The 2013 Farm Bill: A Comparison of the Senate-Passed Bill (S. 954) and HouseReported Bill (H.R. 1947) with Current Law Ralph M. Chite, Coordinator Section Research Manager June 14, 2013 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R43076 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law Summary Congress periodically establishes agricultural and food policy in an omnibus farm bill. The 113th Congress faces reauthorization of the current five-year farm bill (the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, P.L. 110-246), since many of its provisions expire in 2013. The 2008 farm bill originally expired in 2012, but the 112th Congress did not complete action on a new farm bill and instead extended most authorities and funding for one additional year in the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (the fiscal cliff bill, P.L. 112-240). The 2008 farm bill contains titles that cover farm commodity support, horticulture, livestock, conservation, nutrition assistance, international trade and food aid, agricultural research, farm credit, rural development, bioenergy, and forestry. The Senate Agriculture Committee approved its version of an omnibus 2013 farm bill (S. 954, the Agriculture Reform, Food, and Jobs Act of 2013) by a vote of 15-5 on May 14, 2013. The next day, the House Agriculture Committee conducted markup of its own version of the farm bill (H.R. 1947, the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013) and approved the amended bill by a vote of 36-10. Floor action on the Senate bill began during the week of May 20, 2013, and was completed on June 10, 2013, when the full Senate approved the bill by a vote of 66-27. The full House is expected to consider H.R. 1947 during the week of June 17. Within the 12 titles of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 are provisions that would reshape the structure of farm commodity support, expand crop insurance coverage, consolidate conservation programs, revise the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly food stamps), and extend authority to appropriate funds for many U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) discretionary programs through FY2018. Both farm bills would eliminate direct payments to farmers, and revise (and rename) counter-cyclical price and revenue programs, to enhance price or revenue protection for producers. The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) projects that the mandatory programs of the 2008 farm bill, if they were to continue, would cost $973 billion over the next 10 years (FY2014-FY2023). This baseline has been reduced by $6.4 billion to reflect the effects of sequestration. Compared to this “baseline,” S. 954, as passed, would reduce spending by $18 billion (-1.9%); and the House Agriculture Committee-reported bill, H.R. 1947, would reduce it by $33 billion (-3.4%). The bills differ most notably in their estimated reductions to SNAP spending. The House-reported bill proposes to restrict categorical eligibility (estimated to reduce SNAP spending by approximately $11.6 billion over 10 years), whereas the Senate-passed bill does not include such a restriction. This report provides a side-by-side comparison of every provision in the House Agriculture Committee-reported and Senate-passed farm bills with each other and with current law or policy, as amended and extended by the fiscal cliff bill. Congressional Research Service The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law Contents Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 1 Budgetary Impact............................................................................................................................. 3 Title-by-Title Summaries of the Senate- Passed (S. 954) and House-Reported (H.R. 1947) 2013 Farm Bills ............................................................................................................................ 5 Farm Bill Title I, Commodity Programs .................................................................................... 5 Farm Bill Title II, Conservation ................................................................................................ 7 Farm Bill Title III, Trade ........................................................................................................... 8 Farm Bill Title IV, Nutrition ...................................................................................................... 9 Farm Bill Title V, Credit .......................................................................................................... 10 Farm Bill Title VI, Rural Development ................................................................................... 11 Farm Bill Title VII, Research, Extension, and Related Matters .............................................. 12 Farm Bill Title VIII, Forestry .................................................................................................. 13 Farm Bill Title IX, Energy ....................................................................................................... 13 Farm Bill Title X, Horticulture ................................................................................................ 14 Farm Bill Title XI, Crop Insurance.......................................................................................... 15 Farm Bill Title XII, Miscellaneous .......................................................................................... 16 Provisions of the Senate-Passed (S. 954) and House Committee-Reported (H.R. 1947) Versions of the 2013 Farm Bill, Compared with Current Law ................................................... 18 Figures Figure 1. Ten-Year Scores of the Senate and House 2013 Farm Bills ............................................. 4 Tables Title I. Commodity Programs ........................................................................................................ 18 Title II. Conservation ..................................................................................................................... 44 Title III. Trade ................................................................................................................................ 65 Title IV. Nutrition........................................................................................................................... 74 Title V. Credit................................................................................................................................. 87 Title VI. Rural Development ......................................................................................................... 92 Title VII. Research, Extension, and Related Matters ................................................................... 106 Title VIII. Forestry ....................................................................................................................... 119 Title IX. Energy ........................................................................................................................... 125 Title X. Horticulture..................................................................................................................... 133 Title XI. Crop Insurance .............................................................................................................. 139 Title XII. Miscellaneous .............................................................................................................. 147 Congressional Research Service The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law Contacts Author Contact Information......................................................................................................... 159 Acknowledgments ....................................................................................................................... 159 Congressional Research Service The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law Introduction The 113th Congress is in the midst of considering an omnibus farm bill that will establish the direction of agricultural policy for the next several years. Many provisions of the current farm bill (the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, P.L. 110-246) expired in 2012, but were extended for an additional year in the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-240, the fiscal cliff bill). The 112th Congress began work on a new farm bill but did not complete action before the conclusion of the Congress, requiring new bills to be introduced in the 113th Congress. The Senate Agriculture Committee reported its version of the 2013 omnibus farm bill on May 14, 2013 (S. 954, the Agriculture Reform, Food and Jobs Act of 2013) by a vote of 15-5. Floor action began during the week of May 20, 2013, and concluded on June 10, 2013 when the full Senate approved the measure by a vote of 66-27. While the bill was being debated in the Senate, approximately nine amendments were adopted and six were rejected. Adopted amendments included a reduction in crop insurance premium subsidies for a producer with an adjusted gross income above $750,000, and another that bars additional categories of ex-offenders from receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. Attempts to modify the sugar program, further limit SNAP spending, eliminate crop insurance subsidies for tobacco, and require the labeling of genetically engineered foods were all defeated. More than 200 other amendments were offered to the Senate bill, but were not considered, when an agreement could not be reached on consolidating the amendments and limiting floor debate. On May 15, 2013, the House Agriculture Committee completed markup of its version of the bill (H.R. 1947, the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013) and approved the amended measure by a 36-10 vote. The bill was subsequently referred to the House Judiciary Committee, which amended the bill to ensure that two proposed dairy programs are subject to standard rulemaking procedures. Floor action on the House bill is expected during the week of June 17. Action on a 2013 Farm Bill Committee House Senate H.R. 1947 S. 954 Markup Markup completed: completed: 5/15/2013 5/14/2013 Vote of Vote of 36-10 15-5 H.Rept. 113-92a Initial Passage Conference Agreement House Senate Report House Senate Public Law — S. 954 Passed 6/10/2013 Vote of 66-27 — — — — Source: CRS. a. After H.R. 1947 was reported by the House Agriculture Committee on 5/15/2013, the bill was amended by the House Judiciary Committee on 6/10/2013 with respect to rulemaking procedures. Congressional Research Service 1 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law 2013 Farm Bill: Key CRS Policy Staff Legislative Issues Name/Title Phone E-mail Farm Bill Budget Jim Monke Specialist in Agricultural Policy 7-9664 jmonke@crs.loc.gov Farm Safety Net (Commodity Support, Crop Insurance, and Disaster Assistance) Dennis A. Shields Specialist in Agricultural Policy 7-9051 dshields@crs.loc.gov Dairy Policy Randy Schnepf Specialist in Agricultural Policy 7-4277 rschnepf@crs.loc.gov Sugar Policy Remy Jurenas Specialist in Agricultural Policy 7-7281 rjurenas@crs.loc.gov Conservation and Environment John Glover Agricultural Conservation and Natural Resources Policy, Detailee 7-9087 jglover@crs.loc.gov Agricultural Trade and International Food Aid Charles E. Hanrahan Senior Specialist in Agricultural Policy 7-7235 chanrahan@crs.loc.gov Domestic Food and Nutrition Assistance Randy Alison Aussenberg Analyst in Nutrition Assistance Policy 7-8641 raussenberg@crs.loc.gov Agricultural Credit Jim Monke Specialist in Agricultural Policy 7-9664 jmonke@crs.loc.gov Rural Development Tadlock Cowan Analyst in Natural Resources and Rural Development 7-7600 tcowan@crs.loc.gov Agricultural Research Dennis A. Shields Specialist in Agricultural Policy 7-9051 dshields@crs.loc.gov Forestry Katie Hoover Analyst in Natural Resources Policy 7-9008 khoover@crs.loc.gov Agriculture-Based Biofuels/Bioenergy Randy Schnepf Specialist in Agricultural Policy 7-4277 rschnepf@crs.loc.gov Horticulture and Organic Agriculture Renée Johnson Specialist in Agricultural Policy 7-9588 rjohnson@crs.loc.gov Livestock/Animal Agriculture Joel L. Greene Analyst in Agricultural Policy 7-9877 jgreene@crs.loc.gov EPA-Related Issues Claudia Copeland Specialist in Resources and Environmental Policy 7-7227 ccopeland@crs.loc.gov Rulemaking Process Maeve P. Carey Analyst in Government Organization and Management 7-7775 mcarey@crs.loc.gov Within their 12 titles, the five-year House and Senate farm bills would reshape the structure of farm commodity support, expand crop insurance coverage, consolidate conservation programs, revise the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly food stamps), and extend authority to appropriate funds for many U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) discretionary programs through FY2018. Congressional Research Service 2 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law This report begins with a brief overview of the estimated budgetary impact of the House and Senate farm bills, followed by a summary comparison of the major provisions of each title, and a comprehensive comparison of all of the provisions in S. 954, as passed by the Senate, and H.R. 1947, as reported by the House Agriculture Committee, with each other, and with current law or policy in a side-by-side format. The current law column of the side-by-side tables reflects the provisions of the 2008 farm bill (P.L. 110-246) as amended by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-240), which extended most of the 2008 farm bill provisions for an additional year. Budgetary Impact1 The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) projects that the mandatory programs of the 2008 farm bill, if they were to continue, would cost $973 billion over the next 10 years (FY2014-2023). 