. Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations Nathan James, Coordinator Analyst in Crime Policy Jennifer D. Williams, Coordinator Specialist in American National Government John F. Sargent Jr., Coordinator Specialist in Science and Technology Policy June 23, 2014 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R43509 c11173008 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Summary This report will track and describe actions taken by the Administration and Congress to provide FY2015 appropriations for the Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS) accounts. It also provides an overview of FY2014 appropriations for agencies and bureaus funded as a part of the annual appropriation for CJS. The annual CJS appropriations act provides funding for the Departments of Commerce and Justice, the science agencies, and several related agencies. Appropriations for the Department of Commerce include funding for agencies such as the Census Bureau; the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Appropriations for the Department of Justice (DOJ) provide funding for agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Bureau of Prisons; the U.S. Marshals; the Drug Enforcement Administration; and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives; along with funding for a variety of grant programs for state, local, and tribal governments. Funding for the science agencies goes to the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The annual appropriation for the related agencies includes funding for agencies such as the Legal Services Corporation and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Over the past 10 fiscal years, appropriations for CJS increased from FY2005 to FY2010, and they have generally declined since. After adjusting for inflation, FY2013 and FY2014 appropriations for CJS were generally at the same level as in FY2005. The peak in CJS appropriations around FY2010 was the result of increased appropriations for the Department of Commerce to support the 2010 decennial census. Since FY2010, total appropriations for CJS have been around $60 billion, with the exception of FY2013 when sequestration cut nearly $4 billion out of the total FY2013 CJS appropriations. While decreased appropriations for the Department of Commerce mostly explain the overall decrease in CJS appropriations since FY2010, there have also been cuts in funding for DOJ and NASA. Recent reductions to NASA’s appropriation have brought it more in-line with what the agency received in FY2005. In addition, despite recent cuts to DOJ’s appropriation, Congress still appropriated $6.883 billion more for DOJ in FY2014 than it did in FY2005. For FY2014, through P.L. 113-76, Congress appropriated a total of $61.623 billion for CJS, of which $8.181 billion was for the Department of Commerce, $27.737 billion was for the Department of Justice, $24.824 billion was for the science agencies, and $881.8 million was for the related agencies. For FY2015, the Administration requests a total of $62.397 billion for the agencies and bureaus funded as a part of the annual CJS bill. The Administration’s request for CJS would be 1.3% greater than the FY2014-enacted appropriation. The Administration’s request includes $8.746 billion for the Department of Commerce, $27.974 billion for the Department of Justice, $24.721 billion for the science agencies, and $956.1 million for the related agencies. The House-passed CJS bill would provide $62.559 billion for the CJS departments and agencies. The amount proposed by the House would be 1.5% greater than the FY2014 appropriation and 0.3% more than the Administration’s request. The House-passed bill includes $8.231 billion for c11173008 Congressional Research Service Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . the Department of Commerce, $28.162 billion for the Department of Justice, $25.296 billion for the science agencies, and $870.9 million for the related agencies. There are several issues policy makers might consider while debating the FY2015 funding levels for CJS agencies and bureaus, including the following: c11173008 • Whether the Census Bureau will receive the funds requested to complete the research and testing necessary for a cost-effective 2020 census design, and to restore 12-month interviewing and the full American Community Survey sample size after a one-month break in data collection that was caused by the October 2013 federal government shutdown. • Whether to fund the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) core laboratory and construction accounts at a level consistent with the goal of doubling funding for these and other targeted accounts, as proposed previously by President Obama and adopted implicitly in the America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69) and the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-358). • Whether to provide the $147.0 million in gun- and school violence-related grant funding under the State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance the Administration requests as a part of its “Now is the Time” initiative, which is the Administration’s effort to combat gun violence. • Whether the Bureau of Prisons has adequate resources to properly manage the growing number of inmates held in federal prisons. • Whether the current direction for the U.S. human spaceflight program, established in October 2010 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-267), can be implemented successfully in a period of increased budgetary constraint, as well as what the potential impact of human spaceflight’s funding needs will be on the availability of funding for other NASA programs, such as science, aeronautics, and education. • Whether to adopt the Administration’s proposed government-wide science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education program reorganization and consolidation, including proposed changes at NSF, NASA, and the Department of Commerce. Congressional Research Service Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Contents Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 1 Overview of CJS .............................................................................................................................. 1 FY2014 and FY2015 Appropriations for CJS ................................................................................. 5 Survey of Selected Issues ................................................................................................................ 6 Department of Commerce ......................................................................................................... 6 Department of Justice ................................................................................................................ 7 Science Agencies ....................................................................................................................... 8 Related Agencies ....................................................................................................................... 9 Department of Commerce................................................................................................................ 9 FY2014 and FY2015 Appropriations ...................................................................................... 10 International Trade Administration (ITA) ................................................................................ 12 Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) .................................................................................... 13 Economic Development Administration (EDA)...................................................................... 13 Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA) ................................................................ 15 Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA) ..................................................................... 16 Census Bureau ......................................................................................................................... 16 National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) ................................ 17 U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)........................................................................... 18 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) ......................................................... 19 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ................................................. 21 Department of Justice (DOJ) ......................................................................................................... 22 FY2014 and FY2015 Appropriations ...................................................................................... 23 General Administration ........................................................................................................... 25 General Administration ..................................................................................................... 25 Administrative Review and Appeals (ARA) ..................................................................... 26 Office of the Inspector General (OIG) .............................................................................. 26 U.S. Parole Commission.......................................................................................................... 27 Legal Activities........................................................................................................................ 27 General Legal Activities .................................................................................................... 27 Office of the U.S. Attorneys .............................................................................................. 28 Other Legal Activities ....................................................................................................... 28 U.S. Marshals Service (USMS) ............................................................................................... 28 National Security Division (NSD)........................................................................................... 30 Interagency Law Enforcement................................................................................................. 30 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)..................................................................................... 31 Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) .............................................................................. 32 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) ............................................... 33 Federal Prison System (Bureau of Prisons, BOP) ................................................................... 36 Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) ........................................................................... 38 Office of Justice Programs (OJP) ............................................................................................ 39 Research, Evaluation, and Statistics .................................................................................. 39 State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance................................................................... 40 Juvenile Justice Programs ................................................................................................. 45 Public Safety Officers Benefits Program (PSOB) ............................................................. 46 Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS)..................................................................... 46 c11173008 Congressional Research Service Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . The Crime Victims Fund ......................................................................................................... 47 Science Agencies ........................................................................................................................... 48 FY2014 and FY2015 Appropriations ...................................................................................... 48 Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) .................................................................. 49 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)....................................................... 50 National Science Foundation (NSF) ........................................................................................ 53 Related Agencies ........................................................................................................................... 57 FY2014 and FY2015 Appropriations ...................................................................................... 57 Commission on Civil Rights ................................................................................................... 58 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) .......................................................... 59 U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) ........................................................................... 59 Legal Services Corporation (LSC) .......................................................................................... 60 Marine Mammal Commission (MMC).................................................................................... 60 Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) .................................................................... 61 State Justice Institute (SJI) ...................................................................................................... 61 Figures Figure 1. Nominal and Inflation-Adjusted Total Appropriations for CJS, FY2005-FY2014 .......... 3 Figure 2. Nominal Total CJS Appropriations, by Major Component, FY2005-FY2014 ................. 4 Tables Table 1. CJS Appropriations, FY2014 and FY2015 ........................................................................ 5 Table 2. Funding for the Department of Commerce, FY2014 and FY2015 .................................. 10 Table 3. Funding for EDA Programs and Salaries and Expenses, FY2014 and FY2015 .............. 15 Table 4. Funding for the Department of Justice, FY2014 and FY2015 ......................................... 24 Table 5. Funding for OVW Programs, FY2014 and FY2015 ........................................................ 38 Table 6. Funding for Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, FY2014 and FY2015 ......................... 40 Table 7. Funding for State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Programs, FY2014 and FY2015 .................................................................................................................. 42 Table 8. Funding for Juvenile Justice Programs, FY2014 and FY2015 ........................................ 45 Table 9. Funding for Community Oriented Policing Services Programs, FY2014 and FY2015 .................................................................................................................. 47 Table 10. Funding for Science Agencies, FY2014 and FY2015 .................................................... 48 Table 11. Funding for NASA, FY2014 and FY2015 ..................................................................... 52 Table 12. NSF Funding by Major Account, FY2014 and FY2015 ................................................ 56 Table 13. Funding for Related Agencies, FY2014 and FY2015 .................................................... 58 Table 14. Funding for CJS Agencies, by Account, FY2005-FY2014 ............................................ 62 c11173008 Congressional Research Service Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Contacts Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 66 Key Policy Staff ............................................................................................................................. 66 c11173008 Congressional Research Service Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Introduction This report tracks and provides an overview of actions taken by the Administration and Congress to provide FY2015 appropriations for Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS) accounts. It also provides an overview of enacted FY2014 appropriations for agencies and bureaus funded as a part of the annual appropriation for CJS. The amounts in this report reflect only new appropriations. Therefore, the amounts do not include any rescissions of unobligated or de-obligated balances that may be counted as offsets to newly enacted appropriations, nor do they include any scorekeeping adjustments, such as the balance on the Crime Victims Fund. The FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 113-76, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). The FY2015 requested amounts were taken from the report to accompany H.R. 4660 (H.Rept. 113-448). The FY2015 House-passed amounts were taken from the text of H.R. 4660 and H.Rept. 113-448. Overview of CJS The annual CJS appropriations act provides funding for the Departments of Commerce and Justice, the science agencies, and several related agencies. Appropriations for the Department of Commerce include funding for agencies such as Census Bureau; the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Appropriations for the Department of Justice provide funding for agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Bureau of Prisons; the U.S. Marshals; the Drug Enforcement Administration; the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives; along with funding for a variety of grant programs for state, local, and tribal governments. The vast majority of funding for the science agencies goes to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. The annual appropriation for the related agencies includes funding for agencies such as the Legal Services Corporation and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. The mission of the Department of Commerce is to promote “job creation, economic growth, sustainable development and improved standards of living ... by working in partnership with businesses, universities, communities and ... workers.”1 The department has wide-ranging responsibilities including trade, economic development, technology, entrepreneurship and business development, monitoring the environment, and statistical research and analysis. The Department of Commerce affects trade and economic development by working to open new markets for U.S. goods and services and promoting pro-growth business policies. The department also invests in research in development to foster innovation. The Department of Commerce, through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, manages and monitors the nation’s natural resources and assets to support both environmental and economic health. The department, through the Census Bureau, conducts the constitutionally mandated decennial census. Finally, the Department of Commerce operates the national patent system. 1 U.S. Department of Commerce, About the Department of Commerce, http://www.commerce.gov/about-departmentcommerce. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 1 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . The mission of the Department of Justice (DOJ) is to “enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law; to ensure public safety against threats foreign and domestic; to provide federal leadership in preventing and controlling crime; to seek just punishment for those guilty of unlawful behavior; and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans.”2 The DOJ provides legal advice and opinions, upon request, to the President and executive branch department heads. The DOJ prosecutes individuals accused of violating federal laws and it represents the U.S. Government in court. The department enforces federal criminal and civil laws, including antitrust, civil rights, environmental, and tax laws. The department, through agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Drug Enforcement Administration, and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, investigates organized and violent crime, illegal drugs, and gun and explosives violations. The DOJ, through the U.S. Marshals Service, protects the federal judiciary, apprehends fugitives, and detains individuals who are not granted pretrial release. It incarcerates individuals convicted of violating federal laws. The DOJ also provides grants and training to state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was created by the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (P.L. 85-568) to conduct civilian space and aeronautics activities. It has four mission directorates. The Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate is responsible for human spaceflight activities, including the International Space Station and development efforts for future crewed spacecraft. The Science Mission Directorate manages robotic science missions, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, the Mars rover Curiosity, and satellites for Earth science research. The Space Technology Mission Directorate develops new technologies for use in future space missions, such as advanced propulsion and laser communications. The Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate conducts research and development on aircraft and aviation systems. In addition to the mission directorates, the Office of Education manages formal and informal education programs for school children, college and university students, and the general public. The National Science Foundation (NSF) supports basic research and education in the non-medical sciences and engineering. Congress established the foundation as an independent federal agency in 1950 and directed it to “promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense; and for other purposes.”3 The NSF is a primary source of federal support for U.S. university research. It is also responsible for significant shares of the federal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education program portfolio and federal STEM student aid and support. Figure 1 shows the total appropriation, in both nominal and inflation-adjusted dollars, for the CJS act for FY2005-FY2014.4 The data show that nominal appropriations for CJS increased starting with FY2005, peaked in FY2010, and have generally declined since. After adjusting for inflation, 2 U.S. Department of Justice, About DOJ, http://www.justice.gov/about/about.html. The National Science Foundation Act of 1950 (P.L. 81-507), Purpose. 4 In FY2005, FY2006, and FY2007, the CJS appropriations act included funding for the Department of State and in FY2005 the act also included funding for the Judiciary. Appropriations for the Department of State and the Judiciary are not reflected in the total appropriations for FY2005-FY2007. In addition, between FY2005 and FY2008, the CJS appropriations act included several “related agencies” (e.g., the Federal Trade Commission, the Federal Communications Commission, the Small Business Administration) that are no longer funded through the CJS appropriations act. In order to make the total appropriation each fiscal year as comparable as possible, the total appropriation only includes appropriations for the “related agencies” that are currently in the CJS appropriations act. 3 c11173008 Congressional Research Service 2 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . FY2013 and FY2014 appropriations for CJS were generally at the same level they were at in FY2005. The data also show that the nominal increases in appropriations for CJS between FY2005 and FY2008 were generally in-line with inflation. Figure 1. Nominal and Inflation-Adjusted Total Appropriations for CJS, FY2005-FY2014 Appropriations in billions of dollars 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Fiscal Year Nominal CJS Total Inflation-adjusted CJS Total Source: FY2005-enacted amounts were taken from S.Rept. 109-188; FY2006-enacted amounts were taken from H.Rept. 109-520; FY2007-enacted amounts were taken from H.Rept. 110-240; FY2008-enacted amounts were taken from the House Committee on Appropriations’ Committee Print on the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (P.L. 111-8), Division B; FY2009-enacted amounts were taken from H.Rept. 111-366; FY2010-enacted amounts were taken from S.Rept. 111-229; FY2011-enacted amounts were taken from H.Rept. 112-169; FY2012-enacted amounts were taken from H.Rept. 112-284; FY2013 post-sequestration amounts were provided by the Departments of Commerce and Justice, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and each of the respective related agencies; FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 113-76, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). Notes: Inflation-adjusted appropriations are presented in FY2014 dollars. Appropriations were adjusted using the Gross Domestic Product (Chained) Price Index presented in Table 10.1 of the Historical Tables in the President’s FY2015 budget submission. The amounts presented in Figure 1 do not include (1) appropriations for CJS under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5), (2) rescissions of unobligated balances, or (3) scorekeeping credits (e.g., the balance on the Crime Victims Fund). The amounts in Figure 1 include any rescissions of current year budget authority. Figure 2 shows total appropriations for CJS for FY2005-FY2014 by major component (i.e., the Departments of Commerce and Justice, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Science Foundation). The data show that the increase in CJS appropriations in FY2009, FY2010, and FY2011 was the result of Congress appropriating more funding for the c11173008 Congressional Research Service 3 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Department of Commerce in support of the 2010 decennial census. Since FY2010, total appropriations for CJS have been around $60 billion, with the exception of FY2013 when sequestration cut nearly $4 billion out of the total amount Congress appropriated for CJS for FY2013. While decreased appropriations for the Department of Commerce mostly explain the overall decrease in CJS appropriations since FY2010, there have also been cuts in funding for DOJ and NASA. The DOJ’s FY2014 appropriation is 1.9% below its FY2010 appropriation, and NASA’s FY2014 appropriation is 5.8% below its FY2010 appropriation. Recent reductions to NASA’s appropriation has brought it more in-line with what the agency received in FY2005. However, even with recent cuts to DOJ’s appropriation, Congress still appropriated $6.883 billion more for DOJ in FY2014 than it did in FY2005. Appropriations for DOJ increased because Congress appropriated a growing amount for federal law enforcement and counter-terrorism efforts (e.g., the Federal Bureau of Investigation), and Congress appropriated increasing amounts for the Office of the Federal Detention Trustee5 and the Bureau of Prisons to cover expenses associated with a rising number of federal detainees and prisoners. Figure 2. Nominal Total CJS Appropriations, by Major Component, FY2005-FY2014 Appropriations in billions of dollars 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Fiscal Year Commerce Justice NASA NSF Other agencies Source: FY2005-enacted amounts were taken from S.Rept. 109-188; FY2006-enacted amounts were taken from H.Rept. 109-520; FY2007-enacted amounts were taken from H.Rept. 110-240; FY2008-enacted amounts were taken from the House Committee on Appropriations’ Committee Print on the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (P.L. 111-8), Division B; FY2009-enacted amounts were taken from H.Rept. 111-366; FY2010-enacted amounts were taken from S.Rept. 111-229; FY2011-enacted amounts were taken from H.Rept. 112-169; FY2012-enacted amounts were taken from H.Rept. 112-284; FY2013 post-sequestration amounts were provided 5 Starting in FY2013, Congress moved funding for the Office of the Federal Detention Trustee to the Federal Prisoner Detention account under the U.S. Marshals Service. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 4 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . by the Departments of Commerce and Justice, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and each of the respective related agencies; FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 113-76, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). Notes: “Other agencies” includes the Office of Science and Technology Policy; the Commission on Civil Rights; the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission; the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative; the Marine Mammal Commission; the Legal Services Corporation; the International Trade Commission; and the State Justice Institute. FY2014 and FY2015 Appropriations for CJS For FY2015, the Administration requests a total of $62.397 billion for the agencies and bureaus funded as a part of the annual CJS bill. The Administration’s request is 1.3%, or $774.4 million, more than the FY2014-enacted appropriation of $61.623 billion. The Administration’s request includes $8.746 billion for the Department of Commerce, $27.974 billion for the Department of Justice, $24.721 billion for the science agencies, and $956.1 million for the related agencies. On January 17, 2014, President Obama signed into law the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 (P.L. 113-76). The act provided a total of $61.623 billion for CJS, of which $8.181 billion was for the Department of Commerce, $27.737 billion was for the Department of Justice, $24.824 billion was for the science agencies, and $881.8 million was for the related agencies. On May 15, 2014, the House Committee on Appropriations reported the Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2015 (H.R. 4660). The bill was passed by the House on May 30, 2014. The bill would provide $62.559 billion for CJS, an amount that would be 1.5% greater than the FY2014 appropriation and 0.3% more than the Administration’s request. The House-passed bill includes $8.231 billion for the Department of Commerce, $28.162 billion for the Department of Justice, $25.296 billion for the science agencies, and $870.9 million for the related agencies. Table 1 shows the FY2014-enacted appropriations, the Administration’s FY2015 request, and the amounts recommended by the House for the Departments of Commerce and Justice, the science agencies, and the related agencies. Table 14 shows enacted appropriations for these agencies, in detail, for FY2005 through FY2014 (the FY2013 amounts shown in Table 14 reflect sequestration). Table 1. CJS Appropriations, FY2014 and FY2015 Budget authority in millions of dollars Departments and Related Agencies FY2014 Enacted FY2015 Request FY2015 House Passed Department of Commerce $8,180.6 $8,746.5 $8,230.7 Department of Justice 27,736.6 27,973.5 28,161.7 Science Agencies 24,824.0 24,721.2 25,295.8 Related Agencies 881.8 956.1 870.9 61,622.9a 62,397.3b 62,559.1b Total FY2015 Senate Passed FY2015 Enacted Source: The FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 11376, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). The FY2015 requested amounts were c11173008 Congressional Research Service 5 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . taken from H.Rept. 113-448. The FY2015 House-passed amounts were taken from the text of H.R. 4660 and H.Rept. 113-448. Notes: Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding. a. This amount does not include $219.3 million in rescissions of prior year unobligated balances. b. This amount does not include a proposed $469.1 million in rescissions of prior year unobligated balances. Opportunity, Growth, and Security Initiative The Obama Administration added to its FY2015 budget a new government-wide proposal referred to as the Opportunity, Growth, and Security Initiative (OGSI). The OGSI proposes an additional $56 billion in spending that would be divided equally between defense and nondefense expenditures. The cost of the initiative would be offset largely with targeted spending cuts and closed tax loopholes. According to the Administration, this initiative, if passed, would provide additional funding to CJS agencies and bureaus beyond the $62.428 billion the Administration requests for FY2015 in its main budget proposal. The OGSI, if funded by Congress, would support several initiatives under the CJS agencies and bureaus, including the following: • a National Network for Manufacturing Innovation with up to 45 manufacturing innovation institutes across the country; • the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s efforts to create advances in its top research priorities including advanced manufacturing, forensics, cybersecurity and disaster resilience; and • weather and ocean research by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; • additional funding for grants to hire law enforcement officers, the Comprehensive School Safety program, and grants to offer alternatives to incarceration for juveniles; • investigating and prosecuting financial fraud; • additional funding for science, the Space Launch System/Orion, space technology, the International Space Station, and commercial development of U.S. crew transportation systems under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and • an estimated 1,000 additional standard awards from the National Science Foundation and additional traineeship opportunities for approximately 3,000 graduate students over the next five years through the NSF Research Trainee program. The FY2015 requested amounts presented in the tables in this report do not include any of the Administration’s proposed funding under the OGSI. Survey of Selected Issues Some of the issues Congress might consider while debating the FY2015 funding levels for the departments and agencies funded as a part of the CJS appropriations bill include the following: Department of Commerce • c11173008 Whether to rename the International Trade Administration (ITA) the International Trade and Investment Administration, as proposed by the President, to emphasize the agency’s role in the complementary missions of export and business Congressional Research Service 6 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . investment promotion, using both international advocacy and support for U.S. businesses at home. • Whether to double funding for the Interagency Trade Enforcement Center (ITEC) to $15.0 million, as requested in the ITA budget proposal, for the purpose of accelerating the operations of the ITEC. • Whether to reduce funding for the Economic Development Administration’s most highly funded program, public works grants, from $96.0 million in FY2014 to $85.0 million in FY2015, and increase funding to support regional innovation clusters and science parks from $10.0 million in FY2014 to $25.0 million in FY2015. • Whether the Census Bureau will receive the funds requested to complete the research and testing necessary for a cost-effective 2020 census design, and to restore 12-month interviewing and the full American Community Survey sample size after a one-month break in data collection caused by the October 2013 federal government shutdown. • Whether to fund the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) core laboratory and construction accounts at a level consistent with the goal of doubling funding for these and other targeted accounts, as proposed previously by President Obama and adopted implicitly in the America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69) and the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-358). • Whether to provide $2.400 billion in funding to NIST for the President’s proposed National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI), included in the President’s Opportunity, Growth, and Security Initiative, to support the establishment of up to 45 centers to help accelerate innovation by investing in industrially relevant manufacturing technologies with broad applications, and to support manufacturing technology commercialization by bridging the gap between the laboratory and the market. • Whether the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration will receive, in addition to the funding requested for the FY2015 budget, $180.0 million from the Administration’s Opportunity, Growth, and Security Initiative and $75.0 million from the Climate Resilience Fund. Department of Justice c11173008 • Whether to fund the Administration’s request for $22.6 million under the Administrative Review and Appeals account to assist the Executive Office of Immigration Review with managing its increasing caseload. • Whether to provide the $147.0 million in gun- and school violence-related grant funding under the State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance the Administration requests as a part of its “Now is the Time” initiative, which is the Administration’s effort to combat gun violence. • Whether Congress should provide the funding the Administration requested for DOJ for Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty process reform. Congressional Research Service 7 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . • Whether the U.S. Marshals Service, in light of an increasing number of responsibilities, has the resources it needs to properly carry-out its mission. • Whether the Bureau of Prisons has adequate resources to properly manage the growing number of inmates held in federal prisons. • Whether to eliminate funding for the State Criminal Alien Assistance Program (SCAAP), as proposed by the Administration. • Whether to adopt the Administration’s proposal to consolidate funding for the drug, mental health, and veterans treatment courts programs into a “problem solving courts” program. • Whether to fund the Administration’s request for $35.0 million for Community Teams to Reduce the Sexual Assault Evidence Kit Backlog and Improve Sexual Assault Investigations. • Whether Congress should, as requested by the Administration, reinstate funding for the Juvenile Accountability Block Grant program, a program Congress defunded last fiscal year. • Whether to accept the Administration’s proposed $65.0 million increase in the obligation cap for the Crime Victims Fund for (1) enhancing formula-based awards to states to support victims’ programs and provide additional funding for national scope training and technical assistance and demonstration programs; (2) enhancing services for domestic victims of human trafficking; and (3) supporting the implementation strategies outlined in the Vision 21: Transforming Victim Services report.6 Science Agencies • Whether the current direction for the U.S. human spaceflight program, established in October 2010 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-267), can be implemented successfully in a period of increased budgetary constraint, as well as the potential impact of human spaceflight’s funding needs on the availability of funding for other National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs, such as science, aeronautics, and education. • Whether and how to prioritize research initiatives at the National Science Foundation (NSF). • Whether to continue efforts to double funding at NSF and other targeted accounts as previously proposed by the Administration and authorized by Congress, and if so, at what pace. • Whether to adopt the Administration’s proposed government-wide science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education program reorganization and consolidation, including proposed changes at NSF, NASA, and the Department of Commerce.7 6 The Vision 21: Transforming Victim Services report was released in May 2013: http://ovc.ncjrs.gov/vision21/. For more information see, CRS Report IF00013, The President’s FY2015 Budget and STEM Education (In Focus), by (continued...) 7 c11173008 Congressional Research Service 8 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . • Whether to continue to restrict the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) from engaging in certain activities with China or any Chinese-owned company by prohibiting, with limited exceptions, the use of appropriated funds for such activities. Related Agencies • Whether Congress should, per the Administration’s proposal, eliminate the restriction that prevents the Legal Services Corporation’s funding from being used for class action suits.8 • Whether the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has the resources it needs to carry out its mission in light of increased workloads for investigators that resulted from furloughs and a hiring freeze in FY2013. • Whether Congress should adopt the Administration’s proposal to focus the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’s funding on technical innovation and hiring of new staff to help reduce backlogs for pending discrimination cases. Department of Commerce9 The Department of Commerce (Commerce Department) originated in 1903 with the establishment of the Department of Commerce and Labor.10 The separate Commerce Department was established on March 4, 1913.11 The department’s responsibilities are numerous and quite varied; its activities center on five basic missions: (1) promoting the development of U.S. business and increasing foreign trade; (2) improving the nation’s technological competitiveness; (3) encouraging economic development; (4) fostering environmental stewardship and assessment; and (5) compiling, analyzing, and disseminating statistical information on the U.S. economy and population. The following agencies within the Commerce Department carry out these missions: • International Trade Administration (ITA) seeks to develop the export potential of U.S. firms and improve the trade performance of U.S. industry; • Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) enforces U.S. export laws consistent with national security, foreign policy, and short-supply objectives; • Economic Development Administration (EDA) provides grants for economic development projects in economically distressed communities and regions; (...continued) Heather B. Gonzalez. 8 The Administration’s proposal also would eliminate the restriction that prevents the Legal Services Corporation’s funding from being used for attorneys’ fees. However, the attorneys’ fee restriction was already eliminated by Section 533 of P.L. 111-117. 9 This section was coordinated by Jennifer D. Williams, Specialist in American National Government, CRS Government and Finance Division. 10 32 Stat. 825. 11 15 U.S.C. 1501. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 9 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . • Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA) seeks to promote private- and public-sector investment in minority businesses; • Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA), excluding the Census Bureau, provides (1) information on the state of the economy through preparation, development, and interpretation of economic data and (2) analytical support to department officials in meeting their policy responsibilities; • Census Bureau, a component of ESA, collects, compiles, and publishes a broad range of economic, demographic, and social data; • National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) advises the President on domestic and international communications policy, manages the federal government’s use of the radio frequency spectrum, and performs research in telecommunications sciences; • United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) examines and approves applications for patents for claimed inventions and registration of trademarks; • National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) assists industry in developing technology to improve product quality, modernize manufacturing processes, ensure product reliability, and facilitate rapid commercialization of products on the basis of new scientific discoveries; and • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides scientific, technical, and management expertise to (1) promote safe and efficient marine and air navigation; (2) assess the health of coastal and marine resources; (3) monitor and predict the coastal, ocean, and global environments (including weather forecasting); and (4) protect and manage the nation’s coastal resources. FY2014 and FY2015 Appropriations Table 2 presents the following funding information for the Department of Commerce as a whole and for each of its agencies or bureaus: the amounts provided under the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 (P.L. 113-76) and the Administration’s request for FY2015. For FY2015, the Administration requests a total of $8.746 billion for the Department of Commerce, a proposed 6.9% increase over the FY2014-enacted appropriation of $8.181 billion. The House recommends a total of $8.231 billion for the Department of Commerce. The House’s proposal is 0.6% greater than the FY2014 appropriation, but it is 5.9% less than the Administration’s request. Table 2. Funding for the Department of Commerce, FY2014 and FY2015 Budget authority in millions of dollars Bureau or Agency International Trade Administration c11173008 FY2014 Enacted FY2015 Request FY2015 House Passed $460.6 $497.3 $460.0 Bureau of Industry and Security 101.5 110.5 103.5 Economic Development Administration 246.5 248.2 247.5 Congressional Research Service FY2015 Senate Passed FY2015 Enacted 10 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Bureau or Agency Economic Development Assistance Programs FY2015 Request FY2015 House Passed FY2015 Senate Passed (209.5) (210.0) (210.5) (37.0) (38.2) (37.0) Minority Business Development Agency 28.0 28.3 30.0 Economics and Statistics Administration (excluding Census) 99.0 111.0 99.0 945.0 1,211.4 973.5 Salaries and Expenses (252.0) (248.0) (248.0) Periodic Censuses and Programs (693.0) (963.4) (725.5) 46.0 51.0 36.7 3,024.0 3,458.0 3,458.0 -3,024.0 -3,458.0 -3,458.0 850.0 900.0 855.8 Scientific and Technical Research and Services (651.0) (680.0) (670.5) Industrial Technology Services (143.0) (161.0) (130.0) Manufacturing Extension Partnerships (128.0) (141.0) (130.0) Advanced Manufacturing Technology (15.0) (15.0) — — (5.0) — Construction of Research Facilities (56.0) (59.0) (55.3) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 5,314.6 5,488.7 5,337.1 Operations, Research, and Facilitiesb (3,157.4) (3,238.0) (3,101.5) Procurement, Acquisition, and Construction (2,022.9) (2,206.4) (2,176.3) (140.4) (50.4) (65.4) Salaries and Expenses Census Bureau National Telecommunications and Information Administration U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)a Offsetting Fee Receipts (USPTO) National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Innovation Institutes Coordination Other Fishery Activities c11173008 FY2014 Enacted Congressional Research Service FY2015 Enacted 11 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Bureau or Agency FY2014 Enacted FY2015 Request FY2015 House Passed Fisheries Finance Program Account (-6.0) (-6.0) (-6.0) Departmental Management 89.5 100.0 87.6 8,180.6 8,746.5 8,230.7 Total: Department of Commerce FY2015 Senate Passed FY2015 Enacted Source: The FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 11376, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). The FY2015 requested amounts were taken from H.Rept. 113-448. The FY2015 House-passed amounts were taken from the text of H.R. 4660 and H.Rept. 113-448. Notes: Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding. a. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is fully funded by user fees. The fees collected but not obligated during the current fiscal year are available for obligation in the following fiscal year and do not count toward the appropriation totals. Only newly appropriated funds count toward the annual appropriation totals. Total figures for the Department of Commerce exclude the USPTO. b. The amount for the Operations, Research, and Facilities account reflects the transfer out for the Promote and Develop Fund. International Trade Administration (ITA)12 The International Trade Administration (ITA) provides export promotion services, works to ensure compliance with trade agreements, administers trade remedies such as antidumping and countervailing duties, and provides analytical support for ongoing trade negotiations. ITA’s mission is to improve U.S. prosperity by strengthening the competitiveness of U.S. industry, promoting trade and investment, and ensuring compliance with trade laws and agreements. It strives to accomplish this through several organizational units. ITA went through a major organizational change in October 2013 in which it consolidated four organizational units into three more functionally aligned units. The new organizational units consist of the following: (1) the Industry and Analysis unit, which brings together ITA’s industry, trade, and economic experts to advance the competitiveness of U.S. industries through the development and execution of international trade and investment policies and export promotion strategies; (2) the Enforcement and Compliance unit, which is responsible for safeguarding and enhancing the competitiveness of U.S. industries against unfair trade practices through the enforcement of U.S. trade laws and for ensuring compliance with U.S. free trade agreements; and (3) the Global Markets unit, which assists and advocates for U.S. businesses in international markets to help foster U.S. economic prosperity. ITA’s fourth organizational unit, the Executive and Administrative Directorate, is responsible for providing policy leadership, information technology support, and administration services for all of ITA. To emphasize the agency’s role in the complementary missions of export and business investment promotion, using both international advocacy and support for U.S. businesses at home, the Administration’s FY2015 budget proposes to rename the agency the International Trade and Investment Administration (ITIA). 12 This section was written by M. Angeles Villarreal, Specialist in International Trade and Finance, CRS Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 12 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . ITA received $460.6 million in direct appropriations for FY2014. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014, anticipated the collection of $9.4 million in user fees, resulting in $470.0 million in total resources for ITA programs in FY2014. The Administration’s FY2015 request for ITA in direct appropriations is $497.3 million, a proposed increase of 8.0%. The request proposes to double funding for the Interagency Trade Enforcement Center (ITEC) to $15.0 million, for the purpose of accelerating ITEC operations. The Administration anticipates the collection of $9.4 million in user fees, which would raise total available funds for ITA to $506.7 million. The House recommends $460.0 million in direct appropriations for ITA, an amount 7.5% less than the Administration’s request and 0.1% less than the enacted amount for FY2014. The House anticipates the collection of $10.0 million in user fees, which would raise total available funds to $470.0 million. Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS)13 The Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) administers export controls on dual-use goods and technology through its licensing and enforcement functions. It cooperates with other nations on export control policy and provides assistance to the U.S. business community to comply with U.S. and multilateral export controls. BIS also administers U.S. anti-boycott statutes and is charged with monitoring the U.S. defense industrial base. Authorization for the activities of BIS, the Export Administration Act (50 U.S.C. App. 2401, et seq.), last expired in August 2001. On August 17, 2001, President George W. Bush invoked the authorities granted by the International Economic Emergency Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1703(b)) to continue in effect the system of controls contained in the act and in the Export Administration Regulations (15 C.F.R., Parts 730-799), and these authorities have been renewed yearly. BIS received $101.5 million for FY2014. The Administration’s request for FY2015 is $110.5 million, a proposed 9.0% increase. The House recommends $103.5 million, a 2.0% increase from the FY2014 enacted amount, but a 6.4% decrease from the Administration’s FY2015 request. The House recommendation includes $56.5 million for export administration, $41.5 million for export enforcement, and $5.5 million for policy coordination. The recommendation includes funding for the placement of additional control officers in Germany, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates Economic Development Administration (EDA)14 The Economic Development Administration (EDA) was created pursuant to the enactment of the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965,15 with the objective of fostering growth in economically distressed areas characterized by high levels of unemployment and low percapita income levels. Federally designated disaster areas and areas affected by military base realignment or closure (BRAC) are also eligible for EDA assistance. EDA provides grants for public works, economic adjustment in case of natural disasters or mass layoffs, technical assistance, planning, and research.16 13 This section was written by Ian F. Fergusson, Specialist in International Trade and Finance, CRS Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division. 14 This section was written by Eugene Boyd, Analyst in Federalism and Economic Development Policy, CRS Government and Finance Division. 15 P.L. 89-136; 42 U.S.C. 3121. 