resigned from the House of Representatives on December 6, 1973, after having been confirmed by the Senate to become Vice President to fill the post vacated by the resignation of Spiro T. Agnew. CRS-11 Table 4: House Democratic Whips, 1901-2003 Whip Oscar W. Underwood James T. Lloyd State Congress AL 56th MO th N/A* Thomas M. Bell GA * 1901 th 1901-1908a 61st-62nd 1909-1913 63rd 1913-1915 th 64 -66 N/A th 1915-1921 William A. Oldfield AR 67th-70th 1921-November 19, 1928b John McDuffie AL 70th-72nd 1928-1933 Arthur Greenwood rd IN 73 Patrick J. Boland PA th 74 -77 Robert Ramspeck GA 77th-79th John J. Sparkman AL 79th 1946-1947 John W. McCormack MA th 80 1947-1949 J. Percy Priest TN 81st -82nd 1949-1953 John W. McCormack MA 83rd 1953-1955 th 1933-1935 th 1935-May 18, 1942c 1942-December 31, 1945d th 1955-1962 Carl Albert OK 84 -87 Thomas Hale Boggs LA 87th-91st 1962-1971 Thomas P. O’Neill, Jr. MA 92nd 1971-1973 John J. McFall rd John W. Brademas Thomas S. Foley * 57 -60 Dates CA 93 -94 th 1973-1977 IN 95th-96th 1977-1981 WA 97th-99th th 1981-1987 st 1987-June 14, 1989e Tony Coelho CA 100 -101 William H. Gray, III PA 101st-102nd June 14, 1989 September 11, 1991f David E. Bonior MI 102nd-107th September 11, 1991gJanuary 15, 2002 Nancy Pelosi CA 107th-108th Steny H. Hoyer MD 108th January 15, 2002hJanuary 7, 2003 January 7, 2003- For these periods, there is no official record in the minutes of the Democratic Caucus or elsewhere of the name of the Democratic Whip. Some scholars believe that Thomas Bell may have been the whip from 1909 to 1919; others believe the whip for that period may have been John Nance Garner of Texas. See Randall B. Ripley, “The Party Whip Organizations in the United States House of Representatives,” American Political Science Review, vol. 58, September 1964, p. 504. a. Resigned from position as Democratic Whip, 1908 b. Died in office, November 19, 1928. c. Died in office, May 18, 1942. d. Resigned from the House of Representatives, December 31, 1945. CRS-12 e. Representative Tony Coelho was the first elected Democratic Whip. f. Resigned from the House of Representatives, September 11, 1991. g. Elected July 11, 1991, but did not assume position as House Democratic Whip until September 11, 1991. h. Pelosi was elected on October 10, 2001, but did not assume the position of House Democratic Whip until January 15, 2002, the date on which Bonior’s resignation as whip became effective. CRS-13 Table 5: House Republican Whips, 1897-2003 Whip James A. Tawney State Congress MN 55th-58th th Dates 1897-1905 th 1905-1909 James E. Watson IN 59 -60 John W. Dwight NY 61st-62nd 1909-1913 Charles H. Burke SD 63rd 1913-1915 th th 1915-1919 Charles M. Hamilton WY 64 -65 Harold Knutson MN 66th-67th 1919-1923 Albert H. Vestal IN 68th-71st 1923-1931 Carl G. Bachmann nd WV 72 Harry L. Englebright CA rd 73 -78 Leslie C. Arends IL 78th-93rd Robert H. Michel IL th 94 -96 th 1931-1933 th th th 1933-May 13, 1943a 1943-1975 1975-1981 Trent Lott MS 97 -100 1981-1989 Dick Cheney WY 101st 1989-March 17, 1989b Newt Gingrich GA 101st-103rd March 22, 1989-1995b Tom DeLay TX 104th-107th 1995-2003 Roy D. Blunt MO 108th 2003- a. Died in office, May 13, 1943. b. Representative Gingrich was elected House Republican Whip on March 22, 1989, following Representative Dick Cheney’s resignation from the House on March 17, 1989, to become Secretary of Defense. CRS-14 Table 6: House Democratic Caucus Chairmen, 1849-2003 Chairman James Thompson State Congress PA 31st 1849-1851 32nd 1851-1853 N/Aa Dates Edson B. Olds OH 33rd 1853-1855 George W. Jones TN 34th 1855-1857 35th 1857-1859 36th 1859-1861 37th-40th 1861-1869 N/Ab George S. Houston AL N/Ac William E. Niblackd IN 41st 1869-1871 Samuel J. Randalld PA 41st 1869-1871 42nd 1871-1873 N/Ae William E. Niblack IN 43rd 1873-1875 Lucius Q.C. Lamar MS 44th 1875-1877 Hiester Clymer PA 45th 1877-1879 John F. House TN 46th 1879-1881 47th 1881-1883 N/Af George W. Geddes OH 48th 1883-1885 J. Randolph Tucker VA 49th 1885-1887 Samuel S. Cox NY 50th 1887-1889g William S. Holman IN 51st-53rd 1889-1895 David B. Culberson TX 54th 1895-1897 James D. Richardson TN 55th 1897-1899 James Hay VA 56th-58th 1899-1905 Robert L. Henry TX 59th 1905-1907 Henry D. Clayton AL 60th-61st 1907-1911h Albert S. Burleson TX 62nd 1911-1913h A. Mitchell Palmer PA 63rd 1913-1915 E.W. Saunders VA 64th-65th 1915-1919 Arthur G. Dewalt PA 66th 1919-1921 CRS-15 Chairman State Congress Dates Sam T. Rayburn TX 67th 1921-1923 Henry T. Rainey IL 68th 1923-1925 Charles D. Carter OK 69th 1925-1927 Arthur Greenwood IN 70th 1927-1929 David Kincheloe KY 71st 1929-1930i William W. Arnold IL 72nd 1931-1933 Clarence F. Lea CA 73rd 1933-1935 Edward T. Taylor CO 74th 1935-1937 Robert L. Doughton NC 75th 1937-1939 John W. McCormack MA 76th 1939-September 16, 1940j Richard M. Duncan MO 77th 1941-1943 Harry Sheppard CA 78th 1943-1945 Jere Cooper TN 79th 1945-1947 Aime Forand RI 80th 1947-1949 Francis E. Walter PA 81st 1949-1951 Jere Cooper TN 82nd 1951-1953 Wilbur Mills AR 83rd 