2 This “baseline” has been reduced by $6.4 billion to reflect the effects of sequestration over the 10-year baseline.3 Compared to this post-sequestration baseline, the Senate-passed farm bill (S. 954), would reduce spending by $18 billion (-1.8%);4 and the House Agriculture Committeereported bill, H.R. 1947, would reduce it by $33 billion (-3.4%).5 If sequestration was repealed and the baseline was increased by the $6.4 billion adjustment that has been taken (restoring the baseline to what would have been $979 billion), then the farm bill proposals would reduce spending by $24 billion (Senate) and $40 billion (House) over the next 10 years.6 The net spending by the farm bill proposals over the next 10 years, if the bills were enacted, would be the same whether one quotes pre- or post-sequestration estimates—at $955 billion under the Senate bill and $940 billion under the House bill. The net reduction in each bill is composed of some titles receiving more funding than in the past, while other titles provide offsets for deficit reduction. Figure 1 illustrates the budgetary impacts of changes to each title in each bill. The following table contains the data in tabular form and includes an estimate of the proposed outlays under the draft legislation. More background and detail on the budget available to write the farm bill, the CBO scores of each bill, and other budgetary issues is available in CRS Report R42484, Budget Issues Shaping a Farm Bill in 2013. 1 This section was written by Jim Monke, Specialist in Agricultural Policy. The May 14, 2013, CBO baseline for the Commodity Credit Corporation is available at http://cbo.gov/publication/ 44202, and for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program at http://cbo.gov/publication/44211. 3 The effect of sequestration on the baseline and scores is explained in the initial CBO estimates of the farm bill drafts prior to markup for the Senate farm bill (p. 2 and Table 4, at http://cbo.gov/publication/44175, May 13, 2013) and the House bill (p. 2 and Table 4, at http://cbo.gov/publication/44177, May 13, 2013). 4 CBO cost estimate of S. 954 as reported by the Senate Agriculture committee (http://cbo.gov/publication/44248, May 17, 2013). 5 CBO cost estimate of H.R. 1947 as reported by the House Agriculture committee (http://cbo.gov/publication/44271, May 23, 2013). 6 See footnote 3. 2 Congressional Research Service 3 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law Figure 1.Ten-Year Scores of the Senate and House 2013 Farm Bills (change in outlays over FY2014-FY2023 in billions of dollars by farm bill title, relative to baseline) Source: CRS, using CBO cost estimates of S. 954 as reported by the Senate Agriculture committee (http://cbo. gov/publication/44248, May 17, 2013), and H.R. 1947 as reported by the House Agriculture committee (http:// cbo.gov/publication/44271, May 23, 2013), Amendments that were adopted on the Senate floor are not expected to significantly change the CBO score. Notes: Incorporates into Title X (Horticulture) the scores of promotion orders that are classified as revenue. 2013 Farm Bill Budget: Baseline, Scores, and Proposed Outlays, by Title (outlays in millions of dollars, 10-year total FY2014-FY2023) CBO Score of Bill (change to baseline) 2013 Farm Bill Titles CBO Baseline S. 954 H.R. 1947 Outlays Proposed (Baseline + Score) S. 954 H.R. 1947 I Commodities 58,765 -17,442 -18,626 41,323 40,139 II Conservation 61,567 -3,511 -4,827 58,056 56,740 III Trade 3,435 +150 +150 3,585 3,585 IV Nutrition 764,432 -3,944 -20,509 760,488 743,923 V Credit -2,240 +0 +0 -2,240 -2,240 VI Rural Development 13 +228 +96 241 109 VII Research 111 +781 +760 892 871 VIII Forestry 3 +10 +5 13 8 IX Energy 243 +880 +0 1,123 243 Congressional Research Service 4 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law CBO Score of Bill (change to baseline) 2013 Farm Bill Titles X Horticulture XI Crop Insurance XII Miscellaneous Total CBO Baseline S. 954 H.R. 1947 Outlays Proposed (Baseline + Score) S. 954 H.R. 1947 1,061 +250 +479 1,311 1,540 84,105 +4,999 +8,914 89,104 93,019 1,410 -294 +161 1,116 1,571 972,905 -17,894 -33,397 955,012 939,508 Source: CRS, using the CBO baseline (May 2013, at http://cbo.gov/publication/44177) and CBO cost estimates of S. 954 as reported by the Senate Agriculture committee (http://cbo.gov/publication/44248, May 17, 2013), and H.R. 1947 as reported by the House Agriculture committee (http://cbo.gov/publication/44271, May 23, 2013). Adopted floor amendments in the Senate are not expected to significantly change the CBO score of S. 954. Notes: Incorporates into Title X (Horticulture) the scores of promotion orders that are classified as revenue. Title-by-Title Summaries of the Senate- Passed (S. 954) and House-Reported (H.R. 1947) 2013 Farm Bills Farm Bill Title I, Commodity Programs7 Under both the Senate-passed (S. 954) and House Agriculture Committee-reported (H.R. 1947) 2013 farm bills, farm support for traditional program crops is restructured by eliminating direct payments,8 the counter-cyclical price (CCP) program, and the Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) program. Authority is continued for marketing assistance loans, which provide additional low-price protection at “loan rates” specified in current law (with an adjustment made to the cotton loan rate). Direct payments account for most of current commodity spending and are made to producers and landowners based on historical production of corn, wheat, soybeans, cotton, rice, peanuts, and other “covered” crops. Approximately three-fourths of the 10-year, $46-$47 billion in savings associated with the proposed elimination of current farm programs would be used to offset the cost of revising farm programs (Title I) and enhancing crop insurance (Title XI). The two bills provide programs for covered crops, except cotton, which would have its own program (see “Farm Bill Title XI, Crop Insurance”). Both S. 954, as passed, and H.R. 1947, as reported, borrow conceptually from current farm programs, revising (and renaming) them to enhance price or revenue protection for producers. • Both bills retain a counter-cyclical price program that makes a farm payment when prices for covered crops decline below certain levels. It is renamed Adverse Market Payments or AMP in S. 954 and Price Loss Coverage or PLC in H.R. 1947. To better protect producers in a market downturn, the price guarantees (called “reference prices” in both bills) that determine payment levels are set in statute and increased relative to current parameters (called “target prices”). A 7 This section was written by Dennis A. Shields (farm commodity support), Randy Schnepf (dairy), Remy Jurenas (sugar), and Jim Monke (payment limits), all Specialists in Agricultural Policy. 8 Direct payments continue at a reduced level for cotton in crop years 2014 and 2015. Congressional Research Service 5 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law broad exception applies in S. 954 to the reference price for crops other than rice and peanuts, where it is calculated as 55% of a rolling 5-year average (excluding the high and low years). The 2012 Senate-passed farm bill (S. 3240) did not provide for a counter-cyclical price program, and an amendment to eliminate AMP for crops other than rice and peanuts failed during committee mark-up of S. 954. S. 954 continues current policy by making payments on 85% of historical plantings (or “base acres”), a provision designed to minimize the program’s effect on planting decisions. In contrast, the House bill pays on 85% of planted acreage to better align payments with producer risk. • Both bills retain a revenue-based program designed to cover a portion of a farmer’s out-of-pocket loss (referred to as “shallow loss”). It is renamed Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC) in S. 954 and Revenue Loss Coverage or (RLC) in H.R. 1947. Payments are made on planted acres when actual crop revenue drops below a specified percentage of historical or “benchmark” revenue (88% in S. 954 and 85% in H.R. 1947). In the Senate bill under ARC, farmers can select coverage at either the county or individual farm level, and any payments are made in addition to AMP. In the House bill, coverage under RLC is available at only the county level, and the program is not available in combination with PLC.9 Five disaster programs were established in the 2008 farm bill for weather-induced losses in FY2008-FY2011. Both S. 954 and H.R. 1947 retroactively reauthorize four programs covering livestock and tree assistance for FY2012-FY2018. The crop disaster program from the 2008 farm bill (i.e., Supplemental Revenue Assistance, or SURE) is not reauthorized in either bill, but elements of it are folded into the new ARC in the Senate bill by allowing producers to protect against farm-level revenue losses (not included in the House bill). S. 954 also provides disaster benefits to tree fruit producers who suffered crop losses in 2012. Farm commodity programs have certain limits that cap payments (currently $105,000 per person) and set eligibility based on adjusted gross income (AGI, currently a maximum of $500,000 per person for nonfarm income and $750,000 for farm income). The two bills diverge from current law and each other, with S. 954 reducing the farm program payment limit to $50,000 per person for combined AMP and ARC payments and adding a $75,000 limit on loan deficiency payments (LDPs). The program payment limit under H.R. 1947 is $125,000 for PLC and RLC, with no limit on LDPs.10 The Senate bill changes the threshold to be considered “actively engaged” and to qualify for payments, by effectively requiring personal labor in the farming operation. Both bills also tighten limits on AGI, with a combined AGI limit of $750,000 in S. 954 and $950,000 in H.R. 1947. The payment limit provisions are essentially the same as in the 2012 farm bill proposals. The only differences from last year are incorporating adverse market payments into the 9 RLC makes payments to producers for each planted crop when actual countywide crop revenue is below 85% of historical revenue (i.e., the producer absorbs the first 15% of the shortfall). In contrast, for ARC, the revenue guarantee is set at 88% of historical revenue (i.e., the producer absorbs the first 12% of the shortfall) at either the county or farm level (to cover more localized losses). In both cases, the government then pays for the next 10% of the loss. Any remaining losses are backstopped by crop insurance if purchased by the producer. 10 In both the House and Senate bills, peanuts have a separate but identical payment limit as all the other covered commodities combined. Congressional Research Service 6 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law Senate bill’s cap on ARC, and incorporating direct payments for cotton in 2014 and 2015 into the PLC-RLC cap and imposing a separate $40,000 cap on those direct payments. For dairy policy, both bills contain similar, significant changes, including elimination of the dairy product price support program, the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) program, and export subsidies. These are replaced by a new program, which makes payments to participating dairy producers when the national margin (average farm price of milk minus average feed costs) falls below $4.00 per hundredweight (cwt.), with coverage at higher margins available for purchase. Another provision makes participating producers subject to a separate program, which reduces incentives to produce milk when margins are low. As reported out of the House Agriculture Committee, H.R. 1947 exempted these two new dairy programs from standard rulemaking procedures. However, an amendment adopted by the House Judiciary Committee removes this exemption and requires USDA to determine the market impacts of the new program during the rulemaking process. Separately, federal milk marketing orders have permanent statutory authority and continue intact. However, S. 954 (but not H.R. 1947) includes two additional provisions: one that requires USDA to use a specified pre-hearing procedure to consider alternative formulas for Class III milk product pricing, and a second that requires USDA to analyze and report on the potential effects of replacing end-product pricing with alternative pricing procedures. The sugar program is left unchanged in both bills. Farm Bill Title II, Conservation11 The current agricultural conservation portfolio includes over 20 conservation programs. The conservation titles of both the Senate-passed (S. 954) and House-reported (H.R. 1947) farm bills reduce and consolidate the number of conservation programs while also reducing mandatory funding over the 10-year baseline by $3.5 billion in S. 954 and $4.8 billion in H.R. 1947. Many of the larger existing conservation programs, such as the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), and the Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP), are reauthorized by both bills with smaller and similar conservation programs “rolled” into them. In response to reduced demand and as a budget saving measure, the largest conservation program, CRP, is reauthorized with a reduced acreage enrollment cap using a stepdown approach from the current 32 million acres to 25 million by FY2018 under S. 932 and 24 million acres under H.R. 1947. CRP also is amended to include the enrollment of grassland acres similar to the Grasslands Reserve Program (GRP), which is repealed. These grassland acres are limited to 1.5 million acres in S. 954 and 2 million acres in H.R. 1947. EQIP, a program that assists producers with conservation measures on land in production, is reauthorized by both bills with a 5% funding carve-out for wildlife habitat practices (similar to the Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program, WHIP, which is repealed). The Senate bill reduces budget authority for EQIP by a total of almost $1 billion over 10 years, while the House committee bill offers no reduction from the current $1.75 billion annually. CSP, another working lands program, is reauthorized at a reduced enrollment level under both bills: 10.348 million acres annually under S. 954 and 8.695 million acres