NASA Appropriations and Authorizations: A Fact Sheet Daniel Morgan Specialist in Science and Technology Policy June 4, 2014 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R43419 NASA Appropriations and Authorizations: A Fact Sheet I n the current fiscal environment, congressional deliberations about the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) often focus on the availability of funding. This fact sheet provides data on past and current NASA appropriations as well as proposed NASA appropriations for FY2015 and proposed authorizations of NASA appropriations for FY2015 and FY2016. NASA issues of congressional interest are discussed further in CRS Report R43144, NASA: Issues for Authorization, Appropriations, and Oversight in the 113th Congress. Additional information on appropriations legislation affecting NASA is provided in CRS Report R43509, Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations, and similar reports for other years.1 Table 1 shows appropriations for NASA from FY2010 through FY2014. The data for FY2010 through FY2013 include supplemental appropriations, rescissions, transfers, reprogramming, and, in the case of FY2013, sequestration. They are taken from NASA’s congressional budget justifications for FY2012 through FY2015. Congressional budget justifications are available on the NASA website (http://www.nasa.gov/news/budget/) for the current year and for previous years back to FY2002. The table data for FY2014 are as enacted by the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 (P.L. 113-76), before any reprogramming or other modifications. For amounts not specified in the act, see pp. H515-H517 of the joint explanatory statement, published in the Congressional Record on January 15, 2014. Table 2 shows enacted appropriations for FY2014 (as above); the Administration’s request for FY2015 and additional FY2015 funds proposed under the Opportunity, Growth, and Security Initiative (as given in NASA’s FY2015 congressional budget justification); FY2015 appropriations proposed in H.R. 4660 as passed by the House on May 30, 2014; and the authorizations of appropriations for FY2015 and FY2016 in three versions of the NASA Authorization Act of 2013: the House majority bill (H.R. 2687) as ordered reported on July 18, 2013 (does not include amounts for FY2016); the Senate majority bill (S. 1317) as ordered reported on July 30, 2013; and the House minority bill (H.R. 2616) as introduced on July 8, 2013. Because FY2014 appropriations were enacted on January 17, 2014, the amounts that these three authorization bills would authorize for FY2014 are not shown.2 Figure 1 shows NASA’s total annual budget authority from the agency’s establishment in FY1958 to FY2014, in both current dollars and inflation-adjusted FY2014 dollars. 1 See, for example, CRS Report R43080, Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2014 Appropriations; CRS Report R42440, Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2013 Appropriations; CRS Report R41721, Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2012 Appropriations; CRS Report R41161, Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2011 Appropriations; and CRS Report R40644, Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2010 Appropriations. 2 A fourth bill, the NASA Authorization Act of 2014 (H.R. 4412), was ordered reported by a voice vote of the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology on April 29, 2014, and may effectively supersede H.R. 2687 and H.R. 2616. H.R. 4412 is not included in the table as it would authorize appropriations only for FY2014. Congressional Research Service 1 NASA Appropriations and Authorizations: A Fact Sheet Table 1. NASA Appropriations, FY2010-FY2014 (budget authority in $ millions) FY2010 FY2011 FY2012 FY2013 FY2014 $4,498 $4,920 $5,074 $4,782 $5,151 Earth Science 1,439 1,722 1,761 1,659 1,826 Planetary Science 1,364 1,451 1,501 1,275 1,345 Astrophysics 647 631 648 617 668 James Webb Space Telescope 439 477 519 628 658 Heliophysics 608 639 645 603 654 Aeronautics 497 534 569 530 566 Space Technology 275 456 574 615 576 3,626 3,821 3,707 3,706 4,113 3,288 2,982 3,002 2,884 3,115 - Orion MPCV — 1,196 1,200 1,114 1,197 - Space Launch System — 1,536 1,497 1,415 1,600 Science Exploration Exploration Systems Development - Exploration Ground Systems — 250 305 355 318 39 607 406 525 696 299 232 300 297 302 6,142 5,146 4,184 3,725 3,778 Space Shuttle 3,101 1,593 596 39 —a International Space Station 2,313 2,714 2,790 2,776 —a 728 840 798 910 —a 180 145 136 116 117 Space Grant 46 46 39 37 40 EPSCoR 25 25 17 17 18 MUREP 31 29 30 28 30 Other 79 47 50 34 29 3,018 2,956 2,994 2,711 2,793 453 433 495 661b 515 36 36 38 35 38 18,724 18,448 17,770c 16,879b 17,647 Commercial Spaceflight Exploration R&D Space Operations Space and Flight Support Education Cross-Agency Support Construction and EC&R Inspector General Total Sources: FY2010-FY2013 from NASA FY2012-FY2015 congressional budget justifications. FY2014 from P.L. 113-76 and pp. H515-H517 of the