1953-1955 John J. Rooney NY 84th 1955-1957 Melvin Price IL 85th-86th 1957-1961 Francis E. Walter PA 87th-88th 1961-May 31, 1963k Albert Thomas TX 88th 1964-1965 Eugene Keogh NY 89th 1965-1967 Dan Rostenkowski IL 90th-91st 1967-1971 Olin Teague TX 92nd-93rd 1971-1975 Philip Burton CA 94th 1975-1977 Thomas S. Foley WA 95th-96th 1977-1981 Gillis W. Long LA 97th-98th 1981-1985 Richard Gephardt MO 99th-100th 1985-1989l William Gray PA 101st Steny H. Hoyer MD 101st-103rd January 4-June 14, 1989m June 21, 1989-1995l CRS-16 Chairman State Congress Dates Vic Fazio CA 104th-105th 1995-1999 Martin Frost TX 106th-107th 1999-2003 Robert Menendez NJ 108th 2003- a. No clear records remain for this Congress. Several Democratic Members offered the various organizing resolutions at the beginning of the Congress. b. No clear data for this period exist. c. No clear data for this period exist. Representative John Hickman nominated Representative F.P. Blair as Speaker in 1861, but no records show whether Hickman was caucus chair. d. Caucus records show Representative William B. Niblack and Representative Samuel J. Randall as both having served as chairman during the Congress, but no dates of service were specified. e. Representative Fernando Wood nominated the Democratic leadership slate in the House, but there is no other evidence to show he was elected caucus chairman. f. Available data show that Representative John F. House nominated Samuel J. Randall as the Democratic candidate for Speaker, the traditional role of the caucus chairman. Later data show Representative W.S. Rosecrans issuing the next call for a Democratic Caucus meeting, but there is no evidence to suggest that Rosecrans was actually elected caucus chairman. g. Former Parliamentarian Clarence Cannon’s notes state that “[Representative Samuel J.] Cox died during this Congress and [Representative James B.] McCreary evidently succeeded or acted for him.” However, Representative Cox died on September 10, 1889, six months after the sine die adjournment of the 50th Congress and the convening of the 51st Congress. h. Caucus records are contradictory for this period. They show the election of Representative James Hay as chairman on January 19, 1911, but do not mention a resignation by incumbent chairman Henry P. Clayton, nor do they specify that Hay was elected chairman for the new Congress. Later, they show the election of Representative Albert S. Burleson on April 11, 1911. i. Resigned from the House, October 5, 1930; there is no record of an election to fill the vacancy as caucus chair. j. Resigned following election as majority floor leader, September 16, 1940; records do not indicate that a successor was chosen during the remainder of the Congress. k. Died in office, May 31, 1963. Caucus chairmanship post vacant until January 21, 1964. l. Representative Steny H. Hoyer was elected Caucus Chairman on June 21, 1989, following the June 14, 1989 election of Representative William H. Gray as Democratic Whip. Also on June 21, Representative Richard Gephardt was elected Majority Leader. m. Representative William Gray was elected Democratic Whip on June 14, 1989. CRS-17 Table 7: House Republican Conference Chairmen, 1863-2003 Chairman Justin S. Morrilla State Congress VT 38th-39th b 40 N/A Dates 1863-1867 th 1867-1869 Robert C. Schenckc OH 41st 1869-1871 Nathaniel P. Banksc MA 41st 1869-1871 nd 1871-1873 rd 1873-1875 Austin Blair MI 42 Horace Maynard TN 43 George W. McCrary IA 44th 1875-1877 th 1877-1879 th 1879-1881 1881-1883 Eugene Hale ME 45 William P. Frye ME 46 G.M. Robeson NJ 47th Joseph G. Cannon IL 48th-50th st 1883-1889 rd 1889-1895 T.J. Henderson IL 51 -53 Charles H. Grosvenor OH 54th-55th 1895-1899 Joseph G. Cannon IL 56th-57th 1899-1903 th th 1903-1909 William P. Hepburn IA 58 -60 F.D. Currier NH 61st-62nd 1909-1913 William S. Greene MA 63rd-65th 1913-1919 th th Horace M. Towner IA 66 -67 Sydney Anderson MN 68th 1923-1925 Willis C. Hawley OR 69th-72nd 1925-1933 rd 1919-1923 Robert Luce MA 73 1933-1935 Frederick R. Lehlbach NJ 74th 1935-1937 Roy Woodruff MI 75th-81st nd 1937-1951 th 1951-1957 Clifford Hope KS 82 -84 Charles Hoeven IA 85th-87th 1957-1963 Gerald R. Ford MI 88th 1963-1965 Melvin Laird th WI 89 -90 th 1965-1969 John B. Anderson IL 91st-95th 1969-1979 Samuel L. Devine OH 96th 1979-1981 NY th 97 -99 Dick Cheney WY th 100 1987-1989 Jerry Lewis CA 101st-102nd 1989-1993 Jack Kemp d d Richard K. Armey TX 103 rd th 1981-June 4, 1987 1993-1995 CRS-18 Chairman State Congress John A. Boehner OH 104th-105th 1995-1999 J.C. Watts OK 106th-107th 1999-2003 Deborah Pryce OH 108 th Dates 2003- a. Representative Justin S. Morrill is the first officially designated Republican caucus chairman. There exists no clear evidence of formal chairmanships of Republican organizations in earlier Congresses. b. Caucus minutes show three Members (Representatives Nathaniel Banks of Massachusetts, Luke Poland of Vermont, and Samuel Hooper of Massachusetts) chairing three separate meetings. c. Caucus minutes