annually under H.R. 1947, down from 12.769 million acres annually under current law. 11 This section was written by Megan Stubbs, Specialist in Agricultural Conservation and Natural Resources Policy, and John Glover, Visiting Analyst. Congressional Research Service 7 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law Both bills create two new conservation programs—the Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) and the Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP)—out of several of the existing programs. Conservation easement programs, including the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP), Farmland Protection Program (FPP), and GRP, are repealed and consolidated to create ACEP. ACEP retains most of the program provisions in the current easement programs by establishing two types of easements: wetlands easements (similar to WRP) that protect and restore wetlands, and agricultural land easements (similar to FPP and GRP) that prevent nonagricultural uses on productive farm or grasslands. The Agricultural Water Enhancement Program (AWEP), Chesapeake Bay Watershed program, Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative (CCPI), and Great Lakes basin program are repealed by both bills and consolidated into the new RCPP. RCPP uses partnership agreements with state and local governments, Indian tribes, farmer cooperatives, and other conservation organizations to leverage federal funding and further conservation on a regional or watershed scale. A major difference between the two bills is that the Senate-passed bill adds the federally funded portion of crop insurance premiums to the list of program benefits that could be lost if a producer is found to produce an agricultural commodity on highly erodible land without implementing an approved conservation plan or qualifying exemption, or converts a wetland to crop production. This prerequisite, referred to as conservation compliance, has existed since the 1985 farm bill and currently affects most USDA farm program benefits, but has excluded crop insurance since 1996. The House-reported bill offers no comparable provision. Farm Bill Title III, Trade12 Title III of the farm bill deals with statutes concerning U.S. international food aid and agricultural export programs. The provisions of Title III of H.R. 1947, as reported, and S. 954, as passed, are nearly identical to the Title III provisions in the farm bills reported by the House Agriculture Committee (H.R. 6083) and passed by the Senate (S. 3240) in the 112th Congress with one exception. S. 954 includes a provision (not included in S. 3240) requiring a reorganization plan for the trade functions of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the appointment of an Under Secretary of Agriculture for Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs. Both S. 954 and H.R. 1947 reauthorize all of the international food aid programs, including the largest, Food for Peace Title II (emergency and nonemergency food aid). Both bills contain amendments to current food aid law that place greater emphasis on improving the quality of food aid products (i.e., enhancing their nutritional quality). The Senate bill places new restrictions on the practice of monetization or selling U.S. food aid commodities in recipient countries to raise cash to finance development projects. In this regard, S. 954 requires implementing partners such as U.S. private voluntary organizations or cooperatives to recover 70% of the U.S. commodity procurement and shipping costs. The Senate bill repeals the specified dollar amounts for nonemergency food aid required in current law (the “safe box”). In place of the safe box, S. 954 provides that nonemergency food aid be not less than 20% nor more than 30% of funds made available to carry out the program, subject to the requirement that a minimum of $275 million be provided for nonemergency food aid. The House bill places no limits on the practice of monetization, other than new reporting requirements, and fixes the amount of “safe box” nonemergency assistance at $400 million annually. 12 This section was written by Charles E. Hanrahan, Senior Specialist in Agricultural Policy. Congressional Research Service 8 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law The Senate farm bill creates a new local and regional purchase program in place of the expired local and regional procurement (LRP) pilot program of the 2008 farm bill. An adopted floor amendment to S. 954 increased the appropriation authorization for LRP to $60 million annually for FY2014 through FY2018, up from $40 million as reported out of committee. H.R. 1947 does not include an LRP program. Both bills reauthorize funding for the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Export Credit Guarantee program and various agricultural export market promotion programs. S. 954 reduces the value of U.S. agricultural exports that can benefit from export credit guarantees from $5.5 billion to $4.5 billion annually. The House bill retains the $5.5 billion level of guarantees. Both bills authorize CCC funding of $200 million annually for the Market Access Program (MAP), which finances promotional activities for both generic and branded U.S. agricultural products. MAP had been targeted in a number of deficit reduction proposals for elimination. Authorized CCC funding for the Foreign Market Development Program (FMDP), a generic commodity promotion program, continues in both bills at $34.5 million annually through F2017. H.R. 1947 authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to establish the position of Under Secretary of Agriculture for Foreign Agricultural Services. S. 954 requires the Secretary, in consultation with the House and Senate Agriculture Committees and House and Senate Appropriations Committees to propose a plan for reorganization of the trade functions of USDA, including the establishment of an Under Secretary of Agriculture for Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs. The Secretary is required to report on the plan 180 days after the farm bill’s enactment. Within one year of submission of the report, the Secretary is required to implement the reorganization plan including establishment of the Under Secretary position. Farm Bill Title IV, Nutrition13 Title IV of both the Senate-passed (S. 954) and the House-reported (H.R. 1947) 2013 farm bills largely maintains the nutrition program policies and discretionary and mandatory funding that are contained in the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 and other nutrition program authorizing statutes. Of the changes made, many are the same in the two bills, but the bills also differ in a number of ways, most notably in recognized cost savings associated with the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly food stamps). CBO estimates total 10-year budget savings of $3.9 billion in the Senate-passed 2013 bill (compared with a savings of $4.0 billion in the farm bill passed by the Senate in the 112th Congress, S. 3240) and $20.5 billion in the House-reported 2013 bill (compared with a savings of $16.1 billion in the reported farm bill from last year, H.R. 6083). SNAP provisions in both bills include changes to the requirements for retailers who apply for authorization to accept SNAP and changes to some of the rules that govern participants’ and retailers’ redemption of SNAP benefits. Both bills provide additional mandatory funding for reducing SNAP trafficking (the sale of SNAP benefits for cash or ineligible goods), although the Senate provides a larger amount. In terms of eligibility for SNAP and the calculation of monthly benefit amounts, both bills change how a household’s receipt of Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) benefits affects the household’s SNAP benefit calculation; S. 954 sets a $10 threshold and H.R. 1947 sets a $20 threshold (the House bill’s increased threshold, 13 This section was written by Randy Alison Aussenberg, Analyst in Nutrition Assistance Policy. Congressional Research Service 9 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law relative to H.R. 6083, accounts for much of the additional savings from this year’s Housereported bill as compared to last year’s House-reported bill). In addition, the House bill also restricts categorical eligibility, repeals state performance bonuses, reduces funding for the Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program, and clarifies the consideration of medical marijuana expenses. The House bill also makes changes to the nutrition assistance provided to the Northern Mariana Islands and Puerto Rico and authorizes new pilot projects (not included in last year’s reported bill) in the areas of Employment and Training programs and retailer fraud. During Senate floor consideration, the Senate added two SNAP amendments—one to allow certain delivery services that serve the elderly and disabled to redeem SNAP, and another to bar additional categories of ex-offenders from receiving SNAP benefits. The Senate defeated three SNAP amendments: one that would have stricken the change to the SNAP-LIHEAP relationship, one that would have further increased the reductions in SNAP spending (by including many of the policies included in the House bill), and one proposing to block-grant the program. Unlike last year, when both bills increased funding for Community Food Projects grants, this year only the House Committee bill increases resources for Community Food Projects (by $10 million each year, with a carve out of $5 million of these grants for projects that incentivize low-income households to purchase fruits and vegetables). Both bills increase mandatory funding for the Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP), the Senate-passed bill by $54 million over 10 years, and the House-reported bill by $217 million (according to CBO). Both bills would limit eligibility for the Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP) to low-income elderly participants, phasing out eligibility for low-income pregnant and post-partum women, infants, and children. This year, both bills would add discretionary authority for a Healthy Food Financing Initiative, a financing mechanism to sustain and create food retail opportunities in communities that lack access to healthy food. Only the Senate provides $100 million (over five years) in mandatory funding for Hunger-Free Communities Incentive Grants, which funds programs that provide incentives for SNAP participants’ purchase of fruits and vegetables; neither of these programs is included in the House committee bill. Within the child nutrition programs, the Senate bill includes authorization to begin a pulse crops pilot program, whereas the House bill does not include this pilot and eliminates the “fresh” requirement in the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program. Both bills include additional authorizations for farm-to-school efforts. Farm Bill Title V, Credit14 The Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (also known as the ConAct) is the permanent statute that authorizes USDA agricultural credit and rural development programs. USDA serves as a lender of last resort by providing direct and guaranteed loans to farmers and ranchers who are denied direct credit by commercial lenders but have the wherewithal to repay the loan. Both the Senate-passed (S. 954) and House-reported (H.R. 1947) farm bills in 2013 are nearly identical to the farm bills proposed in 2012 (S. 3240 and H.R. 6083), and make relatively small policy changes to USDA’s credit programs. Both 2013 bills give USDA discretion to recognize 14 This section was written by Jim Monke, Specialist in Agricultural Policy. Congressional Research Service 10 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law (1) alternative legal entities to qualify for farm loans and (2) alternatives to meet a three-year farming experience requirement; and both bills increase the maximum size of down-payment loans. S. 954 also updates and modernizes the ConAct’s statutory language and organizes the various programs into separate subtitles (new Subtitle A is farm loans; Subtitle B is rural development; Subtitle C is general provisions). Generally, most of the revised ConAct provisions are substantially the same, but are renumbered and reorganized. The Senate-passed bill also extends the number of years that farmers can remain eligible for direct farm operating loans, and eliminates term limits on guaranteed operating loans. It adds local and regional food production, including direct-to-consumer activities, to the allowed purposes for farm operating loans. The credit title in H.R. 1947, as reported, does not restructure the ConAct nor change any term limit provisions. However, it does create a new microloan program that is similar to a microloan program that USDA created administratively in the past year. It also increases the percentage of a conservation loan that can be guaranteed, and adds another lending priority for beginning farmers, among other changes. Other non-USDA agricultural credit programs can be part of a farm bill, but neither the Housereported nor the Senate-passed bill makes many such changes. Both bills facilitate loans for the purchase of highly fractionated land in Indian reservations. For the Farm Credit Act, which governs the Farm Credit System and Farmer Mac, the Senate bill would improve the disclosure of compensation packages for senior officers in the Farm Credit System. Farm Bill Title VI, Rural Development15 The Rural Development titles of the 2013 House-reported (H.R. 1947) and Senate-passed (S. 954) 2013 farm bills are very similar to those of the 112th Congress (H.R. 6083, S. 3240). Like Title V, discussed above, Title VI of S. 954 is a restructuring of the ConAct, which provides permanent authority for USDA to carry out its portfolio of rural development programs. Title VI of H.R. 1947 makes funding authorization amendments to many existing rural development programs (at levels mostly lower than those of the Senate bill). The