joint explanatory statement, Congressional Record, January 15, 2014. Notes: Some totals may not add because of rounding. MPCV = Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. R&D = Research and Development. EPSCoR = Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research. MUREP = Minority University Research Education Program. EC&R = Environmental Compliance and Remediation. a. Not specified in P.L. 113-76 or the joint explanatory statement. As of March 10, 2014, NASA’s operating plan for FY2014 included no funding for Space Shuttle, $2,964 million for International Space Station, and $812 million for Space and Flight Support, with the remaining $2 million transferred to other accounts. b. Includes $14 million (after sequestration) of supplemental funding from the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, 2013 (P.L. 113-2) that is not shown in the NASA FY2015 congressional budget justification. c. Includes rescission of $1 million from prior-year accounts not shown in the table. Congressional Research Service 2 NASA Appropriations and Authorizations: A Fact Sheet Table 2. NASA Appropriations, FY2014-FY2015, and Authorizations, FY2015-FY2016 (budget authority in $ millions) Authorizations Appropriations FY2014 H.R. 2687 FY2015 S. 1317 H.R. 2616 Enacted Request OGSI House FY2015 FY2015 FY2016 FY2015 FY2016 $5,151 $4,972 $187 $5,193 $4,627 $5,234 $5,316 $5,293 $5,306 Earth Science 1,826 1,770 — 1,750 1,200 1,836 1,872 1,855 1,849 Planetary Science Science 1,345 1,280 — 1,450 1,500 1,450 1,500 1,500 1,500 Astrophysics 668 607 — 680 642 670 687 660 700 James Webb Space Tel. 658 645 — 645 658 645 620 645 620 Heliophysics 654 669 — 668 626 633 637 633 637 Aeronautics 566 551 44 666 566 581 593 581 594 576 706 100 627 500 650 665 645 720 4,113 3,976 350 4,167 4,007 4,522 4,660 4,436 4,534 Space Technology Exploration Exploration Sys. Devt. 3,115 2,784 100 3,055 3,002 3,375 3,485 3,393 3,474 - Orion MPCV 1,197 1,053 — 1,140 1,200 1,225 1,250 1,235 1,260 - Space Launch System 1,600 1,380 — 1,600 1,484 1,725 1,800 1,750 1,800 - Explo. Ground Systems 318 351 — 315 318 425 435 408 414 Commercial Spaceflight 696 848 250 785 700 815 825 700 700 Exploration R&D 302 343 0 327 305 332 350 343 360 3,778 3,905 101 3,878a 3,818 3,948 4,010 4,042 4,133 Internatl. Space Station —b 3,051 101 3,040 2,984 3,103 3,196 3,197 3,320 Space and Flight Support —b 855 0 845 834 845 814 845 814 117 89 10 106 125 140 142 136 136 Space Grant 40 24 0 30 — — — — — EPSCoR 18 9 0 9 — — — — — MUREP 30 30 0 32 — — — — — Space Operations Education 29 26 10 35 — — — — — Cross-Agency Suppt.c Other 2,793 2,779 0 2,779 2,600 2,907 2,965 2,850 2,937 Construction & EC&R 515 446 94 446 587 441 441 441 471 38 37 0 34 35 39 39 37 37 17,647 17,461 886 17,896 16,865 18,462 18,831 18,462 18,868 Inspector General Total Sources: FY2014 enacted from P.L. 113-76 and pp. H515-H517 of the joint explanatory statement, Congressional Record, January 15, 2014. FY2015 request and OGSI from NASA FY2015 congressional budget justification. FY2015 House from H.R. 4660 as passed by the House and H.Rept. 113-448. Authorizations from H.R. 2687 as ordered reported, S. 1317 as ordered reported, and H.R. 2616 as introduced. Notes: Some totals may not add because of rounding. OGSI = Opportunity, Growth, and Security Initiative. MPCV = Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. R&D = Research and Development. EPSCoR = Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research. MUREP = Minority University Research Education Program. EC&R = Environmental Compliance and Remediation. a. A floor amendment reduced the amount for Space Operations without specifying how the reduction should be allocated. As a result, the amounts for I and Space and Flight Support do not add to the amount for Space Operations. b. Not specified in P.L. 113-76 or the joint explanatory statement. As of March 20, 2014, NASA’s operating plan for FY2014 included $2,964 million for International Space Station and $812 million for Space and Flight Support, with the remaining $2 million transferred to other accounts. c. Cross-Agency Support is called Safety, Security, and Mission Services in H.R. 4660. Congressional Research Service 3 NASA Appropriations and Authorizations: A Fact Sheet Figure 1. NASA Funding, FY1958-FY2014 Source: FY1958-FY2008 from National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Aeronautics and Space Report of the President: Fiscal Year 2008 Activities, http://history.nasa.gov/presrep2008.pdf, Table D-1A. FY2009-FY2013 from NASA congressional budget justifications, FY2011-FY2015. FY2014 from P.L. 113-76. Current dollars deflated to FY2014 dollars using GDP (chained) price index from President’s budget for FY2015, Historical Table 10.1, http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Historicals. Note: Transition quarter between FY1976 and FY1977 not shown. Author Contact Information Daniel Morgan Specialist in Science and Technology Policy dmorgan@crs.loc.gov, 7-5849 Congressional Research Service 4