show Representative Robert C. Schenck elected chairman, but Representative Nathaniel P. Banks chairing two early meetings, possibly in Schenck’s absence. d. On June 4, 1987, Representative Dick Cheney was elected Conference Chair to succeed Representative Jack Kemp, who resigned from the post. CRS-19 Table 8: Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1789-2003 Partya Name State Congress Date Elected John Langdon Pro-Admin/ Anti-Admin/ R(DR) NH 1st April 6, 1789 Richard Henry Lee Anti-Admin VA 2nd April 18, 1792 NH nd 2 November 5, 1792 NH 2nd March 1, 1793 SC 3rd May 31, 1794 VA rd 3 February 20, 1795 VA 4th December 7, 1795 John Langdon Pro-Admin/ Anti-Admin/ R(DR) John Langdon Ralph Izard Henry Tazewell Pro-Admin Anti-Admin/ R(DR) Henry Tazewell Samuel Livermore Pro-Admin/ F NH 4th May 6, 1796 William Bingham F PA 4th February 16, 1797 th July 6, 1797 William Bradford Pro-Admin/ F RI 5 Jacob Read F SC 5th November 22, 1797 Theodore Sedgwick F MA 5th June 27, 1789 th John Laurance F NY 5 December 6, 1789 James Ross Pro-Admin/ F PA 5th March 1, 1799 Samuel Livermore Pro-Admin/ F NH 6th December 22, 1799 Uriah Tracy F CT 6th May 14, 1800 th John E. Howard F MD 6 November 21, 1800 James Hillhouse F CT 6th February 28, 1801 Abraham Baldwin R GA 7th December 7, 1801 VT th 7 December 14, 1802 Stephen R. Bradley VT 7th February 25, 1803 Stephen R. Bradley VT 7th March 2, 1803 th Stephen R. Bradley Anti-Admin/ R(DR) John Brown Anti-Admin KY 8 October 17, 1803 John Brown Anti-Admin KY 8th January 23, 1804 Jesse Franklin R(DR) NC 8th March 10, 1804 TN th January 15, 1805 th February 28, 1805 Joseph Anderson Joseph Anderson R(DR) R(DR) TN 8 8 CRS-20 Name Partya State Congress Date Elected Joseph Anderson R(DR) TN 8th March 2, 1805 Samuel Smith R(DR)/J MD 9th December 2, 1805 Samuel Smith MD th 9 March 18, 1806 Samuel Smith MD 9th March 2, 1807 Samuel Smith MD 10th April 16, 1808 th Stephen R. Bradley Anti-Admin/ R(DR) VT 10 December 28, 1808 John Milledge R(DR) GA 10th January 30, 1809 Andrew Gregg R(DR) PA 11th June 26, 1809 SC 11 th February 28, 1810 SC 11 th April 17, 1810 KY 11th GA th March 24, 1812 th John Gaillard R(DR)/J John Gaillard John Pope William H. Crawford R(DR) R(DR) 12 February 23, 1811 Joseph B. Varnum R(DR) MA 13 December 6, 1813 John Gaillard R(DR)/J SC 13th April 18, 1814 John Gaillard SC 13th November 25, 1814 b John Gaillard SC 14th [no election] John Gaillard SC 15th March 6, 1817 John Gaillard SC 15th March 31, 1918 VA th 15 February 15, 1819 VA 16th [no election] SC 16th January 25, 1820 John Gaillard SC 17 th February 1, 1822 John Gaillard SC 17th February 19, 1823 John Gaillard SC 18th May 21, 1824 SC 19 th NC 19th May 20, 1826 NC 19th January 2, 1827 NC th 19 March 2, 1827 MD 20th May 15, 1828 MD 21st March 13, 1829 Samuel Smith MD st 21 May 29, 1830 Samuel Smith MD 21st March 1, 1831 VA 22nd July 9, 1832 TN nd James Barbour R(DR) James Barbour John Gaillard R(DR)/J John Gaillard Nathaniel Macon R(DR)/J Nathaniel Macon Nathaniel Macon Samuel Smith R(DR)/J Samuel Smith Littleton Tazewell Hugh L. White JR/J J/AJ/W 22 March 9, 1825 December 3, 1832 CRS-21 Partya Name Hugh L. White George Poindexter J/AJ State Congress Date Elected TN 23rd [no election] MS 23rd June 28, 1834 rd March 3, 1835 John Tyler J/AJ VA 23 William R. King R(DR)J/D AL 24th July 1, 1836 AL 24th January 28, 1837 William R. King AL 25 th William R. King AL 25th October 13, 1837 William R. King AL 25th July 2, 1838 William R. King AL 25 th William R. King AL 26th July 3, 1840 William R. King AL 26th March 3, 1841 AL th March 4, 1841 th March 11, 1841 William R. King William R. King 27 March 7, 1837 February 25, 1839 Samuel Southard R(DR)W NJ 27 Willie P. Mangum J/AJ/W NC 27th NC 28 th [no election] th December 27, 1845c Willie P. Mangum May 31, 1842 Ambrose H. Sevier J/D AR 29 David R. Atchison D MO 29th August 8, 1846 David R. Atchison D MO 29th January 11, 1847 th March 3, 1847 David R. Atchison D MO 29 David R. Atchison D MO 30th February 2, 1848 David R. Atchison D MO 30th June 1, 1848 th June 26, 1848 David R. Atchison D MO 30 David R. Atchison D MO 30th July 29, 1848 David R. Atchison D MO 30th December 26, 1848 th March 2, 1849 David R. Atchison D MO 30 David R. Atchison D MO 31st March 5, 1849 David R. Atchison D MO 31st March 16, 1849 AL 31 st William R. King AL 31st July 11, 1850 William R. King AL 32nd [no election] nd William R. King R(DR)J/D May 6, 1850 December 20, 1852 David R. Atchison D MO 32 David R. Atchison D MO 33rd March 4, 1853 Lewis Cass D MI 33rd December 4, 1854 rd Jesse D. Bright D IN 33 December 5, 1854 Jesse D. Bright D IN 34th June 11, 1856 CRS-22 Partya Name State Congress Date Elected Charles E. Stuart D MI 34th June 9, 1856 James M. Mason D VA 34th January 6, 1857 th James M. Mason D VA 35 March 4, 1857 Thomas J. Rusk D TX 35th March 14, 1857 Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 35th December 7, 1857 th Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 35 Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 