Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations Updated January 3, 2019 Congressional Research Service https://crsreports.congress.gov R45230 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations Summary The Agriculture appropriations bill funds the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) except for the Forest Service. It also funds the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and—in evennumbered fiscal years—the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). Agriculture appropriations include both mandatory and discretionary spending. Discretionary amounts, though, are the primary focus during the bill’s development. The largest discretionary spending items are the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); agricultural research; FDA; rural development; foreign food aid and trade; farm assistance programs; food safety inspection; conservation; and animal and plant health programs. The main mandatory spending items are the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), child nutrition, crop insurance, and the farm commodity and conservation programs. For FY2019, both the House and Senate Appropriations Committees reported agriculture bills (H.R. 5961, S. 2976) in May 2018. The Senate amended and passed its version as Division C of a four-bill minibus on August 1, 2018 (H.R. 6147). In the absence of a final appropriation, Congress enacted two continuing resolutions, but these expired on December 21, 2018 (P.L. 115245, Division C; and P.L. 115-298). Beginning December 22, 2018, a partial government shutdown (funding lapse) began limiting operations, since Agriculture appropriations is one of the seven funding bills not continued. Some “excepted” functions such as food safety and commodity grading can continue during the funding lapse. The Trump Administration requested $17 billion for discretionary-funded accounts within the jurisdiction of Agriculture appropriations, a reduction of $6.2 billion from FY2018 (-27%). Both the House-reported and Senate-passed bills generally reject most of the proposed reductions. The discretionary total of the House-reported bill is $23.23 billion, which would be $14 million less than enacted in FY2018 (-0.1%). The discretionary total of the Senate-passed bill is also $23.23 billion. However, the Senate bill’s total would be $229 million more than enacted in FY2018 (+1%) on a comparable basis that excludes the CFTC. The Senate-passed bill would provide about $250 million more than the House-passed bill on a comparable basis. Among the primary differences between the bills and from FY2018: Both the House and Senate bills would increase FDA appropriations (+$308 million in the House bill; +$159 million in the Senate bill). Both bills increase appropriations for animal and plant health programs (+$16 million to +$19 million). The House bill would provide more base funding for rural water and waste disposal (+$81 million), but none of the extra that was provided separately in FY2018. The Senate bill would not change the base funding for rural water but continues $400 million of the extra funding. For rural broadband, both the House and Senate bills would continue a FY2018 pilot ($550 million in the House bill; $425 million in the Senate bill). The House bill would increase agricultural research (+$79 million), and the Senate bill would increase Agricultural Research Service programming (+98 million) but not fund any construction (-$141 million). Both bills provide less for WIC (-$175 million in the House bill, and -$25 million in the Senate bill), though the Senate bill has a larger rescission from prior-year WIC funds than does the House bill. The House bill would reduce base funding for the international Food for Peace program (-$100 million) and does not renew extra funding (-$116 million), while the Senate bill keeps it constant. The appropriations also carry mandatory spending—largely determined in separate authorizing laws—that would total $122 billion. Thus, the overall total of the both bills is about $145 billion. Both bills contain policy provisions affecting disaster programs, rural definitions, industrial hemp, animal products, nutrition programs, dietary guidelines, CFTC, and tobacco products. Congressional Research Service Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations Contents Status of FY2019 Agriculture Appropriations ................................................................................. 1 Scope of Agriculture Appropriations ............................................................................................... 3 Recent Trends in Agriculture Appropriations .................................................................................. 5 Action on FY2019 Appropriations .................................................................................................. 7 Administration’s Budget Request ............................................................................................. 7 Discretionary Budget Caps and Subcommittee Allocations...................................................... 8 House Action ............................................................................................................................. 8 Senate Action ............................................................................................................................ 9 Continuing Resolutions ........................................................................................................... 10 Government Shutdown............................................................................................................. 11 Policy-Related Provisions ....................................................................................................... 20 Figures Figure 1. Timeline of Action on Agriculture Appropriations, FY1999-FY2019 ............................. 3 Figure 2. Scope of Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations ............................................ 4 Figure 3. Discretionary Agriculture Appropriations, by Title, FY2009-FY2019 ............................ 6 Figure 4. Inflation-Adjusted Agriculture Appropriations, FY2009-FY2019................................... 7 No table of figures entries found. No table of figures entries found. Tables Table 1. Status of FY2019 Agriculture Appropriations ................................................................... 1 Table 2. Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations, by Title, FY2018-FY2019 ................. 2 Table 3. Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations, by Agency, FY2016-FY2019 .......... 14 Table 4. Selected Policy Provisions in FY2019 Agriculture Appropriations ................................ 20 No table of figures entries found. Table A-1. Sequestration from Accounts in Agriculture Appropriations ....................................... 24 Table A-2. Sequestration of Mandatory Accounts in Agriculture Appropriations ......................... 26 Table B-1. Congressional Action on Agriculture Appropriations Since FY1996 .......................... 28 Appendixes Appendix A. Budget Sequestration ............................................................................................... 24 Appendix B. Action on Agriculture Appropriations, FY1996-FY2019 ........................................ 28 Congressional Research Service Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations Contacts Author Contact Information .......................................................................................................... 29 Congressional Research Service Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations Status of FY2019 Agriculture Appropriations In the absence of a final appropriation, FY2019 began under two continuing resolutions that lasted until December 21, 2018 (Table 1). Beginning December 22, a partial government shutdown began limiting operations of agencies that are funded in Agriculture appropriations, since the FY2019 appropriation has not been enacted. Some “excepted” functions such as food safety and commodity grading can continue during the funding lapse. Both the House and Senate Appropriations Committees have reported Agriculture appropriations bills for FY2019 (H.R. 5961 on May 16, 2018, and S. 2976 on May 24, 2018). The Senate amended and passed its version as Division C of a four-bill minibus (H.R. 6147 on August 1, 2018). See Figure 1 Appendix B for a more complete picture of the timeline. Higher discretionary budget caps in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-123) have facilitated development of the appropriation. The discretionary total of the House-reported bill is $23.23 billion and would be $14 million less than enacted in FY2018 (-0.1%; Table 2). The discretionary total of the Senate-passed bill is also $23.23 billion. However, the Senate bill’s total would be $229 million more than enacted in FY2018 (+1%) on a comparable basis that excludes the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC).1 The Senate-passed bill would provide about $250 million more than the House-passed bill on a comparable basis. The appropriations also carry mandatory spending—though that is largely determined in separate authorizing laws—that would total nearly $122 billion. Thus, the overall total of each of the proposed bills is about $145 billion. The Trump Administration released its FY2019 budget request on February 12, 2018,2 along with the detailed justification from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).3 The Administration requested $17 billion of discretionary Agriculture appropriations (including CFTC), which would have been a reduction of $6.2 billion from FY2018 (-27%). Table 1. Status of FY2019 Agriculture Appropriations House Action Senate Action Subcmte. Cmte. Floor Subcmte. Cmte. Floor Continuing Resolutions Final Appropriation 5/9/2018 Drafta Voice vote 5/16/2018 H.R. 5961 H.Rept. 115-706 Vote 31-20 — 5/22/2018 Draft Voice vote 5/24/2018 S. 2976 S.Rept. 115-259 Vote 31-0 8/1/2018 H.R. 6147 Division C Vote 92-6 P.L. 115-298 until 12/21/18 P.L. 115-245, Division C, until 12/7/2018 — Source: CRS, compiled from the Legislative Information System. a. The House subcommittee draft is at https://docs.house.gov/meetings/AP/AP01/20180509/108287/BILLS115HR-SC-AP-FY2019-Agriculture-SubcommitteeDraft.pdf, and the committee report draft is at https://docs.house.gov/meetings/AP/AP00/20180516/108312/HRPT-115-HR-FY2019-Agriculture.pdf. 1 Jurisdiction for CFTC appropriations differs between the chambers. Since FY2008, CFTC is marked up in the Agriculture Subcommittee of the House Appropriations Committee and in the Financial Services and General Government Subcommittee of the Senate Appropriations Committee. The enacted CFTC appropriation is carried in the Agriculture bill in even-numbered fiscal years and in the Financial Services bill in odd-numbered fiscal years. 