House bill amends the water and waste water direct and guaranteed loans to encourage financing by private or cooperative lenders to the maximum extent possible. The bill also provides a 3%-5% carve-out of the Community Facilities appropriation for technical assistance, and encourages loan guarantees. The bill also includes a new provision directing the Secretary of Agriculture to begin collecting data on the economic effects of the projects that USDA Rural Development funds, and directs the Secretary to develop simplified applications for funding. The Senate bill consolidates various rural water and wastewater assistance programs and the Community Facilities loan and grant program into a new Rural Community Program category, and establishes criteria for which rural communities will receive priority in making loan and grant awards. The restructuring of the ConAct also eliminates several business programs, but consolidates many of their objectives into a broad program of Business and Cooperative Development grants. Separately, S. 954 provides a total of $228 million in new mandatory rural development funding over 10 years, including funds for the Value-Added Producer Grant 15 This section was written by Tadlock Cowan, Analyst in Natural Resources and Rural Development. Congressional Research Service 11 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law Program ($12.5 million annually for FY2014-FY2018) and the Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program ($3.0 million annually for FY2014-FY2018), and $150 million in mandatory spending for pending rural development loans and grants. The House bill increases mandatory spending by $96 million over 10 years including $50 million more for the Value-Added Producer Grant program over 10 years, and an additional $46 million for Rural Economic Development Loans and Grants. S. 954 retains the definition of “rural” and “rural area” for purposes of program eligibility and makes it the basis for all rural development programs. The definition of “rural area” for electric and telephone programs would be eliminated by S. 954, and the definition becomes the same as for other rural programs. The bill retains the 2008 farm bill provision permitting communities that might otherwise be ineligible for USDA Rural Development funding to petition USDA to designate their communities as “rural in character,” thereby making them eligible for program support. S. 954 also eliminates the existing statutory definition of “rural” and “rural areas” for water and waste water programs and community facilities, but permits areas currently deemed as rural to remain eligible for these programs, unless USDA determines that they are no longer “rural in character.” The Senate bill also amends the definition of rural area in the 1949 Housing Act so that areas deemed rural between 2000 and 2010 would retain that designation until USDA receives data from the 2020 decennial census. The provision also raises the population threshold for eligibility from 25,000 to 35,000. Included in both the House and Senate bills is reauthorization of funding for programs under the Rural Electrification Act of 1936, including the Access to Broadband Telecommunications Services in Rural Areas Program and the Distance Learning and Telemedicine Program. The Senate bill also establishes a new grant program for the Access to Broadband Telecommunications Services in Rural Areas Program in addition to its current loan guarantee program. The Senate bill also creates a new pilot program for “ultra-high speed” broadband connectivity. The Delta Regional Authority and the Northern Great Plains Regional Authority are reauthorized by both bills, but the Senate bill makes various technical changes to the organizational structure and operation of the two authorities. Farm Bill Title VII, Research, Extension, and Related Matters16 USDA is authorized under various laws to conduct agricultural research at the federal level, and provides support for cooperative research, extension, and post-secondary agricultural education programs in the states. Both the Senate-passed (S. 954) and the House-reported (H.R. 1947) 2013 farm bills reauthorize funding for these activities through FY2018, subject to annual appropriations, and amend authority so that only competitive grants can be awarded under certain programs. In both bills, mandatory funding is increased for the Specialty Crop Research Initiative ($416 million over 10 years in the Senate bill and $555 million in the House bill) and the Organic Agricultural Research and Extension Initiative ($80 million over 10 years in the Senate bill and $100 million in the House bill). Also, mandatory funding is continued for the Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program in both the Senate bill ($85 million) and House bill ($100 million). 16 This section was written by Dennis A. Shields, Specialist in Agricultural Policy. Congressional Research Service 12 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law New in S. 954 is mandatory funding of $200 million to establish the Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research, a nonprofit corporation designed to supplement USDA’s basic and applied research activities. It will solicit and accept private donations to award grants for collaborative public/private partnerships with scientists at USDA and in academia, nonprofits, and the private sector. Farm Bill Title VIII, Forestry17 General forestry legislation is within the jurisdiction of the Agriculture Committees, and past farm bills have included provisions addressing forestry assistance, especially on private lands. Both the House-reported (H.R. 1947) and Senate-passed (S. 954) farm bills generally repeal, reauthorize, and modify existing programs and provisions under two main authorities: the Cooperative Forestry Assistance Act (CFAA), as amended, and the Healthy Forests Restoration Act of 2003 (HFRA), as amended. Most federal forestry assistance programs are permanently authorized, and thus do not require reauthorization in the farm bill. The House-reported bill, however, amends several forestry assistance programs by replacing their permanent authority to receive annual appropriations of such sums as necessary with a set level of appropriations through FY2018. The Senate-passed bill limits permanent authority for one program. Both bills repeal programs that have expired or have never received appropriations. Both bills also include provisions that address the management of the national forest system. For example, both bills include provisions reauthorizing stewardship contracting, requiring revised strategic plans for forest inventory and analysis, and adding alternatives for addressing insect infestations and disease. The House bill also includes provisions to modify the existing public notice, comment, and appeals process for land and resource management plans and projects. Farm Bill Title IX, Energy18 USDA renewable energy programs have been used to incentivize research, development, and adoption of renewable energy projects, including solar, wind, and anaerobic digesters. However, the primary focus of USDA renewable energy programs has been to promote U.S. biofuels production and use. Cornstarch-based ethanol dominates the U.S. biofuels industry. The 2008 farm bill attempted to refocus U.S. biofuels policy initiatives in favor of non-corn feedstocks, especially the development of the cellulosic biofuels industry. The most critical programs to this end are the Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP), which assists farmers in developing nontraditional crops for use as feedstocks for the eventual production of cellulosic biofuels, and the Renewable Energy for America Program (REAP) which has funded a variety of biofuelsrelated projects including the installation of blender pumps to help circumvent the emerging blend wall that could potentially circumscribe domestic ethanol consumption near current levels of about 13 billion gallons.19 17 This section was written by Katie Hoover, Analyst in Natural Resources Policy. This section was written by Randy Schnepf, Specialist in Agricultural Policy. 19 The blend wall represents a ceiling on domestic ethanol consumption at 10% of the nation’s transportation supply of gasoline-like fuels based on vehicle and infrastructure (fuel storage tanks, retail pumps, etc.) limitations. For more information, see CRS Report R40155, Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Overview and Issues. 18 Congressional Research Service 13 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law All of the major Title IX energy programs expire at the end of FY2013 and lack baseline funding going forward. Both the Senate-passed (S. 954) and House-reported (H.R. 1947) bills extend most of the renewable energy provisions of Title IX, with the exception of the Rural Energy SelfSufficiency Initiative, the Forest Biomass for Energy Program, the Biofuels Infrastructure Study, and the Renewable Fertilizer Study which are either omitted or explicitly repealed by both bills. In addition, S. 954 omits the Repowering Assistance Program. The primary difference between the House and Senate bills is in the source of funding. Over their 5-year reauthorization period (FY2014-2018), the Senate bill contains a total of $880 million in new mandatory funding and authorizes $1.140 billion in appropriations for the various Title IX programs. In contrast, H.R. 1947 contains no mandatory funding for Title IX programs, while authorizing $1.405 billion over the 5 years, subject to annual appropriations. In addition, the House bill eliminates all support for the collection, harvest, storage, and transportation (CHST) component of BCAP, severely limiting its potential effectiveness as an incentive to produce cellulosic feedstocks. Farm Bill Title X, Horticulture20 The horticulture titles of both S. 954, as passed, and H.R. 1947, as reported, reauthorize many of the existing farm bill provisions supporting farming operations in the specialty crop and certified organic sectors. CBO estimates a total increase in mandatory spending of $197 million (FY2014FY2018) for Title X in the Senate-passed bill and $279 million in the House-reported bill. Many Title X provisions fall into the categories of marketing and promotion; organic certification; data and information collection; pest and disease control; food safety and quality standards; and local foods. The House bill also includes provisions that are not in the Senate bill that would provide exemptions from certain regulatory requirements under some laws, such as the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Endangered Species Act. (Neither bill includes a provision that was in last year’s House version of the farm bill (H.R. 6083) that would have significantly changed the deregulation process of genetically engineered plants.) Provisions affecting the specialty crop and certified organic sectors are not limited to Title X, but are contained within several other titles of the farm bill. These include programs in the research, nutrition, and trade titles, among others. Both the House and Senate bills reauthorize (and in some cases provide for increased funding for) several key programs benefitting specialty crop producers, including the Specialty Crop Block Grant Program, plant pest and disease programs, USDA’s Market News for specialty crops, the Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI), and also the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (Snack Program) and Section 32 purchases for fruits and vegetables under the Nutrition title. Both bills also reauthorize most programs benefitting certified organic agriculture producers, including continued support for USDA’s National Organic Program (NOP) and development of crop insurance mechanisms for organic producers, Organic Production and Market Data Initiatives (ODI), and research programs such as the Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative (OREI) and the Organic Transitions Program (ORG) under the Integrated Research, Education, and Extension Competitive Grants Program. Both bills would give USDA authority to consider an application for a research and promotion order (or “checkoff” program) by the organic sector. One exception is that the House bill would repeal the National Organic Certification Cost Share Program (NOCCSP), while the Senate would maintain that program. 