35th June 14, 1858 Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 35th January 25, 1858 th March 29, 1858 March 9, 1859 Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 36 Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 36th December 19, 1859 Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 36th February 20, 1860 IN th June 12, 1860 th June 26, 1860 Jesse D. Bright D 36 Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 36 Solomon Foot W/OP/R VT 36th VT th March 23, 1861 th July 18, 1861 Solomon Foot 37 February 16, 1861 Solomon Foot VT 37 Solomon Foot VT 37th January 15, 1862 Solomon Foot VT 37th March 31, 1862 Solomon Foot VT 37 th Solomon Foot VT 37th February 18, 1863 Solomon Foot VT 38th March 4, 1863 Solomon Foot VT 38 th Solomon Foot VT 38th February 23, 1864 Solomon Foot VT 38th April 11, 1864 th April 26, 1864 June 19, 1862 December 18, 1863 Daniel Clark R NH 38 Daniel Clark R NH 38th February 9, 1865 Lafayette S. Foster OP/R CT 39th March 7, 1865 OH th 39 March 2, 1867 OH 40th [no election] RI 41st March 23, 1869 st Benjamin F. Wade W/OP/R Benjamin F. Wade Henry B. Anthony R Henry B. Anthony R RI 41 April 9, 1869 Henry B. Anthony R RI 41st May 28, 1870 Henry B. Anthony R RI 41st July 1, 1870 st Henry B. Anthony R RI 41 July 14, 1870 Henry B. Anthony R RI 42nd March 10, 1871 CRS-23 Partya Name State Congress Date Elected Henry B. Anthony R RI 42nd April 17, 1871 Henry B. Anthony R RI 42nd May 23, 1871 nd Henry B. Anthony R RI 42 December 21, 1871 Henry B. Anthony R RI 42nd February 23, 1872 Henry B. Anthony R RI 42nd June 8, 1872 nd Henry B. Anthony R RI 42 December 4, 1872 Henry B. Anthony R RI 42nd December 13, 1872 Henry B. Anthony R RI 42nd December 20, 1872 nd Henry B. Anthony R RI 42 January 24, 1873 Matthew H. Carpenter R WI 43rd March 12, 1873 Matthew H. Carpenter R WI 43rd March 26, 1873 WI 43 rd December 11, 1873 rd December 23, 1874 Matthew H. Carpenter R Matthew H. Carpenter R WI 43 Henry B. Anthony R RI 43rd RI rd February 15, 1875 th March 9, 1875 Henry B. Anthony R 43 January 25, 1875 Thomas W. Ferry R MI 44 Thomas W. Ferry R MI 44th March 19, 1875 Thomas W. Ferry R MI 44th December 20, 1875 th March 5, 1877 Thomas W. Ferry R MI 45 Thomas W. Ferry R MI 45th February 26, 1878 Thomas W. Ferry R MI 45th April 17, 1878 th March 3, 1879 Thomas W. Ferry R MI 45 Allen G. Thurman D OH 46th April 15, 1879 Allen G. Thurman D OH 46th April 7, 1880 th May 6, 1880 Allen G. Thurman D OH 46 Thomas F. Bayard, Sr. D DE 47th October 10, 1881 David Davis I IL 47th October 13, 1881 th George F. Edmonds R VT 47 March 3, 1883 George F. Edmonds R VT 48th January 14, 1884 John Sherman R OH 49th December 7, 1885 th February 25, 1887 John J. Ingalls R KS 49 John J. Ingalls R KS 50th [no election] John J. Ingalls R KS 51st March 7, 1889 st John J. Ingalls R KS 51 John J. Ingalls R KS 51st April 2, 1889 February 28, 1890 CRS-24 Partya Name State Congress Date Elected John J. Ingalls R KS 51st April 3, 1890d Charles F. Manderson R NE 51st March 2, 1891 nd [no election] Charles F. Manderson R NE 52 Charles F. Manderson R NE 53rd [no election] Isham G. Harris D TN 53rd March 22, 1893 rd Matt W. Ransom D NC 53 January 7, 1895 Isham G. Harris D TN 53rd January 10, 1895 William P. Frye R ME 54th February 7, 1896 th [no election] William P. Frye R ME 55 William P. Frye R ME 56th [no election] William P. Frye R ME 57th March 7, 1901 ME 58 th [no election] th [no election] William P. Frye R William P. Frye R ME 59 William P. Frye R ME 60th ME st [no election] nd [no election] William P. Frye R 61 December 5, 1907 William P. Frye R ME 62 Charles Curtis R KS 62nd December 4, 1911 Augustus O. Bacon D GA 62nd January 15, 1912 nd February 12, 1912 Jacob H. Gallinger R NH 62 Henry Cabot Lodge R MA 62nd March 25, 1912 Frank B. Brandegee R CT 62nd May 25, 1912 rd James P. Clarke D AR 63 March 13, 1913 James P. Clarke D AR 64th December 6, 1915 Willard Saulsbury, Jr. D DE 64th December 14, 1916 th [no election] Willard Saulsbury, Jr. D DE 65 Albert B. Cummins R IA 66th May 19, 1919 Albert B. Cummins R IA 67th March 7, 1921 th Albert B. Cummins R IA 68 [no election] Albert B. Cummins R IA 69th [no election] George H. Moses R NH 69th March 6, 1925 th George H. Moses R NH 70 December 15, 1927 George H. Moses R NH 71st [no election] George H. Moses R NH 72nd [no election] rd Key Pittman D NV 73 Key Pittman D NV 74th March 9, 1933 January 7, 1935 CRS-25 Partya Name State Congress Date Elected Key Pittman D NV 75th [no election] Key Pittman D NV 76th [no election] th November 19, 1940 William H. King D UT 76 Pat Harrison D MS 77th January 6, 1941 Carter Glass D VA 77th July 10, 1941 th January 5, 1943 Carter Glass D VA 78 Kenneth D. McKellar D TN 79th January 6, 1945 Arthur Vandenberg R MI 80th January 4, 1947 st January 3, 1949 Kenneth D. McKellar D TN 81 Kenneth D. McKellar D TN 82nd [no election] Styles Bridges R NH 83rd January 3, 1953 GA th January 5, 1955 th Walter F. George D 84 Carl T. Hayden D AZ 85 January 