2 Office of Management and Budget (OMB), FY2019 Budget of the U.S. Government, especially in the Appendix, https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/appendix. 3 USDA, FY2019 USDA Budget Summary; and USDA, 2019 Explanatory Notes, http://www.obpa.usda.gov. Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 1 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations Table 2. Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations, by Title, FY2018-FY2019 (budget authority in millions of dollars) FY2018 Title of Agriculture Appropriations Act I. Agricultural Programs: Discretionary P.L. 115141 FY2019 Admin. Request House H.R. 5961 Change FY2018 to FY2019... Senate H.R. 6147 Enacted House Senate 5,622.8 4,752.9 5,704.5 5,587.8 — +81.7 -35.1 Mandatory 1,344.0 1,374.0 1,374.0 1,374.0 — +30.0 +30.0 Subtotal 6,966.8 6,126.9 7,078.5 6,961.8 — +111.7 -5.1 2,735.6 2,197.9 2,760.3 2,728.0 — +24.7 -7.6 Mandatory 23,198.3 24,097.5 24,097.5 24,097.5 — +899.2 +899.2 Subtotal 25,933.9 II. Farm Production and Conservation Programs 26,295.4 26,857.8 26,825.5 — +923.9 +891.6 III. Rural Development 3,000.9a 2,022.5 3,078.5a 3,000.9a — +77.6 +0.0 IV. Domestic Food Programs: Discretionary 6,709.8 5,990.1 6,528.5 6,696.1 — -181.2 -13.7 98,209.6 96,342.3 96,344.8 96,344.8 — -1,864.9 -1,864.9 104,919.4 102,332.3 102,873.3 103,040.9 — -2,046.1 -1,878.5 2,021.0a 205.0 1,925.8 2,152.3 — -95.2 +131.4 2,811.9a 3,183.7 3,119.6 2,970.9 — +307.7 +159.0 — +6.0 [+32.5]b Mandatory Subtotal V. Foreign Assistance VI. Related Agencies: Food and Drug Administration 249.0 281.5 255.0 [281.5]b Commodity Futures Trading Commission -801.0 -1,197.8 -315.0 -395.0 — +486.0 +406.0 Other appropriations 1,378.1 0.0 579.5 889.5 — -798.6 -488.6 Scorekeeping adjustmentsd -481.0 -409.0 -404.0 -404.0 — +77.0 +77.0 Discretionary: Senate basis w/o CFTC [22,998.0] 16,745.2 [22,977.8] 23,226.5 — -20.2 +228.5 Discretionary: House basis w/ CFTC 23,247.0 17,026.7 23,232.8 [23,508.0]b — -14.2 +261.0b 122,752.0 121,813.8 121,816.3 121,816.3 — -935.7 -935.7 [145,750.0] 138,559.0 [144,794.0] 145,042.8 — -955.9 -707.2 145,049.0 [145,324.3]b — -949.9 -674.7b VII. General Provisions: CHIMPS and rescissionsc Mandatory Total: Senate basis w/o CFTC Total: House basis w/ CFTC 145,999.0 138,840.5 Source: CRS, using appropriations text and reports and unpublished CBO tables. Notes: Amounts are nominal discretionary budget authority in millions of dollars unless labeled otherwise. Excludes amounts in supplemental appropriations acts. Bracketed amounts are not in the official totals due to differing House-Senate jurisdiction for CFTC. a. Excludes a portion of the other appropriations that are provided separately in General Provisions. b. See Division B of H.R. 6147. c. Changes in Mandatory Program Spending (CHIMPS) are reductions made to mandatory programs via appropriations. Rescissions are permanent cancellations of previously provided budget authority. d. “Scorekeeping adjustments” are not necessarily appropriated but are part of the official CBO accounting. Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 2 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations Figure 1. Timeline of Action on Agriculture Appropriations, FY1999-FY2019 Source: CRS. Scope of Agriculture Appropriations The Agriculture appropriations bill—formally known as the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act—funds all of USDA, excluding the U.S. Forest Service. It also funds the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). In even-numbered fiscal years, the act carries CFTC funding under a practice started in FY2008 for handling House-Senate jurisdictional differences. Jurisdiction is with the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations and their respective Subcommittees on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies. The bill includes mandatory and discretionary spending, but the discretionary amounts are the primary focus during the bill’s development. The scope of the bill is shown in Figure 2. The federal budget process treats discretionary and mandatory spending differently:4  4 Discretionary spending is controlled by annual appropriations acts and receives most of the attention during the appropriations process. The annual budget See CRS Report R44582, Overview of Funding Mechanisms in the Federal Budget Process, and Selected Examples. Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 3 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations  resolution5 process sets spending limits for discretionary appropriations. Agency operations (salaries and expenses) and many grant programs are discretionary. Mandatory spending6—though carried in the appropriation and usually advanced unchanged—is controlled by budget rules during the authorization process.7 Spending for so-called entitlement programs is set in laws such as the 2014 farm bill8 and 2010 child nutrition reauthorizations.9 In the FY2018 Agriculture appropriations, discretionary appropriations were 16% ($23.3 billion) of the $146 billion total. Mandatory spending carried in the act comprised $123 billion, about 84% of the total. About $99 billion of the $123 billion mandatory amount could be attributed to programs in the 2014 farm bill (Figure 2). Some programs are not in the authorizing jurisdiction of the House or Senate Agriculture Committees. Figure 2. Scope of Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations (FY2018 budget authority in billions of dollars) Source: CRS. Does not show some agencies under $0.5 billion. Includes General Provisions with agencies. Notes: SNAP = Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program; CCC = Commodity Credit Corporation; FCIC = Federal Crop Insurance Corporation; Section 32 = Funds for Strengthening Markets, Income and Supply; WIC = 5 See CRS Report R42388, The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction. Mandatory spending creates funding stability and consistency compared to annual discretionary appropriations. In agriculture, it originated with farm commodity programs that had uncertain outlays due to weather and markets. 7 See CRS Report 98-560, Baselines and Scorekeeping in the Federal Budget Process. 8 P.L. 113-79. See CRS In Focus IF10783, Farm Bill Primer: Budget Issues. 9 P.L. 111-296. See CRS Report R44373, Tracking the Next Child Nutrition Reauthorization: An Overview. 6 Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 4 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; CSFP = Commodity Supplemental Food Program; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; FSA = Farm Service Agency; RMA = Risk Management Agency; FSIS = Food Safety and Inspection Service; APHIS = Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Within the discretionary total, the largest discretionary spending items are the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); rural development; agricultural research; FDA; foreign food aid and trade; farm assistance program salaries and loans; food safety inspection; conservation; and animal and plant health programs (Figure 2). The main mandatory spending items are the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, and other food and nutrition act programs), child nutrition (school lunch and related programs), crop insurance, and farm commodity and conservation programs that are paid through USDA’s Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC). SNAP is referred to as an “appropriated entitlement” and requires an annual appropriation.10 Amounts for the nutrition program are based on projected spending needs. In contrast, the CCC operates on a line of credit. The annual appropriation provides funding to reimburse the Treasury for the use of this line of credit. Key Budget Terms Budget authority is the main purpose of an appropriations act or a law authorizing mandatory spending. It provides the legal basis from which to obligate funds. It expires at the end of a period and is usually available for one year unless specified otherwise (e.g., two years or indefinite). Most amounts in this report are budget authority. Obligations are contractual agreements between an agency and its clients or employees. They occur when an agency proceeds to spend money from its budget authority. The Antideficiency Act prohibits agencies from obligating more budget authority than is provided in law, such as during a government shutdown. Outlays are the payments (cash disbursements) that satisfy a valid obligation. Outlays may differ from budget authority or obligations because payments from an agency may not occur until services are fulfilled, goods are delivered, or construction is completed, even though an obligation occurred. Program level represents the sum of the activities supported or undertaken by an agency. A program level may be higher than a budget authority if the program (1) receives user fees that can be used to pay for activities, (2) makes or guarantees loans that are leveraged on the expectation of repayment (more than $1 of loan authority for $1 of budget authority), or (3) receives transfers from other agencies. Rescissions are adjustments that cancel or reduce budget authority after enactment. They score budgetary savings. CHIMPS (Changes in Mandatory Program Spending) are adjustments in an appropriations act to mandatory budget authority. CHIMPS in appropriations usually reduce or limit spending by mandatory programs for one year and score budgetary savings. They do not change the underlying authority of the program in statute. For more background, see CRS Report 98-721, Introduction to the Federal Budget Process. Recent Trends in Agriculture Appropriations Over time, changes by title of the Agriculture appropriations bill have generally been proportionate to changes in the bill’s total discretionary limit, though some activities have sustained relative increases and decreases. Agriculture appropriations peaked in FY2010, declined through FY2013, and since then have increased (Figure 3). Comparisons to historical benchmarks, though, may be affected by adjustments for inflation (Figure 4). In FY2018, USDA reorganization affected the placement of some programs between Titles I and II of the bill. The stacked bars in Figure 3 represent the discretionary authorization for each appropriations title. The total of the positive stacked bars is the budget authority in Titles I-VI. Prior to FY2018, it was higher than the official discretionary spending allocation (the line) because of the 10 See CRS Report RS20129, Entitlements and Appropriated Entitlements in the Federal Budget Process. Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 5 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations budgetary offset from negative amounts in Title VII (general provisions) and other scorekeeping adjustments that were negative mostly due to limits on mandatory programs and rescissions. Figure 3. Discretionary Agriculture Appropriations, by Title, FY2009-FY2019 Source: CRS. Note: For FY2019, Adm. is the Administration’s request, H.R. is committee-reported H.R. 5961 and Sen. is Senate-passed H.R. 6147. Includes CFTC in Related Agencies in all years. Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 6 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations Figure 4. Inflation-Adjusted Agriculture Appropriations, FY2009-FY2019 Source: CRS. Note: For FY2019, Adm. is the Administration’s request, H.R. is committee-reported H.R. 5961 and Sen. is Senate-passed H.R. 6147. Includes CFTC in Related Agencies in all years. Budget authority is millions of dollars adjusted to FY2019 using the gross domestic product price deflator. Action on FY2019 Appropriations Administration’s Budget Request The Trump Administration released its FY2019 budget request on February 12, 2018,11 one week later than the usual first Monday in February. USDA concurrently released its more detailed budget summary and justification,12 as did the FDA,13 and the independent agencies of the CFTC14 and the Farm Credit Administration (FCA).15 The Administration also highlighted some of the proposed reductions and eliminations separately.16 From these documents, the congressional appropriations committees evaluated the request and began to consider their own bills in the spring of 2018. For accounts in the jurisdiction of the Agriculture appropriations bill, the Administration’s budget proposed $17.4 billion, a 25% reduction from FY2018 (Table 2, Figure 3). 11 OMB, FY2019 Budget of the U.S. Government, Appendix, https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/appendix. USDA, FY2019 USDA Budget Summary; and USDA, 2019 Budget Explanatory Notes, http://www.obpa.usda.gov. 13 FDA, FY2019 FDA Justification of Estimates for Appropriations, https://www.hhs.gov/about/budget/index.html. 14 CFTC, FY2019 CFTC Budget Request, https://www.cftc.gov/sites/default/files/idc/groups/public/documents/file/ cftcbudget2019.pdf. 15 FCA, FY2019 FCA Proposed Budget, https://www.fca.gov/Download/BudgetFY2019.pdf. 16 OMB, FY2019 Budget of the U.S. Government, Major Savings and Reforms. 12 Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 7 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations The timing of the Administration’s budget request for FY2019 preceded Congress enacting the final, omnibus FY2018 appropriation in March 2018. Therefore, amounts in the FY2018 column of the Administration’s budget documents are based on FY2017 and the continuing resolution and are not reliable indicators of the enacted FY2018 levels that came later. Discretionary Budget Caps and Subcommittee Allocations Budget enforcement for appropriations has both procedural and statutory elements. The procedural elements are associated with the budget resolution and are enforced through points of order. Typically, each chamber’s full Appropriations Committee receives a top-line procedural limit on discretionary budget authority, referred to as a “302(a)” allocation, from the Budget Committee via an annual budget resolution passed by each chamber. The Appropriations Committees then each in turn subdivide their allocation among their subcommittees, referred to as the “302(b)” allocations.17 The statutory elements impose limits on discretionary spending in FY2012-FY2021 and are enforced through discretionary budget caps and sequestration (2 U.S.C. 901(c)).18 The Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA, P.L. 112-25) set discretionary budget caps through FY2021 as a way of reducing federal spending.19 Bipartisan Budget Acts (BBAs) in 2013, 2015, and 2018 (P.L. 113-67, P.L. 114-74, and P.L. 115-123, respectively) have avoided sequestration on discretionary spending—with the exception of FY2013—by raising those caps (Appendix A).20 In February 2018, the BBA raised the FY2019 cap on nondefense discretionary spending by $68 billion and the cap on defense spending by $85 billion.21 It also provided language to execute (or “deem”) those higher caps for the appropriations process without following the usual procedures for an FY2019 budget resolution.22 Under these higher caps and authorities, the House and Senate Appropriations Committees proceeded to mark up the FY2019 appropriations bills. The Agriculture appropriations bills are receiving roughly the same subcommittee allocation (“302(b)” allocation) in each chamber that was used to complete the FY2018 appropriation under the BBA. For FY2019, the subcommittee allocations for agriculture appropriations are   House: $23.273 billion (H.Rept. 115-710, May 23, 2018), including the CFTC. Senate: $23.235 billion (S.Rept. 115-260, May 24, 2018), excluding the CFTC. House Action The House Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee marked up its FY2019 bill on May 9, 2018, by voice vote.23 On May 16, 2018, the full Appropriations Committee passed and reported an amended bill (H.R. 5961, H.Rept. 115-706) by a vote of 31-20 (Table 1, Figure 1). 17 CRS Report R42388, The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction. CRS Report R42972, Sequestration as a Budget Enforcement Process: Frequently Asked Questions. 19 CRS Report R43411, The Budget Control Act of 2011: Legislative Changes to the Law and Their Budgetary Effects. 20 Looking to the future, though, the budget caps for FY2020 and FY2021 remain unchanged from the original BCA in 2011. They are less than the revised caps for FY2019. Unless the caps change, this implies less future spending. 21 CRS Insight IN10861, Discretionary Spending Levels Under the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018. 22 CRS Report R45157, The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 and an FY2019 Budget Resolution. 23 The House subcommittee draft is at https://docs.house.gov/meetings/AP/AP01/20180509/108287/BILLS-115HR18 Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 8 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations The $23.23 billion discretionary total in the House-reported FY2019 Agriculture appropriation would be $14 million less than enacted in FY2018 (-0.1%; Table 2, Figure 3). Generally speaking, the House-reported bill does not include most of the reductions proposed by the Administration and continues the trend of appropriations from prior years. Table 3 provides details at the agency level. The primary changes from FY2018 at the agency level that comprise the relatively flat $14 million overall decrease in the House-reported bill would do the following:       Increase base FDA appropriations by $308 million (+11%). However, it does not continue to separate FDA funding for the opioid crisis that was in the General Provisions title of the FY2018 appropriation (-$94 million). Increase agricultural research (+$79 million, +2.6%) by raising appropriations for the Agricultural Research Service and National Institute of Agriculture. Increase the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) by $16 million (+1.7%). Increase the Rural Utility Service by $82 million (+13%), mostly in the base funding for rural water and waste disposal programs. However, it does not continue separate funding for rural water that was in the General Provisions title last year (-$500 million) or for telemedicine for the opioid crisis (-$20 million). It reduces separate funding for a broadband pilot program while continuing to fund some of it through the General Provisions title (-$50 million). Decrease discretionary appropriations for domestic nutrition assistance programs by reducing WIC by $175 million (-2.8%) and the commodity assistance programs by $15 million (-4.7%). However, the reduction scored in the General Provisions title by rescinding WIC carryover balances is smaller in FY2019, retaining more budget authority (+$500 million). Decrease the base funding in international food assistance Food for Peace grants by $100 million (-6.2%) and not continue the extra funding that was in the General Provisions title of the FY2018 appropriations (-$116 million). In addition to discretionary spending, the appropriations also carry funding for mandatory spending—largely determined in separate authorizing laws—that would total $121.82 billion, about $936 million less than in FY2018 because of automatic changes in economic conditions and entitlement enrollment rather than any change from congressional action. Thus, the overall total of the House-reported bill is about $145 billion. Senate Action The Senate Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee marked up a FY2019 bill on May 22, 2018, by voice vote. On May 24, 2018, the Appropriations Committee passed and reported an amended bill (S. 2976, S.Rept. 115-259) by a vote of 31-0. On August 1, 2018, the Senate passed a four-bill minibus (H.R. 6147) by a vote of 92-6, with agriculture as Division C (Table 1, Figure 1). The discretionary total of the Senate-passed bill is also $23.23 billion. However, the Senate bill’s total would be $229 million more than enacted in FY2018 (+1%) on a comparable basis that excludes the CFTC, since the latter was part of the enacted FY2018 appropriation. The Senate- SC-AP-FY2019-Agriculture-SubcommitteeDraft.pdf, and the draft of the committee report is at https://docs.house.gov/ meetings/AP/AP00/20180516/108312/HRPT-115-HR-FY2019-Agriculture.pdf. Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 9 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations passed bill would provide about $250 million more than the House-reported bill would on a comparable basis computed by subtracting CFTC from the House bill. Table 3 provides details at the agency level. The primary changes from FY2018 at the agency level that comprise the Senate-passed bill’s overall $228 million increase are the following:       Increase base FDA appropriations by $159 million (+6%). Like the House bill, it does not continue separate FDA funding for the opioid crisis that was in the General Provisions title of the FY2018 appropriation (-$94 million). Increase APHIS by $19 million (+1.9%), slightly more than the House bill. Decrease discretionary appropriations for domestic nutrition assistance programs by reducing WIC by $25 million (-0.4%). This is a smaller reduction than in the House bill. In the rescissions in the General Provisions title, the reduction is smaller than was rescinded in FY2019 (+$400 million). Nonetheless, the Senate bill’s rescission is greater than in the House bill. Increase international nutrition assistance by raising the base funding for Food for Peace grants by $116 million (+7.2%). The extra funding that was in the General Provisions title of the FY2018 appropriations is not continued (-$116 million). Decrease the four agricultural research agencies by $44 million (-1.4%), mostly by providing no funding for ARS building and facilities (-$141 million), while increasing ARS salaries and expenses (+$98 million). Decrease the extra funding for rural development compared to the amount provided in the FY2018 General Provisions (-$100 million for rural water, -$175 million for broadband). Base funding for rural development is unchanged overall. The Senate-passed bill’s mandatory spending is virtually identical to that of the House-reported bill ($121.82 billion). Its overall total of discretionary and mandatory appropriations is $145 billion. Continuing Resolutions In the absence of a final FY2019 Agriculture appropriation, Congress enacted two continuing resolutions (CRs) to continue government operations through December 21, 2018 (P.L. 115-245, Division C, from 10/1/2018 through 12/7/2018, and P.L. 115-298 through 12/21/2018).24 When the last CR expired without further enacted budget authority, a partial government shutdown began on December 22. Some “excepted” functions such as food safety and commodity grading can continue during the funding lapse, as explained in “Government Shutdown.” In general, a CR continues the funding rates and conditions that were in the previous year’s appropriation.25 The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may prorate funding to the agencies on an annualized basis for the duration of the CR through a process known as apportionment.26 For the 81 days (22%) of FY2019 through December 21, 2018, the CRs: 24 CRS Report R42647, Continuing Resolutions: Overview of Components and Recent Practices. CRS Report RL34700, Interim Continuing Resolutions (CRs): Potential Impacts on Agency Operations. 26 For example, if a CR lasts for three months, then 3/12 of the previous fiscal year amount may be apportioned to limit agency spending. See OMB, “Apportionment of the Continuing Resolution(s) for Fiscal Year 2019,” September 28, 2018, https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/bulletin_no_18_05.pdf. 25 Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 10 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations  continued the terms of the FY2018 Agriculture appropriations act (Section 101) and exclude the FY2018 change in mandatory program spending (CHIMP) on the Biomass Crop Assistance Program, which is not authorized for FY2019; and  provided sufficient funding to maintain mandatory program levels, including for nutrition programs (Section 110)—this is standard language for recent years’ CRs but is additionally important for SNAP, because some authorizations in the 2014 farm bill began expiring after FY2018.27 CRs may adjust prior-year amounts through anomalies or make specific administrative changes. Five anomalies specifically applied to the agriculture appropriation during both CRs: 1. Child Nutrition Programs: apportionment for a summer foods program sufficient to allow it to be operational by May 2019 (Section 114). 2. Rural Utilities Service: allows a loan authorization level for the Rural Water and Waste Disposal program of $4.141 billion (Section 115). 3. Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC): allows CCC to receive its transfer about a month earlier than usual, prior to a final report and audit. Many farm bill payments to farmers are due in October 2018 in addition to USDA’s plan to make supplemental payments under a trade assistance program.28 Without the anomaly, CCC might exhaust its $30 billion line of credit (Section 116). 4. Agricultural Research Service: an additional $42 million for operations and maintenance at the National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF) being built in Manhattan, Kansas, and being transferred to USDA from the Department of Homeland Security (Section 117). 5. Department of Homeland Security (DHS): DHS may transfer up to $15 million to USDA to support NBAF operations (Section 125). Government Shutdown When an appropriation (or CR) expires and no further budget authority has been provided, a funding gap exists and may cause operations to cease at affected agencies. In general, the Antideficiency Act (31 U.S.C. 1341 et seq.) prohibits federal agencies from obligating funds before an appropriations measure has been enacted. Exceptions may allow for certain activities to continue, such as for law enforcement, protection of human life or property, and activities funded by other means such as carryover funds or user fees. Programs that are funded by other authorities—such as entitlements or the mandatory programs in the farm bill—may also be affected if the program is executed using personnel whose salaries are funded by discretionary appropriations that are affected by the funding gap.29 For FY2019, a funding gap began on December 22, 2018, for agencies within the jurisdiction of seven of the 12 appropriations bills, including the Agriculture appropriations bill. The last time that the government experienced a multi-week shutdown was in October 2013. Prior to that, the 27 CRS In Focus IF10989, Expiration of the 2014 Farm Bill: Some Potential Implications. CRS Report R45310, Farm Policy: USDA’s Trade Aid Package. 29 CRS Report RL34680, Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects. 28 Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 11 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations next previous multi-day shutdown was in FY1996, though Agriculture appropriations were not affected then because a stand-alone full-year Agriculture appropriation had been enacted.30 In general, a shutdown implies the furlough of certain personnel and curtailment of affected agency activities and services. Agencies make their own determinations about activities and personnel that are “excepted” from furlough and publish their intentions in “contingency plans” that are supervised by OMB.31 For agencies in the Agriculture appropriations jurisdiction, shutdown or contingency plans were published for USDA,32 FDA,33 and the CFTC.34 USDA initially estimated on December 23 that 56% of its employees were excepted from furlough in the agencies that are funded by Agriculture appropriations (all of USDA except the Forest Service), which amounts to 35,004 staff being excepted out of 62,288.35 The number of personnel varies by agency, and it may change as a shutdown continues as funding availability changes and as new circumstances arise. For example, nearly 90% of the FSIS and AMS staff (8,434 and 3,944 staff, respectively) were initially retained to continue food safety inspections of meat and poultry at processing plants and to continue commodity grading and inspection services for commerce. About 60% of the APHIS was excepted (4,769 staff) to continue preclearance inspection for transportation between Hawaii and Puerto Rico and the mainland and to carry out quarantine and certification for imports and exports. Resources in research laboratories and facilities that could be damaged by inattention was protected by excepting 18% (1,116 staff) of ARS. All of NRCS was initially excepted by using mandatory funding (9,342 staff).36 The Farm Service Agency initially excepted 6,427 staff (61% out of 10,479) through December 28 but then closed county offices, thereby lowering the number of excepted employees.37 While a number of selected USDA functions continue under the shutdown, many others have ceased operations. Examples of USDA functions that are not being performed by furloughed employees include data collection and analysis that inform the commodity markets, development of regulations to implement the new farm bill that was enacted in December 2018, completing the Administration’s “trade aid” payments, processing and funding farm loans and guarantees, rural development loan and grant programs (rural housing, community facilities and rural water, rural business and broadband), agricultural research programs and grants, and many international assistance programs. The duration of the shutdown could expand the number of USDA activities affected. 30 CRS Report RS20348, Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview. OMB, “Agency Contingency Plans,” https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/information-for-agencies/agencycontingency-plans. 32 USDA, “U.S. Department of Agriculture Lapse in Funding Plans,” various agency-level documents, December 2018, https://www.usda.gov/shutdownplans. 