20 This section was written by Renée Johnson, Specialist in Agricultural Policy. Congressional Research Service 14 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law Programs in other farm bill titles benefitting specialty crop and certified organic producers also include the Value-Added Producer Grant Program, Technical Assistance for Specialty Crops (TASC), the Market Access Program (MAP), and most conservation programs (including assistance specifically for organic producers), among other programs, within the crop insurance, credit, and miscellaneous titles. Title X and other titles in both the House-reported and Senate-passed bills also include provisions that would expand opportunities for local food systems and also beginning farmers and ranchers. For example, both bills reauthorize and expand the scope and overall funding for USDA’s farmers’ market program, which would be renamed the Farmers’ Market and Local Food Promotion Program. Other provisions supporting local food producers are within the research, nutrition, and rural development titles, among others. Farm Bill Title XI, Crop Insurance21 Both the House-reported (H.R. 1947) and the Senate-passed (S. 954) 2013 farm bills increase funding for crop insurance relative to baseline levels by an additional $5.0 billion over 10 years in the Senate bill and $8.9 billion in the House bill. The crop insurance title modifies the existing federal crop insurance program, which is permanently authorized by the Federal Crop Insurance Act. The federal crop insurance program makes available subsidized crop insurance to producers who purchase a policy to protect against individual farm losses in yield, crop revenue, or whole farm revenue. More than 100 crops are insurable. With cotton not covered by the counter-cyclical price or revenue programs established in Title I of both bills, a new crop insurance policy called Stacked Income Protection Plan (STAX) is made available in both bills for cotton producers. The STAX policy indemnifies losses in county revenue of greater than 10% of expected revenue but not more than the deductible level (e.g., 25%) selected by the producer for the underlying individual policy (or not more than 30% if used as stand-alone policy). Similarly, for other crops, both bills make available an additional policy (i.e., not stand-alone) called Supplemental Coverage Option (SCO), based on expected county yields or revenue, to cover part of the deductible under the producer’s underlying policy (referred to as a farmer’s out-of-pocket loss or “shallow loss”). The farmer subsidy as a share of the policy premium is set at 80% for STAX and 65% for SCO. Additional crop insurance changes in both bills are designed to expand or improve crop insurance for other commodities, including specialty crops. Provisions in both bills revise the value of crop insurance for organic crops to reflect prices of organic (not conventional) crops. The bills require USDA to conduct more research on whole farm revenue insurance with higher coverage levels than currently available. Studies are also required on insuring (1) specialty crop producers for food safety and contamination-related losses, (2) swine producers for a catastrophic disease event, (3) producers of catfish against reduction in the margin between the market prices and production costs, (4) commercial poultry production against business disruptions caused by integrator bankruptcy, (5) poultry producers for a catastrophic event, and (6) producers of biomass sorghum or sweet sorghum grown as feedstock for renewable energy. (In the Senate bill, an adopted floor amendment requires a study for alfalfa insurance.) A peanut revenue insurance product also is 21 This section was written by Dennis A. Shields, Specialist in Agricultural Policy. Congressional Research Service 15 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law mandated. A provision in S. 954 makes payments available to producers who purchase privatesector index weather insurance, which insures against specific weather events and not actual loss. For conservation purposes, a provision in Title XI of S. 954 reduces crop insurance subsidies and noninsured crop disaster assistance for the first four years of planting on native sod acreage. The same provision in the House bill would apply only to the Prairie Pothole National Priority Area (i.e., portions of Iowa, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota). In Title II of the Senate bill only (Sec. 2609), crop insurance premium subsidies are available only if producers are in compliance with wetland conservation requirements and conservation requirements for highly erodible land. In the 2012 farm bill passed by the Senate in the 112th Congress, an amendment was adopted during floor debate to reduce crop insurance premium subsidies by 15 percentage points for producers with average adjusted gross income greater than $750,000. In 2013, the Senate Agriculture Committee-reported version of S. 954 did not include the provision, but an amendment to S. 954 requiring the subsidy reduction was adopted on the Senate floor by a vote of 59-33. Also in Senate floor action, an amendment to provide mandatory funding of $5 million to maintain crop insurance program integrity was adopted without dissent, 94-0, and an amendment to eliminate premium subsidies for tobacco crop insurance was defeated (44-72). Farm Bill Title XII, Miscellaneous22 Title XII of S. 954, as passed by the Senate, and H.R. 1947, as reported, includes provisions that cover three areas: socially disadvantaged and limited-resource producers; livestock; and other miscellaneous. Both bills extend authority for outreach and technical assistance programs for socially disadvantaged farmer and ranchers. They also add military veteran farmers and ranchers as a qualifying group. The bills also create a policy research center to develop policy recommendations for socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers. In addition, the bills establish a military veterans agricultural liaison within USDA to advocate for and to provide information to veterans. Both bills reauthorize funding for the USDA Office of Advocacy and Outreach, which assists socially disadvantaged and veteran farmers and ranchers, and establish an Office of Tribal Relations to coordinate USDA activities with Native American tribes. Both S. 954 and H.R. 1947 make available higher coverage levels under the Noninsured Crop Assistance Programs, prohibit attendance at animal-fighting events, include clarifications of conditions for releasing data gathered by USDA to state or local government agencies, and include grants to promote the U.S. maple syrup industry and for technological training for farm workers. Within its livestock provisions, Title XII of S. 954 renews the trichinae certification and aquatic animal health programs that were established in the 2008 farm bill; establishes a grant program 22 This section was written by Joel L. Greene, Analyst in Agricultural Policy (animal agriculture). Other contributors to the Title XII side-by-side are Tadlock Cowan, Analyst in Natural Resources and Rural Development (socially disadvantaged farmers); Jim Monke, Specialist in Agricultural Policy (USDA data collection); Claudia Copeland, Specialist in Resources and Environmental Policy (EPA) and Dennis A. Shields, Specialist in Agricultural Policy (Noninsured Assistance Program) Congressional Research Service 16 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law for research on brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, and other priority animal diseases; sets up a grant program to study the eradication of feral swine; and establishes a competitive grant program to improve the sheep industry. Title XII of H.R. 1947 includes identical provisions for the trichinae certification and aquatic animal health programs, but does not contain the grant provisions. Both bills establish a national animal health laboratory network to enhance diagnostic capabilities and standardize laboratory procedures. Each bill includes different provisions on the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP), a cooperative industry, state, and federal program to improve poultry and poultry products. The Senate bill requires that USDA continue to administer avian influenza (AI) surveillance through NPIP, and meet relevant World Organization for Animal Health AI surveillance standards. The House bill requires that USDA continue to administer the AI surveillance program without changing the governance of the NPIP in regards to physical location and structural organization of NPIP. H.R. 1947 includes a provision to repeal regulations on livestock and poultry practices that USDA finalized in December 2011, and prevents USDA from finalizing or implementing similar rules. H.R. 1947 also repeals the 2008 farm bill provision that transferred the inspection of catfish to USDA from the Food and Drug Administration. The House bill also requires that USDA submit to Congress an economic analysis of the impact of the country-of-origin labeling (COOL) law and the rule that USDA proposed in March 2013 to bring the United States into compliance with World Trade Organization rules. H.R. 1947 reauthorizes funding for the National Sheep Industry Improvement Center, subject to appropriations. These provisions are not included in S. 954. Other miscellaneous provisions in Title XII of H.R. 1947, but not in S. 954, are the High Plains Water Study which preserves 2013 farm bill benefits for participants in the study; flood protection for the Missouri River basin; flood protection for agricultural interests in the Wallkill River and Black Dirt region; prohibitions on closing Farm Service Agency offices with high workloads; to include natural stone as an agricultural product for commodity promotion purposes; and a prohibition that states may not establish production standards that would prevent interstate sales of agricultural goods. H.R. 1947 also includes a provision that requires a regulatory review and economic impact statement from USDA on Environmental Protection Agency proposals that significantly impact agricultural entities; and a provision to ensure high standards for agencies’ use of scientific information. Provisions in S. 954 that are not in H.R. 1947 include an increase in administrative expenses for three regional development commissions that were established by the 2008 farm bill; the establishment of a Pima Cotton Trust Fund and an Agriculture Wool Apparel Manufacturers Trust Fund for users of pima cotton and wool; and a Citrus Disease Research and Development Trust Fund for research on citrus disease. Congressional Research Service 17 Provisions of the Senate-Passed (S. 954) and House Committee-Reported (H.R. 1947) Versions of the 2013 Farm Bill, Compared with Current Law Title I. Commodity Programs Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Repeals direct payments. [Sec. 1101] Identical to the Senate bill, except payments for upland cotton continue for crop years 2014 and 2015 with payment acres equal to 70% of base acres in 2014 and 60% in 2015. [Sec. 1101] Repeals counter-cyclical payments. [Sec. 1102] Repeals counter-cyclical payments. [Sec. 1102] Establishes program for adverse market payments (AMP) for crop years 2014-2018 for the same crops as those covered by CCPs (except upland cotton). Payment rate is the difference between the reference price and the 12-month national average market price (or loan rate, if higher), Covered commodities are wheat, corn, grain sorghum, barley, oats, long grain rice, medium grain rice, pulse crops (dry peas, lentils, small chickpeas, and large chickpeas), soybeans, other oilseeds, and peanuts. Cotton is not covered under AMP but is eligible for the Stacked Income Protection Plan (STAX) for producers of upland cotton (see Title XI). USDA is required to consider Establishes Price Loss Coverage (PLC) for producers of commodities covered by CCPs except upland cotton. Covers 2014-2018 crop years. Payment rate is difference between reference price and national midseason market price (or loan rate, if higher), USDA shall submit to Congress an annual report that evaluates the impact of PLC (and RLC below) on plantings, production, prices, and program costs.[Sec. 1104-1107] Direct Payments Direct payments (DPs) are available to producers on farms with base acres (historical plantings) of covered commodities (wheat, corn, grain sorghum, barley, oats, upland cotton, rice, soybeans, and other oilseeds). Covers 2008-2013 crop years. Direct payment rates are fixed in statute and do not vary based on market price. Payment amount = payment rate, times 85% of base acres, times direct payment yield. (Exception: payment acreage is 83.3% of base acres for crop years 2009-2011. [7 U.S.C. 8713] Direct payments for peanuts authorized separately. [7 U.S.C. 8753] Price-Based Payments Counter-cyclical payments (CCPs) are available for same commodities as for direct payments plus pulse crops. Covers 2008-2013 crop years. Payment rate is difference between target price in statute and national average market price (or loan rate, if higher), minus the direct payment rate. [7 U.S.C. 8714] Counter-cyclical payments for peanuts authorized separately. [7 U.S.C. 8754(a)(1)-(3)] CRS-18 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) popcorn as a covered commodity. [Sections 1104-1107] Target prices for 2013: Reference prices: Reference prices: Wheat, bu., $4.17 Long grain rice, cwt., $13.30 Wheat, bu., $5.50 Corn, bu., $2.63 Medium grain rice, cwt., $13.30 Corn, bu., $3.70 Grain sorghum, bu., $2.63 Peanuts, ton, $523.77 Grain sorghum, bu., $3.95 Barley, bu., $2.63 All other covered commodities: 55% times the average national marketing year average price for the most recent 5 crop years, excluding each of the crop years with the highest and lowest prices. Barley, bu., $4.95 Oats, bu., $1.79 Upland cotton, lb., $0.7125 Oats, bu., $2.40 Upland cotton, none (covered by STAX program Title XI) Long grain rice, cwt., $10.50 Long grain rice, cwt., $14.00 Medium grain rice, cwt., $10.50 Medium grain rice, cwt., $14.00 Soybeans, bu., $6.00 (for rice, price is increased 15% for temperate japonica rice) Other oilseeds, cwt., $12.68 Soybeans, bu., $8.40 Dry peas, cwt., $8.32 Other oilseeds, cwt., $20.15 Lentils, cwt., $12.81 Dry peas, cwt., $11.00 Small chickpeas, cwt., $10.36 Lentils, cwt., $19.97 Large chickpeas, cwt., $12.81 Small chickpeas, cwt., $19.04 Peanuts, ton, $495 Large chickpeas, cwt., $21.54 Peanuts, ton, $535 Payment amount = Payment rate times 85% of base acres times counter-cyclical program yield for the farm (generally based on 1998-2001 data). CRS-19 Payment amount = Payment rate times 85% of base acres planted to crop times existing counter-cyclical program yield (for rice and peanuts, yields may be updated with 2009-2012 data). Base acres for peanuts may be updated using 2009-2012 plantings. Payment amount = Payment rate times 85% of total acres planted to crop (and 30% of acres of “prevented plantings”) times existing counter-cyclical program yield (or 90% of 2008-2012 average yield per planted acre). Payment acres cannot exceed farm base acres. Payment is made on or after October 1 following the completion of the marketing year. Payment is made on or after October 1 following the completion of the marketing year. Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Repeals Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) program. [Sec. 1103] Repeals Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) program. [Sec. 1103] Establishes Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC) program for crop years 2014-18 for the same crops as covered by AMP, and payment is made in addition to AMP. For ARC, producers select either farm or county option. The election is a one-time, irrevocable decision applicable to all acres under the operational control of the producers. [Sections 1104, 1105, 1108, 1110] Establishes Revenue Loss Coverage (RLC) as an alternative to PLC for crop years 2014-2018 for the same crops as those under PLC. Farmers make a one-time, irrevocable election on a commodity-by-commodity and farm-by-farm basis to receive RLC payment instead of PLC. The program is similar to ARC but provides for only a county revenue guarantee (i.e., no farm-level option). [Sections 1104, 1105, 1107, 1109] Revenue-Based Payments For covered commodities and peanuts, Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) payments are available to producers as an alternative to CCPs. Revenue payment based on a two-part trigger: (1) if actual state revenue is less than a guaranteed state level for the commodity, and (2) if actual farm revenue is less than a farm ACRE benchmark for the commodity. Payment amount equals the product of (1) the lesser of (a) the ACRE program guarantee minus actual state revenue or (b) 25% of the ACRE program guarantee, times (2) 83.3% (for crop years 2009-2011) or 85% (2012-2013) of the acreage planted of the covered commodity (not to exceed base acres of the commodity), times (3) the 5-year Olympic average farm yield divided by the 5year Olympic average state yield (Olympic average drops lowest and highest year). For producers who participate in ACRE, loan rates under the marketing assistance loan program are reduced 30% and direct payments are reduced by 20%. [7 U.S.C. 8715] CRS-20 Payments made on planted (or prevented from being planted) acres when actual crop revenue (actual yield times higher of national farm price or reference price) drops below 88% of the benchmark revenue (see below). Per-acre payment rate equals the difference between peracre guarantee (88% times benchmark revenue) and actual revenue. Maximum payment rate is 10% of benchmark revenue per acre. For benchmark revenue, farmer can elect either a farm option or county option: Revenue loss trigger (guarantee) is based on 85% of historical revenue (compared with 88% in S. 954). Actual county revenue is actual county yield times the higher of the midseason price or the loan rate. (1) Farm level: 5-year farm yield times 5-year average national price (averages exclude highest and lowest years). Payment equals difference between the per-acre guarantee and actual per-acre revenue times 65% of eligible planted acres (and 45% of prevented-planted acreage), or No farm option available, (2) County level: 5-year county yield times 5-year average national price (averages exclude highest and lowest years). Payment equals the difference between the per-acre guarantee and actual per-acre revenue times 80% of eligible planted acres (and 45% of prevented plantings). Payment is made on 85% of planted acres and 30% of prevented planted acres. Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) No comparable provision. For all crops, reference prices (see PLC) are used as minimum prices in the revenue guarantee. Separate guarantees are to be calculated for irrigated and nonirrigated crops and differentiated by class of sunflower seeds, barley (using malting prices), and wheat. Separate guarantees are to be calculated for irrigated and nonirrigated crops. Eligible program acres cannot exceed average total acres planted (or prevented from being planted) to covered commodities and upland cotton on the farm during 20092012. Payment acres capped at total farm base acres, Payment is made on or after October 1 following the completion of the marketing year. Payment is made on or after October 1 following the completion of the marketing year. In combination with AMP/ARC, producers may purchase an additional insurance policy called Supplemental Coverage Option (SCO) under Title XI (crop insurance). Supplemental Coverage Option (SCO) is not available in combination with RLC but may be purchased with PLC. Nonrecourse Marketing Loans and Other Recourse Loans Nonrecourse marketing loans are available for any amount of a loan commodity (see list below) produced in crop years 2008-2013. [7 U.S.C. 8731] Nonrecourse marketing loans for peanuts are authorized separately. [7 U.S.C. 8757] For peanuts, nonrecourse marketing loans available in crop years 2008-2013. May be obtained through marketing cooperative or association approved by USDA. Storage to be provided on a nondiscriminatory basis and under any additional requirements. Payment of peanut storage costs authorized for 2008-2013 crops. [7 U.S.C. 8757(a)(4)-(7)] Loan commodities and loan rates: Wheat, per bushel (bu.), $2.94 ($2.75 in 2008, 2009) Corn, bu., $1.95 CRS-21 Generally continues current law to cover 2014-2018 crop years for all loan commodities (including peanuts). [Sec. 1201] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1201] Loan commodities same as current law. [Sec. 1201] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1201] For 2014-2018 crop years, loan rates same as current law except for upland cotton. The loan rate for upland cotton Identical to the Senate bill except the lower bound for the upland cotton loan rate is $0.47 per pound. [Sec. Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Grain sorghum, bu., $1.95 Barley, bu., $1.85 Oats, bu., $1.33 Upland cotton, lb., $0.52 Extra long staple (ELS) cotton, lb., $0.7977 Long grain rice, hundredweight (cwt.), $6.50 Medium grain rice, cwt., $6.50 Soybeans, bu., $5.00 Other oilseeds, cwt., $10.09 ($9.30 in 2008, 2009) Dry peas, cwt., $5.40 ($6.22 in 2008) Lentils, cwt., $11.28 ($11.72 in 2008) Small chickpeas, cwt., $7.43 Large chickpeas, cwt., $11.28 (not applicable in 2008) Graded wool, lb., $1.15 ($1.00 in 2008, 2009) Nongraded wool, lb., $0.40 Mohair, lb., $4.20 Honey, lb., $0.69 ($0.60 in 2008, 2009) [7 U.S.C. 8732 (a)(b)(c)] Peanuts, ton, $355 [7 U.S.C. 8757(b)] Establishes a single loan rate in each county for each kind of “other oilseeds” [7 U.S.C. 8732(d)] is changed from $0.52 per lb. to the simple average of the adjusted prevailing world price for the two immediately preceding marketing years, but not less than $0.45 per pound or more than $0.52 per pound. [Sec. 1202] 1202] Term of loans: 9 months after the day the loan is made; no extensions. [7 U.S.C. 8733] Same term for peanuts. [7 U.S.C. 8757(c)] Same as current law. [Sec. 1203] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1203] Loan repayment: Loans may be repaid at the lesser of (1) the loan rate plus interest, (2) a rate based on average market prices during the preceding 30-day period, or (3) a rate determined by USDA that will minimize forfeitures, accumulation of stocks, storage costs, market impediments, and discrepancies in benefits across states and counties. Excludes upland cotton, rice, ELS cotton, confectionery and each other kind of sunflower seed (other than oil sunflower seed). [7 U.S.C. 8734(a)] Provides USDA authority to Same as current law. [Sec. 1204] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1204] Current Law/Policy CRS-22 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Loan deficiency payments (LDP) are available to producers who agree to forego marketing loans. LDP computed by multiplying the payment rate (the amount that the loan rate exceeds the rate at which a marketing loan may be repaid) for the commodity times the quantity of the commodity produced. Loan deficiency payments available for unshorn pelts or hay and silage, even though they are not eligible for marketing loans. ELS cotton is not eligible. Payment rates determined using the rate in effect as of the date that producers request payment (producers do not need to lose beneficial interest). [7 U.S.C. 8735] Same provision for peanuts. [7 U.S.C. 8757(e)] For 2014-2018 crop years, same as current law. [Sec. 1205] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1205] Payments in lieu of LDP for grazed acreage of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale. [7 U.S.C. 8736] For 2014-2018 crop years, same as current law, except payment is based on yield used for Agriculture Risk Coverage. [Sec. 1206] Identical to the Senate bill, except payment is based on yield used for Price Loss Coverage. [Sec. 1206] Current Law/Policy temporarily, and on a short-term basis only, adjust the repayment rates in the event of a severe disruption to marketing, transportation or related infrastructure. [7 U.S.C. 8734(h)] Similar provisions for peanuts. [7 U.S.C. 8757(d)] For upland cotton, long grain rice, and medium grain rice, repayment may be at the lesser of the loan rate plus interest, or the prevailing world price for the commodity adjusted to U.S. quality and location. [7 U.S.C. 8734(b)] For ELS cotton, repayment must be at the loan rate plus interest. [7 U.S.C. 8734(c)] For confectionery and other kinds of sunflower seeds (other than oil sunflower seed), loans must be repaid at the lesser of (1) the loan rate plus interest, or (2) the repayment rate for oil sunflower seed. [7 U.S.C. 8734(f)] CRS-23 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Special marketing loan provisions for upland cotton impose a special import quota on upland cotton through July 31, 2013, when price of U.S. cotton, delivered to a definable and significant international market, exceeds the prevailing world market price for 4 weeks. [7 U.S.C. 8737(a)] Limited global import quota is imposed on upland cotton when U.S. prices average 130% of the previous 3-year average of U.S. prices [7 U.S.C. 8737(b)] Provisions not extended. For the period August 1, 2014, through July 31, 2019, same as current law. [Sec. 1207] Economic adjustment assistance to users of upland cotton provides assistance to domestic users of upland cotton for uses of all cotton regardless of origin to acquire, construct, install, modernize, develop, convert, or expand land, plant, buildings, equipment, facilities, or machinery. Rate was 4¢/lb. between August 1, 2008, and July 31, 2012, and declined to 3¢/lb. effective beginning August 1, 2012. [7 U.S.C. 8737(c)] Same as current law. [Sec. 1207] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1207] Special competitiveness program for ELS cotton provides payments to domestic users and exporters whenever the world market price for the lowest priced ELS cotton is below the prevailing U.S. price for a competing growth of ELS cotton for a 4-week period; and the lowest priced competing growth of ELS cotton is less than 134% of the loan rate for ELS cotton. Effective through July 31, 2013. [7 U.S.C. 8738] Same as current law through July 31, 2019. [Sec. 1208] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1208] Recourse loans for high moisture feed grains and seed cotton are available for farms that normally harvest corn or sorghum in a high moisture condition at rates set by the USDA. For recourse loans for seed cotton, repayment is at loan rate plus interest. [7 U.S.C. 8739] For 2014-2018 crop years, same as current law. [Sec. 1209] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1209] Adjustments of loan rates are authorized for Same as current law. [Sec. 1210] Nearly identical to the Senate bill except removes certain Current Law/Policy CRS-24 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) any commodity (other than cotton) based on differences in grade, type, quality, location, and other factors. Allows county loan rates as low as 95% of the U.S. average, if it does not increase outlays; prohibits adjustments that would increase the national average loan rate. For cotton, loan rates may be adjusted for differences in quality factors. [7 U.S.C. 8740]; [7 U.S.C. 8758] for peanuts. House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) mandatory provisions to quality adjustments. [Sec. 1210] Conservation Compliance/Producer Agreement Eligibility for direct payments, counter-cyclical payments, or average crop revenue election payments requires producers to comply with conservation, wetland, and planting flexibility requirements; use base acres for agricultural or conserving use, and not for nonagricultural commercial, industrial, or residential use; control noxious weeds and maintain sound agricultural practices. Producers must submit annual acreage reports for all cropland on the farm. [7 U.S.C. 8716 (a)] Same provision for peanuts. [7 U.S.C. 8755(a)] Under Title II (Conservation) of the 2008 farm bill (P.L. 110-246), benefits under the marketing loan program are subject to conservation compliance for highly erodible land [16 U.S.C. 3811(a)(1)(A)] and for Swampbuster [16 U.S.C. 3812(a)(1)]. Same as current law, with application to the new Adverse Market Payment (AMP) and Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC) programs [Sec. 1109] and continued compliance requirement to receive benefits under the marketing assistance loan program. [Sec. 1201] Same as Senate bill, with application to Price Loss Coverage (PLC) and Revenue Loss Coverage (RLC). Senate bill excludes requirement for production reports and use of crop insurance data. [Sec. 1108] To receive ARC payments, producer must annually report data on production in addition to acreage. The Secretary is to use data reported by the producer for crop insurance requirements to meet obligations for program payments without additional submissions to USDA. [Sec. 1109] See also Title II Conservation, whereby in order to receive crop insurance premium subsidies, a producer must be in compliance with conservation requirements (within 5 years) and wetland requirements. [Sec. 2609] No comparable provision. Supplemental Agricultural Disaster Assistance (Funding expired on 9/30/11) Beginning in 2008, five new disaster programs were authorized and funded for disasters occurring on or before 9/30/11. [7 U.S.C. 1531] Program funding CRS-25 SURE is not reauthorized. Other four programs are reauthorized retroactively with mandatory