3, 1957 Carl T. Hayden D AZ 86th [no election] AZ th [no election] th Carl T. Hayden D 87 Carl T. Hayden D AZ 88 [no election] Carl T. Hayden D AZ 89th [no election] Carl T. Hayden D AZ 90th [no election] st Richard B. Russell, Jr. D GA 91 January 3, 1969 Richard B. Russell, Jr. D GA 92nd [no election] Allen J. Ellender D LA 92nd January 22, 1971 nd James O. Eastland D MS 92 July 28, 1972 James O. Eastland D MS 93rd [no election] James O. Eastland D MS 94th [no election] th James O. Eastland D MS 95 [no election] Warren G. Magnuson D WA 96th January 15, 1979 Milton R. Young R ND 96th December 4, 1980 SC 97 th Strom Thurmond SC 98th [no election] Strom Thurmond SC 99th [no election] Strom Thurmond ID/D/R January 5, 1981 th January 6, 1987 John C. Stennis D MS 100 Robert C. Byrd D WV 101st January 3, 1989 Robert C. Byrd D WV 102nd [no election] rd [no election] Robert C. Byrd D WV 103 Strom Thurmond R SC 104th January 4, 1995 CRS-26 Partya Name State Congress Date Elected Strom Thurmond R SC 105th [no election] Strom Thurmond R SC 106th [no election] e th D WV 107 January 3, 2001 Strom Thurmonde R SC 107th January 3, 2001 Robert C. Byrdf D WV 107th June 6, 2001 Ted Stevens R AK 108th January 7, 2003 Robert C. Byrd Note: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, pp. 647 - 653. Until 1890, the Senate elected a President pro tempore whenever the Vice President was not in attendance, whether for a day, or permanently, as in the case of the Vice President’s death or resignation. When the Vice President returned, the President pro tempore lost his place. Then when the Vice President was again absent, the Senate again elected a President pro tempore, in many cases the same Senator who had been chose before. By the standing order agreed to on March 12, 1890, the Senate declared that the President pro tempore shall hold the office during “the pleasure of the Senate and until another is elected, and shall execute the duties thereof during all future absences of the Vice President until the Senate does otherwise order.” a. A key to party abbreviations can be found in the Appendix on page 35. b. Senator John Gaillard was elected after the death of Vice President Elbridge Gerry on November 23, 1814, and continued to serve throughout the 14th Congress, as there was no vice president. c. There was no actual election. Senator Ambrose H. Sevier was “permitted to occupy the chair for the day.” In their table of Presidents pro tempore, Gerald Gamm and Steven S. Smith do not include Sevier’s service. See Gerald Gamm and Steven S. Smith, “Last Among Equals,” “Table 1: Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate.” d. As noted above, in March 1890, the Senate adopted a resolution stating that Presidents pro tempore would hold office continuously until the election of another President pro tempore, rather than being elected only for the period in which the Vice President was absent. That system has continued to the present. e. At the start of the 107th Congress, Republican George W. Bush had been elected President, Richard B. Cheney Vice-President, and the Senate was evenly divided, 50 Democrats and 50 Republicans. However Vice President-elect Cheney would not be sworn in until January 20, 2001. Thus, when Congress convened on January 3, 2001, Vice President Al Gore, a Democrat, remained as president of the Senate, providing Senate Democrats with an effective majority of one. On January 3, 2001, the Senate adopted S. Res. 3, which provided for the election of Senator Robert C. Byrd, Democrat of West Virginia, to serve as President pro tempore from January 3 until the inauguration of President Bush and Vice President Cheney at noon on January 20, at which time Senator Strom Thurmond, Republican of South Carolina, would assume the office of President pro tempore. See “Election of the Honorable Robert C. Byrd as President Pro Tempore and Election of the Honorable Strom Thurmond as President Pro Tempore,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 147, January 3, 2001, pp. S6-S7. f. Party control in the Senate shifted with the decision in May 2001 of Senator Jim Jeffords (VT) to leave the Republican party and to become an Independent, caucusing with Senate Democrats. On June 6, the Senate agreed to S. Res. 100 electing Senator Byrd President pro tempore once again. CRS-27 Table 9: Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1977-2003 Deputy President Pro Tempore Party—State Congress Dates Hubert H. Humphreya D—MN 95th January 5, 1977January 13, 1978 George J. Mitchellb D—ME 100th January 28, 1987November 29, 1988c a. Pursuant to S. Res. 17, agreed to January 10, 1977, the Senate established (effective January 5, 1977) the post of Deputy President pro tempore of the Senate to be held by “any Member of the Senate who has held the Office of President of the United States or Vice President of the United States.” Senator Hubert H. Humphrey held this position until his death on January 13, 1978. b. On January 28, 1987, the