33 HHS, “FY2019 HHS Contingency Staffing Plan for Operations in the Absence of Enacted Annual Agriculture and Interior Appropriations,” https://www.hhs.gov/about/budget/fy-2019-hhs-contingency-staffing-plan/index.html. 34 CFTC, “CFTC Plan for Lapse in Appropriations,” December 18, 2018, https://www.cftc.gov/sites/default/files/201812/CFTCPlanLapseAppropriations121818.pdf. 35 CRS analysis of USDA in “Summary of Activities to be Continued in the Event of a Government Shutdown,” December 23, 2018, https://www.usda.gov/sites/default/files/documents/usda-shutdown-plan-summary-2.pdf. 36 USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, “NRCS Is Open for Business,” https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/ portal/nrcs/detail/national/home/?cid=NRCSEPRD1434827 (accessed January 2, 2019). 37 Farm Service Agency, “Government Shutdown Information,” https://www.fsa.usda.gov/help/shutdowninfo, accessed January 2, 2019. 31 Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 12 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations FDA initially retained 59% of its employees in duty status (10,344 staff out of 17,397) based on a combination of factors including carryover funding, the need to safeguard human life, and the protection of property.38 CFTC excepted 9% of its employees (61 staff out of 673) to address risks that could pose a threat to the functioning of the stock market and commodity markets and that could affect the safety of human life or the protection of property.39 HHS, “FY2019 Contingency Staffing Plan,” December 21, 2018, https://www.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/fy-2019hhs-lapse-contingency-plan-narrative-december-ag-interior.pdf. 39 CFTC, “CFTC Plan for Lapse in Appropriations.” 38 Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 13 Table 3. Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations, by Agency, FY2016-FY2019 (budget authority in millions of dollars) Agency or Major Program FY2016 FY2017 FY2018 P.L. 114113 P.L. 11531 P.L. 115141 FY2019 Admin. Request House H.R. 5961 Change FY18 to FY19 Senate H.R. 6147 Enacted House Senate Title I. Agricultural Programs Departmental Administration 373.2 403.9 396.0 369.8 387.8 389.5 — -8.1 -6.5 Agricultural Research Service 1,355.9 1,269.8 1,343.4 1,019.0 1,395.9 1,301.0 — +52.6 -42.4 National Institute of Food and Agriculture 1,326.5 1,362.9 1,407.8 1,257.7 1,452.6 1,423.2 — +44.8 +15.4 168.4 171.2 191.7 165.0 173.7 174.8 — -18.0 -17.0 85.4 86.8 86.8 45.0 86.8 86.8 — +0.0 +0.0 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 — +0.0 +0.0 897.6 949.4 985.1 742.0 1,001.5 1,003.7 — +16.5 +18.6 82.5 86.2 152.8 119.7 154.3 157.1 — +1.5 +4.3 1,303.0 1,322.0 1,344.0 1,374.0 1,374.0 1,374.0 — +30.0 +30.0 43.1 43.5 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 — +0.0 +0.0 1,014.9 1,032.1 1,056.8 1,032.3 1,049.3 1,049.3 — -7.5 -7.5 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 — +0.0 +0.0 1,595.1 1,624.0 moved to Title II: Farm Production and Conservationa 6,402.1 8,002.6 moved to Title II: Farm Production and Conservationa Research, Education and Economics National Agricultural Statistics Service Economic Research Service Under Secretary Marketing and Regulatory Programs Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Agricultural Marketing Servicea Section 32 (M) Grain Inspection, Packers, Stockyards Admin.a Under Secretary moved into Agricultural Marketing Servicea Food Safety Food Safety and Inspection Service Under Secretary Farm and Commodity Programsa Farm Service Agencyb FSA Farm Loans: Loan Authorityc CRS-14 Agency or Major Program Risk Management Agency Salaries and Exp. FY2016 FY2017 FY2018 P.L. 114113 P.L. 11531 P.L. 115141 FY2019 Admin. Request House H.R. 5961 Change FY18 to FY19 Senate H.R. 6147 Enacted House Senate 74.8 74.8 moved to Title II: Farm Production and Conservationa Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (M) 7,858.0 8,667.0 moved to Title II: Farm Production and Conservationa Commodity Credit Corporation (M) 6,871.1 21,290.7 moved to Title II: Farm Production and Conservationa 0.9 0.9 moved to Title II: Farm Production and Conservationa Discretionary 7,020.3 7,107.7 5,622.8 4,752.9 5,704.5 5,593.8 — +81.7 -29.1 Mandatory (M) 16,032.6 31,280.2 1,344.0 1,374.0 1,374.0 1,374.0 — +30.0 +30.0 Subtotal 23,052.9 38,387.9 6,966.8 6,126.9 7,078.5 6,967.8 — +111.7 +0.9 — Under Secretary Subtotal Title II. Farm Production and Conservationa Business Center 1.0 196.4 115.4 1.0 — +114.4 +0.0 Ia 1,625.2 1,294.2 1,518.8 1,622.7 — -106.4 -2.6 moved from Title Ia 8,005.6 7,617.7 7,987.7 8,017.7 — -17.9 +12.1 Risk Management Agency Salaries and Exp. moved from Title Ia 74.8 37.9 75.4 74.8 — +0.6 +0.0 Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (M) moved from Title Ia 8,913.0 8,687.0 8,687.0 8,687.0 — -226.0 -226.0 Commodity Credit Corporation (M) moved from Title Ia 14,284.8 15,410.0 15,410.0 15,410.0 — +1,125.2 +1,125.2 Farm Service Agencyb FSA Farm Loans: Loan Authorityc Conservation Operations Watershed and Flood Prevention Watershed Rehabilitation Program Under Secretary — moved from Title 850.9 864.5 874.1 669.0 890.3 879.1 — +16.2 +5.0 — 150.0 150.0 — 150.0 150.0 — +0.0 +0.0 12.0 12.0 10.0 — 10.0 — — +0.0 -10.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 — +0.0 +0.0 863.8 1,027.4 2,735.6 2,197.9 2,760.3 2,728.0 — +24.7 -7.6 Subtotal Discretionary Mandatory (M) moved from Title I Ia 23,198.3 24,097.5 24,097.5 24,097.5 — +899.2 +899.2 Subtotal moved from Title I Ia 25,933.9 26,295.4 26,857.8 26,825.5 — +923.9 +891.6 CRS-15 Agency or Major Program FY2016 FY2017 FY2018 P.L. 114113 P.L. 11531 P.L. 115141 FY2019 Admin. Request House H.R. 5961 Change FY18 to FY19 Senate H.R. 6147 Enacted House Senate Title III. Rural Development Salaries and Expenses (including transfers)d 682.9 675.8 680.8 585.9 686.8 682.8 — +6.0 +2.0 1,616.4 1,654.9 1,582.4 1,351.4 1,582.5 1,585.2 — +0.2 +2.8 27,496.8 28,083.4 28,390.1 27,760.0 28,345.5 28,590.1 — -44.6 +200.0 90.5 97.7 109.5 0.0 99.5 104.2 — -10.0 -5.4 979.3 988.4 991.2 0.0 1,027.5 991.2 — +36.3 +0.0 559.3 639.9 628.1f 85.2 709.6f 628.7f — +81.5 +0.6 8,210.6 8,217.0 8,219.9 7,413.1 8,419.9 8,219.9 — +200.0 +0.0 0.9 0.9 2,950.0 3,069.2 3,000.9f 2,022.5 3,078.5f 3,000.9f — +77.6 +0.0 36,686.7 37,288.9 37,601.2 35,173.1 37,792.9 37,801.2 — +191.6 +200.0 22,149.7 22,794.0 24,254.1 23,146.9 23,183.5 23,184.0 — -1,070.6 -1,070.1 6,350.0 6,350.0 6,175.0 5,750.0 6,000.0 6,150.0 — -175.0 -25.0 80,849.4 78,480.7 74,013.5 73,218.3 73,219.3 73,219.3 — -794.2 -794.2 Commodity Assistance Programs 296.2 315.1 322.1 55.5 306.9 322.1 — -15.2 +0.0 Nutrition Programs Administration 150.8 170.7 153.8 160.8 162.8 164.7 — +9.0 +10.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 — +0.0 +0.0 6,838.9 6,884.7 6,709.8 5,990.1 6,528.5 6,696.1 — -181.2 -13.7 Mandatory (M) 102,958.1 101,226.7 98,209.6 96,342.3 96,344.8 96,344.8 — -1,864.9 -1,864.9 Subtotal 109,797.0 108,111.3 104,919.4 102,332.3 102,873.3 103,040.9 — -2,046.1 -1,878.5 Rural Housing Service RHS Loan Authorityc Rural Business-Cooperative RBCS Loan Servicee Authorityc Rural Utilities Service RUS Loan Authorityc Under Secretary Subtotal, Discretionary Subtotal, RD Loan Authorityc moved to Departmental Administration as an Assistant to the Secretarya Title IV. Domestic Food Programs Child Nutrition Programs (M) WIC Program SNAP, Food and Nutrition Act Programs (M) Under Secretary Subtotal Discretionary CRS-16 Agency or Major Program FY2016 FY2017 FY2018 P.L. 114113 P.L. 11531 P.L. 115141 FY2019 Admin. Request House H.R. 5961 Change FY18 to FY19 Senate H.R. 6147 Enacted House Senate Title V. Foreign Assistance Foreign Agricultural Service 191.6 196.6 199.7 193.1 204.1 212.2 — +4.5 +12.6 1,468.5f 1,466.1f 1,600.1f 0.1 1,500.1 1,716.1 — -100.0 +116.0 201.6 201.6 207.6 0.0 207.6 210.3 — +0.0 +2.6 CCC Export Loan Salaries 6.7 8.5 8.8 7.1 9.2 8.8 — +0.3 +0.0 Office of Codex Alimentarius — — 3.8 3.8 3.8 4.0 — +0.0 +0.2 Under Secretary — — 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 — +0.0 +0.0 1,868.5 1,872.9 2,021.0 205.0 1,925.8 2,152.3 — -95.2 +131.4 2,729.6 2,771.2 2,811.9 3,183.7 3,119.6 2,970.9 — +307.7 +159.0 250.0 [250.0] 249.0 281.5 255.0 [281.5]h — +6.0 [+32.5]h 2,979.6 [3,021.2] 3,060.9 3,465.2 3,374.6 [3,252.4]h — +313.7 [+191.5]h -209.0 -179.0 — -136.3 — — — +0.0 +0.0 b. Watershed Rehabilitation Program -68.0 -54.0 — -46.2 — — — +0.0 +0.0 c. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program -125.0 -125.0 — -125.0 — — — +0.0 +0.0 d. Biorefinery Assistance Program -19.0 -20.0 — — — — — +0.0 +0.0 e. Biomass Crop Assistance Program -20.0 -20.0 -21.0 — — — — +21.0 +21.0 f. Cushion of Credit (Rural Development) -179.0 -132.0 — -225.0 -50.0 — — -50.0 +0.0 g. Section 32 -216.0 -231.0 — -342.0 — — — +0.0 +0.0 +5.0 +17.0 +20.0 -36.4 +35.0 +5.0 — +15.0 -15.0 Food for Peace Title II, and admin. expenses McGovern-Dole Food for Education Subtotal Title VI. Related Agencies Food and Drug Administration Commodity Futures Trading Commissiong Subtotal Title VII. General Provisions Reductions in Mandatory Programsi a. Environmental Quality Incentives Program h. Other CHIMPS and mandatory rescissions CRS-17 Agency or Major Program FY2016 FY2017 FY2018 P.L. 114113 P.L. 11531 P.L. 115141 FY2019 Admin. Request House H.R. 5961 Change FY18 to FY19 Senate H.R. 6147 Enacted House Senate Subtotal, CHIMPS -831.0 -744.0 -1.0 -910.8 -15.0 +5.0 — -14.0 +6.0 Rescissions (discretionary) -34.0 -854.0 -800.0 -287.0 -300.0 -400.0 — +500.0 +400.0 273.0 234.8j — — — — — +0.0 +0.0 b. Water and Waste Water — — +500.0 — — +400.0 — -500.0 -100.0 c. Broadband pilot — — +600.0 — +550.0 +425.0 — -50.0 -175.0 d. Opioid Enforcement and Surveillance — — +94.0 — — — — -94.0 -94.0 250.0 134.0 +116.0 — — — — -116.0 -116.0 33.1 103.4 68.1 — +29.5 +64.5 — -38.6 -3.6 556.1 472.2 1,378.1 — 579.5 889.5 — -798.6 -488.6 -308.9 -1,125.8 577.1 -1,197.8 264.5 494.5 — -312.6 -82.6 Disaster declaration in this bill -130.0 -206.1j — — — — — +0.0 +0.0 Other scorekeeping adjustments -332.0 -524.0 -481.0 -409.0 -404.0 -404.0 — +77.0 +77.0 Subtotal, Scorekeeping adjustments -462.0 -730.1 -481.0 -409.0 -404.0 -404.0 — +77.0 +77.0 [21,500.0] 20,877.0 [22,998.0] 16,745.2 [22,977.8] 23,226.5 — -20.2 +228.5 — -14.2 [+261.0]h Other appropriations a. Disaster/emergency programs e. Food for Peace f. Other appropriations Subtotal, Other appropriations Total, General Provisions Scorekeeping Adjustmentsk Totals Discretionary: Senate basis w/o CFTC Discretionary: House basis w/ CFTC Mandatory (M) Total: Senate basis w/o CFTC Total: House basis w/ CFTC 21,750.0 [21,127.0] 23,247.0 17,026.7 23,232.8 [23,508.0]h 118,990.7 132,506.9 122,752.0 121,813.8 121,816.3 121,816.3 — -935.7 -935.7 [140,490.7] 153,383.9 [145,750.0] 138,559.0 [144,794.0] 145,042.8 — -955.9 -707.2 140,740.7 [153,633.9] 145,999.0 138,840.5 145,049.0 [145,324]h — -949.9 -674.7h Source: CRS, using appropriations text and report tables, and unpublished CBO tables. CRS-18 Notes: Amounts are nominal discretionary budget authority in millions of dollars unless labeled otherwise. (M) indicates that the account is mandatory authority (or primarily mandatory authority). Excludes amounts in supplemental appropriations acts. Bracketed amounts are not in the official totals due to differing House-Senate jurisdiction for CFTC but are shown for comparison. a. Row headings reflect recent USDA reorganization. The Farm Service Agency and Risk Management Agency were moved from Title I to Title II, as was the Commodity Credit Corporation and Federal Crop Insurance Corporation in mandatory spending. Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration was moved into the Agricultural Marketing Service. b. Includes regular FSA salaries and expenses, plus transfers for farm loan program salaries and administrative expenses. Also includes farm loan program loan subsidy, State Mediation Grants, Dairy Indemnity Program (mandatory funding), and Grassroots Source Water Protection Program. Does not include appropriations to the Foreign Agricultural Service for export loans and P.L. 480 administration that are transferred to FSA. c. Loan authority is the amount of loans that can be made or guaranteed with a loan subsidy. This amount is not added in the budget authority subtotals or totals. d. Includes Rural Development salaries and expenses and transfers from the three rural development agencies for salaries and expenses. Amounts for the agencies thus reflect program funds for loans and grants. e. Amounts for the Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBCS) are before the rescission in the Cushion of Credit account, unlike in Appropriations Committee tables. The rescission is included with the CHIMPS as classified by CBO, which allows the RBCS subtotal to remain positive. f. Excludes a portion of the other appropriations that are provided separately in General Provisions. g. Jurisdiction for CFTC is in the House Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee and the Senate Financial Services Appropriations Subcommittee. After FY2008, CFTC is carried in enacted Agriculture appropriations in even-numbered fiscal years in House Agriculture markup but not in Senate Agriculture markup. Bracketed amounts are not in the official totals due to differing House-Senate jurisdiction for CFTC but are shown for comparison. h. See Division B of H.R. 6147. i. Includes reductions (limitations and rescissions) to mandatory programs that may also be known as Changes in Mandatory Program Spending (CHIMPS). j. Includes $206 million appropriated for the Emergency Conservation Program (ECP) and Emergency Watershed Program (EWP) in the FY2017 second CR (P.L. 114254, §185) that were offset as emergency spending. Another $29 million for ECP was included in the final appropriation (§753). k. “Scorekeeping adjustments” are not necessarily appropriated items and may not be shown in appropriations committee tables but are part of the official CBO score (accounting) of the bill. They predominantly include “negative subsidies” in loan program accounts and adjustments for disaster designations in the bill. CRS-19 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations Policy-Related Provisions In addition to setting budgetary amounts, the Agriculture appropriations bill has also been a vehicle for policy-related provisions that direct how the executive branch should carry out the appropriation. These provisions may have the force of law if they are included in the text of the appropriation, usually in the General Provisions, but their effect is generally limited to the current fiscal year. Sometimes, the provisions amend the U.S. Code and have long-standing effects. The explanatory statement that accompanies the final appropriation, and the House and Senate report language that accompanies the committee-reported bills, may also provide policy instructions. These documents do not have the force of law but often explain congressional intent, which the agencies are expected to follow. Table 4 compares some of the major policy provisions that have been identified in the General Provisions (Title VII) of the FY2019 Agriculture appropriations bills. Many of these provisions have been included in past years’ appropriations laws. Table 4. Selected Policy Provisions in FY2019 Agriculture Appropriations House-reported H.R. 5961 Senate-passed H.R. 6147, Division C Disaster payments. In general, prohibits the use of Section 32, clause (3), to reestablish farmers’ purchasing power by making payments to farmers. However, allows an exception to use up to $350 million of carryover for this purpose. (§715) Similar to House provision. (§715) Rural definition. Defines rural for the water and waste disposal guaranteed loan program as a city, town, or unincorporated area with no more than 20,000 people. (§728) Directs that eligibility for rural development programs shall not include incarcerated prison populations. (§744) Similar to House provisions. (§§728, 744) Persistent poverty counties. Requires that at least 10% of the funds in certain rural development programs shall be allocated to persistent poverty counties, defined as any county that has had 20% or more of its population living in poverty over the past 30 years. (§750) No comparable provision. Income verification. Provides USDA access to Social Security and Internal Revenue Service data to verify the income of individuals participating in certain rural housing programs. (§747) Similar to House provision. (§748) American steel. Prohibits funding for the rural water, wastewater, waste disposal, and solid waste management projects unless all of the iron and steel products are produced in the United States. (§743) Similar to House provision. (§742) No comparable provision. Agriculture risk coverage (ARC) pilot. Directs USDA to conduct a pilot program to make payments for the ARC program that addresses disparities in the calculation of yields among counties. (§747) No comparable provision. Industrial hemp. Prohibits funding in contravention of the 2014 farm bill provision for research on industrial hemp or the transportation, processing, sale, or use of industrial hemp or seeds that are grown in accordance with the farm bill provision. (§729) Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 20 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations House-reported H.R. 5961 Senate-passed H.R. 6147, Division C No comparable provision. National Bio- and Agro-defense Facility (NBAF). Authorizes ARS and APHIS to appoint up to 50 employees annually in FY2019-2025 for NBAF at a rate of pay that exceeds the General Schedule. (§738) No comparable provision. Horse slaughter. Prohibits USDA from conducting horse slaughter inspection. (§758) Animal Welfare Act. Prohibits funding to issue or renew licenses to class B dealers who sell dogs and cats for use in research, experiments, teaching, or testing. (§741) No comparable provision. Lab-grown meat. Directs USDA to regulate products that are made from cells of amenable species of livestock that are grown under controlled conditions for human food to prevent adulteration and misbranding. Applies to FY2018 and thereafter. (§736) No comparable provision. Poultry from China. Prohibits funds to buy raw or processed poultry products from China for the National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, Child and Adult Care Food Program, and Summer Food Service Program. (§748) Prohibits funding to finalize the proposed rule, “Eligibility of the People’s Republic of China to Export to the United States Poultry Products,” until USDA verifies certain conditions. (§751) No comparable provisions. School meal prices. Exempts certain school food authorities (those without a negative balance in their school food service accounts as of December 31, 2018) from paid meal equity requirements in school year 20192020. (§757) No comparable provision. Vegetables in school breakfast. Prohibits funding to implement or enforce the portion of a School Breakfast Program regulation that limits substituting fruits with certain vegetables. (§767) No comparable provision. SNAP retailer standards. Prohibits funding to administer the “variety requirements” in the final rule “Enhancing Retailer Standards in SNAP” until the Secretary amends the definition of variety to increase the number of items that qualify as acceptable varieties in each staple food category. (§727) Similar to House provision. (§728) SNAP disclosure. Exempts from Freedom of Information Act disclosure SNAP transaction data that contain information specific to a store, store location, person, or other entity. (§768) No comparable provision. Human embryos. Prohibits FDA from using funds to accept any investigational new drug application for “research in which a human embryo is intentionally created or modified to include a heritable genetic modification.” (§732) Similar to House provision. (§733) Partially hydrogenated oils. Directs FDA that no food containing partially hydrogenated oils shall be considered to be adulterated on that basis so long as it enters interstate commerce before June 18, 2018. (§740) Similar to House provision. (§736) Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 21 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations House-reported H.R. 5961 Senate-passed H.R. 6147, Division C Sodium. Prevents FDA from developing regulations or issuing final guidance for population-wide sodium reduction actions until a dietary reference intake report is completed. (§752) Similar to House provision. (§750) Grapes for wine. Prohibits FDA funds to enforce the final rule “Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption” with