16 For additional information on EDA’s statutory history, see CRS Report R41241, Economic Development (continued...) c11173008 Congressional Research Service 13 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . EDA received $246.5 million for FY2014, including $209.5 million for EDA programs and activities and $37.0 million for salaries and expenses. The Administration’s FY2015 budget request for FY2015 is $248.2 million, including $210.0 million for EDA program and activities and $38.2 million for salaries and expenses. The President’s budget request would shift funding priorities among program activities, while leaving total EDA funding relatively unchanged. The proposed budget would reduce what is EDA’s most highly funded program, public works grants, from $96.0 million in FY2014 to $85.0 million in FY2015. It would also reduce funding for Trade Adjustment Assistance from $15.0 million in FY2014 to $10.0 million in FY2015. The proposed budget for FY2015 would place greater emphasis on projects intended to support job creation through regional innovation clusters and economic adjustment assistance. For FY2015, the Administration proposes a $15.0 million increase in funding for the Regional Innovations Strategies and Science Park Loan Guarantee Program, from $10.0 million in FY2014 to $25.0 million in FY2015. The Administration also is requesting a $5.5 million increase in funding for Economic Adjustment Assistance grants, from $42.0 million in FY2014 to $47.5 million in FY2015. The specific programs and their requested funding levels for FY2015, as well as the enacted FY2014 amounts, are shown in Table 3. The House-passed version of H.R. 4660 recommends a marginal increase in funding for EDA programs and activities. Specifically, the bill recommends $1.0 million more than the $209.5 million appropriated for FY2014, and $0.5 million more than the $210.0 million requested by the Administration. The bill does not recommend funding for the Regional Innovation Program (RIP), which received an appropriation of $10.0 million in FY2014, although the Administration has requested $25.0 million for FY2015 for RIP activities. Consistent with the amount appropriated in FY2014, the bill recommends $37.0 million for salaries and expenses, $1.2 million less than requested by the Administration. In addition, the report (H.Rept. 113-448) accompanying H.R. 4660 includes language that would • direct EDA to address documentation deficiencies in the award selection process identified in a 2014 Government Accountability Office (GAO) report;17 • include $10.0 million for EDA to develop a comprehensive strategy designed to assist coal mining communities that have experienced significant job losses since 2011; • direct EDA to use $5.0 million in Economic Adjustment Assistance to continue encouraging U.S. firms to relocate manufacturing and services jobs back to the United States; • provide $5.0 million to fund innovative manufacturing loan guarantees; and • encourage EDA to support global competitiveness of small and medium-sized manufacturers through improved access to information technology, education, and training. (...continued) Administration: A Review of Elements of Its Statutory History, by Eugene Boyd. 17 U.S. Government Accountability Office, EDA: Documentation of Award Selection Decisions Could Be Improved, GAO-14-131, February 2014, http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/660722.pdf. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 14 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Table 3. Funding for EDA Programs and Salaries and Expenses, FY2014 and FY2015 Budget authority in millions of dollars FY2014 Enacted FY2015 House Passed FY2015 Request FY2015 Senate Passed Economic Development Assistance Programs $209.5 $210.0 $210.5 Public Works (96.0) (85.0) (101.0) Economic Adjustment Assistance (42.0) (47.5) (40.0) Planning Grants (29.0) (29.0) (31.0) Technical Assistance (11.0) (12.0) (12.0) (1.5) (1.5) (1.5) (15.0) (10.0) (10.0) Innovative Manufacturing Loans (5.0) — (5.0) Regional Innovation Program (10.0) (25.0) — — — (10.0) 37.0 38.2 37.0 246.5 248.2 247.5 Research and Evaluation Trade Adjustment Assistance Assistance to Coal Mining Communities Salaries and Expenses Total FY2015 Enacted Source: The FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 11376, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). The FY2015 requested amounts were taken from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Economic Development Administration, Fiscal Year 2015 Congressional Budget Request. The FY2015 House-passed amounts were taken from H.Rept. 113-448. Note: Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding. Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA)18 The Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA), established by Executive Order 11625 on October 13, 1971, is charged with the lead role in coordinating all of the federal government’s minority business programs.19 As part of its strategic plan, MBDA seeks to develop an industryfocused, data-driven, technical assistance approach to give minority business owners the tools essential for becoming first- or second-tier suppliers to private corporations and the federal government in the new procurement environment. Progress is measured in increased gross receipts, number of employees, and size and scale of firms associated with minority business enterprise. 18 This section was written by Eugene Boyd, Analyst in Federalism and Economic Development Policy, CRS Government and Finance Division. 19 36 Federal Register 19967; 3 C.F.R., 1971-1975 Comp. 9. 616. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 15 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . The Consolidated Appropriations Act, FY2014, provided $28.0 million for the MBDA account. For FY2015, the Administration is requesting $28.3 million, a 1.0% increase, in MBDA funding. According to the budget justification document, this proposed funding level would assist in the creation of 7,500 new jobs and $3.000 billion in contracts and financing. The House-passed bill, recommends $30.0 million for MBDA activities. This is $2.0 million more than appropriated for FY2014, and $1.7 million more than requested by the Administration. Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA)20 The Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA) provides economic data, analysis, and forecasts to government agencies and, when appropriate, to the public. ESA includes the Census Bureau (discussed separately) and the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). ESA has three core missions: to maintain a system of economic data, to interpret and communicate information about the forces at work in the economy, and to support the information and analytical needs of the executive branch. Funding for ESA includes two primary accounts: ESA headquarters and BEA. ESA headquarters staff provide economic research and policy analysis in support of the Secretary of Commerce, as well as oversight of the Census Bureau and BEA. The BEA account funds BEA activities, among which are producing estimates of national gross domestic product and related measures. ESA received $99.0 million in FY2014. The Administration’s FY2015 request for ESA is $111.0 million, a proposed $12.0 million (12.2%) increase over the FY2014-enacted amount. As passed by the House, H.R. 4660 recommends $99.0 million for ESA, an amount identical to that enacted for FY2014 and 10.8% less than requested. Census Bureau21 The U.S. Constitution requires a population census every 10 years, to serve as the basis for apportioning seats in the House of Representatives.22 Decennial census data also are used for within-state redistricting and in certain formulas that determine the annual distribution of more than $450 billion in federal funds to states and localities. The Census Bureau, established as a permanent office on March 6, 1902,23 conducts the decennial census under Title 13 of the U.S. Code, which also authorizes the bureau to collect and compile a wide variety of other demographic, economic, housing, and governmental data. The Census Bureau’s enacted FY2014 appropriation was $945.0 million, divided between the bureau’s two major accounts: $252.0 million for salaries and expenses, and $693.0 million for periodic censuses and programs. The Administration’s FY2015 requested appropriation for the bureau is $1.211 billion, including $248.0 million under salaries and expenses, and $963.4 million under periodic censuses and 20 This section was written by Jennifer D. Williams, Specialist in American National Government, CRS Government and Finance Division. 21 This section was written by Jennifer D. Williams, Specialist in American National Government, CRS Government and Finance Division. 22 See Article 1, Section 2, clause 3, as modified by Section 2 of the 14th Amendment. 23 32 Stat. 51. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 16 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . programs. Although the total request is 28.2% greater than the FY2014-enacted amount, the request for salaries and expenses is 1.6% less than this account received in FY2014, largely due to expected administrative savings. Periodic censuses and programs would receive 39.0% more than in FY2014, but $1.6 million of the appropriation for this account would be transferred to the Office of Inspector General for activities related to audits and investigations of the bureau. Under periodic censuses and programs, the 2020 decennial census program would receive $689.0 million, with $443.2 million for the 2020 census itself and $245.8 million for the American Community Survey (ACS).24 In FY2015, the bureau expects to complete the research and testing necessary to contain the cost of the next census. The ACS request “includes funding to restore field data collection costs associated with a one-month break in data collection at the beginning of ... FY2014, as well as ... to conduct research on content, quality, efficiency, and reducing respondent burden and intrusiveness.”25 Also funded under the periodic censuses and programs account are the economic census and the census of governments, which would receive $119.3 million and $9.1 million, respectively. In FY2015, the bureau expects to analyze and release products from the 2012 economic census, and begin planning for the 2017 economic census and census of governments. The House approved $973.5 million in FY2015 funding for the Census Bureau under H.R. 4660. Of this total, salaries and expenses would receive the requested $248.0 million, 1.6% less than enacted for FY2014. Periodic censuses and programs would receive $725.5 million, 4.7% more than in FY2014. House action on H.R. 4660, however, including the adoption of five amendments26 that would transfer funds from periodic censuses and programs to accounts outside the Census Bureau, would leave periodic programs with 24.7% less than requested. H.R. 4660 passed the House with an additional amendment (H.Amdt. 752, Poe) that would prohibit the use of funds to enforce Title 13, U.S. Code, Section 221, with respect to the ACS. Currently, anyone who, for example, refused to answer ACS questions could face a possible penalty under this section. National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)27 The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) is the executive branch’s principal advisory office on domestic and international telecommunications and 24 For more information about the ACS, including its relation to its predecessor, the long-form, sample-survey part of the decennial census, see CRS Report R41532, The American Community Survey: Development, Implementation, and Issues for Congress, by Jennifer D. Williams. 25 U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Fiscal Year 2015 Budget Estimates as Presented to Congress, March 2014, p. CEN-5. 26 H.Amdt. 692 (Reichert) would reduce funding for periodic censuses and programs by $110.0 million and increase funding for Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) by a similar amount. H.Amdt. 697 (Gibson) would reduce funding for periodic programs by $4.0 million and increase funding for Interagency Crime and Drug Enforcement by a similar amount. H.Amdt. 698 (McNerney) would reduce funding for periodic programs by $3.0 million and increase COPS funding by a similar amount. H.Amdt. 699 (Bridenstine) would reduce funding for periodic programs by $12.0 million and increase weather-research funding for NOAA by a similar amount. H.Amdt. 700 (Nugent) would reduce funding for periodic programs by $4.0 million and increase funding for State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance, mental health courts program and veterans treatment courts program, by $2.0 million and $2.0 million, respectively. 27 This section was written by Linda K. Moore, Specialist in Telecommunications and Spectrum Policy, CRS Resources, Science, and Industry Division. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 17 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . information technology policies. Its mandate is to provide greater access for all Americans to telecommunications services, support U.S. attempts to open foreign markets, advise on international telecommunications negotiations, and fund grants for new technologies and their applications. Its role in federal spectrum management includes acting as a facilitator and mediator in negotiations among the various federal agencies regarding usage, priority access, causes of interference, and other radio spectrum questions. In recent years, one of the responsibilities of the NTIA has been to oversee the transfer of some radio frequencies from the federal domain to the commercial domain. Many of these frequencies have subsequently been auctioned to the commercial sector and the proceeds paid into the U.S. Treasury. As part of the Administration’s Wireless Initiative, the NTIA is charged with identifying electromagnetic spectrum that might be transferred from the federal sector to commercial wireless use.28 This spectrum might be auctioned as licenses for exclusive commercial use, made available for sharing between federal and commercial users, or repurposed in some other way that meets the stated goal of the Wireless Initiative to add 500 MHz of spectrum for wireless broadband.29 Congress also has required the NTIA to take actions to release spectrum from federal to commercial use and to ensure the efficient use of federal spectrum.30 The NTIA proposes creating a Center for Advanced Communications as a cooperative effort with the National Institute for Standards and Technology.31 The new center would conduct activities intended to provide a base from which to advance spectrum sharing and innovation. For FY2015, the Administration proposes $51.0 million for NTIA salaries and expenses. This would be an increase of $5.0 million (10.9%) over the enacted FY2014 budget amount of $46.0 million. The increase is attributed by the NTIA to an increased focus on policy oversight in two key areas: formulating domestic and international policies, and expanding the availability of broadband communications.32 For FY2015, the House proposes a budget of $36.7 million, $14.3 million or 28.0% less than what the Administration requests. This amount is 20.2% below the enacted appropriation for FY2014. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)33 The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) examines and approves applications for patents on claimed inventions and administers the registration of trademarks. It also helps other federal departments and agencies protect U.S. intellectual property in the global marketplace. The 28 The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, “Presidential Memorandum: Unleashing the Wireless Broadband Revolution,” June 28, 2010, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/presidential-memorandum-unleashingwireless-broadband-revolution; and “President Obama Details Plan to Win the Future Through Expanded Wireless Access,” Fact Sheet, February 10, 2011, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/02/10/president-obamadetails-plan-win-future-through-expanded-wireless-access. 29 Spectrum is segmented into bands of radio frequencies and typically measured in cycles per second, or hertz. Standard abbreviations for measuring frequencies include kHz—kilohertz or thousands of hertz; MHz—megahertz, or millions of hertz; and GHz—gigahertz, or billions of hertz. 30 Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012, P.L. 112-96, Title VI, “Spectrum Act,” Sections 6401, 6410, and 6701. 31 U.S. Department of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, FY2015 Budget as Presented to Congress, March 2014. 32 Ibid. 33 This section was written by Glenn J. McLoughlin, Section Research Manager, CRS Resources, Science, and Industry Division. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 18 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . USPTO has a somewhat unique funding mechanism—it is funded by user fees paid by customers that are designated as “offsetting collections” and subject to spending limits set by Congress. For FY2015, the Administration has requested the authority to spend fee collections of $3.441 billion, which would fund daily operations of $3.220 billion and deposit the remainder into the USPTO’s operating reserve. The $3.458 billion would be a 14.4% increase from the enacted USPTO budget of $3.024 billion in fee collections for FY2014. The USPTO contends that the increase in fee authority would reduce patent pendency and backlog, increase efficiencies in examination capacity, and enhance patent and trademark quality of measurement, as well as yield other benefits. The House bill, H.R. 4660, agrees with the Administration’s request and approves $3.458 billion in budget authority for USPTO for FY2015. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)34 The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a laboratory of the Department of Commerce with a mandate to increase the competitiveness of U.S. companies through appropriate support for industrial development of pre-competitive, generic technologies and the diffusion of government-developed technological advances to users in all segments of the American economy. NIST research also provides the measurement, calibration, and quality assurance techniques that underpin U.S. commerce, technological progress, improved product reliability, manufacturing processes, and public safety. P.L. 113-76 appropriated $850.0 million in FY2014 funding for NIST. Of this amount, $651.0 million is for in-house research under the Scientific and Technical Research and Services (STRS) account; $128.0 million funds the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) program; $15.0 million is for the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Consortia (AMTech); and $56.0 million supports construction. The President’s FY2015 budget request would provide $900.0 million for NIST, a proposed increase of $50.0 million (5.9%). Included in the requested amount is $680.0 million for the STRS account, up 4.5%; $141.0 million for the MEP program, up 10.2%; $15.0 million for AMTech, the same as in FY2014; $59.0 million for construction, up 5.4%; and $5.0 million in new funding for coordination of manufacturing innovation institutes. Proposed STRS funding includes an additional $3.5 million for measurement science standards for forensic science infrastructure, $7.5 million for cyber-physical systems, $5.0 million for advanced materials, $7.0 million for synthetic biology, and $6.0 million for a lab-to-market initiative focused broadly on mechanisms to improve federal technology transfer. The NIST STRS and construction accounts have been targeted for doubling in recent years by President George W. Bush and President Obama, and implicitly in authorization levels established in the America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69) and the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-358). Funding for coordination of manufacturing innovation institutes is intended to support sharing of best practices, reduction of redundant start-up operations, and strengthening of cross-institute 34 This section was written by John F. Sargent Jr., Specialist in Science and Technology Policy, CRS Resources, Science, and Industry Division. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 19 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . collaborations. Though the President’s proposed National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI)35 program has not been authorized or funded, four NNMI-like institutes have been awarded funding; five have agency funding commitments; and five more are proposed in the FY2015 budget.36 These centers are being led by the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy, with additional funding and/or support being provided by NIST, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and other agencies. In addition to the appropriations requested in the base budget,37 the Administration has proposed an Opportunity, Growth, and Security Initiative (OGSI), which it describes as a “fully paid ... roadmap for how and where additional investments should be made in both domestic priorities and national security.”38 The $56.000 billion proposal includes $2.400 billion in NIST funding for the President’s proposed NNMI to establish up to 45 manufacturing innovation institutes.39 In his FY2013 and FY2014 budgets, the President proposed $1.000 billion in mandatory funding for the NNMI to establish up to 15 institutes. The OGSI also seeks an additional $115.0 million in funding for NIST research and development capabilities and facilities. Under the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-96), NIST is authorized $300.0 million from the proceeds of spectrum auctions devoted to the Wireless Innovation (WIN) Fund. These funds are to be used to conduct public safety wireless communications research and development. According to NIST, the laboratory would receive the first $100.0 million after successful spectrum auction of $7.200 billion or more, and would receive an additional $200.0 million if spectrum auctions net more than $27.600 billion. H.R. 4660, as passed by the House, recommends $855.8 million for NIST in FY2015, $5.8 million (0.7%) more than in FY2014, and $44.2 million (4.9%) less than the President’s request. The House-passed bill would fund the STRS account at $670.5 million, $19.5 million (3.0%) more than the FY2014 level and $9.5 million (1.4%) below the request. Funding for the MEP program would be $130.0 million, $2.0 million (1.6%) more than in FY2014 and $11.0 million (7.8%) below the request. The House-passed bill would provide no funding for the AMTech program, a reduction of $15.0 million from FY2014 and the FY2015 request, and no funding for the coordination of manufacturing innovation institutes, which was not funded in FY2014 and for which the President is requesting $5.0 million in FY2015. The House recommends $55.3 million for the construction account, $0.7 million (1.3%) below the FY2014 level, and $3.7 million (6.3%) below the FY2015 request level. 35 For additional information on the NNMI, see CRS Report R42625, The Obama Administration’s Proposal to Establish a National Network for Manufacturing Innovation, by John F. Sargent Jr. 36 U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, “NIST’s FY2015 Budget Request Focuses on Innovation, Expands Technology Transfer and Economic Growth Priorities,” press release, March 13, 2014, http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/releases/fy15_budgetrequest_3-13-2014.cfm. 37 The term “base budget” is used in the President’s budget to distinguish the main request from additional funding requested as part of the Opportunity, Growth, and Security Initiative. 38 Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government: FY2015, March 4, 2014, p. 1, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2015/assets/budget.pdf. 39 Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government: FY2015, March 4, 2014, p. 51, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2015/assets/budget.pdf. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 20 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)40 The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) conducts scientific research in areas such as ecosystems, climate, global climate change, weather, and oceans; supplies information on the oceans and atmosphere; and manages coastal and marine resources. NOAA was created in 1970 by Reorganization Plan No. 4. The reorganization plan was designed to unify a number of the nation’s environmental activities and to provide a systematic approach for monitoring, analyzing, and protecting the environment. NOAA’s current administrative structure has evolved into five line offices, which include the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS); the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS); the National Ocean Service (NOS); the National Weather Service (NWS); and the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). In addition to NOAA’s five line offices, Program Support (PS), a cross-cutting budget activity, includes the NOAA Education Program, Corporate Services, Facilities, and the Office of Marine and Aviation Operations (OMAO). For FY2015, the Administration requests a total of $5.489 billion for NOAA. This amount is 3.3% more than the FY2014-enacted amount of $5.315 billion.41 The House recommends $5.337 billion for NOAA. This amount is 0.4% more than the FY2014-enacted funding level and 2.8% less than the Administration’s request. The NOAA budget is divided into two main accounts: Procurement, Acquisition, and Construction (PAC); and Operations, Research, and Facilities (ORF).42 For FY2015, the Administration requests $3.361 billion for the ORF account. This proposed amount is 2.7% more than FY2014-enacted amount of $3.272 billion. The House recommends $3.101 billion for the ORF account, which is 1.7% less than the FY2014-enacted funding level and 4.3% less than the Administration’s request. The Administration requests $2.206 billion for the PAC account. This amount would be 9.1% more than the FY2014 funding level of $2.023 billion. The House recommends $2.176 billion for the PAC account, which is 7.6% more than the FY2014-enacted funding level, but 1.4% less than the Administration’s request. The Administration is also requesting funding for Other Fisheries Activities ($50.4 million) and the Fisheries Finance Program Account (-$6.0 million).43 The House recommended funding Other Fisheries Activities at $65.4 million and the Fisheries Finance Program Account at -$6.0 million. The Administration’s FY2015 request for NESDIS satellite systems acquisition and construction is $2.057 billion, which is 93.2% of the Administration’s request for PAC funding and 37.5% of the total request for NOAA. The FY2015 request is 8.5% greater than the FY2014-enacted level of $1.896 billion. The increase in systems acquisition funding would support geostationary systems-R (+$38.9 million); joint polar satellite systems (+$95.4 million); solar irradiance, data and rescue (+$15.0 million); Jason-3 (+$7.2 million); COSMIC 2/GNSS RO44 (+$4.8 million); 40 This section was written by Harold F. Upton, Analyst in Natural Resources Policy, CRS Resources, Science, and Industry Division. 41 There were also two relatively small items in the NOAA discretionary budget that were funded in FY2014, including Other Fisheries Activities ($140.4 million) and the Fisheries Finance Program Account (-$6.0 million), which was a negative subsidy. 42 The amounts for the ORF account reflect the transfer out for the Promote and Develop Fund. 43 Loans provided under the Fisheries Finance Program provide a negative subsidy estimated at -$6.0 million for FY2015. 44 The COSMIC 2/GNSS RO (Global Navigation Satellite System Radio Occultation) obtains global atmospheric profiles to determine atmospheric temperature profiles. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 21 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . and satellite ground services (+$3.0 million).45 The House recommends funding NESDIS satellite systems acquisition and construction at $2.032 billion, which is 7.2% more than the FY2014enacted funding level, but 1.2% less than the Administration’s request. In addition to the funding requested for the FY2015 budget, NOAA would receive funding from the Administration’s Opportunity, Growth, and Security Initiative and the Climate Resilience Fund (CRF).46 The initiative would provide $180.0 million for expanded weather, climate, and oceans observations and research. The CRF would provide $25.0 million for oceanic and atmospheric research grants to improve understanding of the effects of climate change on various sectors, and $50.0 million to improve coastal resilience by awarding competitive grants to state, local, and tribal governments and nonprofit organizations.47 Department of Justice (DOJ)48 Established by an act of 187049 with the Attorney General at its head, DOJ provides counsel for the government in federal cases and protects citizens through law enforcement. It represents the federal government in all proceedings, civil and criminal, before the Supreme Court. In legal matters, generally, the department provides legal advice and opinions, upon request, to the President and executive branch department heads. The major functions of DOJ agencies and offices are described below. • United States Attorneys prosecute criminal offenses against the United States; represent the federal government in civil actions; and initiate proceedings for the collection of fines, penalties, and forfeitures owed to the United States. • United States Marshals Service (USMS) provides security for the federal judiciary, protects witnesses, executes warrants and court orders, manages seized assets, detains and transports unsentenced prisoners, and apprehends fugitives. • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) investigates violations of federal criminal law; helps protect the United States against terrorism and hostile intelligence efforts; provides assistance to other federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies; and shares jurisdiction with Drug Enforcement Administration over federal drug violations. • Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) investigates federal drug law violations; coordinates its efforts with state, local, and other federal law enforcement agencies; develops and maintains drug intelligence systems; 45 NOAA, NOAA Science, Service, Stewardship, FY2015 Budget Summary, Washington, DC, March 2014, p. 52, http://www.corporateservices.noaa.gov/~nbo/fy15_bluebook/FY2015BudgetSummary-small.pdf. 46 The Administration’s FY2015 Budget Request includes a $56.000 billion Opportunity, Growth, and Security Initiative and a $1.000 billion Climate Resilience Fund. 47 NOAA, Budget Estimates Fiscal Year 2015, Congressional Submission, Washington, DC, March 2014, p. x, http://www.corporateservices.noaa.gov/nbo/docs/NOAA_FY15_CJ_508%20compliant.pdf. 48 This section was written by Nathan James, Analyst in Crime Policy; Kristin M. Finklea, Specialist in Domestic Security; William J. Krouse, Specialist in Domestic Security and Crime Policy; and Lisa N. Sacco, Analyst in Illicit Drugs and Crime Policy; CRS Domestic Social Policy Division. 49 28 U.S.C. §501. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 22 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . regulates legitimate controlled substances activities; and conducts joint intelligence-gathering activities with foreign governments. • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) enforces federal law related to the manufacture, importation, and distribution of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and explosives. It was transferred from the Department of the Treasury to DOJ by the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-296). • Federal Prison System (Bureau of Prisons, BOP) provides for the custody and care of the federal prison population, the maintenance of prison-related facilities, and the boarding of sentenced federal prisoners incarcerated in state and local institutions. • Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) coordinates legislative and other initiatives relating to violence against women and administers grant programs to help prevent, detect, and stop violence against women, including domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking. • Office of Justice Programs (OJP) manages and coordinates the activities of the Bureau of Justice Assistance, Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Institute of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and the Office of Victims of Crime. • Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) advances the practice of community policing by awarding grants to law enforcement agencies to hire and train community policing professionals, acquire and deploy crime-fighting technologies, and develop and test innovative policing strategies. Most crime control has traditionally been a state and local responsibility. With the passage of the Crime Control Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-351), however, the federal role in the administration of criminal justice has increased incrementally. Since 1984, Congress has approved five major omnibus crime control bills, designating new federal crimes, penalties, and additional law enforcement assistance programs for state and local governments.50 FY2014 and FY2015 Appropriations The FY2014-enacted appropriation for DOJ was $27.737 billion. The Administration requests a total of $27.974 billion for DOJ for FY2015 (see Table 4), which is a proposed 0.9%, or $237.0 million, increase over the FY2014-enacted appropriation. The Administration notes that DOJ would receive additional funding, though it did not specify what amount, under the proposed OGSI for the following purposes: • investments in state and local justice assistance grants, including additional resources for the Comprehensive School Safety program and a new youth investment initiative; • activating newly constructed or purchased prisons; and 50 See, for example, the Crime Control Act of 1984 (P.L. 98-473); the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-570); the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-690); the Crime Control Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-647); and the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (P.L. 103-322). c11173008 Congressional Research Service 23 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . • investigating and prosecuting financial fraud. The House-passed bill would provide a total of $28.162 billion for the DOJ, an amount that would be 1.5% greater than the FY2014 appropriation and 0.7% greater than the Administration’s request. Table 4. Funding for the Department of Justice, FY2014 and FY2015 Budget authority in millions of dollars Accounts General Administration FY2015 Request FY2015 House Passed $533.2 $590.3 $536.6 General Administrationa (135.8) (154.7) (116.6) Administrative Review & Appeals (311.0) (347.0) (332.0) (86.4) (88.6) (88.0) 12.6 13.3 13.3 3,180.8 3,267.1 3,230.1 (867.0) (935.9) (884.1) (1,944.0) (1,955.3) (1,971.0) (369.8) (375.9) (374.9) 2,727.8 2,790.1 2,804.1 91.8 91.8 94.8 514.0 505.0 519.0 Federal Bureau of Investigation 8,343.3 8,347.2 8,467.8 Drug Enforcement Administration 2,018.0 2,018.0 2,048.3 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives 1,179.0 1,201.0 1,114.0 Federal Prison System 6,861.7 6,896.7 6,973.0 Office on Violence Against Women 417.0 422.5 429.5 Office of Justice Programs 1,643.3 1,566.5 1,721.7 Research, Evaluation, and Statistics (120.0) (136.9) (120.0) (1,171.5) (1,032.9) (1,290.9) (254.5) (299.4) (223.5) (97.3) (87.3) (87.3) Office of the Inspector General U.S. Parole Commission Legal Activities General legal activities United States Attorneys Other legal activitiesb United States Marshals Service National Security Division Interagency Law Enforcement State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Juvenile Justice Programs Public Safety Officers Benefits c11173008 FY2014 Enacted Congressional Research Service FY2015 Senate Passed FY2015 Enacted 24 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Accounts FY2014 Enacted FY2015 Request FY2015 House Passed Community Oriented Policing Services 214.0 274.0 209.5 Crime Victims Fund (CVF) 745.0 810.0 770.0 Offsetting Receipts (CVF) -745.0 -810.0 -770.0 27,736.6 27,973.5 28,161.7 Total: Department of Justice FY2015 Senate Passed FY2015 Enacted Source: The FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 11376, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). The FY2015 requested amounts were taken from H.Rept. 113-448. The FY2015 House-passed amounts were taken from the text of H.R. 4660 and H.Rept. 113-448. Note: Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding. a. Includes funding for Salaries and Expenses for DOJ administration as well as for Justice Information Sharing Technology. b. “Other legal activities” includes accounts for the Antitrust Division, Vaccine Injury Compensation Trust Fund, U.S. Trustee System Fund, Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, Fees and Expenses of Witnesses, Community Relations Service, and the Asset Forfeiture Fund. General Administration The General Administration account provides funds for salaries and expenses for the Attorney General’s office, the Inspector General’s office, and other programs designed to ensure that the collaborative efforts of DOJ agencies are coordinated to help represent the government and fight crime as efficiently as possible. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 provided $533.2 million for the General Administration Account. The Administration’s FY2015 request includes $590.3 million for General Administration, 10.7% more than the FY2014 appropriation. The House-passed bill would provide $536.6 million for General Administration, 0.6% more than the FY2014 enacted amount but 9.1% less than the Administration’s request. General Administration The General Administration account includes funding for Salaries and Expenses for DOJ administration as well as for Justice Information Sharing Technology. Prior to the National Drug Intelligence Center’s (NDIC’s) closure, it was funded through the General Administration account. In addition, this account previously funded Law Enforcement Wireless Communications before funding for related activities was shifted to the FBI. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 provided $135.8 million for Salaries and Expenses for DOJ administration and for Justice Information Sharing Technology. The Administration’s FY2015 request includes nearly $154.7 million for these activities, 13.9% more than the FY2014 appropriation. The House-passed bill would provide $116.6 million for this account, 14.1% less than the FY2014 enacted amount and 24.6% below the Administration’s requested level. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 25 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Administrative Review and Appeals (ARA) Administrative Review and Appeals (ARA) includes the Executive Office of Immigration Review (EOIR) and the Office of the Pardon Attorney (OPA). The Attorney General is responsible for the review and adjudication of immigration cases in coordination with the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) efforts to secure the nation’s borders. The EOIR handles these matters, and the OPA receives and reviews petitions for executive clemency. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 provided $311.0 million for ARA. The Administration’s FY2015 request includes $347.0 million for these activities, a proposed increase of 11.6% over the FY2014 appropriation. The Administration’s request includes an increase of $22.6 million to help the EOIR adjudicate an increasing immigration court caseload. The DOJ reports that the number of matters pending adjudication rose 57% from the end of FY2009 to the end of FY2013.51 Also, there were 249 EOIR immigration judges at the end of January 2014, down from a high of 272 in mid-December, 2010.52 In addition, DOJ reports that about one-third of immigration judges will be eligible to retire in FY2014.53 The proposed increase includes $17.0 million to support an additional 35 Immigration Judge Teams and 15 Board of Immigration Appeals attorneys to help adjudicate rising immigration court caseloads; $2.8 million to expand EOIR’s Legal Orientation Program (LOP), which improves immigration court proceedings by educating detained alien’s about their rights and the overall process; and another $2.8 million to allow EOIR to continue the development and expansion of its pilot program that provides counsel to vulnerable populations, such as unaccompanied alien children. The House-passed bill would provide $332.0 million for ARA, 6.8% greater than the FY2014 appropriation, but 4.3% less than the Administration’s request. In the report to accompany H.R. 4660, the House Committee on Appropriations notes that the recommended funding for ARA will allow the EOIR to reduce backlogs by increasing the number of immigration judge teams; support and expand the LOP; and to continue pilot efforts for assisting minors and other persons with special needs. The House-passed bill includes language that would prohibit the DOJ from using funds to transfer or temporarily assign employees to the OPA for the screening of clemency applications.54 Office of the Inspector General (OIG) The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) is responsible for detecting and deterring waste, fraud, and abuse involving DOJ programs and personnel; promoting economy and efficiency in DOJ operations; and investigating allegations of departmental misconduct. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 provided $86.4 million for the OIG. The Administration’s FY2015 request includes nearly $88.6 million for the OIG, 2.5% more than the amount provided through 51 U.S. Department of Justice, FY 2015 Congressional Budget Submission, Administrative Review and Appeals, p. 5. Ibid., p. 4. 53 Ibid. 54 In April, Attorney General Holder announced that the DOJ would expand its criteria for clemency applications to allow non-violent drug offenders incarcerated in federal prisons to seek a reduction in their sentences. The DOJ announced that it was planning to move additional attorneys to the Office of the Pardon Attorney in order to prepare for the expected influx of clemency applications. U.S. Department of Justice, “Attorney General Holder: Justice Department Set to Expand Clemency Criteria, Will Prepare for Wave of Applications from Drug Offenders in Federal Prison,” press release, April 21, 2014, http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2014/April/14-ag-409.html. 52 c11173008 Congressional Research Service 26 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . the FY2014 appropriation. The House-passed bill would provide $88.0 million for the OIG, 1.9% more than the FY2014 enacted amount but 0.7% less than the Administration’s request. U.S. Parole Commission The U.S. Parole Commission adjudicates parole requests for prisoners who are serving felony sentences under federal and District of Columbia code violations. The commission received $12.6 million for FY2014. The Administration’s request for the commission for FY2015 is $13.3 million, a proposed increase of 5.6%. The House-passed bill includes $13.3 million for the commission, which is equal to the Administration’s request and 5.6% greater than the FY2014 appropriation. Legal Activities The Legal Activities account includes several subaccounts: general legal activities, U.S. Attorneys, and other legal activities. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 provided nearly $3.181 billion for Legal Activities. The Administration’s FY2015 request includes almost $3.267 billion for this account, 2.7% more than the FY2014 appropriation. The House-passed bill would provide $3.230 billion for Legal Activities. This would be 1.5% more than the FY2014 enacted amount but 1.1% less than the Administration’s request. General Legal Activities The General Legal Activities account funds the Solicitor General’s supervision of the department’s conduct in proceedings before the Supreme Court. It also funds several departmental divisions (tax, criminal, civil, environment and natural resources, legal counsel, civil rights, INTERPOL, and dispute resolution). The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 provided $867.0 million for General Legal Activities. The Administration’s FY2015 request includes nearly $935.9 million for this account, 7.9% over the FY2014 appropriation. The Housepassed bill would provide $884.1 million for General Legal Activities, 2.0% more than the FY2014 enacted amount but 5.5% below the Administration’s requested level. As a part of its FY2015 budget request for this account, the Administration proposed a $2.6 million increase for the criminal division for 25 new positions to help the division combat cybercrime. According to the Administration, the additional funding would increase the criminal division’s capabilities in four areas: “cybercrime investigations and prosecutions; advice and advocating legal tools and authorities; international cooperation and outreach; and forensic support.”55 The Administration also requests a $19.6 million increase for the criminal division as a part of the Administration’s Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT) reform efforts. MLAT requests are the way in which countries request assistance in obtaining evidence located in a foreign country for criminal investigations and proceedings located in another country, and, according to the Administration, difficulties in obtaining evidence through the MLAT process is starting to 55 c11173008 U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Division, FY 2015 President’s Budget & Performance Submission, p. 12. Congressional Research Service 27 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . frustrate many of the United States’ foreign law enforcement partners.56 The Administration is concerned that continued delays with processing MLAT requests could have adverse consequences for U.S. law enforcement, including, but not limited to, foreign countries reducing their compliance with MLAT requests and their cooperation with U.S. law enforcement agencies. The requested funding for the criminal division would be used to centralize the handling of MLAT requests, primarily through the division’s Office of International Affairs (OIA); eliminating the backlog of pending cases; and enhancing the technological resources supporting the MLAT process and OIA’s core functions. Office of the U.S. Attorneys The U.S. Attorneys enforce federal laws through prosecution of criminal cases and represent the federal government in civil actions in all of the 94 federal judicial districts. For FY2015, the President’s budget request includes $1.955 billion for the U.S. Attorneys, a proposed increase of 0.6% over the Office’s FY2014 appropriation ($1.944 billion). Under the Administration’s “Smart on Crime Initiative,” the FY2015 budget request includes $15.0 million in reallocated resources to leverage efforts to lower recidivism through reentry courts, drug or other specialized courts, diversion programs, and prevention outreach. The request also includes $1.3 million for MLAT reform. The objective of this reform is to strengthen law enforcement and administration of justice partnerships with foreign government, especially with regard to cyber security threats. The House-passed bill would provide the U.S. Attorneys with $1.971 billion for FY2015. This amount is 1.4% more than the FY2014 enacted appropriation and 0.8% more than the Administration’s FY2015 request. House report language emphasized that the U.S. Attorneys should prioritize their efforts to enforce intellectual property rights and prosecute prescription drug abuse cases. Although opposed by the Administration, the House Committee on Appropriations has maintained language in the bill that would direct each U.S. Attorney to lead a regional human trafficking task force. Other Legal Activities Other Legal Activities includes the Antitrust Division, the Vaccine Injury Compensation Trust Fund, the U.S. Trustee System Fund (which is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the U.S. bankruptcy system by, among other things, prosecuting criminal bankruptcy violations), the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, the Fees and Expenses of Witnesses, the Community Relations Service, and the Assets Forfeiture Fund. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 provided $369.8 million for the Other Legal Activities account. The Administration’s FY2015 request includes $375.9 million for this account, 1.6% more than the FY2014 appropriation. The House-passed bill would provide $374.9 million for Other Legal Activities, 1.4% more than the FY2014 enacted amount, but 0.3% less than the Administration’s request. U.S. Marshals Service (USMS) The U.S. Marshals Service (USMS) is responsible for the protection of the federal judicial process, including protecting judges, attorneys, witnesses, and jurors. In addition, the USMS 56 c11173008 U.S. Department of Justice, Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty Process Reform, FY 2015 Budget Fact Sheet. Congressional Research Service 28 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . provides physical security in courthouses, safeguards witnesses, transports prisoners from court proceedings, apprehends fugitives, executes warrants and court orders, and seizes forfeited property.57 The USMS received a total of $2.728 billion under the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014, of which $1.185 billon was for the Salaries and Expenses (S&E) account and $1.533 billion was for the Federal Prisoner Detention account. For FY2015, the Administration requests a total of $2.790 billion for the USMS, which is 2.3% greater than the FY2014-enacted appropriation. The entire proposed increase for the USMS is the result of the Administration requesting $1.595 billion for the Federal Prisoner Detention account. The proposed increase in funding for the Federal Prisoner Detention account reflects the increased cost of the federal detention population. The Administration requested additional funding to help ensure that the USMS can pay for housing, medical, and transportation costs for the USMS detainee population.58 The USMS notes that expansion of illegal immigration enforcement activities along the southwest border has increased the service’s workload in the region.59 The House-passed bill would provide a total of $2.804 billion for the USMS, an amount that is 2.8% greater than the FY2014 appropriation and 0.5% greater than the Administration’s request. The House recommends $1.199 billion for the USMS’s S&E account (1.2% greater than the Administration’s request) and $1.595 billion for the Federal Prisoner Detention account, which is equal to the Administration’s request. One issue Congress might consider while it debates FY2015 funding for the USMS is whether it has the resources it needs in light of its expanded mission. As discussed previously, for FY2015 the Administration did not request an increase in funding for the number of positions funded by the USMS’s Salaries and Expenses account. In addition to the increased workload along the Southwest border, the USMS reports that since 2000, it has been required to assist state and local law enforcement agencies with apprehending dangerous fugitives; has faced increasing demand for high-level security related to more federal terrorism-related prosecutions; and has been required to assist with the location and apprehension of individuals who fail to register as sex offenders.60 Policy makers might consider whether the USMS can continue to effectively conduct its operations related to the federal criminal justice system while assisting state and local law enforcement with tracking and apprehending fugitives and unregistered sex offenders without additional resources. 57 Under the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act (P.L. 113-6), Congress eliminated funding for the Office of the Federal Detention Trustee account and instead provided funding for a Federal Prisoner Detention account under the USMS. Funding under this account will be used to cover the costs associated with the care of federal detainees. 58 According to DOJ, detention funding requirements are determined using a population forecasting model that incorporates factors such as population, demographic trends, average processing time per type of case, and the authorized positions of federal law enforcement, U.S. attorneys and U.S. district court judges. The DOJ estimates that the average daily detention population in FY2015 will be 59,949. U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. Marshals Service (USMS), FY2015 Budget Request At A Glance. 59 U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. Marshals Services, FY 2015 Performance Budget, Salaries and Expenses and Construction Appropriations, p. 8. 60 Ibid., p. 5. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 29 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . National Security Division (NSD) The National Security Division (NSD) coordinates DOJ’s national security and terrorism missions through law enforcement investigations and prosecutions. The NSD was established in DOJ in response to the recommendations of the Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD Commission), and authorized by Congress on March 9, 2006, in the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-177). Under the NSD, DOJ resources of the Office of Intelligence Policy and Review and the Criminal Division’s Counterterrorism and Counterespionage Sections were consolidated to coordinate all intelligence-related resources and to ensure that criminal intelligence information is shared, as appropriate. For FY2015, the President’s budget request includes $91.8 million for the NSD, the same amount as appropriated by Congress for FY2014. The House-passed bill would provide the NSD with $94.8 million for FY2015. This amount is 3.3% more than either the FY2014 enacted appropriation or the Administration’s FY2015 request. House report language indicated that this $3.0 million increase would help the NSD meet its growing workload under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA)61 and the Lobbying Disclosure Act.62 Interagency Law Enforcement The Interagency Law Enforcement account reimburses departmental agencies for their participation in the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force (OCDETF) program. Organized into nine regional task forces, this program combines the expertise of federal agencies with the efforts of state and local law enforcement to disrupt and dismantle major narcoticstrafficking and money-laundering organizations. From DOJ, the federal agencies that participate in OCDETF are the DEA; the FBI; the ATF; the USMS; the Tax and Criminal Divisions of DOJ; and the U.S. Attorneys. From the Department of Homeland Security, Immigration and Customs Enforcement and the U.S. Coast Guard participate in OCDETF. In addition, from the Department of the Treasury, the Internal Revenue Service and Treasury Office of Enforcement also participate in OCDETF. Moreover, state and local law enforcement agencies participate in approximately 90% of all OCDETF investigations. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 provided $514.0 million for the Interagency Law Enforcement account. For FY2015, the Administration is requesting $505.0 million for this account, 1.8% less than the FY2014 appropriation. The House-passed bill would provide $519.0 million for this account, 1.0% greater than the FY2014 enacted level and 2.8% greater than the Administration’s requested amount. The language in the House report accompanying the bill urges DOJ to increase the use of task forces to combat the threats posed by prescription drug and heroin abuse. 61 62 c11173008 50 U.S.C. §1801 et seq. 2 U.S.C. §1601 et seq. Congressional Research Service 30 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) The FBI is the lead federal investigative agency charged with defending the country against foreign terrorist and intelligence threats; enforcing federal laws; and providing leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal, tribal, and territorial law enforcement agencies and partners. Since the September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks, the FBI has reorganized and reprioritized its efforts to focus on preventing terrorism and related criminal activities. From FY2001 through FY2013, Congress has more than doubled direct appropriations for the FBI from $3.32 billion to $8.343 billion, or a 151.3% increase. For FY2015, the President’s budget request includes $8.347 billion for the FBI, a slight increase (< 0.1%) over the Bureau’s FY2014 appropriation ($8.343 billion). This request includes $8.278 billion for salaries and expenses (S&E) and $69.0 million for construction. In addition, through miscellaneous reductions, the request anticipates an increase of $18.2 million in reallocated funding to improve the MLAT process ($3.2 million) and Terrorist Explosive Device Analytical Center (TEDAC) operations and maintenance ($15.0 million). Located at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama, TEDAC supports federal efforts to prevent and mitigate improvised explosive device attacks both in the United States and abroad. The House-passed bill would provide the FBI with $8.468 billion for FY2015. This amount is 1.5% more than the amount Congress appropriated for the FBI for FY2014, and it is 1.4% more than the Administration’s FY2015 request. In addition, the FY2015 request would carry over FY2014 budget increases to improve background checks for firearms and cyber security. For example, the FY2015 budget would carry over and continue to provide $13.0 million to bolster the FBI-administered National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS), especially in light of Senate proposals to require “universal background checks,” that is, extending federal firearms background check requirements to intrastate firearms transfers between private persons.63 While the amount carried over to sustain the FBI’s Next Generation Cyber Initiative was not given in DOJ budget summary and submission documents, the Attorney General testified to both the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations that, across all departmental agencies and initiatives, the FY2015 budget includes $722 million to fight cybercrime.64 According to the FBI Director James Comey, the most important thing done in this area in the last couple of years was the establishment of a National Cyber Crime Investigative Joint Task Force (NCIJTF).65,66 In report language, the House Committee on Appropriations noted that the Housepassed bill would provide sufficient funding to ensure that the FBI could continue to develop and 63 For further information on the “universal background check” proposal, see CRS Report R42987, Gun Control Legislation in the 113th Congress, by William J. Krouse. 64 Testimony of Attorney General Eric Holder, in U.S. Congress, House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies, “The Department of Justice FY2015 Budget Request,” Nexis Congressional Documents and Publications, April 4, 2014. 65 Testimony of FBI Director James Comey, in U.S. Congress, House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies, “FBI Budget for FY2015 and Post-9/11 Reform, Panel 1,” CQ Transcriptions, March 26, 2014. 66 For a CRS compilation of reports and other resources on cybersecurity, see CRS Report R42507, Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic, by Rita Tehan. For additional selected CRS reports relevant to cybersecurity, see CRS Issues Before Congress: Cybersecurity. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 31 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . implement its Next Generation Cyber (NGC) approach, a comprehensive “whole of government” approach to investigating computer intrusions and defeating cyber threat actors, through a national network of task forces. The House Committee also raised concerns about state and local efforts to make gun-related prohibiting records accessible to the FBI for NICS background check purposes, and report language would require the FBI to report back to the Committee about gaps in its accessibility to those records for all classes of prohibited persons. The House bill would also provide $1.0 million to support an ongoing review of the FBI’s implementation of the 9/11 Commission recommendations. In addition, report language addressed several other issues, including, but not limited to, FBI support of Department of Justice investigations of human rights violations, human trafficking, violent domestic extremists, violent gangs, counterintelligence and insider threats, and money laundering and other financial crime, as well as efforts to improve DNA analysis. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is the only single-mission federal agency tasked with enforcing the nation’s controlled substance laws in order to reduce the availability and abuse of illicit drugs and the diversion of licit drugs for illicit purposes. DEA’s enforcement efforts include the disruption and dismantling of drug trafficking and money laundering organizations through drug interdiction and seizures of illicit revenues and assets derived from these organizations. DEA continues to face evolving challenges in limiting the supply of illicit drugs as well as reducing drug trafficking from Mexico across the Southwest border into the United States. DEA plays a key role in the Administration’s Southwest Border Initiative to counter drug-related border violence, focusing on the convergent threats of illegal drugs, drug-related violence, and terrorism in the region. DEA also has an active role in the Administration’s Prescription Drug Abuse Prevention Plan, targeting improper prescribing practices and promoting proper disposal of unused prescription drugs. The DEA received $2.018 billion for FY2014. The Administration’s FY2015 budget request for the DEA proposes to maintain FY2014 appropriation levels at $2.018 billion. The House recommends $2.048 billion for the DEA which represents a proposed 1.5% increase over both the FY2014 enacted amount and the Administration’s FY2015 requested amount. Of note, while the DEA highlights the recent rise in heroin abuse in the United States in their FY2015 Congressional budget submission,67 the Administration does not request additional funding to address this issue. The DEA combats the nation’s supply of heroin through international and domestic enforcement and state and local assistance. In the report to accompany H.R. 4660, the House Committee on Appropriations expresses concern over the increase in prescription drug and heroin abuse, and specifies the following: • DOJ shall report within 90 days after enactment of H.R. 4660 “on potential ways to address this problem, such as prevention, law enforcement strategies, prescription drug disposal site expansion, and other evidence-based approaches.”68 67 U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, FY2015 Performance Budget Congressional Submission, p. 18, http://www.justice.gov/jmd/2015justification/pdf/dea-justification.pdf. 68 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, H.Rept. 113-448 - Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill, 2015, report to accompany H.R. 4660, 113th Cong., 2nd sess., May 15, 2014. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 32 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . • The committee urges the DEA to intensify its use of task forces to address the rise in heroin abuse. • The committee directs DEA to report no later than 60 days after enactment of H.R. 4660 “on the numbers of actual and estimated heroin investigations in fiscal years 2013 through 2015, the amounts and street value of heroin associated with such investigations, and prosecutions resulting from investigations.”69 The House-passed bill would prohibit DOJ from using funds to prevent states from implementing their laws that authorize the use, distribution, possession, or cultivation of medical marijuana.70 Policy makers may debate as to how to interpret this language. While it may prevent DOJ from using funds to preempt state medical marijuana laws, it may also be interpreted as an attempt to prevent DEA and other agencies from investigating and prosecuting private citizens, who are otherwise in compliance with state law, in states that make allowances for medical marijuana for violations of the federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA).71 The House specifies another change that would possibly affect the DEA’s operations. The Housepassed bill would prohibit the use of funds “in contravention of section 7606 ("Legitimacy of Industrial Hemp Research”) of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (P.L. 113-79) by the Department of Justice or the Drug Enforcement Administration.”72 Under the CSA, hemp is considered a Schedule I controlled substance, and there are strict controls on its production and the security conditions under which it may be grown; it is illegal to grow without a DEA permit. The Agricultural Act of 2014 included a provision allowing certain research institutions and also state departments of agriculture to grow industrial hemp, if allowed under state laws where the institution or state department of agriculture is located.73 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) The ATF enforces federal criminal law related to the manufacture, importation, and distribution of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and explosives. ATF works independently and through partnerships with industry groups; international, state, and local governments; and other federal agencies to investigate and reduce crime involving firearms and explosives, acts of arson, and illegal trafficking of alcohol and tobacco products. From FY2001 through FY2014, Congress has increased the direct appropriation for ATF, from $771.0 million to $1.179 billion, a 52.9% increase. For FY2015, the President’s budget request for ATF is $1.201 billion, an increase of 1.9% over the amount appropriated by Congress for FY2014 ($1.179 billion). According to DOJ, this increase ($22.0 million) would allow ATF to improve its firearms enforcement and regulatory 69 Ibid. As specified in Sec. 558 of H.R. 4660, these states include Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin. 71 Title 21, U.S.C., Chapter 13. For discussion of this House language, see CRS Report WSLG957, House Seeks to Curb Federal Interference with State Medical Marijuana Laws, by Todd Garvey. 72 H.R. 4660, Sec. 560. 73 For further discussion of this law and the industrial use of hemp, see CRS Report RL32725, Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity, by Renée Johnson. 70 c11173008 Congressional Research Service 33 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . efforts. According to the Attorney General, DOJ is “taking a hard look” at federal laws and enforcement priorities to ensure that everything possible is being done to prevent drug traffickers and other criminals from acquiring firearms.74 The House-passed bill would provide ATF with $1.114 billion for FY2015. This amount is 5.5% less than the amount appropriated by Congress for FY2014, and is 7.2% less than the Administration’s FY2015 request. Report language indicated that the House Committee on Appropriations has yet to receive a briefing and a report that are required as part of ATF’s FY2014 appropriation. The briefing is to be on appropriations allocated by ATF for gun law enforcement in the following areas: 1. violent crime enforcement, 2. firearms regulatory efforts, 3. firearms tracing, and 4. ballistic imaging. The report is to be on ATF’s tobacco law enforcement posture and related appropriations allocations. Finally, the Committee voiced concern about increasing processing times (backlogs) for applications submitted under the National Firearms Act of 1934 (NFA),75 and applications for dealer, manufacturer, and importer licenses submitted under the Gun Control Act of 1968 (GCA).76 Also, the FY2015 budget request collapses the ATF budget decision units from three to two. For example, the ATF Congressional Budget Submission shows the FY2012 appropriation included $1.113 billion, which was allocated as follows: 1. Firearms ($876.7 million); 2. Arson & Explosives ($224.4 million); and 3. Alcohol & Tobacco ($12.0 million). By comparison the FY2014 appropriation ($1.179 billion) and FY2015 request ($1.201 billion) are shown allocated as follows: 1. Law Enforcement Operations ($1.019 billion for FY2014, and $1.039 billion for FY2015); and 2. Investigative Support Services ($159.5 million for FY2014, and $162.5 million for FY2015). Arguably, this new budget decision unit alignment could make it much more difficult for Congress to determine ATF’s budget priorities for regulating the industries under its purview. 74 Testimony of Attorney General Eric Holder, in U.S. Congress, House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies, “The Department of Justice FY2015 Budget Request,” April 4, 2014. 75 The NFA (26 U.S.C. §5801 et seq.), as amended, limits the availability of machine guns, short-barreled rifles and shotguns, silencers, and a “catch-all” class of other “concealable” firearms identified as “any other weapon.” 76 The GCA (18 U.S.C. §921 et seq.), as amended, requires all persons manufacturing, importing, or selling firearms as a business to be federally licensed. It requires those federal firearms licensees (FFLs) to maintain records of all commercial gun sales. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 34 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . In addition, the House passed bill includes several domestic gun control provisions directly related to ATF operations. These provisions include the following: • Section 215 would prohibit any federal agent from facilitating the transfer of an operable firearm to any individual associated with a drug cartel, unless that firearm were to be continuously monitored or under the federal agent’s control at all times;77 • Section 517 would address the export of certain firearms parts and accessories to Canada;78 • Section 518 would address the importation of “curios or relics” firearms, parts, or ammunition;79 • Section 533 would prevent ATF from levying new restrictions on the importation of shotguns;80 and • Section 539 would prohibit the Attorney General from collecting multiple rifle and shotgun sales reports.81 Like last year, the House-passed bill includes “futurity” language (“in the current fiscal year and any fiscal year thereafter”) in sections 517 and 518 that appears to be intended to make them permanent law. However, last year such “futurity” language was not included in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 (P.L. 113-76), nor was a similar House version of section 539 included in that act. On July 31, 2013, the Senate confirmed B. Todd Jones, the U.S. Attorney for Minnesota, as ATF’s Director. This confirmation ended a seven-year period, during which ATF was headed by five acting directors. In the area of firearms enforcement, ATF has been the subject of congressional 77 This provision has been included in the CJS appropriations since FY2012. It is a response to a badly managed ATF gun trafficking investigation in Arizona known as “Operation Fast and Furious.” 78 This provision has been included in the CJS appropriations since FY2006. It is a response to regulations promulgated during the Clinton Administration that were based on the Organization of American States (OAS) Model Regulations for the Control of the International Movement of Firearms. These regulations arguably have made it cost prohibitive to export certain firearms parts and accessories to Canada. 79 This provision has also been included in the CJS appropriations since FY2006. It is designed to prevent the Department of State from denying applications to import certain firearms, parts, or ammunition that were previously provided by the United States as military aid to foreign governments. Examples of such firearms could include World War Two-era, semiautomatic M-1 Carbines and 1911 Colt pistols. ATF has generally opposed the importation of such firearms back into the United States. 80 Congress first included this provision in the FY2012 CJS appropriations law in response to an ATF study, which characterized certain shotguns as “non-sporting,” because they include certain “military-style” features (e.g., pistol grips, folding or collapsible stocks, laser sights, as well as the ability to accept large capacity ammunition feeding devices). See U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, Firearms and Explosives Industry Division, ATF Study on the Importability of Certain Shotguns, January 2011. 81 On July 11, 2011, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approved an ATF information collection initiative under the Paperwork Reduction Act for a three-year period (ending July 31, 2014). Under this multiple rifle sales reporting requirement, federal firearms licensees (FFLs) are required to report to ATF whenever they make multiple sales or other dispositions of more than one rifle within five consecutive business days to an unlicensed person. Such reporting was to be limited to firearms that are (1) semiautomatic, (2) chambered for ammunition of greater than .22 caliber, and (3) capable of accepting a detachable magazine. This requirement is also limited to FFLs operating in Southwest border states (Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California). The House CJS appropriations bills for FY2012, FY2013, and FY2014 have included similar provisions, but these provisions were not included in enacted appropriations laws for those fiscal years. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 35 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . and departmental oversight for a Southwest border gun trafficking operation known as Fast and Furious and, more recently, several storefront undercover operations. The DOJ Office of Inspector General has issued reports on these matters.82 Federal Prison System (Bureau of Prisons, BOP) The Bureau of Prisons (BOP) was established in 1930 to house federal inmates, to professionalize the prison service, and to ensure consistent and centralized administration of the federal prison system.83 The mission of the BOP is to protect society by confining offenders in prisons and community-based facilities that are safe, humane, cost-efficient, and appropriately secure, and that provide work and other self-improvement opportunities for inmates so that they can become productive citizens after they are released.84 The BOP currently operates 119 correctional facilities across the country.85 The BOP also contracts with Residential Re-entry Centers (RRCs) (i.e., halfway houses) to provide assistance to inmates nearing release. RRCs provide inmates with a structured and supervised environment along with employment counseling, job placement services, financial management assistance, and other programs and services.86 Congress funds the BOP’s operations through two accounts under the Federal Prison System heading: Salaries and Expenses (S&E) and Buildings and Facilities (B&F). The S&E account (i.e., the operating budget) provides for the custody and care of federal inmates and for the daily maintenance and operations of correctional facilities, regional offices, and BOP’s central office in Washington, DC. It also provides funding for the incarceration of federal inmates in state, local, and private facilities. The B&F account (i.e., the capital budget) provides funding for the construction of new facilities and the modernization, repair, and expansion of existing facilities. In addition to appropriations for the S&E and B&F accounts, Congress usually places a cap on the amount of revenue generated by the Federal Prison Industries (FPI)87 that can be used for administrative expenses in the annual CJS appropriations bill. Although Congress does not appropriate funding for the administrative expenses of FPI, the administrative expenses cap is scored as enacted budget authority. The BOP received a total of $6.862 billion for FY2014, the vast majority of which was for the S&E account ($6.769 billion). For FY2015, the Administration requests $6.897 billion, a proposed increase of 0.5%. All of the proposed increase in the BOP’s funding is the result of the Administration requesting more for the BOP’s S&E account ($6.804 billion). The Administration is requesting a $193.0 million base adjustment for the S&E account, of which $158.0 million would be offset by “proposed miscellaneous program and administrative reductions.” The 82 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, Audit of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives’ Use of Income-Generating Undercover Operations, Audit Report 13-36, September 2013, 66 pp., and A Review of ATF’s Operation Fast and Furious and Related Matters, September 19, 2012, 514 pp. 83 U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Prisons, About the Bureau of Prisons, http://www.bop.gov/about/index.jsp. 84 U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Prisons, About Our Agency, Mission, http://www.bop.gov/about/agency/ agency_pillars.jsp. 85 U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Prisons, About the Bureau of Prisons, Federal Prisons, http://www.bop.gov/ about/facilities/federal_prisons.jsp. 86 U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Prisons, About Our Facilities, Reentry Centers, http://www.bop.gov/about/ facilities/residential_reentry_management_centers.jsp. 87 For more information on FPI, see CRS Report RL32380, Federal Prison Industries: Overview and Legislative History, by Nathan James. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 36 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . proposed increase in the S&E account is to pay for the increased costs associated with managing a growing federal prison population (e.g., increased pay and benefits for the current BOP workforce, higher rents, and increasing costs associated with providing for the care and management of inmates). The BOP is not requesting any additional full-time equivalents (FTEs) for FY2015; however, the BOP is focusing on filling previously authorized positions. The House-passed bill would provide a total of $6.973 billion for the BOP. The amount recommended by the House is 1.6% greater than the FY2014 appropriation and 1.1% greater than the Administration’s request. The House-passed bill includes $6.863 billion for the BOP’s S&E account (0.9% more than the Administration’s request) and $107.3 million for the B&F account. In the report to accompany H.R. 4660, the House Committee on Appropriations reported that it continues to prioritize staffing levels at fully activated institutions and the continuation of activation activities at the BOP’s two most recently completed prisons. The committee also reports that the bill does not include funding for the activation of the prison the BOP purchased in Thomson, IL. A recurring issue is whether the BOP has adequate resources, both in terms of personnel and infrastructure, to properly manage the burgeoning federal prison population.88 Prison population growth and prison crowding continue to be a major concern for the BOP. The number of inmates held in BOP facilities grew from 125,560 in FY2000 to 176,849 in FY2014.89 During that same time period, prison crowding grew from 32% over rated capacity to 36% over rated capacity, even though the BOP’s capacity increased by approximately 35,000 beds.90 The BOP estimates that by FY2019 the federal prison system will be operating at 41% over rated capacity.91 However, despite the problem the BOP has with overcrowding, the Administration did not request funding under the B&F account to start work on any new prison construction.92 In addition, the BOP did not request any additional funding to expand the amount of contract bedspace. The growing federal prison population has not only resulted in more crowded prisons, but it has also strained the BOP’s ability to properly manage and care for federal inmates. The BOP reports that the staff-to-inmate ratio has increased from 3.6 to 1 in FY1997 to 4.8 to 1 in FY2013.93 The growing federal prison population has also required the BOP to dedicate more resources to caring (e.g., providing health care, food, and clothing) and providing programming (e.g., substance abuse treatment, educational programming, and work/vocational opportunities) for inmates. The BOP is statutorily required (18 U.S.C. §3621) to provide residential drug abuse treatment to all inmates who volunteer and are eligible for the program. Prisoners who are convicted of nonviolent crimes and who successfully complete a residential substance abuse treatment program are eligible to have their sentence reduced by not more than one year; as such, the BOP 88 For more information on the issues related to the growing federal prison population, see CRS Report R42937, The Federal Prison Population Buildup: Overview, Policy Changes, Issues, and Options, by Nathan James. 89 Data provided to CRS from the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Prisons. 90 Ibid. 91 U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Prisons, FY2015 Performance Budget, Congressional Submission, Federal Prison System, Salaries and Expenses, p. 4. 92 The BOP has seven new prisons in the early stages of planning. The BOP would need to request funding in the future to build those prisons. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Prisons, FY2015 Performance Budget, Congressional Submission, Buildings and Facilities, p. 45. 93 As a point of comparison, in FY2009 the five states with the highest prison populations had an average inmate-tostaff ratio of 3.1 to 1. Ibid., pp. 12-13. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 37 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . notes, inmates are strongly motivated to participate.94 The BOP reports that due to limited capacity, inmates receive, on average, only a 10 month reduction.95 The BOP’s budget request preserves funding Congress provided for FY2014 to expand the residential drug treatment program. The BOP reports that the expanded residential substance abuse treatment program will allow the BOP to treat all eligible inmates and extend sentence reductions for those who qualify from the current 10 months average to the full 12 months allowed by statute.96 Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) The Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) was created to administer programs created under the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) of 1994 and subsequent legislation. These programs provide financial and technical assistance to communities around the country to facilitate the creation of programs, policies, and practices designed to improve criminal justice responses related to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. In FY2014, OVW received $417.0 million. The President’s FY2015 budget request for OVW includes $422.5 million, or a proposed 1.3% increase from the FY2014 enacted appropriation. The FY2015 request includes a proposal to increase funds for the Legal Assistance for Victims, Grants to Support Families in the Justice System (+ $1.0 million), Campus (+ $2.0 million), and Transitional Housing (+ $0.25 million) programs and decrease funds (- $0.25 million) for Research and Evaluation of Violence Against Women. The House recommends $429.5 million for OVW which is 3.0% more than the FY2014-enacted amount and 1.7% more than the Administration’s FY2015 request. Table 5. Funding for OVW Programs, FY2014 and FY2015 Budget authority in millions of dollars Program STOP Grants FY2014 Enacted FY2015 House Passed FY2015 Request FY2015 Senate Passed $193.0 $193.0 $195.0 3.3 3.0 3.0 Transitional Housing Assistance 24.8 25.0 25.0 Grants to Encourage Arrest Policies 50.0 50.0 50.0 Homicide Reduction Initiative (4.0) (4.0) (4.0) Rural Domestic Violence and Child Abuse Enforcement Assistance Grants 36.0 33.0 33.5 9.0 11.0 12.5 Research and Evaluation on Violence Against Women Violence on College Campuses FY2015 Enacted 94 Ibid., p. 6. Ibid. 96 Ibid. 95 c11173008 Congressional Research Service 38 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Program FY2014 Enacted FY2015 House Passed FY2015 Request FY2015 Senate Passed Civil Legal Assistance 37.0 42.5 42.5 Sexual Assault Victims Services 27.0 27.0 29.5 Elder Abuse Grant Program 4.3 4.3 4.3 Education and Training for Disabled Female Victims 5.8 5.8 5.8 Research on Violence Against Indian Women 1.0 1.0 1.0 Consolidated Youth Oriented Program 10.0 10.0 10.0 National Resource Center on Workplace Responses 0.5 0.5 0.5 Indian Country Sexual Assault Clearinghouse 0.5 0.5 0.5 15.0 16.0 16.0 417.0 422.5 429.5a Family Civil Justice Program Total: OVW FY2015 Enacted Source: The FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 11376, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). The FY2015 requested amounts were taken from the appendix to the Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2015. The FY2015 Housepassed amounts were taken from the text of H.R. 4660. Note: Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding. a. An amendment (H.Amdt. 722) adopted by the House during floor debate of H.R. 4660 added $0.5 million to the OVW account, but the amendment did not add the $0.5 million to a specific program under the account. Office of Justice Programs (OJP) The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) manages and coordinates the National Institute of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Victims of Crimes, Bureau of Justice Assistance, and related grant programs. The FY2014enacted appropriation for OJP was $1.643 billion. For FY2015, the Administration requests $1.567 billion, which is 4.7% less than the FY2014-enacted appropriation. H.R. 4660 includes $1.722 billion for OJP, which would be 4.8% greater than the FY2014 appropriation and 10.6% greater than the Administration’s request. Research, Evaluation, and Statistics The Research, Evaluation, and Statistics account (formerly the Justice Assistance account), among other things, funds the operations of the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Institute of Justice. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 provided $120.0 million for this account. The Administration requests $136.9 million for the Research, Evaluation, and Statistics account, an amount that is 14.1% greater than the FY2014-enacted appropriation. The Housepassed bill would provide $120.0 million for this account, which would be the same as the FY2014 appropriation, and 12.3% less than the Administration’s request. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 39 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Table 6. Funding for Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, FY2014 and FY2015 Budget authority in millions of dollars Program FY2014 Enacted FY2015 Request FY2015 House Passed FY2015 Senate Passed Bureau of Justice Statistics $45.0 $55.4 $45.0 National Institute of Justice 40.0 47.5 40.0 Regional Information Sharing System 30.0 25.0 35.0 Evaluation Clearinghouse 1.0 3.0 — Forensic Science Improvement 4.0 6.0 — 120.0 136.9 120.0 Total: Research, Evaluation, and Statistics FY2015 Enacted Source: The FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 11376, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). The FY2015 requested amounts were taken from the appendix to the Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2015. The FY2015 Housepassed amounts were taken from the text of H.R. 4660. Note: Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding. State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance The State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance (S&LLEA) account includes funding for a variety of grant programs to improve the functioning of state, local, and tribal criminal justice systems. Some examples of programs that have traditionally been funded under this account include the Edward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant (JAG) program, the Drug Courts program, the State Criminal Alien Assistance Program (SCAAP), and DNA backlog reduction grants. Congress appropriated $1.172 billion for the S&LLEA account for FY2014. The Administration’s request for FY2015 is $1.033 billion, which is 11.8% less than the FY2014enacted appropriation. The House recommends $1.291 billion for the S&LLEA account, which would be 10.2% greater than the FY2014 appropriation and 25.0% greater than the Administration’s request. For FY2015, the Administration proposes to eliminate several grant programs, including, the State Criminal Alien Assistance Program (SCAAP). SCAAP provides partial reimbursement to states and localities for prior year costs of incarcerating illegal aliens with at least one felony or two misdemeanor convictions for violations of state or local law, and who are incarcerated at least four consecutive days. In justifying the proposal to eliminate SCAAP, the Administration notes that the program does not promote correctional reforms or offer strategies or tools that will help jurisdictions reduce corrections costs or improve public safety. However, this is the one source of federal funding to help state correctional systems and county jails offset the cost of incarcerating individuals who are not legally in the country. The House did not accept the Administration’s proposal and instead recommends $210.0 million for SCAAP for FY2015. The Administration has also proposed to consolidate funding for the drug and mental health courts into a “problem solving justice” program. The Administration requests $44.0 million for this program. The proposed program would assist state, local, and tribal governments with developing and implementing strategies, including specialized courts, which can divert offenders c11173008 Congressional Research Service 40 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . with drug, mental health, and special needs away from prosecution and incarceration. The House chose to propose funding for individual problem-solving court programs, including $13.0 million for mental health courts, $44.0 million for drug courts, and $15.0 million for veterans’ treatment courts. For FY2015, the Administration requests $35.0 million for Community Teams to Reduce the Sexual Assault Evidence Kit Backlog and Improve Sexual Assault Investigations (hereinafter, “Community Teams program”). Proposed funding under this program could be used for a wide variety of purposes, including the following: • supporting law enforcement to conduct inventories of untested kits; • assessment of current sexual assault investigation practices and identification of law enforcement training needs to improve current practices; • strategic planning to determine the extent to which the kits need to be tested; • development and/or implementation of evidence-tracking systems; • sexual assault kit testing; • enhancement of investigative and prosecutorial resources needed to follow up on the outcomes of increased sexual assault testing and/or implement new investigative or prosecutorial practices in sexual assault; • development or strengthening of cold case units and systems for communication between laboratories, prosecutors, and law enforcement regarding the status of evidence; • law enforcement training on recent findings in neurobiology of trauma to help them work more effectively with victims of sexual assault; • development of victim notification procedures; and • enhancement of victim services for past and current victims of sexual assault. Funding from the Community Teams program may also be used to support further research by the National Institute of Justice on issues related to preventing sexual assault and improving the system’s response to sexual assault victims. The House recommends $41.0 million for the Community Teams program. The Administration also requests a total of $147.0 million under the State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance account for grants to support its “Now is the Time” initiative, which focuses on decreasing gun violence across the country. This amount includes $15.0 million for the VALOR program (a set-aside under the Edward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant (JAG) program), $75.0 million for the comprehensive school safety program, $5.0 million for NICS Act Record Improvement Program (NARIP) Grants, and $50.0 million for the National Criminal History Improvement Program (NCHIP). The House-passed bill includes the $15.0 million setaside under the JAG program for the VALOR program and $75.0 million for the comprehensive school safety program. The House-passed bill also includes $78.0 million for a National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Initiative (which would combine the NCHIP and NARIP programs) and a $6.0 million set-aside under the JAG program for grants for firearms safety materials and gun locks. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 41 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . The Administration requests funding for several programs that could be used to address issues related to drug abuse. As previously discussed, the Administration requested funding for drug courts under its proposed problem solving justice program. In addition, the Administration requests $14.0 million for the Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) program, which provides funding to state and local governments for substance abuse treatment for prison and jail inmates, and $7.0 million for prescription drug monitoring programs. The House recommends $12.0 million for RSAT and $16.0 million for prescription drug monitoring programs. The Administration did not request funding for a tribal assistance grant program for FY2015. However, the Administration’s request for OJP includes a proposal to set aside 7% of the amount made available for grant or reimbursement programs under the State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance, Juvenile Justice Programs, and Research, Evaluation, and Statistics accounts for tribal justice assistance. The House rejected the Administration’s proposal and instead provides $35.0 million under the S&LLEA account for tribal assistance programs. Table 7. Funding for State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Programs, FY2014 and FY2015 Budget authority in millions of dollars Program Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grants FY2015 House Passed FY2015 Request FY2015 Senate Passed $376.0 $376.0 $380.3 (1.0) (2.0) — — (22.5) — (1.0) (2.0) — (15.0) (15.0) (15.0) Evidence-based Policing Initiative (5.0) (10.0) — Prosecutorial Decisionmaking Initiative (2.5) (5.0) — Voter Education and Plebiscite in Puerto Rico (2.5) — — Domestic Radicalization Research (4.0) — (4.0) Juvenile Indigent Defense — — (2.5) Grants for Firearms Safety Materials and Gun Locks — — (6.0) — 15.0 — 13.5 15.0 5.5 2.0 — — State and Local Intelligence Training Bulletproof Vests Grant Program State and Local Assistance Help Desk and Diagnostic Center VALOR Initiative Byrne Incentive Grants Byrne Competitive Grants John R. Justice Grant Program c11173008 FY2014 Enacted Congressional Research Service FY2015 Enacted 42 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Program Tribal Assistance FY2015 House Passed FY2015 Request FY2015 Senate Passed 30.0 — 35.0 180.0 — 210.0 Victims of Trafficking Grants 14.3 10.5 45.4 Residential Substance Abuse Treatment 10.0 14.0 12.0 8.3 — 13.0 40.5 — 44.0 Problem Solving Justice Program — 44.0 — Veterans’ Treatment Courts 4.0 — 15.0 Prescription Drug Monitoring 7.0 7.0 16.0 Prison Rape Prevention and Prosecution 12.5 10.5 15.0 Capital Litigation/ Wrongful Conviction Review 2.0 2.0 2.0 Missing Alzheimer’s Patient Grants 0.8 — 1.0 Economic, High-tech and Cybercrime Prevention 10.0 15.0 10.0 CASA-Special Advocates 6.0 6.0 6.0 67.8 115.0 65.5 Smart Probation (6.0) (10.0) — Children of Incarcerated Parents Demonstration Grants (2.0) (5.0) — Pay for Success (7.5) (30.0) — 8.5 5.0 — NICS Act Record Improvement Program (NARIP) Grants 12.0 5.0 — National Criminal History Improvement Program (NCHIP) 46.5 50.0 — — — 78.0 Paul Coverdell Forensic Science Grants 12.0 — Implementation of the Adam Walsh Act 20.0 20.0 State Criminal Alien Assistance Program Mentally Ill Offenders Act Drug Courts Second Chance Act Violent Gang and Gun Crime Reduction (Project Safe Neighborhoods) National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Initiative c11173008 FY2014 Enacted Congressional Research Service FY2015 Enacted 21.0 43 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Program National Sex Offender Public Website FY2014 Enacted FY2015 House Passed FY2015 Request FY2015 Senate Passed — — (1.0) Programs for Children Exposed to Violence 8.0 23.0 — Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation Program 10.5 29.5 — 1.0 1.0 —a 22.5 —b 22.3 125.0 100.0 125.0 (117.0) — (117.0) Post-conviction DNA Testing Grants (4.0) — (4.0) Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (4.0) — (4.0) — (20.0) — Grants for Community Teams to Reduce the Sexual Assault Kit Backlog — 35.0 41.0 Campus Public Safety 2.0 — 2.0 Justice Reinvestment Initiative 27.5 30.0 30.0 HOPE Model Implementation Grants 4.0 10.0 — 12.5 — — Ensuring the Right to Counsel for All Individuals — 5.4 — Competitive Grant Program to Incentivize Statewide Civil Legal Aid Planning — 5.0 — Program to Promote Fairness in the Criminal Justice System — 9.0 — Comprehensive School Safety Initiative 75.0 75.0 75.0 Consolidated Evidence-based Activities Initiative — — 21.0 1,171.5 1,032.9 1,290.9 National Sex Offender Public Website Bulletproof Vests Grant Program DNA Initiatives Debbie Smith DNA Backlog Grants Rape Kit Backlog Reduction Vision 21 Total: State and Local Law Enforcement FY2015 Enacted Source: The FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 11376, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). The FY2015 requested amounts were taken from the appendix to the Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2015. The FY2015 Housepassed amounts were taken from the text of H.R. 4660. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 44 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Note: Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding. a. The House proposes to fund the National Sex Offender Website though a $1.0 million set-aside from funding for Implementation of the Adam Walsh Act. b. For FY2015, the Administration requested funding for the bulletproof vests grant program under the Edward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant (JAG) program. Juvenile Justice Programs The Juvenile Justice Programs account includes funding for grant programs to reduce juvenile delinquency and help state, local, and tribal governments improve the functioning of their juvenile justice systems. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 provided $254.5 million for juvenile justice programs. For FY2015, the Administration’s request includes $299.4 million for this account, a proposed increase of 17.6% over the FY2014 level. Of note, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 had eliminated funding for the long-funded Juvenile Accountability Block Grant (JABG) Program. The Administration’s FY2015 request would reinstate funding for JABG. The Housepassed bill would provide $223.5 million for juvenile justice programs. This would be 12.2% less than the FY2014 enacted amount and 25.4% less than the Administration’s request. The Housepassed bill would not reinstate funding for JABG as requested by the Administration. Further, the bill would eliminate funding for a number of competitive and incentive grants that have been targeted toward issues such as gang and alcohol prevention as well as community-based violence prevention. Table 8. Funding for Juvenile Justice Programs, FY2014 and FY2015 Budget authority in millions of dollars Program Part B—State Formula FY2015 House Passed FY2015 Request FY2015 Senate Passed $55.5 $50.0 $45.0 (0.5) — — Youth Mentoring Grants 88.5 58.0 90.0 Title V—Incentive Grants 15.0 42.0 — Tribal Youth (5.0) — — Gang Prevention (2.5) — — Alcohol Use Prevention (2.5) — — Juvenile Justice and Education Collaboration Assistance (5.0) (10.0) — Investigation and Prosecution of Child Abuse Programs 19.0 11.0 19.0 Juvenile Accountability Block Grants — 30.0 — Juvenile Justice Realignment Incentive Grants — 10.0 — Emergency Planning— Juvenile Detention Facilities c11173008 FY2014 Enacted Congressional Research Service FY2015 Enacted 45 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Program FY2014 Enacted FY2015 Request FY2015 House Passed FY2015 Senate Passed Community-based Violence Prevention Initiative 5.5 18.0 — Training for Judicial Personnel 1.5 1.5 1.5 Missing and Exploited Children Programs 67.0 67.0 68.0 National Forum on Youth Violence Prevention 1.0 4.0 — Competitive Grants Focusing on Girls in the Juvenile Justice System 1.0 2.0 — Children of Incarcerated Parents Web Portal 0.5 0.5 — Improving Juvenile Indigent Defense Program — 5.4 — 254.5 299.4 223.5 Total: Juvenile Justice Programs FY2015 Enacted Source: The FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 11376, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). The FY2015 requested amounts were taken from the appendix to the Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2015. The FY2015 Housepassed amounts were taken from the text of H.R. 4660. Note: Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding. Public Safety Officers Benefits Program (PSOB) The Public Safety Officers Benefits (PSOB) program provides three different types of benefits to public safety officers and their survivors: death, disability, and education. The PSOB program is intended to assist in the recruitment and retention of law enforcement officers, firefighters, and first responders and to offer peace of mind to men and women who choose careers in public safety. The FY2014-enacted appropriation for PSOB was $97.3 million. The Administration requests $87.3 million for PSOB for FY2015, an amount that is 10.3% below the FY2014 appropriation. The House’s recommendation for the PSOB program is equal to the Administration’s request. Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) The Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) Office awards grants to state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies throughout the United States so they can hire and train law enforcement officers to participate in community policing, purchase and deploy new crimefighting technologies, and develop and test new and innovative policing strategies. Congress appropriated $214.0 million for the COPS program for FY2014. The Administration’s proposes a $60.0 million, or 28.0%, increase in funding for the COPS program for FY2015. Language in the Administration’s FY2015 request would allow up to $50.0 million of the $247.0 million requested for the COPS hiring program to be used for hiring non-sworn law enforcement personnel (such as crime and intelligence analysts). c11173008 Congressional Research Service 46 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . The House-passed bill includes $209.5 million for the COPS account, which would be 2.1% less than the FY2014 appropriation and 23.5% less than the Administration’s request. The Housepassed bill does not include language that would allow funds under the hiring program to be used to hire non-sworn personnel. Table 9. Funding for Community Oriented Policing Services Programs, FY2014 and FY2015 Budget authority in millions of dollars Program COPS Hiring Program FY2014 Enacted FY2015 House Passed FY2015 Request FY2015 Senate Passed $180.0 $247.0 $180.0 (16.5) (15.0) (16.5) Community Policing Development (7.5) (15.0) — Training and Technical Assistance on the Collaborative Reform Model (5.0) (10.0) — — — (10.0) Transfer to the Drug Enforcement Administration for Methamphetamine Lab Clean-up 10.0 7.0 10.0 Tribal Resources Grant Program 16.5 20.0 16.5 7.5 — — 214.0 274.0 209.5a Transfer to the Tribal Resources Grant Program Regional Gang Task Forces Anti-methamphetamine Task Forces Total: Community Oriented Policing Services FY2015 Enacted Source: The FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 11376, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). The FY2015 requested amounts were taken from the appendix to the Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2015. The FY2015 Housepassed amounts were taken from the text of H.R. 4660. Note: Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding. a. An amendment (H.Amdt. 698) adopted by the House during floor debate of H.R. 4660 added $3.0 million to the COPS account, but the amendment did not add the $3.0 million to a specific program under the account. The Crime Victims Fund The Crime Victims Fund (CVF) was established by the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 (P.L. 98473, VOCA). It is administered by the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), and provides funding to the states and territories for victim compensation and assistance programs. This account does not receive appropriations but instead is largely funded by criminal fines, forfeited bail bonds, c11173008 Congressional Research Service 47 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . penalties, and special assessments that are collected by U.S. Attorneys’ Offices, U.S. courts, and the BOP.97 In FY2014, the obligation cap on the CVF was set at $745.0 million. In the FY2015 Budget Request, the Administration requests to raise the cap by $65.0 million to a total of $810.0 million.98 The House recommends $770.0 million which is 3.4% greater than the FY2014 amount and 4.9% less than the Administration’s FY2015 request. The Administration proposed an increase for the Crime Victims Fund in order to (1) enhance formula-based awards to states to support victims’ programs and provide additional funding for national scope training and technical assistance and demonstration programs; (2) enhance services for domestic victims of human trafficking; and (3) support the implementation strategies outlined in the Vision 21: Transforming Victim Services report.99 In the report to accompany H.R. 4660, the House Committee on Appropriations states that OVC may implement Vision 21 within available resources. Science Agencies100 The Science Agencies fund and otherwise support research and development (R&D) and related activities across a wide variety of federal missions, including national competitiveness, energy and the environment, and fundamental discovery. FY2014 and FY2015 Appropriations The science agencies received a total of $24.824 billion under the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 (P.L. 113-76). For FY2015, the Administration requests a total of $24.721 billion for the science agencies, a proposed 0.4% reduction. The House-passed bill includes a total of $25.296 billion for the science agencies, which would be 1.9% greater than the FY2014 appropriation and 2.3% more than the Administration’s request. Table 10. Funding for Science Agencies, FY2014 and FY2015 Budget authority in millions of dollars Accounts Office of Science and Technology Policy National Aeronautics and Space Administration FY2014 Enacted FY2015 Request FY2015 House Passed $5.6 $5.6 $5.5 17,646.5 17,460.6 17,896.0 FY2015 Senate Passed FY2015 Enacted 97 U.S. Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime, About OVC, Crime Victims Fund, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/about/victimsfund.html. 98 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, FY2015 Performance Budget, http://www.justice.gov/jmd/ 2015justification/pdf/ojp-justification.pdf. 99 The Vision 21: Transforming Victim Services report was released in May 2013: http://ovc.ncjrs.gov/vision21/. 100 This section was coordinated by John F. Sargent, Jr., Specialist in Science and Technology Policy, CRS Resources, Science, and Industry Division. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 48 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Accounts National Science Foundation Total: Science Agencies FY2014 Enacted FY2015 Request FY2015 House Passed 7,171.9 7,255.0 7,394.2 24,824.0 24,721.2 25,295.8 FY2015 Senate Passed FY2015 Enacted Source: The FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 11376, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). The FY2015 requested amounts were taken from H.Rept. 113-448. The FY2015 House-passed amounts were taken from the text of H.R. 4660 and H.Rept. 113-448. Note: Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding. Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP)101 Congress established the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) through the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-282). The act states that “the primary function of the OSTP director is to provide, within the Executive Office of the President, advice on the scientific, engineering, and technological aspects of issues that require attention at the highest level of Government.” The OSTP director, often referred to informally as the President’s science advisor, also manages the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC),102 which coordinates science and technology policy across the executive branch of the federal government, and co-chairs the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST),103 a council of external advisors that provides advice to the President on matters related to science and technology policy. OSTP is one of two offices in the Executive Office of the President (EOP) that is funded in the CJS appropriations bill.104 The Administration’s request for FY2015 is $5.6 million, the same as appropriated for FY2014. According to the Administration, its request would enable “OSTP to carry out its significant national security emergency preparedness communications responsibilities that must be performed in times of national crisis,” and support the director of OSTP, the federal Chief Technology Officer, three Senate-confirmed associate directors, and other professional staff members.105 The House-passed bill would provide $5.6 million for OSTP, the same as the Administration’s request and the FY2014 appropriation. The report accompanying the House-passed bill would urge OSTP to begin implementing key recommendations made by the Interagency Working Group on Neuroscience and to brief the House Committee on Appropriations within 120 days on the prioritization and implementation status of these recommendations. It also would urge OSTP to promote and encourage international collaboration in neuroscience and to brief the House Committee on Appropriations within 180 days on the results of these efforts. In addition, the 101 This section was prepared by Dana A. Shea, Specialist in Science and Technology Policy, Resources, Science, and Industry Division. 