Senate agreed to S. Res. 90, authorizing the Senate to designate a Senator to serve as Deputy President pro tempore during the 100th Congress, in addition to Senators who hold such office under the authority of S. Res. 17, 95th Congress. Accordingly, on the same date the Senate agreed to S. Res. 91, designating Senator George H. Mitchell Deputy President pro tempore. c. On November 29, 1988, Senator Mitchell was elected Majority Leader for the 101st Congress. CRS-28 Table 10: Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1964-2003 Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore Lee Metcalfa Party—State D—MT Congress Dates 88th-95th February 7, 1964January 12, 1978 a. This post was initially established in 1963 upon the adoption of S. Res. 232 and S. Res. 238 making Senator Lee Metcalf Acting President pro tempore from December 9, 1963, until the meeting of the second regular session of the 88th Congress. When the position of Vice President became vacant upon the death of President John F. Kennedy, the added constitutional responsibilities imposed on then- President pro tempore Carl Hayden moved the Senate to agree on February 7, 1964 to S. Res. 296, authorizing Senator Metcalf “to perform the duties of the Chair as Acting President pro tempore until otherwise ordered by the Senate.” Senator Metcalf continued to hold the post throughout his remaining 14 years in the Senate. CRS-29 Table 11: Senate Democratic Floor Leaders and Conference Chairmen, 1903-2003 Floor Leader State Congress Arthur P. Gorman MD th 58 -59 Joseph C.S. Blackburn KY 59th 1906-1907 Charles A. Culberson TX 60th 1907-1909 Hernando D. Money MS 61 st 1909-1911 Thomas S. Martin VA 62nd 1911-1913 John Worth Kernb IN 63rd-64th* a Dates 1903-1906 1913-1917 VA 65 -66 th* Oscar W. Underwood AL th 66 -67 th 1920-1923 Joseph T. Robinson AR 68th-75th 73rd-75th* 1923-1937 Alben W. Barkley KY 75th-79th* 80th 1937-1949 Scott W. Lucas IL 81st* 1949-1951 Ernest W. McFarland AZ 82nd* 1951-1953 Lyndon B. Johnson TX 83rd 84 -86th* 1953-1961 87th-94th* 1961-1977 Thomas S. Martin c th th 1917-1919 th Mike Mansfield MT th th* Robert C. Byrd, Jr. WV 95 -96 97th-99th 100th* 1977-1989 George J. Mitchell ME 101st-103rd* 1989-1995 Tom Daschle SD 104th-106th 107th*d 1995- Note: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 503. The Democratic Leader holds two posts in modern practice: floor leader and chairman of the party conference. Since 1945, by comparison, Senate Republicans have required that one individual not hold both positions. Initially the Senate Democratic Caucus, the name was officially changed to Democratic Conference in 1925. * Indicates Congresses in which the floor leader was also Majority Leader. a. Press reports and secondary sources generally identified Senator Arthur P. Gorman as Democratic Caucus chairman from 1893-1898, Senator John T. Morgan as chairman from 1901-1902, and Senator James K. Jones as chairman from 1902-1903. However, caucus minutes are not available during this time period for confirmation. b. Secondary sources generally identify Senator John Worth Kern as the first “floor leader” in the modern sense of the term. c. Senator Oscar W. Underwood is the first person to be actually called “floor leader” in minutes of the party conference. d. Senator Daschle became Majority Leader on June 6, 2001 following a change in party control of the Senate from Republican to Democratic. CRS-30 Table 12: Senate Republican Floor Leaders, 1911-2003 Floor Leader # State Congress 62 nd Dates Shelby M. Cullom IL 1911-1913 Jacob H. Gallinger# NH 63rd-65th Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr.# MA 65th 66 -68th* 1918-November 9, 1924b 1913-Aug. 17, 1918a th Charles Curtis# KS 68th-70th* 1924-1929c James E. Watson# IN 71st-72nd* 1929-1933 Charles L. McNary# OR 73rd-78th 1933-February 25, 1944d Wallace H. White, Jr. ME 79th 80th* Kenneth S. Wherry NE 81st-82nd Styles Bridges NH 82nd Robert A. Taft OH rd* William F. Knowland CA 83rd* 84th-85th 1953-1959 Everett Dirksen IL 86th-91st 1959-September 7, 1969g Hugh Scott PA 91st-94th 1969-1977 83 th 1945-1949 1949-November 29, 1951e 1952-1953 1953-July 31, 1953f th Howard H. Baker TN 95 -96 97th-98th* Robert H. Dole KS 99th* 100th-103rd 104th* Trent Lott MS 104th - 106th* 107th William H. Frist TN 108th* 1977-1985 1985-June 11, 1996h June 12, 1996i - December 20, 2002j December 23, 2002k Note: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 505. * Indicates Congresses in which the floor leader was also Majority Leader. Indicates conference chairman. a. Died in office, August 17, 1918. b. Died in office, November 9, 1924. c. Senator Charles Curtis is referred to as “floor leader” in the minutes of the Republican conference, the first such chairman of the caucus to be so identified. d. Senator Charles L. McNary died on February 25, 1944. There is no reference in congressional sources to the formal selection of a new Republican floor leader during the 78th Congress. Senator Wallace H. White, Jr. appears, at