respect to grape varietals used solely for wine. (§755) Similar to House provision. (§753) Dietary guidelines. Directs USDA to submit a report to Congress within 180 days about the process used to establish the 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including the recommendations from the National Academies of Science report, “Redesigning the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.” (§763) No comparable provision. Added sugars. Prohibits funds to administer the final rule “Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels” to the extent that it requires added sugars labeling for single-ingredient foods to which sugars or sweeteners are not added (e.g., honey or maple syrup). (§764) Similar to House provision. (§768) Genetically engineered salmon. Directs that disclosure requirements for genetically engineered salmon or finfish follow the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard and subsequent USDA regulations. (§766) Prohibits FDA from allowing genetically engineered salmon into interstate commerce until it publishes final labeling guidelines. (§740) CFTC statutes. Amends the Commodity Exchange Act to address the initial margin requirements for certain swap transactions. (§738) Further amends the act by directing CFTC to consider cost-benefit analysis in its regulations (using language from a House-passed bill, H.R. 238). (§760) No comparable provision. Cigar regulation. Prohibits funds to administer the FDA final “deeming rule” from May 10, 2016, with respect to traditional large and premium cigars. (§769) Prohibits funds to regulate cigars and pipe tobacco differently than April 25, 2014, the date that such tobacco products were proposed to be deemed subject to certain requirements. (§770) No comparable provision. Tobacco products. Amends the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act concerning the registration of substantially equivalent tobacco products. (§771) No comparable provision. Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 22 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations House-reported H.R. 5961 Senate-passed H.R. 6147, Division C Vapor products. Directs the Secretary of Health and Human Services to issue a notice of proposed rulemaking, within 21 months, establishing a product standard for vapor products and to promulgate a final rule within 36 months. (§772) Deems a vapor product to be misbranded if it is advertised in a nonadult publication, specifies terms for distributing vapor products in other than direct face-to-face sales, directs the Secretary of Health and Human Services to promulgate regulations requiring labeling of vapor products, and imposes registration requirements on vapor product retailers. (§773) Amends the Pro-Children Act of 1994 to extend the prohibition on smoking in certain facilities that provide children’s services to vapor products. (§774) Amends the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to add age verification requirements for remote sales of vapor products. (§775) Directs the Secretary of Health and Human Services to submit a report to Congress within 180 days about the Youth Vapor Product Education, Prevention, and Enforcement Program. (§776) No comparable provision. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Directs the FDA commissioner to conduct a study and submit a report to Congress within 180 days on preventing the use of ENDS by youth. (§777) No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Prevents certain changes from occurring under implementation of the Grain Standards Act. (§759) No comparable provision. Provides for technical assistance to respond to volcanic eruptions. (§760) No comparable provision. Directs USDA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to establish a working group and issue a report on ocean farming practices and ways to deacidify oceans. (§761) No comparable provision. Directs USDA to submit a report to Congress describing how conservation programs may be used to conserve ocelots (wild cats native to the southwestern United States). (§762) No comparable provision. Directs the Rural Housing Service to submit a report to Congress about the housing affected by Title V of the Housing Act of 1949, its loan status, and its affordability. (§763) No comparable provision. Directs the FDA to revise the advice in a notice about eating fish, to be consistent with nutrition science recognized by FDA about seafood consumption. (§764) No comparable provision. Amends implementation of a broadband program in the 2018 Agriculture Appropriation regarding eligibility determination and expansion efforts. (§765) Source: CRS. Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 23 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations Appendix A. Budget Sequestration Sequestration is a process to reduce federal spending through automatic, largely across-the-board reductions that permanently cancel mandatory and/or discretionary budget authority.40 Sequestration is triggered as a budget enforcement mechanism when federal spending would exceed statutory budget goals.41 Sequestration is currently authorized by the Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA; P.L. 112-25). Table A-1 shows the rates of sequestration that have been announced and the total amounts of budget authority that have been cancelled from accounts in Agriculture appropriations. Table A-2 provides additional detail at the account level for mandatory accounts. Table A-1. Sequestration from Accounts in Agriculture Appropriations (budget authority that was sequestered, in millions of dollars) Discretionary Accounts Fiscal Year Rate Amount Mandatory Accounts Rate Amount 2013 5.0% 1,153 5.1% 713 2014 — — 7.2% 1,052 2015 — — 7.3% 1,153 2016 — — 6.8% 1,819 2017 — — 6.9% 1,686 2018 — — 6.6% 1,316 2019 — — 6.2% 1,530 Source: CRS, compiled from OMB, Reports to the Congress on the Joint Committee Reductions, various fiscal years. Available for FY2018-FY2019 at https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/legislative/sequestration-reports-orders and for FY2013-FY2017 at https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/omb/legislative_reports/sequestration. Notes: Sequestration rates listed here are for nonexempt, nondefense accounts. Amount totals were computed by CRS as compiled in Table A-2. Discretionary Spending For discretionary spending, sequestration is authorized through FY2021 if discretionary defense and nondefense spending exceed caps that are specified in statute (2 U.S.C. 901(c)). In FY2013, the timing of the appropriations acts and the first year of sequestration resulted in triggering sequestration on discretionary spending. In FY2014-FY2018, Bipartisan Budget Acts in 2013, 2015, and 2018 (BBAs; P.L. 113-67, P.L. 114-74, and P.L. 115-123, respectively) have avoided sequestration on discretionary spending. These BBAs raised the discretionary budget caps that were placed in statute by the BCA and allowed Congress to enact larger appropriations than would have been allowed. For FY2019, the BBA in 2018 similarly provides a higher discretionary cap that may avoid sequestration (see “Discretionary Budget Caps and Subcommittee Allocations”). 40 41 CRS Report R43411, The Budget Control Act of 2011: Legislative Changes to the Law and Their Budgetary Effects. CRS Report R42972, Sequestration as a Budget Enforcement Process: Frequently Asked Questions. Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 24 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations Mandatory Spending Authorization of Sequestration For mandatory spending, sequestration is presently authorized through FY2027, having been amended and extended by acts that were subsequent to the BCA (2 U.S.C. 901a(6)). That is, sequestration continues to apply annually to certain accounts of mandatory spending and is not avoided by the BBAs (Table A-1). The original FY2021 sunset on the sequestration of mandatory accounts has been extended four times as an offset to pay for avoiding sequestration on discretionary spending in the near term or as a general budgetary offset for other authorization acts: 1. Congress extended the duration of mandatory sequestration by two years (until FY2023) as an offset in BBA 2013.42 2. Congress extended it by another year (until FY2024) to maintain retirement benefits for certain military personnel (P.L. 113-82). 3. Congress extended sequestration on nonexempt mandatory accounts another year (until FY2025) as an offset in BBA 2015.43 4. Congress extended sequestration on nonexempt mandatory accounts by another two years (until FY2027) as an offset in BBA 2018 (P.L. 115-123 Division C, §30101(c)).44 Exemptions from Sequestration Some farm bill mandatory programs are exempt from sequestration. Those expressly exempt by statute are the nutrition programs (SNAP, the child nutrition programs, and the Commodity Supplemental Food Program)45 and the Conservation Reserve Program.46 Some prior legal obligations in the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation47 and the farm commodity programs may be exempt48 as determined by OMB.49 Generally speaking, the experience since FY2013 is that OMB has ruled that most of crop insurance is exempt from sequestration, while the farm commodity programs, disaster assistance, and most conservation programs have been subject to it.50 42 CBO, Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, December 11, 2013, https://www.cbo.gov/publication/44964. CBO, Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, October 28, 2015, https://www.cbo.gov/publication/50938. In addition to extending sequestration and related to mandatory spending in agriculture, crop insurance was used as an additional budgetary offset in BBA 2015. The effect was temporary, however, and the crop insurance reduction was restored. For more background, see the section on crop insurance and the Standard Reinsurance Agreement in CRS Report R44240, Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2016 Appropriations. 44 CBO, Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, February 8, 2018, https://www.cbo.gov/publication/53556. 45 2 U.S.C. 905 (h). 46 2 U.S.C. 905(g)(1)(A). 47 2 U.S.C. 905 (g)(2). 48 2 U.S.C. 906 (j). 