102 Executive Order 12881 established the National Science and Technology Council. 103 Executive Order 13539 established the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. 104 The other EOP office funded under the CJS appropriations bill is the Office of the United States Trade Representative. 105 Executive Office of the President, Executive Office of the President, Fiscal Year 2015 Congressional Budget Submission, March 2014, http://www.whitehouse.gov//sites/default/files/docs/2015-eop-budget_03132014.pdf. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 49 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . report would also encourage OSTP to establish a committee to coordinate federal investments in medical imaging research and develop a roadmap for the full scope of imaging research and development. Finally, the report would direct OSTP to report semiannually to the House Committee on Appropriations regarding the progress made by each major federal research agency in developing, finalizing and implementing its plan to enable public access to federally funded research findings. Congress has for several years restricted OSTP from engaging in certain activities with China or any Chinese-owned company by prohibiting the use of appropriated funds for these activities. The OSTP may proceed with activities that it certifies pose no risk of transferring technology or information with security implications to China and will not involve knowing interactions with officials who have been determined by the United States to have direct involvement with violations of human rights. Such certification must be submitted to the House and Senate Committees at least 30 days prior to such activities. Congress may continue its interest in the debate over its ability to restrict the activities of OSTP and the scope of such restrictions. The House-passed bill would continue this restriction through FY2015. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)106 The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was created in 1958 by the National Aeronautics and Space Act (P.L. 85-568) to conduct civilian space and aeronautics activities. Congress appropriated $17.647 billion for NASA for FY2014. The Administration’s request for FY2015 is $17.461 billion, a proposed decrease of 1.1%. In addition to the regular budget request, NASA would receive $885.5 million under the President’s proposed Opportunity, Growth, and Security Initiative (OGSI).107 The House-passed bill would provide $17.896 billion. See Table 11 for a breakdown of these amounts by appropriations account.108 There is no authorized level for NASA funding in FY2015; the most recent authorization act (the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, P.L. 111-267) authorized appropriations through FY2013.109 The FY2015 request for Science is $4.972 billion, a decrease of 3.5%. In Planetary Science, the request of $1.280 billion, down from $1.345 billion in FY2014, includes $15.0 million for continued study of a potential future mission to Jupiter’s moon Europa. Congress provided $69.7 million in FY2013 and $80.0 million in FY2014 for formulation of a Europa mission, which was a high priority of the 2011 National Research Council (NRC) decadal survey of planetary science.110 The NRC expressed reservations, however, at the mission’s estimated a cost of $4.7 billion, and in April 2014, NASA issued a request for information seeking Europa mission concepts costing less than $1 billion.111 The House-passed bill for FY2015 would provide $100.0 106 This section was prepared by Daniel Morgan, Specialist in Science and Technology Policy, Resources, Science, and Industry Division. 107 The President’s budget uses the term “base budget” to distinguish the main budget request from the additional funding proposed under the OGSI. 108 For a more detailed breakdown, see tables in CRS Report R43419, NASA Appropriations and Authorizations: A Fact Sheet, by Daniel Morgan. 109 Bills that would authorize FY2015 appropriations for NASA include H.R. 2687, H.R. 2616, and S. 1317. 110 National Research Council, Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 (National Academies Press, 2011). Available online at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13117. 111 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, “Europa Mission Concepts Costing Less than $1 Billion,” solicitation NNH14ZDA008L, April 28, 2014. Available at https://nspires.nasaprs.com/external/solicitations/. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 50 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . million for “a mission that meets the science goals outlined for the Jupiter Europa mission in the most recent planetary science decadal survey,” plus an additional $18.0 million for assessment and development of related technologies. The House report states that “the Committee has not seen any credible evidence” that a $1 billion cost is feasible and directs NASA “not to use further project resources in pursuit of such an unlikely outcome.” In Astrophysics, the request of $607.0 million, down from $668.0 million in FY2014, includes $12.3 million for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). SOFIA reached full operating capability in February 2014, and previous budgets envisioned 20 years of operations at a cost of about $85 million per year. According to NASA, however, “because SOFIA development has taken much longer than originally envisioned ... the observatory will no longer provide the kind of scientific impact and synergies with other missions as once planned.” NASA intends to place the SOFIA aircraft in storage unless international partners can support the U.S. share of its operating costs. The House report rejected NASA’s proposal to terminate SOFIA, recommended $70.0 million for the project, and directed NASA to “continue seeking third-party partners whose additional funding support would restore SOFIA’s budget to its full operational level.” The OGSI proposal includes an additional $187.3 million for Science, above the Administration’s base request. Although the House-passed bill would provide $221.0 million more than the base request, this increase does not appear to correspond closely to the OGSI. For example, the House report does not mention the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3 (OCO-3), which would receive $29.3 million under the OGSI, or the Pre-Aerosols, Carbon and Ecosystems (PACE) mission, which would receive an additional $50.0 million. The FY2015 request for Aeronautics is $551.1 million, a decrease of 2.6%. NASA aeronautics research would be reorganized to align with a new strategic vision announced in August 2013.112 Following this realignment, most individual projects would continue, but funding for rotorcraft research would decrease by $7.9 million. The OGSI proposal includes an additional $43.9 million for Aeronautics and would restore the proposed reduction in rotorcraft funding. The Housepassed bill would provide $666.0 million. The House report accepts the proposed restructuring and directs NASA to allocate the recommended funding increase proportionally across the new programs. It does not mention rotorcraft. The FY2015 request for Space Technology is $705.5 million, an increase of 22.5%. Support for the Asteroid Redirect Mission, including the accelerated development of high-power solar electric propulsion technology for future spacecraft, would increase from $38.0 million to $93.0 million. The OGSI proposal includes an additional $100.0 million for Space Technology. The Housepassed bill would provide $627.0 million. Noting several specific examples, the House report encourages the Space Technology Mission Directorate to prioritize technologies that have “the broadest applicability across [its] customer base.” Separately, the report finds it unclear whether Congress will commit to the Asteroid Redirect Mission and directs NASA to spend funds on that mission only in areas that “are also applicable to other current NASA programs, clearly extensible to other potential future exploration missions ... or have broad applicability to other future nonexploration activities.” The FY2015 request for Exploration is $3.976 billion, a decrease of 3.3%. This account funds development of the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and the Space Launch System (SLS) heavy-lift rocket which were mandated by the 2010 authorization act for human 112 See National Aeronautics and Space Administration, “NASA Introduces New Blueprint for Transforming Global Aviation,” August 14, 2013, http://www.nasa.gov/aero/strategic_vision/. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 51 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . exploration beyond Earth orbit. The account also funds development of a commercial crew transportation capability for future U.S. astronaut access to the International Space Station. The request of $2.784 billion for Orion, the SLS, and related ground systems (known collectively as Exploration Systems Development) is a decrease of 10.6%, while the request of $848.0 million for commercial crew is an increase of 21.8%. The OGSI proposal includes an additional $100.0 million for SLS and Orion and an additional $250.0 million for commercial crew. As in past years, many in Congress have seen the budget request as evidence of a difference in human spaceflight priorities between Congress and the Administration, and this perceived difference has been controversial. The House-passed bill would provide $4.167 billion for Exploration, including $3.055 billion for Exploration Systems Development and $785.0 million for commercial crew. The House report expresses frustration with the “arbitrarily reduced funding levels for SLS” and the increased request for commercial crew. It states that the recommended funding for commercial crew is intended to support only one provider (some analysts advocate competition among multiple providers). The FY2015 request for Space Operations is $3.905 billion, an increase of 3.4%. Although the request of $3.051 billion for the International Space Station (ISS) is a 3.2% increase, NASA has eliminated one previously planned cargo flight to the ISS in FY2015. The OGSI proposal includes an additional $100.6 million and would fund the restoration of the eliminated ISS cargo flight. The House-passed bill would provide $3.878 billion for Space Operations. The FY2015 request for Education is $88.9 million, a decrease of 23.8%. NASA education programs are being consolidated as part of a government-wide reorganization of activities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Among the programs included in the FY2015 request for the Education account are the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program ($24.0 million), the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR, $9.0 million), and the Minority University Research Education Program (MUREP, $30.0 million). In addition, the request for the Science account includes $6.0 million for the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program and $15.0 million for other STEM education and public outreach activities. However, the previous Science Mission Directorate policy, under which 1% of all Science mission funding was allocated to education and public outreach, has been terminated. The OGSI proposal includes an additional $10.0 million for Education; it would not affect education activities funded in other NASA accounts. The House-passed bill would provide $106.0 million for the Education account, including $30.0 million for Space Grant, $9.0 million for EPSCoR, and $32.0 million for MUREP. It would also provide $30.0 million, double the request, for general STEM education and public outreach activities in the Science account. Table 11. Funding for NASA, FY2014 and FY2015 Budget authority in millions of dollars Accounts Science FY2015 Request FY2015 House Passed $5,151.2 $4,972.0 $5,193.0 Aeronautics 566.0 551.1 666.0 Space Technology 576.0 705.5 627.0 4,113.2 3,976.0 4,167.0 Exploration c11173008 FY2014 Enacted Congressional Research Service FY2015 Senate Passed FY2015 Enacted 52 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Accounts Space Operations Education Cross-Agency Support Construction and Environmental Compliance and Restoration Inspector General Total: NASA FY2014 Enacted FY2015 Request FY2015 House Passed 3,778.0 3,905.4 3,878.0 116.6 88.9 106.0 2,793.0 2,778.6 2,779.0 515.0 446.1 446.0 37.5 37.0 34.0 17,646.5 17,460.6 17,896.0 FY2015 Senate Passed FY2015 Enacted Sources: The FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 113-76, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). The FY2015 requested amounts were taken from H.Rept. 113-448. The FY2015 House-passed amounts were taken from the text of H.R. 4660 and H.Rept. 113-448. Note: Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding. National Science Foundation (NSF)113 The National Science Foundation (NSF) supports basic research and education in the non-medical sciences and engineering. Congress established the foundation as an independent federal agency in 1950 and directed it to “promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense; and for other purposes.”114 The NSF is a primary source of federal support for U.S. university research. It is also responsible for significant shares of the federal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education program portfolio and federal STEM student aid and support. The House-passed bill (H.R. 4660) would provide $7.394 billion to the NSF. This amount is $222.3 million (3.1%) more than the FY2014 estimate ($7.172 billion) and $139.2 million (1.9%) more than the Administration’s FY2015 request ($7.255 billion).115 The Administration’s request would increase funding for the main agency operations and education accounts, while holding other accounts at close to FY2014 levels. In contrast, the House-passed bill would increase funding for the main research account and would increase agency operations and the main education account, but at less-than-requested levels (see Table 12). The NSF indicates that its FY2015 priorities include four programs that were also foundation priorities in FY2013 and FY2014: Cyber-enabled Materials, Manufacturing, and Smart Systems 113 This section was prepared by Heather B. Gonzalez, Specialist in Science and Technology Policy, Resources, Science, and Industry Division. 114 The National Science Foundation Act of 1950 (P.L. 81-507), Purpose. 115 Between FY2006 and FY2013, overall increases in the NSF budget were at least partially driven by the “doubling path” policy for physical sciences and engineering research. Under this policy, Congress and successive Administrations sought to double funding for the NSF, Department of Energy’s Office of Science, and National Institute of Standards and Technology’s core laboratory and construction accounts. However, actual funding for these accounts did not generally reach authorized levels. It is unclear if the President or Congress will seek to continue this policy in FY2015. For more information, see CRS Report R43086, Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2014, coordinated by John F. Sargent Jr. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 53 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . (CEMMSS, $213.2 million); Cyberinfrastructure Framework for 21st Century Science, Engineering, and Education (CIF21, $124.8 million); Science, Engineering, and Education for Sustainability (SEES, $139.0 million); and Secure and Trustworthy Cyberspace (SaTC, $99.8 million). The Administration added Cognitive Science and Neuroscience ($29.0 million) in its FY2015 request.116 Of these programs and activities, the Administration seeks an increase over FY2014 estimated levels for only Cognitive Science and Neuroscience. The report accompanying the House-passed bill recommends $35.0 million for Cognitive Science and Neuroscience in FY2015, $21.2 million (152.7%) more than the FY2014 estimate of $13.9 million.117 Congress typically appropriates to NSF at the major account level. NSF’s major accounts are Research and Related Activities (R&RA); Education and Human Resources (E&HR); Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC); Agency Operations and Awards Management (AOAM); National Science Board (NSB); and Office of Inspector General (OIG).118 R&RA is the largest NSF account and the primary source of research funding at the NSF.119 The House-passed bill would provide $5.974 billion to R&RA in FY2015. This amount is $164.7 million (2.8%) more than the FY2014 estimate of $5.809 billion and $166.2 million (2.9%) more than the Administration’s request for $5.807 billion. The Administration’s request holds six of eight R&RA subaccounts at close to FY2014 levels (actual range: -1.8% to 0.8%) in FY2015. Two subaccounts, Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences (SBE) and the U.S. Artic Research Commission would increase by more substantial percentages: 6.0% and 8.1%, respectively. SBE would receive the largest increase by amount— $15.4 million over the FY2014 estimate. Most of the SBE increase ($11.5 million) would go to the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. The enduring debate about NSF support for research in the social sciences—which dates to NSF’s establishment—resurfaced in the 113th Congress.120 For example, during consideration of the FY2013 CJS Appropriations Act (P.L. 113-6), legislators debated funding for NSF’s Political Science program and ultimately restricted it to projects that met certain national interests.121 The House report recommends that any R&RA appropriations above the request “shall be applied to math and physical sciences, computer and information science and engineering, engineering, and 116 The FY2012 CJS conference report encouraged NSF to establish neuroscience as a crosscutting theme. See, H.Rept. 112-284. 117 H.Rept. 113-448. 118 Funds from major NSF accounts may be merged at the program level and in many cases NSF’s education, facilities, and research activities are deeply integrated as a matter of practice. 119 This section refers to NSF estimates, rather than enacted levels, for FY2014. Congress does not typically enact NSF appropriations below the major account level (e.g., R&RA). However, appropriations committee reports will often specify funding for NSF programs or subaccounts. Prior year funding levels for these activities are usually only available as NSF estimates. To ensure internal consistency in this section, while providing information about widely tracked accounts, CRS uses estimated levels for all FY2014 NSF accounts. At the major account level (e.g., R&RA) NSF’s FY2014 estimates are the same as FY2014 enacted funding levels. 120 For more information about this debate, see the text box titled “Funding for Social Science?” in CRS Report R43585, The National Science Foundation: Background and Selected Policy Issues, by Heather B. Gonzalez. 121 In FY2013, Congress prohibited NSF from providing funds for political science research unless the foundation certified that each grant promoted the national security or economic interests of the United States. See Section 543 of P.L. 113-6 (Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013). The FY2015 request for the Political Science program is $9.0 million, which is equal to the FY2014 estimate. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 54 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . biological sciences.”122 This language appears to be designed to prevent R&RA activities in the geosciences and international and integrative activities, as well as the SBE sciences, from receiving increases over requested levels. The House report further notes both the “intrinsic value in SBE sciences,” while recognizing “longstanding Congressional concerns” about SBE-funded activities.123 A House floor amendment124 to H.R. 4660 seeks to effectively hold funding for SBE at the FY2014 level ($256.9 million).125 Some House authorizers have sought to make similar changes in proposed NSF reauthorization bills.126 Widely tracked R&RA programs include the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) and Advanced Manufacturing programs. EPSCoR received $158.2 million in FY2014 (estimated). The FY2015 Administration request for EPSCoR, which the House report also recommends, is $159.7 million, a proposed increase of $1.5 million (0.9%). The House report recommends $164.7 million for Advanced Manufacturing activities in FY2015, a level equal to the FY2014 estimate. E&HR, NSF’s main education account, received $846.5 million in FY2014 (estimated).127 The House-passed bill would provide $876.0 million to E&HR in FY2015. This amount is $29.5 million (3.5%) more than the FY2014 estimate and $13.8 million (1.5%) less than the Administration’s request for $889.8 million. By amount, the largest requested E&HR increase is for Improving Undergraduate STEM Education (IUSE). The FY2014 IUSE estimate is $74.1 million.128 The Administration seeks $99.1 million for IUSE in FY2015, a proposed increase of $25.0 million (33.7%). Some of the most widely tracked E&HR programs include the Graduate Research Fellowship (GRF), the Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship or IGERT (now called the NSF Research Traineeship or NRT), and the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program. The FY2015 request for the GRF is $333 million, about 11.1% over the FY2014 estimate. (NSF also seeks to increase the GRF stipend from $32,000 to $34,000 in FY2015.) The FY2015 request for NRT is $58.0 million, an increase of 7.8% over the FY2014 estimate. The FY2015 request for ATE is $64.0 million, the same as the FY2014 estimate. The House report recommends $66.0 million for ATE in FY2015. 122 H.Rept. 113-448, p. 79. H.Rept. 113-448, p. 81. 124 H.Amdt. 734. 125 Representative Lamar Smith, et al., “Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2015,” remarks in the House, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol.160, no. 82, (May 29, 2014), pp. H4957-4959. 126 See, for example, H.R. 4186 (Frontiers in Innovation, Research, Science, and Technology Act, or FIRST Act). 127 For more information about STEM education at NSF, see CRS Report IF00013, The President’s FY2015 Budget and STEM Education (In Focus), by Heather B. Gonzalez; CRS Report R42642, Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education: A Primer, by Heather B. Gonzalez and Jeffrey J. Kuenzi; and CRS Report R42470, An Analysis of STEM Education Funding at the NSF: Trends and Policy Discussion, by Heather B. Gonzalez. 128 The FY2015 NSF budget request states that three NSF undergraduate education programs were consolidated into the IUSE program in FY2014: STEM Talent Expansion Program (STEP), Widening Implementation and Demonstration of Evidence-based Reforms (WIDER), and Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM (TUES). NSF previously proposed consolidating these same programs into the Catalyzing and Advancing Undergraduate STEM Education (CAUSE) program. H.Rept. 113-47, which accompanied H.R. 2787 (Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies, 2014), prohibited NSF from establishing CAUSE. 123 c11173008 Congressional Research Service 55 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Other widely tracked E&HR programs include those that are commonly referred to as “broadening participation” programs. These include the Historically Black Colleges and Universities Undergraduate Program (HBCU-UP), Tribal Colleges and Universities Program (TCUP), and Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (LSAMP). The FY2015 requests for these broadening participation programs are the same as the FY2014 estimated levels—$31.9 million (HBCU-UP), $13.5 million (TCUP) and $45.6 million (LSAMP). The House report recommends $32.0 million for HBCU-UP, $13.5 million for TCUP, and $46.0 million for LSAMP in FY2015. In addition, the House report directs NSF to provide at least $30.0 million in “targeted opportunities” for Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs). (Legislators had previously encouraged NSF to establish a separate HSI program. However, according to the House report, NSF has not done so due to “technical challenges.”)129 NSF’s MREFC account supports large construction projects and scientific instruments. MREFC received $200.0 million in FY2014 (estimated), about the same as the FY2015 request for $200.8 million. MREFC would support three projects in FY2015. Historically, this account has typically supported between four and six projects per fiscal year. The House-passed bill would provide the requested level for MREFC. The FY2015 Administration request for AOAM is $338.2 million, or $40.2 million (13.5%) more than the FY2014 estimate. Most of this increase would fund the next phase of NSF’s headquarters relocation effort. The House-passed bill would provide $325.0 million for AOAM in FY2015. The Administration also seeks $552.0 million in FY2015 funding for the NSF as part of the Opportunity, Growth, and Security Initiate (OGSI). Without specifying program funding levels, the NSF FY2015 Congressional Budget request notes that (among other things) OGSI funding would support an estimated 1,000 additional standard awards and would provide additional traineeship opportunities to approximately 3,000 graduate students over the next five years through the NRT program. Table 12. NSF Funding by Major Account, FY2014 and FY2015 Budget authority in millions of dollars Account Research and Related Activities c11173008 FY2015 Request FY2015 House Passed $5,808.9 $5,807.5 $5,973.6 Biological Sciences (721.3) (708.5) n/a Computer and Information Science and Engineering (894.0) (893.4) n/a Engineering (851.1) (858.2) n/a Geosciences (1,303.0) (1,304.4) n/a Mathematical and Physical Sciences (1,299.8) (1,295.6) n/a (256.9) (272.2) n/aa Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences 129 FY2014 Estimate FY2015 Senate Passed FY2015 Enacted H.Rept. 113-448, p. 81. Congressional Research Service 56 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Account FY2014 Estimate Office of International and Integrative Activities FY2015 Request FY2015 House Passed (481.6) (473.9) n/a (1.3) (1.4) n/a Education and Human Resources 846.5 889.8 876.0 Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction 200.0 200.8 200.8 Agency Operations and Award Management 298.0 338.2 325.0 National Science Board 4.3 4.4 4.4 Office of the Inspector General 14.2 14.4 14.4 7,171.9 7,255.0 7,394.2 U.S. Arctic Research Commission Total: NSF FY2015 Senate Passed FY2015 Enacted Source: The FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 11376, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). The FY2015 requested amounts were taken from H.Rept. 113-448. The FY2015 House-passed amounts were taken from the text of H.R. 4660 and H.Rept. 113-448. Notes: Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding. a. H.Amdt. 734 to H.R. 4660 would (effectively) hold funding for SBE at the FY2014 level. See Representative Lamar Smith, et al., “Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2015,” remarks in the House, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 160, no. 82, (May 29, 2014), pp. H4957-4959. Related Agencies The annual CJS appropriations act includes funding for seven related agencies with missions or responsibilities similar to those of the Departments of Commerce and Justice or the science agencies. The related agencies funded as a part of the annual CJS appropriations act are: the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights; the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission; the International Trade Commission; the Legal Services Corporation; the Marine Mammal Commission; the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative; and the State Justice Institute. FY2014 and FY2015 Appropriations The related agencies received a total of $881.8 million under the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014. For FY2015, the Administration requests a total of $956.1 million for the related agencies, which represents a proposed 8.4% increase in appropriations. The House-passed bill would provide a total of $870.9 million for the related agencies, a proposed decrease of 1.2% compared to the FY2014 appropriation and an amount that would be 8.9% less than the Administration’s request. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 57 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Table 13. Funding for Related Agencies, FY2014 and FY2015 Budget authority in millions of dollars Commission, Office, or Corporation U.S. Commission on Civil Rights Equal Employment Opportunity Commission International Trade Commission Legal Services Corporation Marine Mammal Commission Office of the U.S. Trade Representative State Justice Institute Total: Related Agencies FY2014 Enacted FY2015 House Passed FY2015 Request FY2015 Senate Passed $9.0 $9.4 $9.0 364.0 365.5 364.0 83.0 86.5 86.0 365.0 430.0 350.0 3.3 3.4 3.3 52.6 56.2 53.5 4.9 5.1 5.1 881.8 956.1 870.9 FY2015 Enacted Source: The FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 11376, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). The FY2015 requested amounts were taken from H.Rept. 113-448. The FY2015 House-passed amounts were taken from the text of H.R. 4660 and H.Rept. 113-448. Note: Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding. Commission on Civil Rights Established by the Civil Rights Act of 1957, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (the commission) • investigates allegations of citizens who may have been denied the right to vote based on color, race, religion, or national origin; • studies and gathers information on legal developments constituting a denial of the equal protection of the laws; • assesses the federal laws and policies in the area of civil rights; and • submits reports on its findings to the President and Congress when the commission or the President deems it appropriate. Under the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014, the commission received $9.0 million. The Administration requests $9.4 million for the commission, a proposed 4.4% increase compared to the FY2014-enacted appropriation. H.R. 4660 includes $9.0 million for the commission, an amount equal to the FY2014 appropriation and 4.3% less than the Administration’s request. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 58 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)130 The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces several laws that ban employment discrimination based on race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. In recent years, appropriators were particularly concerned about the agency’s ability to reduce the pending inventory of charges due to rising caseloads and limited staff. Due to new hires of enforcement staff and developments in technology, the EEOC continues to reduce the pending inventory of cases. The House recommends $364.0 million for the EEOC in FY2015, the same amount received in FY2014, however $1.5 million (0.4%) less than the Administration’s FY2015 request of $365.5 million. Of the total for both the House-passed bill and Administration’s request, up to $29.5 million would be for payments to state and local entities with which the agency has work-sharing agreements to address workplace discrimination within their jurisdictions (i.e., Fair Employment Practices Agencies (FEPAs) and Tribal Employment Rights Organizations (TEROs)). Although the pending inventory of private sector cases filed with the EEOC was reduced from 78,136 at the end of FY2011 to 70,312 at the end of FY2012, the inventory increased slightly in FY2013 to 70,781.131 The increase in FY2013 reflects hiring freezes imposed by the FY2013 budget cycle. The FY2015 request includes 60 additional investigators and 6 mediator hires, positions which help the agency improve staffing levels and subsequent workloads. The EEOC federal sector hearings workload was 15,301 hearings in FY2013 and estimated to increase slightly to 15,500 in FY2014.132 The commission continues to implement technology initiatives to support the federal sector program, such as the ongoing development of the EEOC File Exchange (EFX) web-based portal system. The commission also continues to expand the use of the HotDocs commercial document assembly software, which streamlines the writing phase of the hearings process. U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC)133 The U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) is an independent, quasi-judicial federal agency with broad investigative responsibilities on matters related to international trade. The ITC’s activities include investigating the effects of dumped and subsidized imports on domestic industries; conducting global safeguard investigations; and adjudicating disputes involving imported goods that allegedly infringe U.S. intellectual property rights. The ITC also serves as a federal resource for trade data and other trade policy information. It makes most of its information and analyses available to the public to promote understanding of competitiveness, international trade issues, and the role that international trade plays in the U.S. economy.134 The 130 This section was prepared by Abigail Rudman, Information Research Specialist, Knowledge Services Group, Domestic Social Policy Division. 131 FY2015 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Congressional Budget Justification, Chart 2. Private Sector Charges Pending, http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/plan/2015budget.cfm#_Toc381885124. 132 FY2015 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Congressional Budget Justification, Chart 6. Federal Sector Hearings Workload FY2011 to FY2017, http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/plan/2015budget.cfm#_Toc381885135. 133 This section was written by M. Angeles Villarreal, Specialist in International Trade and Finance, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division. 134 United States International Trade Commission (ITC), Budget Justification, Fiscal Year 2015. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 59 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . ITC has two strategic goals that guide its programmatic activities: (1) to produce sound, objective, and timely determinations in investigations; and (2) to produce objective, high-quality, and responsive analysis and information on tariffs, trade, and competitiveness.135 As a matter of policy, its budget request is submitted to Congress by the President without revision. The ITC received $83.0 million for FY2014. The Administration’s request for the ITC for FY2015 is $86.5 million, a proposed increase of 4.2%. The House-passed bill would provide $86.0 million for ITC, 0.5% less than the Administration’s request and 3.6% more than the enacted amount for FY2014. Legal Services Corporation (LSC)136 The Legal Services Corporation (LSC) is a private, nonprofit, federally funded corporation that provides grants to local offices that, in turn, provide legal assistance to low-income people in civil (noncriminal) cases. The LSC has been controversial since its incorporation in the early 1970s and has been operating without authorizing legislation since 1980. There have been ongoing debates over the adequacy of funding for the agency and the extent to which certain types of activities are appropriate for federally funded legal aid attorneys to undertake. In annual appropriations bills, Congress traditionally has included legislative provisions restricting the activities of LSC-funded grantees, such as prohibiting any lobbying activities or prohibiting representation in certain types of cases. Although the authorization of appropriations for the LSC expired at the end of FY1980, the LSC has operated for the past 34 years under annual appropriations laws. The LSC received $365.0 million for FY2014. The Obama Administration’s budget request for the LSC for FY2015 is $430.0 million, a proposed increase of 17.8%. The Administration’s FY2015 budget request includes $395.0 million for basic field programs and required independent audits, $20.0 million for management and grants oversight, $4.8 million for client self-help and information technology, $4.4 million for the Office of the Inspector General, $1.0 million for loan repayment assistance, and $4.9 million for a pro bono innovation fund. The Obama Administration also proposes that LSC restrictions on class action suits and attorneys’ fees be eliminated. The House recommends $350.0 million for the LSC for FY2015. This amount is 4.1% less than the FY2014-enacted amount and 18.6% less than the Administration’s FY2015 budget request. Marine Mammal Commission (MMC) The Marine Mammal Commission (MMC) is an independent agency of the executive branch, established under Title II of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA; P.L. 92-522). The MMC and its Committee of Scientific Advisors on Marine Mammals provide oversight and recommend actions on domestic and international topics to advance policies and provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act. As funding permits, the Marine Mammal Commission supports research to further the purposes of the MMPA. The FY2014-enacted appropriation for the MMC 135 136 c11173008 Ibid. This section was prepared by Carmen Solomon-Fears, Specialist in Social Policy, Domestic Social Policy Division. Congressional Research Service 60 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . was $3.3 million. The Administration requests a proposed 5.6% increase for MMC for FY2015. The House recommends $3.3 million for the MMC for FY2015. The House’s recommendation would be the same as the FY2014 appropriation and 5.3% less than the Administration’s request. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR)137 The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR), located in the Executive Office of the President, is responsible for developing and coordinating U.S. international trade and direct investment policies. The USTR is the President’s chief negotiator for international trade agreements, including commodity and direct investment negotiations. USTR also conducts U.S. affairs related to the World Trade Organization. The USTR is leading the negotiations for the United States for the ongoing talks for the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP) and for the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP). The USTR received $52.6 million for FY2014. The Administration’s request for USTR is $56.2 million, a proposed increase of 6.8%. The House-passed bill would provide $53.5 million for USTR, 4.8% less than the Administration’s request and 1.7% more than the FY2014 enacted amount. The House bill included language aimed at preventing the USTR from negotiating trade agreements that would waive the “Buy American Act” and further open up U.S. government procurement market to other countries. State Justice Institute (SJI) The State Justice Institute (SJI) is a nonprofit corporation that makes grants to state courts and funds research, technical assistance, and informational projects aimed at improving the quality of judicial administration in state courts across the United States. It is governed by an 11-member board of directors appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.138 Under the terms of its enabling legislation, SJI is authorized to present its budget request directly to Congress, apart from the President’s budget. For FY2014 the SJI received $4.9 million. The Administration requests $5.1 million for FY2015, a proposed 4.5% increase in funding. The House-passed bill would provide a total of $5.1 million for SJI, equal to the Administration’s request. 137 This section was written by M. Angeles Villarreal, Specialist in International Trade and Finance, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division. 138 By law, the President must appoint six state court judges, one state court administrator, and four members of the public, no more than two of whom may be of the same political party. c11173008 Congressional Research Service 61 . Table 14. Funding for CJS Agencies, by Account, FY2005-FY2014 Budget authority in millions of dollars Bureau or Agency FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 FY2009 FY2010 FY2011 FY2012 FY2013a FY2014 Department of Commerce International Trade Administration $388.3 393.7 $395.6 $405.2 $420.4 $446.8 $440.7 $455.6 $438.5 $460.6 67.5 75.0 75.4 72.9 83.7 100.3 100.1 101.0 93.6 101.5 Economic Development Administration 284.1 280.4 280.6 779.9 312.8 347.0 283.4 457.5 218.3 246.5 Minority Business Development Agency 29.5 29.6 29.7 28.6 29.8 31.5 30.3 30.3 27.5 28.0 Economic and Statistical Analysis 78.9 79.3 79.8 81.1 90.6 97.2 97.1 96.0 93.3 99.0 744.8 801.9 893.0 1,440.2 3,139.9 7,324.7 1,149.7 888.3 840.6 945.0 National Telecommunications and Information Administration 38.7 39.6 39.8 36.3 39.2 40.0 41.6 45.6 42.7 46.0 U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 1,544.8 1,683.1 1,771.0 1,915.5 2,010.1 2,016.0 2,090.0 2,706.3 2,783.7 3,024.0 -1,336.0 -1,683.1 -1,771.0 -1,915.5 -2,087.0 -1,887.0 -2,090.0 -2,706.3 -2,933.2 -3,024.0 6.5 5.9 2.0 — — — — — — — National Institute of Standards and Technology 699.2 745.0 676.9 755.8 819.0 856.6 750.1 750.8 769.3 850.0 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 3,925.5 3,950.0 4,078.3 3,988.5 4,365.2 4,788.5 4,588.0 4,893.7 5,050.7 5,314.6 78.7 73.3 73.7 70.0 83.8 107.5 99.8 88.9 84.6 89.5 6,550.4 6,473.8 6,624.8 7,658.5 9,307.5 14,269.2 7,580.9 7,807.7 7,509.6 8,180.6 1,608.3 1,777.4 1,836.1 1,798.8 2,067.8 2,285.8 2,208.1 2,227.9 503.5 533.2 General Administration (286.0) (335.1) (310.6) (257.6) (370.8) (456.9) (312.2) (262.1) (135.7) (135.8) Administrative Review & Appeals (201.2) (212.9) (229.1) (240.6) (266.0) (298.8) (296.1) (301.0) (287.9) (311.0) (1,058.2) (1,161.4) (1,225.8) (1,225.9) (1,355.3) (1,445.7) (1,515.6) (1,580.6) — — Bureau of Industry and Security Census Bureau Offsetting Fee Receipts USPTO Technology Administration Departmental Management DOC Subtotal Department of Justice General Administration Detention Trustee c11173008 CRS-62 . Bureau or Agency Office of the Inspector General FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 FY2009 FY2010 FY2011 FY2012 FY2013a FY2014 (63.0) (67.9) (70.6) (74.8) (75.7) (84.4) (84.2) (84.2) (80.0) (86.4) 10.5 10.9 11.5 11.5 12.6 12.9 12.8 12.8 11.9 12.6 2,408.1 2,476.4 2,567.8 2,724.1 2,918.2 3,108.3 3,177.3 3,187.2 2,989.5 3,180.8 (625.7) (653.5) (678.8) (747.2) (805.7) (889.0) (863.4) (863.4) (819.3) (867.0) (1,541.6) (1,588.6) (1,659.9) (1,759.8) (1,851.3) (1,943.2) (1,930.1) (1,960.0) (1,830.3) (1,944.0) (240.7) (234.4) (229.1) (217.1) (261.2) (276.1) (383.8) (363.8) (340.0) (369.8) 759.5 800.7 825.4 895.1 964.0 1,190.0 1,140.1 1,189.0 2,655.6 2,727.8 — — 68.7 73.4 85.2 87.9 87.8 87.0 83.8 91.8 553.5 483.2 497.9 497.9 515.0 549.6 527.5 527.5 484.4 514.0 Federal Bureau of Investigation 5,219.6 5,737.7 6,298.6 6,763.8 7,336.2 7,922.5 7,926.3 8,118.0 7,558.8 8,343.3 Drug Enforcement Administration 1,638.8 1,674.9 1,761.1 1,887.4 1,959.1 2,053.4 2,015.6 2,035.0 1,907.3 2,018.0 882.5 931.8 984.1 1,011.6 1,068.2 1,158.3 1,112.5 1,152.0 1,071.6 1,179.0 4,779.8 4,933.4 5,448.2 5,612.6 6,178.9 6,208.1 6,384.1 6,644.0 6,447.2 6,861.7 382.1 381.6 382.6 400.0 415.0 418.5 417.7 412.5 387.9 417.0 2,012.7 1,943.9 1,986.7 1,694.8 2,066.6 2,283.5 1,697.9 1,616.3 1,518.5 1,643.3 (224.9) (230.3) (238.3) (196.2) (220.0) (235.0) (234.5) (113.0) (119.1) (120.0) (1,278.2) (1,253.1) (1,286.8) (1,008.1) (1,328.5) (1,534.8) (1,117.8) (1,162.5) (1,060.5) (1,171.5) (61.2) (49.4) (49.4) (32.1) (25.0) (20.0) — — — — (379.0) (338.4) (338.4) (383.5) (374.0) (423.6) (275.4) (262.5) (261.0) (254.5) Public Safety Officers Benefits (69.4) (72.8) (73.8) (74.8) (119.1) (70.1) (70.1) (78.3) (77.9) (97.3) Community Oriented Policing Services (598.3) (472.2) 541.8 857.2 550.5 791.6 494.9 198.5 209.7 214.0 — — — — 195.0 213.4 186.6 — — — 20,853.8 21,624.1 23,210.4 23,958.3 26,332.3 28,283.7 27,389.2 27,407.7 25,829.7 27,736.6 U.S. Parole Commission Legal Activities General legal activities United States Attorneys Otherb U.S. Marshals Service National Security Division Interagency Law Enforcement Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms & Explosives Federal Prison System Office of Violence Against Women Office of Justice Programs Research, Evaluation, and Statistics State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Weed and Seed Juvenile Justice Programs OVW, OJP, and COPS Salaries and Expenses DOJ Subtotal c11173008 CRS-63 . Bureau or Agency FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 FY2009 FY2010 FY2011 FY2012 FY2013a FY2014 Science Agencies Office of Science and Technology Policy 6.3 5.5 5.5 5.2 5.3 7.0 6.6 4.5 5.5 5.6 16,196.4 16,596.4 16,284.3 17,401.9 17,782.4 18,724.3 18,448.0 17,800.0 16,879.5 17,646.5 5,472.8 5,581.2 5,917.2 6,127.5 6,490.4 6,926.5 6,859.9 7,033.1 6,884.1 7,171.9 21,675.6 22,183.1 22,207.0 23,534.6 24,278.1 25,657.8 25,314.5 24,837.6 23,769.2 24,824.0 9.0 8.9 9.0 8.5 8.8 9.4 9.4 9.2 8.7 9.0 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) 326.8 327.0 328.7 329.3 343.9 367.3 366.6 360.0 344.2 364.0 International Trade Commission 60.9 62.0 62.0 68.4 75.1 81.9 81.7 80.0 78.9 83.0 330.8 326.6 348.6 350.5 390.0 420.0 404.2 348.0 340.9 365.0 1.9 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.9 3.3 41.0 44.2 44.2 44.1 47.3 47.8 47.7 51.3 47.6 52.6 2.6 3.5 3.5 3.8 4.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 4.8 4.9 772.9 775.0 798.8 807.4 872.4 934.8 917.9 856.6 827.9 881.8 49,852.6c 51,056.0d 52,841.0e 55,958.7f 60,790.3g 69,145.5h 61,202.5i 60,909.6j 57,936.4k 61,622.9l — — — — 15,922.0m — — — — — National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Science Foundation Science Agencies Subtotal Related Agencies Commission on Civil Rights Legal Services Corporation Marine Mammal Commission U.S. Trade Representative State Justice Institute Related Agencies Subtotal Total Appropriation American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Source: FY2005-enacted amounts were taken from S.Rept. 109-188; FY2006-enacted amounts were taken from H.Rept. 109-520; FY2007-enacted amounts were taken from H.Rept. 110-240; FY2008-enacted amounts were taken from the House Committee on Appropriations’ Committee Print on the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (P.L. 111-8), Division B; FY2009-enacted amounts were taken from H.Rept. 111-366; FY2010-enacted amounts were taken from S.Rept. 111-229; FY2011-enacted amounts were taken from H.Rept. 112-169; FY2012-enacted amounts were taken from H.Rept. 112-284; and FY2013-enacted (before sequestration) were taken from S.Rept. 113-78. The FY2013-enacted amounts include the rescissions specified in Sections 3001 of the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act (P.L. 113-6) and the rescissions ordered by OMB pursuant to Section 3004 of the act. FY2014-enacted amounts were taken from the joint explanatory statement to accompany P.L. 113-76, printed in the January 15, 2014, Congressional Record (pp. H507-H532). Note: Amounts may not add to totals due to rounding. Amounts include all supplemental appropriations, except that the FY2009 amounts do not include appropriations pursuant to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (P.L. 111-5). Amounts also include all rescission of current year budget authority. In FY2005, FY2006, and c11173008 CRS-64 . FY2007, the CJS appropriations act included funding for the Department of State, and in FY2005 the act also included funding for the Judiciary. Appropriations for the Department of State and the Judiciary are not reflected in the total appropriations for FY2005-FY2007. In addition, between FY2005 and FY2008, the CJS appropriations act included several “related agencies” (e.g., the Federal Trade Commission, the Federal Communications Commission, the Small Business Administration) that are no longer funded through the CJS appropriations act. In order to make the total appropriation each fiscal year as comparable as possible, the total appropriation only includes appropriations for the “related agencies” that are currently in the CJS appropriations act. c11173008 a. FY2013 appropriations include sequestration. b. “Other” includes subaccounts for the Antitrust Division, Vaccine Injury Compensation Trust Fund, U.S. Trustee System Fund, Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, Fees and Expenses of Witnesses, Community Relations Service, and the Asset Forfeiture Fund. c. This amount does not include $259.2 million in rescissions of unobligated balances. d. This amount does not include $352.4 million in rescissions of unobligated balances. e. This amount does not include $360.5 million in rescissions of unobligated balances. f. This amount does not include $901.8 million in rescissions of unobligated balances. g. This amount does not include $610.6 million in rescissions of unobligated balances. h. This amount does not include $531.2 million in rescissions of unobligated balances included in P.L. 111-117; $111.5 million in rescissions of unobligated balances included in P.L. 111-212; $129.0 million in rescissions of unobligated balances included in P.L. 111-224; and $1.788 billion in rescissions of unobligated balance included in P.L. 112-6. i. This amount does not include $2.416 billion in rescissions of unobligated balances. j. This amount does not include $905.9 million in rescissions of unobligated balances. k. This amount does not include $881.6 million in rescissions of unobligated balances. l. This amount does not include $219.3 million in rescissions of unobligated balances. m. A total of $15.922 billion was included in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5) for CJS accounts. This included $150.0 million for the Economic Development Administration; $1.0 billion for the Census Bureau; $5.4 billion for the National Telecommunication and Information Administration; $580.0 million for the National Institute of Standards and Technology; $830.0 million for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; $6.0 million for the Department of Commerce’s Office of the Inspector General; $2.0 million for the Department of Justice’s Office of the Inspector General; $225.0 million for the Office on Violence Against Women; $2.765 billion for the State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance account; $1.0 billion for the Community Oriented Policing Services Office; $10.0 million for the OVW, OJP, and COPS Salaries and Expenses; $1.002 billion for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and $3.002 billion for the National Science Foundation. CRS-65 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . Author Contact Information Nathan James, Coordinator Analyst in Crime Policy njames@crs.loc.gov, 7-0264 Lisa N. Sacco Analyst in Illicit Drugs and Crime Policy lsacco@crs.loc.gov, 7-7359 Jennifer D. Williams, Coordinator Specialist in American National Government jwilliams@crs.loc.gov, 7-8640 Dana A. Shea Specialist in Science and Technology Policy dshea@crs.loc.gov, 7-6844 John F. Sargent Jr., Coordinator Specialist in Science and Technology Policy jsargent@crs.loc.gov, 7-9147 Ian F. Fergusson Specialist in International Trade and Finance ifergusson@crs.loc.gov, 7-4997 M. Angeles Villarreal Specialist in International Trade and Finance avillarreal@crs.loc.gov, 7-0321 Abigail B. Rudman Acting Section Head ALD Section arudman@crs.loc.gov, 7-9519 Daniel Morgan Specialist in Science and Technology Policy dmorgan@crs.loc.gov, 7-5849 Harold F. Upton Analyst in Natural Resources Policy hupton@crs.loc.gov, 7-2264 William J. Krouse Specialist in Domestic Security and Crime Policy wkrouse@crs.loc.gov, 7-2225 Glenn J. McLoughlin Section Research Manager gmcloughlin@crs.loc.gov, 7-7073 Heather B. Gonzalez Specialist in Science and Technology Policy hgonzalez@crs.loc.gov, 7-1895 Linda K. Moore Specialist in Telecommunications Policy lmoore@crs.loc.gov, 7-5853 Kristin Finklea Specialist in Domestic Security kfinklea@crs.loc.gov, 7-6259 Carmen Solomon-Fears Specialist in Social Policy csolomonfears@crs.loc.gov, 7-7306 Eugene Boyd Analyst in Federalism and Economic Development Policy eboyd@crs.loc.gov, 7-8689 Key Policy Staff Area of Expertise Name Phone Email Department of Justice Nathan James 7-0264 njames@crs.loc.gov Department of Commerce Jennifer D. Williams 7-8640 jwilliams@crs.loc.gov Science Agencies John F. Sargent 7-9147 jsargent@crs.loc.gov OJP, COPS, BOP, U.S. Marshals Nathan James 7-0264 njames@crs.loc.gov FBI, ATF, U.S. Attorneys William J. Krouse 7-2225 wkrouse@crs.loc.gov Juvenile Justice Kristin M. Finklea 7-6259 kfinklea@crs.loc.gov Departments Agencies and Policy Areas c11173008 Congressional Research Service 66 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations . c11173008 Area of Expertise Name Phone Email DEA, OVW Lisa N. Sacco 7-7359 lsacco@crs.loc.gov Trade-related agencies: ITA, ITC, and USTR M. Angeles Villarreal 7-0321 avillarreal@crs.loc.gov BIS Ian F. Fergusson 7-4997 ifergusson@crs.loc.gov EDA, MBDA Eugene Boyd 7-8689 eboyd@crs.loc.gov Telecommunications, NTIA Linda K. Moore 7-5853 lmoore@crs.loc.gov Census Bureau, ESA Jennifer D. Williams 7-8640 jwilliams@crs.loc.gov Patent and Trademark Office Glenn J. McLoughlin 7-7073 gmcloughlin@crs.loc.gov NIST John F. Sargent 7-9147 jsargent@crs.loc.gov Office of Science and Technology Policy Dana A. Shea 7-6844 dshea@crs.loc.gov NOAA Harold F. Upton 7-2264 hupton@crs.loc.gov NASA Daniel Morgan 7-5849 dmorgan@crs.loc.gov Congressional Research Service 67