least, to have been acting floor leader, even to the extent of occupying the front aisle Republican seat opposite Majority Leader Alben W. Barkley. Floyd M. Riddick in his article summarizing “The Second Session of the Seventy-Eighth Congress (January 10-December 18, 1944),” American Political Science Review, vol. 39, April 1945, pp. 317-336, makes no mention of McNary’s death or the selection of a successor. e. Died in office, November 29, 1951. f. Died in office, July 31, 1953. g. Died in office, September 7, 1969. h. Resigned from Senate, June 11, 1996. i. Elected June 12, 1996 to replace Senator Robert H. Dole. # CRS-31 j. Resigned from office of Majority Leader, December 20, 2002. k. Elected December 23, 2002, to replace Senator Trent Lott. CRS-32 Table 13: Senate Republican Conference Chairmen, 1893-2003 Chairman John Sherman State Congress OH 53rd-54th th Dates 1893-1897 th William B. Allison IA 55 -56 Eugene Hale ME 57th 1901-1902 Orville Platt CT 57th 1902-1903 Eugene Hale ME th 58 1903-1904 William B. Allison IA 58th-59th 1904-1906 Eugene Hale ME 59th 1906-1907 Nelson W. Aldrich RI 60 Eugene Hale th Shelby Cullom 1897-1901 th 1908-1909 ME 60 -61 st 1909-1910 IL 61st-62nd 1910-1913 NH rd 63 -65 th 1913-1918 Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. MA th 65 -68 th 1918-1924 Charles Curtis KS 68th-70th 1924-1929 James E. Watson IN 71st-72nd 1929-1932 Jacob H. Gallinger rd th Charles L. McNary OR 73 -78 Arthur H. Vandenberg MI 79th Eugene D. Millikin CO 80th-84th th 1933-1944 1945-1946 1947-1956 th 1957-1966 Leverett Saltonstall MA 85 -89 Margaret Chase Smith ME 90th-92nd 1967-1972 Norris Cotton NH 93rd 1973-1974 Carl T. Curtis NE th 94 -95 Robert Packwood OR 96th James A. McClure ID 97th-98th th th 1975-1978 1979-1980 st 1981-1984 John Chafee RI 99 -101 Thad Cochran MS 102nd-104th 1991-1996 Connie Mack FL 105th-106th 1997-2000 Richard J. Santorum PA th 107 - 1985-1990 2001- Note: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 502. Records of the Republican Conference are extant only from 1911. Secondary sources provide information for years prior to 1893. Rothman, in his work, claims that Senator Henry B. Anthony served as Republican Caucus chairman for an undetermined number of years beginning in 1869 and that Senator George Franklin Edmunds served as chairman from 1885-1891. CRS-33 Table 14: Senate Democratic Whips, 1913-2003 Whip James Hamilton Lewisa State Congress IL 63rd-65th th Dates 1913-1919 th 1919-1929 Peter G. Gerry RI 66 -70 Morris Sheppard TX 71st-72nd 1929-1933 James Hamilton Lewis IL 73rd-75th 1933-1939 th 1939-1941 Sherman Minton IN 76 J. Lister Hill AL 77th-79th 1941-1947 Scott W. Lucasb IL 80th 1947-1949 PA st 1949-1951 nd 1951-1953 Francis J. Myers Lyndon B. Johnson b Earle C. Clements TX KY 82 83rd-84th 1953-1957 MT th 85 -86 th 1957-1961 Hubert H. Humphrey MN th 87 -88 th 1961-1965 Russell B. Long LA 89th-90th 1965-1969 Edward M. Kennedy MA 91st 1969-1971 nd Mike Mansfield b 81 WV 92 -94 th 1971-1977 Alan Cranston CA 95th-101st 1977-1991 Wendell H. Ford KY 102nd-105th 1991-1999 Robert C. Byrd, Jr. Harry Reid b NV th 106 - 1999 - Note: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 509. a. Representative James Hamilton Lewis was elected the first Democratic Party whip in 1913. b. Advanced to party leader. CRS-34 Table 15: Senate Republican Whips, 1915-2003 Whip State Congress NY 64th Charles Curtis th James W. Wadsworth, Jr. Dates 1915 KS 64 -68 th 1915-1924 Wesley L. Jones WA 68th-70th 1924-1929 Simeon D. Fess OH 71st-72nd 1929-1933 rd 1933-1935 Felix Hebert RI 73 Kenneth S. Wherrya NE 78th-80th 1944-1949 Leverett Saltonstall MA 81st-84th 1949-1957 Everett M. Dirksen th IL 85 Thomas H. Kuchel CA th 86 -90 Hugh D. Scott PA 91st MI st 91 -94 th 1969-1977 Ted Stevens AK th 95 -98 th 1977-1985 Alan K. Simpson WY 99th-103rd Trent Lott MS 104th Don Nickles OK 104th-107th Mitch McConnell KY 108th- Robert P. Griffin 1957-1959 th 1959-1969 1969 1985-1995 1995-June 12, 1996b June 12, 1996-c 2003- Note: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 509. a. Between 1936 and 1943 the post of Republican Whip was filled by informal, irregular appointment by the Republican Leader. b. Elected Majority Leader, June 12, 1996. c. Elected to replace Senator Trent Lott as Senate Republican Whip, June 12, 1996. CRS-35 Appendix: Political Party Abbreviations Adams Adams-Clay F Adams-Clay R AJ Am Anti-Admin C CRR D F FL FS I ID IR J JR L LR N N/A NR OP PO PR Pro-Admin R R(DR)* RA S SR U UU W Adams Adams-Clay Federalist Adams-Clay Republican Anti-Jackson American (Know-Nothing) Anti-Administration Conservative Crawford Republican Democrat Federalist Farmer-Labor Free Soil Independent Independent Democrat Independent Republican Jacksonian Jacksonian Republican Liberty Liberal Republican Nullifier Party Unknown or No Party Affiliation National Republican Opposition Populist Progressive Pro-Administration Republican Jeffersonian, Jeffersonian Republican, or Democratic Republican Readjuster