49 Some administrative expenses may be subject to sequestration, and therefore programs that are otherwise exempt may have a relatively small sequesterable amount compared to their total budget authority as shown, for example, in Table A-2 for the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, SNAP, child nutrition programs, and WIC. 50 CRS Report R42050, Budget “Sequestration” and Selected Program Exemptions and Special Rules. 43 Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 25 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations Implementation of Sequestration Sequestration on nonexempt mandatory accounts continues in FY2019. Nonexempt mandatory spending is to be reduced by a 6.2% sequestration rate and thus paid at 93.8% of what they would otherwise have provided. This results in a reduction of about $1.5 billion from mandatory agriculture accounts in FY2019. Table A-2. Sequestration of Mandatory Accounts in Agriculture Appropriations (sequestered budget authority in millions of dollars) FY2013 FY2014 FY2015 FY2016 FY2017 FY2018 FY2019 5.1% 7.2% 7.3% 6.8% 6.9% 6.6% 6.2% — — 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 — — 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Agricultural Research Service 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 National Institute of Food and Agriculture — — — 9.9 10.0 — — Extension 0.3 0.4 1.8 — — 3.3 0.3 Biomass Research and Development — — 0.2 0.2 0.2 — — Integrated Activities — — 7.3 — — 6.6 5.0 — — — — — — 3.7 13.6 18.8 21.5 20.1 19.5 18.8 52.1 Miscellaneous Trust Funds 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Food Safety Inspection Service 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 2.1 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 2.9 — 40.4 79.7 81.9 77.3 79.6 78.1 74.4 Milk Market Orders Assessment Fund 2.9 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.8 Perishable Agriculture Commodities Act 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 Expenses and refunds 0.4 0.9 0.9 1.3 1.3 0.4 0.4 Payments to states and possessions — — 5.3 5.0 5.0 5.6 5.3 Marketing services — — 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.0 3.0 — — — — 0.6 — — 3.0 4.2 5.9 3.5 3.9 3.7 5.0 329.5 573.7 710.8 1,388.6 1,238.6 904.1 1,088.2 Agricultural Credit Insurance Corporation — — 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Commodity Credit Corporation Export Loans — — — 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 Pima Cotton Trust Fund — — — 1.1 1.1 1.1 — Sequestration rate on nonexempt, nondefense mandatory accounts U.S. Department of Agriculture Office of the Secretary Office of Chief Economist Farm Production and Conservation Business Center Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Salaries appropriation Grain Inspection Packers and Stockyards Admin. Agricultural Marketing Service Section 32 Risk Management Agency Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Farm Service Agency Commodity Credit Corporation Fund Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 26 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations FY2013 FY2014 FY2015 FY2016 FY2017 FY2018 FY2019 — — — 2.0 2.1 2.0 1.9 Agricultural Disaster Relief Fund 70.0 — — — — — — Tobacco Trust Fund 49.0 69.1 — — — — — 171.2 263.1 269.9 265.7 281.5 254.9 262.4 Watershed Rehabilitation Program — 11.9 11.2 4.7 4.7 4.4 3.0 Damage Assessment Restoration Revolving Fund — — — — — — 0.1 Rural Energy for America Program 1.1 3.0 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.1 Economic Development Grants — — — — — — 0.9 Rural Microenterprise Investment Program — 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 — Energy Assistance Payments 3.3 3.2 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 — Biorefinery Assistance Program — — 3.7 3.4 1.4 1.3 — Rural Economic Development Grants — — — 1.6 — — — 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 SNAP 4.7 8.0 8.4 9.8 10.6 9.6 9.2 Child Nutrition Programs 2.5 4.2 4.2 3.9 4.3 4.0 3.9 Commodity Assistance Program 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 WIC 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 16.3 — — — — — — Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 Commodity Futures Trading Commission 0.7 0.9 1.0 2.2 2.2 0.1 0.3 713.3 1,051.9 1,153.0 1,818.9 1,685.6 1,315.9 1,530.3 Wool Apparel Manufacturers Trust Fund Natural Resources Conservation Service Farm bill conservation programs Rural Development, Rural Business Coop. Service Foreign Agricultural Service Food and Nutrition Servicea Related Agencies Food and Drug Administration Revolving Fund for Certification User Fees Total Source: CRS, compiled from OMB, Reports to the Congress on the Joint Committee Reductions, various fiscal years. Available for FY2018-FY2019 at https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/legislative/sequestration-reports-orders and for FY2013-FY2017 athttps://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/omb/legislative_reports/sequestration. Notes: Sequestration rates are for nonexempt, nondefense accounts. The sequesterable budget authority for each cell may be computed by dividing the amount of sequestration by the sequestration rate. Column totals were computed by CRS based on the jurisdiction of the House Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee. a. Benefits from the nutrition programs are generally exempt from sequestration by statute, but some administrative expenses in these programs may be subject to sequestration, and therefore a relatively small portion of the total budget authority may be sequesterable. Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 27 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations Appendix B. Action on Agriculture Appropriations, FY1996-FY2019 Table B-1. Congressional Action on Agriculture Appropriations Since FY1996 House Action Senate Action Final Appropriation Fiscal Year Subcmte. Cmte. Floor Subcmte. Cmte. Floor 1996 6/14/1995 6/27/1995 7/21/1995 9/13/1995 9/14/1995 9/20/1995 10/21/1995 E P.L. 104-37 95-624 1997 5/30/1996 6/6/1996 6/12/1996 7/10/1996 7/11/1996 7/24/1996 8/6/1996 E P.L. 104-180 IB96015 1998 6/25/1997 7/14/1997 7/24/1997 7/15/1997 7/17/1997 7/24/1997 11/18/1997 E P.L. 105-86 97-201 1999 6/10/1998 6/16/1998 6/24/1998 6/9/1998 6/11/1998 7/16/1998 10/21/1998 O P.L. 105-277 98-201 2000 5/13/1999 5/24/1999 6/8/1999 6/15/1999 6/17/1999 8/4/1999 10/22/1999 E P.L. 106-78 RL30201 2001 5/4/2000 5/16/2000 7/11/2000 5/4/2000 5/10/2000 7/20/2000 10/28/2000 E P.L. 106-387 RL30501 2002 6/6/2001 6/27/2001 7/11/2001 Polled outb 7/18/2001 10/25/2001 11/28/2001 E P.L. 107-76 RL31001 2003 6/26/2002 7/26/2002 — 7/23/2002 7/25/2002 — 2/20/2003 O P.L. 108-7 RL31301 2004 6/17/2003 7/9/2003 7/14/2003 7/17/2003 11/6/2003 11/6/2003 1/23/2004 O P.L. 108-199 RL31801 2005 6/14/2004 7/7/2004 7/13/2004 9/8/2004 9/14/2004 — 12/8/2004 O P.L. 108-447 RL32301 2006 5/16/2005 6/2/2005 6/8/2005 6/21/2005 6/27/2005 9/22/2005 11/10/2005 E P.L. 109-97 RL32904 2007 5/3/2006 5/9/2006 5/23/2006 6/20/2006 6/22/2006 — 2/15/2007 Y P.L. 110-5 RL33412 2008 7/12/2007 7/19/2007 8/2/2007 7/17/2007 7/19/2007 — 12/26/2007 O P.L. 110-161 RL34132 2009 6/19/2008 — — Polled outb 7/17/2008 — 3/11/2009 O P.L. 111-8 R40000 2010 6/11/2009 6/18/2009 7/9/2009 Polled outb 7/7/2009 8/4/2009 10/21/2009 E P.L. 111-80 R40721 2011 6/30/2010 — — Polled outb 7/15/2010 — 4/15/2011 Y P.L. 112-10 R41475 2012 5/24/2011 5/31/2011 6/16/2011 Polled outb 9/7/2011 11/1/2011 11/18/2011 O P.L. 112-55 R41964 outb 4/26/2012 — 3/26/2013 O P.L. 113-6 R43110 Enacteda Public Law CRS Report 2013 6/6/2012 6/19/2012 — Polled 2014 6/5/2013 6/13/2013 — 6/18/2013 6/20/2013 — 1/17/2014 O P.L. 113-76 R43110 2015 5/20/2014 5/29/2014 — 5/20/2014 5/22/2014 — 12/16/2014 O P.L. 113-235 R43669 2016 6/18/2015 7/8/2015 — 7/14/2015 7/16/2015 — 12/18/2015 O P.L. 114-113 R44240 2017 4/13/2016 4/19/2016 — 5/17/2016 5/19/2016 — 5/5/2017 O P.L. 115-31 R44588 2018 6/28/2017 7/12/2017 9/14/2017 7/18/2017 7/20/2017 — 3/23/2018 O P.L. 115-141 R45128 2019 5/9/2018 5/16/2018 — 5/22/2018 5/24/2018 8/1/2018 — — — R45230 Source: CRS. a. E = Enacted as standalone appropriation (seven times over 22 years); O = Omnibus appropriation (13 times); Y = Year-long CR (two times). b. A procedure that permits a Senate subcommittee to transmit a bill to its full committee without a formal markup session. See CRS Report RS22952, Proxy Voting and Polling in Senate Committee. Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 28 Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2019 Appropriations Author Information Jim Monke Specialist in Agricultural Policy Key Policy Staff Area of Expertise Name Agricultural appropriations, USDA budget Jim Monke Agricultural Marketing Service Joel Greene Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Sahar Angadjivand Commodity Futures Trading Commission Rena Miller Conservation Megan Stubbs Crop insurance Isabel Rosa Disaster assistance Megan Stubbs Farm Service Agency Jim Monke Food and Drug Administration Agata Dabrowska Food safety, generally Renée Johnson Food safety, meat and poultry inspection Joel Greene International food aid Alyssa Casey Nutrition and domestic food assistance Randy Alison Aussenberg Kara Clifford Billings Research and extension Tadlock Cowan Rural development Tadlock Cowan Trade Jenny Hopkinson Disclaimer This document was prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS). CRS serves as nonpartisan shared staff to congressional committees and Members of Congress. It operates solely at the behest of and under the direction of Congress. Information in a CRS Report should not be relied upon for purposes other than public understanding of information that has been provided by CRS to Members of Congress in connection with CRS’s institutional role. CRS Reports, as a work of the United States Government, are not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Any CRS Report may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without permission from CRS. However, as a CRS Report may include copyrighted images or material from a third party, you may need to obtain the permission of the copyright holder if you wish to copy or otherwise use copyrighted material. Congressional Research Service R45230 · VERSION 12 · UPDATED 29