Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections Barbara Salazar Torreon Information Research Specialist December 3, 2013 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov 98-684 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections T his report provides the results of recent elections in Latin America and the Caribbean. Below are three tables organized by region, including the date of each country’s independence, the name of the newly elected president or prime minister, and the projected date of the next election. Information in this report was gathered from numerous sources, including the U.S. State Department, the CIA’s Open Source, the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), and other news sources. Table 1. South America Country Independence Date Head of Government Last Election Next Election Argentina July 9, 1816 FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER, Cristina Oct. 23, 2011 Oct. 2015 Bolivia Aug. 6, 1825 MORALES, Evo Dec. 6, 2009 Dec. 2014 Brazil Sept. 7, 1822 ROUSSEFF, Dilma Oct. 3, 2010/ Oct. 31, 2010 Oct. 5, 2014 Chile Sept. 18, 1810 PIÑERA, Sebastián Dec. 13, 2009/ Jan. 17, 2010 Dec. 15, 2013a Colombia July 20, 1810 SANTOS, Juan Manuel May 30, 2010/June 20, 2010 May 2014 Ecuador May 24, 1822 CORREA, Rafael Feb. 17, 2013 Feb. 2017 Guyana May 26, 1966 RAMOTAR, Donald Nov. 28, 2011 by Nov. 2016 Apr. 21, 2013 April 2018 Horaciob Paraguay May 14, 1811 CARTES, Peru July 28, 1821 HUMALA, Ollanta Apr. 10, 2011/June 5, 2011 (2nd round) Apr. 2016 Suriname Nov. 25, 1975 BOUTERSE, Desi May 25, 2010 May 2015 Uruguay Aug. 25, 1825 MUJICA, José Oct. 25, 2009/ Nov. 29, 2009 Oct. 26, 2014 Venezuela July 5, 1811 MADURO, Nicolásc April 14, 2013 Oct. 2019 Source: The Congressional Research Service (CRS). a. In the first round of voting on November 17, Michelle Bachelet received 46.67 % of the vote in the first round, in comparison to Evelyn Matthei, who received 25.01% of the vote. Bachelet won the most votes but fell short of obtaining an absolute majority. The run-off election will be held on December 15, 2013. Bachelet previously served as president from 2006 to 2010. b. Horacio Cartes, a Paraguayan tobacco magnate, took 46 % of the vote against 37 % for his main opponent, Efraín Alegre, of the ruling Liberal Party. The president is both the chief of state and head of government and serves a five-year term. c. Venezuela held a special election on April 14, 2013, with Nicolás Maduro winning 50.7% of the votes versus 49.1% for opposition candidate Henrique Capriles. Maduro was sworn in on April 19, 2013. Table 2. Mexico and Central America Country Independence Date Head of Government Last Election Next Election Mexico Sept. 16, 1810 PEÑA NIETO, Enriquea July 1, 2012 July 2018 Belize Sept. 21, 1981 BARROW, Dean Mar. 7, 2012 by June 2017 Congressional Research Service 1 Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections Independence Date Country Head of Government Last Election Next Election Costa Rica Sept. 15, 1821 CHINCHILLA Miranda, Laura Feb. 7, 2010 Feb. 2, 2014 El Salvador Sept. 15, 1821 FUNES, Mauricio Mar. 15, 2009 Feb. 2, 2014b Guatemala Sept. 15, 1821 PÉREZ MOLINA, Otto Sept. 11, 2011/ Nov. 6, 2011 Sept. 13, 2015 Honduras Sept. 15, 1821 LOBO SOSA, Porfirio Nov. 24, 2013c Nov. 2017 Nicaragua Sept. 15, 1821 ORTEGA, Daniel Nov. 6, 2011 Nov. 2016 Panama Nov. 3, 1903 MARTINELLI, Ricardo May 3, 2009 May 2014 Source: CRS. a. Enrique Peña Nieto won Mexico’s presidential election on July 1, 2012, and took office on December 1, 2012. b. In El Salvador, the President is elected by absolute majority vote through a two-round system to serve a five-year term. The First Round is February 2, 2014, and the Second Round is scheduled for March 9, 2014. c. Juan Orlando Hernandez, head of Honduras’ Congress, defeated Xiomara Castro, the wife of former leader Manuel Zelaya. Castro is contesting the election results. Table 3. Caribbean Country Independence Date Head of Government Last Election Next Election Antigua and Barbuda Nov. 1, 1981 SPENCER, Baldwin Mar. 12, 2009 by July 2014 Bahamas July 10, 1973 CHRISTIE, Perry May 7, 2012 by May 2017 Feb. 21, 2013 by Feb. 2018 CASTRO RUZ, Raúl b b Nov. 3, 1978 SKERRITT, Roosevelt Dec. 18, 2009 Dec. 2014 Dominican Republic Feb. 27, 1844 MEDINA, Danilo May 20, 2012 May 2016 Grenada Feb. 7, 1974 MITCHELL, Keith Feb. 19, 2013 Feb. 2018 Haiti Jan. 1, 1804 MARTELLY, Michel Nov. 28, 2010/ Mar. 20, 2011 late 2015 Jamaica Aug. 6, 1962 SIMPSON MILLER, Portia Dec. 29, 2011 by Dec. 2016 St. Kitts and Nevis Sept. 19, 1983 DOUGLAS, Denzil Jan. 25, 2010 by Jan. 2015 St. Lucia Feb. 22, 1979 ANTHONY, Kenny Nov. 28, 2011 by Nov. 2016 St. Vincent and the Grenadines Oct. 27, 1979 GONSALVES, Ralph Dec. 13, 2010 by Dec. 2015 Trinidad and Tobago Aug. 31, 1962 PERSAD-BISSESSAR, Kamla May 24, 2010 by May 2015 Barbados Nov. 30, 1966 STUART, Cuba May 20, 1902 Dominica Freundela Source: CRS. a. Freundel Stuart was selected as prime minister on October 23, 2010, following the death of Prime Minister David Thompson. Stuart was elected on February 21, 2013. Congressional Research Service 2 Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections b. On February 24, 2008, Raúl Castro was selected by Cuba’s legislature as president of the Council of State, a position that makes him head of state and government. Raúl had been serving as acting president since July 31, 2006, when Cuba’s long-serving Communist leader, Fidel Castro, stepped down provisionally because of poor health. Since the 1959 Cuban Revolution, there have been no elections for head of government. Author Contact Information Barbara Salazar Torreon Information Research Specialist btorreon@crs.loc.gov, 7-8996 Acknowledgments Mark P. Sullivan, CRS specialist in Latin American Affairs, was the former author of this report. Congressional Research Service 3