Silver Silver Republican Unionist Unconditional Unionist Whig Note: This table is derived from Robert C. Byrd, The Senate, 1789-1989, A U.S. Senate Bicentennial publication, S. Doc. 100-20, 100th Congress, 1stsession, (Washington: GPO, 1993), vol. 4, Historical Statistics, 1789-1992, p. xiii. * While the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 identifies the party affiliation of certain Representatives in early Congresses as Republicans, the designation “Democratic Republican” is more familiar to readers. This designation, R(DR), should not be confused with the contemporary Republican Party which did not emerge until the 1850s. CRS-36 Source Notes and Bibliography This report relies heavily on primary congressional sources and authoritative documents such as the privately printed Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774 to 1996, and Congress’s similar online version, the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774 to the Present. In addition, over the years, individual Members of Congress, legislative aides, and scholars have gained limited access to party conference journals. Reliable leadership lists have been compiled from these sources. Where these have been published, they have been used as a source in this report. No attempts by CRS were made to gain access to caucus or conference minutes in collecting data for this report. This report also relies upon secondary sources developed by scholars. Inevitably, there are conflicting interpretations of data, even among sources generally accepted as reliable. For example, there are disparities on the dates of elections and tenure of Senate Presidents Pro Tempore between Byrd’s history, the 1911 Senate document, and Gamm and Smith’s research. We have attempted to footnote these contradictions where they occur. Unless otherwise noted, the following sources were used to compile the tables in this report: Berdahl, Clarance, “Some Notes on Party Membership in Congress,” American Political Science Review, vol. 43, April 1949: 309-332; June 1949: 492-508; and August 1949: 721-734. Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 (Washington: CQ Staff Directories Inc., 1997), 2108 p. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774 to the Present. Available online at [http://bioguide.congress.gov/biosearch/biosearch.asp]. Byrd, Robert C., The Senate, 1789-1989, vol. 1, Addresses on the History of the United States Senate, A U.S. Bicentennial publication, S. Doc. 100-20, 100th Congress, 1st session (Washington: GPO, 1988), 800 p. Byrd, Robert C., The Senate, 1789-1989, vol. 4, Historical Statistics, 1789-1992, A U.S. Senate Bicentennial publication, S. Doc. 100-20, 100th Congress, 1st session (Washington: GPO, 1993), 739 p. Cannon, Clarence, Cannon’s Precedents of the House of Representatives of the United States. (Washington: GPO, 1935-1941), 6 v. Cannon, Clarence, “Party History,” remarks in the appendix, Congressional Record, vol. 89, January 22, 1941: A383-384. Congressional Directory (Washington: GPO, various years). Congressional Globe (Washington: 1833-1873). CRS-37 Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report (Washington: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., various dates). Congressional Record (Washington: GPO, 1873-present). Deshler, Lewis, Deschler’s Precedents of the United States House of Representatives (Washington: GPO, 1977-1999), 14 v. Gamm, Gerald and Steven S. Smith, “Last Among Equals: The Senate’s Presiding Officer,” presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, September 3-6, 1998. Hinds, Asher, Hinds’ Precedents of the House of Representatives of the United States, H. Doc. 59-355, 59th Congress, 2nd session (Washington: GPO, 19071908), 8 v. Walter J. Oleszek, Majority and Minority Whips in the Senate: History and Development of the Party Whip System in the U.S. Senate, S. Doc. 99-23, 99th Congress, 1st session (Washington: GPO, 1985), 28 p. Ripley, Randall B., Party Leadership in the House, (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1967), 221 p. Ripley, Randall B., “The Party Whip Organizations in the United States House of Representatives,” American Political Science Review, vol. 58, September 1964: 561-576. David Rothman, Politics and Power (Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1966), 348 p. U.S. Congress. House. Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 1789-present, various publishers. U.S. Congress. Senate. Journal of the Senate of the United States, 1789-present, various publishers. — Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate: History and Development of the Offices of the Floor Leaders, S. Doc. 97-12, 97th Congress, 1st session, prepared by Floyd M. Riddick, (Washington: GPO, 1981), 24 p. — President of the Senate Pro Tempore, S. Doc. 62-101, 62nd Congress, 2nd session (Washington: GPO, 1911), 255 p. CRS Report 95-181. The President Pro Tempore of the U.S. Senate: History and Authority of the Office, by Richard C. Sachs.