funding from the Commodity Credit Corporation for FY2012 through Same as Senate bill, except as identified below. [Sec. 1501] Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) derived from a transfer of 3.08% of annual customs receipts to the newly created Agricultural Disaster Relief Trust Fund. [19 U.S.C. 2497(a)] Under P.L. 112-240, all but SURE (below) reauthorized (but not funded) for FY2012 and FY2013. FY2018. [Sec. 1501] The five programs: (1) Supplemental Revenue Assistance (SURE) Payments for crops (not just farm program crops); compensates producers for a portion of losses that are not eligible for an indemnity payment under a crop insurance policy; (2) Livestock Indemnity Program (LIP), which compensated ranchers at a rate of 75% of market value for livestock mortality caused by a disaster; (3) Livestock Forage Disaster Program (LFP) for grazing losses due to qualifying drought conditions (as determined by the U.S. Drought Monitor report) or fire on rangeland managed by a federal agency; (4) Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Catfish (ELAP), which provided up to $50 million annually to compensate producers for disaster losses not covered under other disaster programs; and (5) Tree Assistance Program (TAP), which provided payments to eligible orchardists and nursery growers to cover 70% of the cost of replanting trees or nursery stock and 50% of the cost of pruning/removal following a natural disaster. LIP payment rate is reduced from 75% to 65% of the market value of livestock. Maximum payments set at $100,000 per person per year for first four programs combined. TAP has a separate limit of $100,000. For LFP, payment is triggered by eligible forage losses, which may be determined by either (1) drought conditions as measured by the U.S. Drought Monitor report, or (2) low precipitation (at least 50% below normal level in a county during a calendar year). Coverage continues for losses due to fire on public rangeland. LFP is to serve as the sole source of livestock forage assistance, combining the livestock forage assistance functions of ELAP and the noninsured crop disaster assistance program (NAP). House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) LIP payment rate remains at 75%. For LFP, retains program language in 2008 farm bill. In certain cases, payment amount is increased compared with program established in 2008 farm bill. Maximum funding for ELAP is $20 million annually. Identical to Senate bill. Maximum funding for ELAP is $15 million annually. TAP payment rate for replanting is reduced from 70% to 65%. Retains the combined $100,000 per person payment limit for LIP, LFP, and ELAP. Retains the separate limit of $100,000 for TAP. Combined payment limit of $125,000 per person for LIP, LFP, and ELAP. Separate limit of $125,000 for TAP. Continues all features of the current program and maintains loan rates (18.75¢/lb. for raw cane sugar; 24.09¢/lb. for refined beet sugar) through the 2018 crop Identical to Senate bill. [Sec. 1301 and Section 9009] Sugar Program Price Support and Supply Management Requires USDA to the maximum extent practicable to operate the sugar nonrecourse loan program at no net cost by avoiding loan forfeitures to the CCC CRS-26 Current Law/Policy (i.e., no outlays recorded). [7 U.S.C. 7272 (f), 7 U.S.C. 1359bb (b)(1), 7 U.S.C. 1359cc (b)] This is to be accomplished by (1) limiting amount of sugar that processors of sugar beets and sugarcane supply to the U.S. market under marketing allotments, (2) restricting imports under a quota (see below), in order to maintain market prices above levels supported by loan rates, and (3) requiring USDA, under specified conditions, to operate the feedstock flexibility program for bioenergy producers (i.e., sugar-to-ethanol program). [7 U.S.C. 1359aa et seq., 7 U.S.C. 8110] Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) year. [Sec. 1301] Continues the feedstock flexibility program (i.e., sugar-toethanol program) through the 2018 crop year. [See Sec. 9008 in Title IX -Energy] Increases in stages raw cane sugar loan rate from 18.0¢/lb. in FY2009 to 18.75¢/lb. in FY2012, and refined beet sugar loan rate from 22.9¢/lb. in FY2009 to 24.09¢/lb. in FY2012. Continues other provisions found in prior law. [7 U.S.C. 7272 (a, b, c, d, e, g, h, i)] Limits amount of sugar for food that processors can sell each year (equal to a national “overall allotment quantity” (OAQ) divided between sugarcane and sugar beet sectors, and then allocated to individual processors). Requires USDA each year to set the OAQ at not less than 85% of estimated U.S. human consumption. [7 U.S.C. 1359aa-1359jj, 1359ll] Import Quotas For each marketing year, requires USDA by October 1 to set the initial sugar import quota at 1.256 mil. short tons – the minimum spelled out in a U.S. multilateral trade commitment to other World Trade Organization member countries. Stipulates that this quota can only be raised before the midpoint of the year (April 1) in case of an emergency sugar shortage caused by a weather CRS-27 Same as current law. Same as current law. Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Dairy Product Price Support Program. Mandates the direct support of cheese, nonfat dry milk, and butter at specified prices for five years (through December 31, 2012). Specifies minimum purchase prices of: block cheese, $1.13/lb.; barrel cheese, $1.10/lb.; butter, $1.05/lb.; and nonfat dry milk, $0.80/lb (same levels previously used to support the farm price of milk at $9.90 per hundred lbs. or hundredweight (cwt.)) Allows USDA sale of acquired products when market prices rise to 110% of purchase price. Allows reduction of mandated purchase prices when USDA acquisitions exceed specified levels. Expires on December 31, 2013. [7 U.S.C. 8771] Repealed. [Sec. 1471(a)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1481(a)] Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) Program. MILC is a counter-cyclical payment program. When the monthly farm price of fluid milk falls below $16.94/cwt., all dairy farmers are paid an amount equal to 45% of the difference between $16.94 and the lower market price. Payments per farm are limited to 2.985 million lbs. of annual production. For the month of September 2013, the payment factor and the payment quantity are 34% and 2.4 million pounds, respectively. The $16.94/cwt. threshold price must be adjusted upward whenever feed costs are above $7.35/cwt. Beginning on September 1, 2013, the Nat’l. Avg. Dairy Feed Extended temporarily through June 30, 2014, using the 45% rate rather than reverting to the 34% rate for calculating the payment rate. Effective July 1, 2014, MILC is repealed. [Sec. 1471(b)] Repealed. [Sec. 1481(b)] Current Law/Policy disaster, war, or a similar event determined by the Secretary, and specifies the steps that must be followed to increase imports in the event of such a shortage. For each marketing year, grants USDA discretionary authority to increase the sugar quota beginning on April 1. [7 U.S.C. 1359 kk] Dairy Programs Repeal or Reauthorization of Dairy Programs CRS-28 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Dairy Export Incentive Program. Provides cash bonus payments to U.S. dairy exporters, subject to World Trade Organization obligations to limit export subsidies. Intended to counter foreign (mostly EU) dairy subsidies. Expires September 30, 2013. [15 U.S.C. 713a-14] Repealed. [Sec. 1472] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1482] Dairy Forward Pricing Program. Authorizes a dairy forward pricing program. Prices paid by milk handlers under the contracts are deemed to satisfy the minimum price requirements of federal milk marketing orders. Applies only to milk purchased for manufactured products (Classes II, III, and IV), and excludes milk purchased for fluid consumption (Class I). Expires on September 30, 2013. [7 U.S.C. 8772] Extended through FY2018. Allows for new contracts until September 30, 2018, but no contract can extend beyond September 30, 2021. [Sec. 1473] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1483] Dairy Indemnity Program. Authorizes payments to dairy farmers when a public regulatory agency directs removal of their raw milk from the market because of contamination by pesticides, nuclear radiation or fallout, or toxic substances and other chemical residues. Expires December 31, 2013. [7 U.S.C. 4501] Extended through FY2018. [Sec. 1474] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1484] Dairy Promotion and Research Program. The Dairy Producer Stabilization Act of 1983 authorized a generic dairy product promotion, research, and nutrition education program, funded by a mandatory $0.15/cwt assessment on milk produced/marketed in the 48 contiguous states. Importers in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico must also pay an assessment rate of $0.075/cwt. on imported products. Authorizes USDA to issue regulations on time and method of Extended through FY2018. [Sec. 1475] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1485] Current Law/Policy Ration Cost trigger rises from $7.35/cwt. to $9.50/cwt. MILC program expires September 30, 2013. [7 U.S.C. 8773] CRS-29 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Federal Milk Marketing Orders. Federal milk marketing order rules issued by USDA place requirements on the first buyers or handlers of milk, including paying at least minimum prices for the milk depending on its end use. Permanent federal authority to regulate the handling of milk was first provided in the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933, and subsequently revised by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended. FMMOs are established under permanent authority and do not need periodic reauthorization. [7 U.S.C. 601 et seq] Requires USDA to use a specified pre-hearing procedure to consider alternative formulas for Class III milk product pricing. [Sec. 1462] No comparable provision. Federal Milk Marketing Order Review Commission. As established by the 2008 farm bill [Sec. 1509], the FMMO Review Commission is mandated to conduct a comprehensive review and evaluation of (1) FMMO system, and (2) nonFMMO systems. Provides an option for funding from sources other than annual appropriations. [Sec. 1476] Repealed. [Sec. 1486] Requirements are added that specify a reporting periodicity that is more frequent than once per month. [Sec. 1461] No comparable provision. Current Law/Policy importer payments. Expires September 30, 2013. [7 U.S.C. 4504] Requires USDA to analyze (and report to Congress) the effects of replacing the use of end-product price formulas with other pricing alternatives. [Sec. 1481] No comparable provision. Dairy Market Transparency Dairy Product Mandatory Reporting. Dairy Market Enhancement Act of 2000 requires manufacturers to report to USDA the price, quantity, and moisture content of dairy products sold. The 2008 farm bill [Sec. 1510] authorizes USDA to establish an electronic reporting system (subject to available funds), after which increased frequency in mandatory reporting of dairy product sales would be required. Provides for quarterly audits of submitted information and comparison with related dairy market statistics. [7 U.S.C. 1637b] CRS-30 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) No comparable provision. Actual Dairy Production Margin: difference between the all-milk price and the average feed cost. [Sec. 1401(1)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1401(1)] No comparable provision. All-Milk Price: the national average price received, per cwt. of milk, by dairy operations. [Sec. 1401(2)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1401(2)] No comparable provision. Average Feed Cost: the average price paid for feed used by a dairy operation to produce a cwt. of milk, as determined by the formula—1.0728 x (corn price per bu.) + 0.00735 x (soybean meal price per ton) + 0.0137 x (alfalfa hay price per ton). [Sec. 1401(4)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1401(4)] Corn and alfalfa hay prices are monthly prices received as reported by USDA in Agricultural Prices. The soybean meal price is the monthly price for central Illinois as reported by USDA in Market News. [Sec. 1402(a)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1402(a)] No comparable provision. Consecutive 2-Month Period: the six 2-month periods of Jan.-Feb., Mar.-Apr., May-June, July-Aug., Sep.Oct., and Nov.-Dec. [Sec. 1401] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1401(6)] No comparable provision. Calculation of Actual Dairy Production Margin for the Production Margin Protection Program: the margin is calculated for each 2-month period as the difference between the 2-month average all-milk price and the 2-month average feed cost. [Sec. 1402b(1)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1402b(1)] No comparable provision. Calculation of Actual Dairy Production Margin for the Dairy Market Stabilization Program: the margin is calculated for each individual month as the difference between the preceding month’s average all-milk price and the preceding month’s average feed cost. [Sec. 1402b(2)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1402b(2)] Current Law/Policy Definitions CRS-31 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Dairy Production Margin Protection Program (DPMPP) No comparable provision. Dairy Production Margin Protection Program (DPMPP). Establishes a dairy production margin protection program with two components: basic margin protection and supplemental margin protection. [Sec. 1411] The margin protection program ends on December 31, 2018. [Sec. 1451] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sections 1411 and 1462] No comparable provision. Participation in DPMPP. All dairy producers are eligible to participate, but must make an election within 15 months after initiation of sign-up period, whereas new dairy producers must make an election during the oneyear period after their first milk is marketed commercially. A dairy operation may elect to remain in MILC during temporary extension through June 30, 2013, or to participate in DPMPP, but not both. Dairy producers that elect MILC may at any time make a permanent transfer to DPMPP. [Sec. 1412] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1412] An annual administration fee is required for participation in DPMPP as follows: $100 if (milk production) < 1million (M) lbs.; $250 if 1M lbs. to 5M lbs.; $350 if > 5M lbs. and < 10M lbs.; $1,000 if > 10M lbs. and < 40M lbs.; and $2,500 if > 40M lbs. This provision also details deposit and use of the fees and conditions for denial of program benefits. [Sec. 1412(e)] Nearly identical to the Senate bill, except that the annual administration fee for participation in DPMPP is as follows: $100 if (milk production) < 1million (M) lbs.; $250 if 1M lbs. to 10M lbs.; $500 if > 10M lbs. and < 40M lbs.; and $1,000 if > 40M lbs. [Sec. 1412(e)] No comparable provision. Basic Production History. Under basic margin protection, the highest annual milk marketings of the dairy operation during any one of the 3 preceding calendar years. Special provisions are made for new dairy operations. Once established, the basic production history does not change over succeeding years. [Sec. 1413(a)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1413(a)] No comparable provision. Annual Production History. Under supplemental margin protection, the actual milk marketings of the dairy operation during the preceding calendar year. Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1413(b)] CRS-32 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) [Sec. 1413(b)] Special provisions are made for new dairy operations, and for transfer or movement of production history. [Sec. 1413(d-e)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1413(d-e)] No comparable provision. Basic Production Margin Protection (BPMP). A payment is made to participating dairy operations whenever the 2-month average actual dairy production margin is less than $4.00/cwt. The BPMP payment rate equals the amount that the margin is below $4.00/cwt. (up to a value of $4.00) and is paid on the lesser of: (80% of the Basic Production History)/6 or the actual quantity of milk marketed during the 2-month period. [Sec. 1414] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1414] No comparable provision. Supplemental Production Margin Protection (SPMP). A participating dairy operation may annually purchase SPMP to protect additional margin beyond the basic $4.00/cwt. [Sec. 1415(a)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1415(a)] No comparable provision. The optional SPMP Coverage Level is available in $0.50/cwt. increments up to $8.00/cwt. of total margin protection. [Sec. 1415(b)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1415(b)] No comparable provision. A participating dairy operation also must elect a percentage of SPMP coverage equal to not more than 90%, nor less than 25% of the Annual Production History of the dairy operation. [Sec. 1415(c)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1415(c)] No comparable provision. In addition to the annual administration fee for BPMP, an annual premium for SPMP must be paid equal to the product of the coverage percentage, the annual production history, and the SPMP premium rate per cwt. of milk. [Sec. 1415d(1)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1415d(1)] The SPMP premium rate schedule varies based on scale of operations and the level of selected coverage. For the first 4 million lbs. of milk marketings the premium per cwt. is $0.01 for $4.50 margin coverage; $0.02 for $5.00; $0.035 for $5.50; $0.045 for $6.00; $0.09 for Nearly identical to the Senate bill, except that the SPMP premium rate schedule varies slightly. For the first 4 million lbs. of milk marketings the premium per cwt. is $0.01 for $4.50 margin coverage; $0.025 for $5.00; $0.04 for $5.50; $0.065 for $6.00; $0.09 for $6.50; $0.434 for CRS-33 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) $6.50; $0.40 for $7.00; $0.60 for $7.50; and $0.95 for $8.00. In excess of 4 million lbs. the premium per cwt. is: $0.02 for $4.50 margin coverage; $0.04 for $5.00; $0.10 for $5.50; $0.15 for $6.00; $0.29 for $6.50; $0.62 for $7.00; $0.83 for $7.50; and $1.06 for $8.00. [Sec. 1415d(2-3)] $7.00; $0.59 for $7.50; and $0.922 for $8.00. In excess of 4 million lbs. the premium per cwt. is: $0.015 for $4.50 margin coverage; $0.036 for $5.00; $0.081 for $5.50; $0.155 for $6.00; $0.23 for $6.50; $0.434 for $7.00; $0.59 for $7.50; and $0.922 for $8.00. [Sec. 1415d(2-3)] The SPMP premium is pro-rated for new dairy producers and maybe waived in the case of death, retirement, permanent dissolution, or other circumstances as judged by USDA. [1415(e)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1415(e)] No comparable provision. An SPMP payment is triggered whenever the average actual dairy production margin for a 2-month period is less than the SPMP Coverage Level selected by the dairy operation. An SPMP payment, if warranted by market conditions, is in addition to the BPMP payment. [Sec. 1415(f)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1415(f)] No comparable provision. The SPMP payment rate per cwt. is equal to the difference between the selected SPMP coverage level and the greater of either $4.00 or the average margin for the 2-month period. The total payment equals the SPMP payment rate x the percentage of coverage selected x the lesser of: (SMP production history)/6 or the actual milk marketings during the 2-month period. [Sec. 1415(g)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1415(g)] No comparable provision. Rules are established for failure of a producer to pay the BPMP administrative fee or SPMP premiums. [Sec. 1416] Current Law/Policy Dairy Market Stabilization Program (DMSP) No comparable provision. CRS-34 Dairy Market Stabilization Program (DMSP). Establishes a new program applicable for the purpose of balancing the supply of milk with demand (via reduced payments on milk marketings) when operating margins are low or negative. Participation in DMSP is mandatory for all dairy producers that participate in the DPMPP. The milk marketing volume used for determining dairy payment reductions under the DMSP is formula-based Identical to the Senate bill. [Sections 1431 and 1462] Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) comparing shares of actual milk marketings with the producer’s Stabilization Program Base. At signup in the DPMPP, participating dairy producers elect the calculation method of the Stabilization Program Base for their dairy operation as either—(A) the average volume of monthly milk marketings during the 3 preceding months, or (B) the volume of monthly milk marketings for the same month in the preceding year. [Sec. 1431] The market stabilization program ends on December 31, 2018. [Sec. 1451] No comparable provision. DMSP Implementation Threshold. When either: (A) the actual dairy production margin is $6.00/cwt. or less for each of the 2 preceding months, or (B) actual dairy production margin is $4.00/cwt. or less for the preceding one month; then reduced payments on milk marketings under the DMSP are in effect beginning the 1st day of the month immediately following the threshold trigger as announced by USDA. [Sec. 1432] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1432] No comparable provision. Producer Milk Marketing Information. Requires USDA to establish, by regulation, a process to collect from participating dairy producers and handlers such information as necessary for each month during which DMSP is in effect. [Sec. 1433] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1433] No comparable provision. Calculation of DMSP Payment Reductions. During any month in which the milk payment reductions are in effect, each handler shall reduce milk payments to each participating dairy producer from whom the handler receives milk according to the formula: Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1434] (A) Reduction Requirement 1: if the actual dairy production margin per cwt. is < $6.00, but > $5.00 for 2 consecutive months, then payment reductions are based on the greater of: (a) 98% of the Stabilization Program Base, or (b) 94% of the actual milk marketings for the month; (B) Reduction Requirement 2: if the actual dairy CRS-35 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) production margin per cwt. is < $5.00, but > $4.00 for 2 consecutive months, then payment reductions are based on the greater of: (a) 97% of the Stabilization Program Base, or (b) 93% of the actual milk marketings for the month; (C) Reduction Requirement 3: if the actual dairy production margin per cwt. is < $4.00 for any one month, then payment reductions are based on the greater of: (a) 96% of the Stabilization Program Base, or (b) 92% of the actual milk marketings for the month. Once the DMSP has been initiated, the largest level of payment reduction required under (A)-(C) shall be continued monthly until the stabilization program is suspended. However, no payment reduction is made if the dairy operation’s milk marketings are < the applicable percentage of the Stabilization Program Base. [Sec. 1434] Use of Funds from Payment Reductions under DMSP. The funds obtained from reduced payments to dairy producers for their milk marketings shall be remitted to USDA where they shall be used to purchase dairy products for donation to food banks and other programs with an end goal of expanding consumption and building demand for dairy products. USDA shall submit a report at the end of each year to the House and Senate Agriculture Committees concerning the funds received, expenditures, and the impact of the DMSP. [Sec. 1435] No comparable provision. Suspension Thresholds of DMSP Payment Reductions. DMSP is suspended under any of the following market conditions: (1) the actual dairy production margin is > $6.00/cwt. for 2 consecutive months; (2) the actual dairy production margin is < $6.00/cwt. (but > $5.00/cwt.) for 2 consecutive months, but during that CRS-36 Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1436(b)] Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) same period either (A) the U.S. price for cheddar cheese is > the world price for cheddar cheese, or (B) the U.S. price for nonfat dry milk (NFDM) is > the world price for NFDM; (3) the actual dairy production margin is < $5.00/cwt. (but > $4.00/cwt.) for 2 consecutive months, but during that same period either (A) the U.S. price for cheddar cheese is > 105% of the world price for cheddar cheese, or (B) the U.S. price for NFDM is > 105% of the world price for NFDM; or (4) the actual dairy production margin is < $4.00/cwt. for 2 consecutive months, but during that same period either (A) the U.S. price for cheddar cheese is > 107% of the world price for cheddar cheese, or (B) the U.S. price for NFDM is > 107% of the world price for NFDM. Once DMSP has been suspended, it may not be resumed until at least 2 months have passed (starting on the 1st day of the following month), and the conditions of Sec. 1432 are met again. [Sec. 1436(b)] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Enhanced Suspension Thresholds for DMSP. Such thresholds are included whereby, if the stabilization program (DMSP) is not suspended according to Sec. 1436(b) for 6 consecutive months, then DMSP may be suspended whenever any of the following market conditions are met: (1) the actual dairy production margin is > $6.00/cwt. for 2 consecutive months; (2) the actual dairy production margin is < $6.00/cwt. (but > $5.00/cwt.) for 2 consecutive months, but during that same period either (A) the U.S. price for cheddar cheese is > 97% of the world price for cheddar cheese, or (B) the U.S. price for nonfat dry milk (NFDM) is > 97% of the world price for NFDM; (3) the actual dairy production margin is < $5.00/cwt. (but CRS-37 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) > $4.00/cwt.) for 2 consecutive months, but during that same period either (A) the U.S. price for cheddar cheese is > 103% of the world price for cheddar cheese, or (B) the U.S. price for NFDM is > 103% of the world price for NFDM; or (4) the actual dairy production margin is < $4.00/cwt. for 2 consecutive months, but during that period either (A) the U.S. price for cheddar cheese is > 106% of the world price for cheddar cheese, or (B) the U.S. price for NFDM is > 106% of the world price for NFDM. [Sec. 1436(c)] No comparable provision. Enforcement. Provisions for enforcing DMSP are specified. [Sec. 1437] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1437] No comparable provision. Audit Requirements. Provisions for auditing participating dairy operations and for ensuring handler compliance in the DMSP are specified. [Sec. 1438] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1438] Standard rulemaking procedures generally require federal agencies to issue notices and take comments on proposed rules. [5 U.S.C. 553(b)] No comparable provision. Special Rulemaking Requirements. As reported by the House Agriculture Committee, the DPMPP and DMSP would have been exempt from standard rulemaking procedures. The House Judiciary Committee reported the bill with an amendment that deletes the exemption. Instead, the Secretary is required to promulgate interim rules (rules issued without prior notice and comment) for the stabilization program within nine months of enactment. The Secretary is authorized (but not required) to issue interim rules for the margin protection program. Final rules shall be published for both programs within 21 months of enactment. In issuing the interim and final rules for the dairy stabilization program, the Secretary is required to include an assessment of the impact of the two new programs on dairy markets, as specified. [Sec. 1461] No comparable provision. Study and Report on DMSP. Mandates that the Office of the Chief Economist, USDA, undertake a study of the impact of the DMSP on both the dairy product value chain and the competitiveness of the U.S. dairy No comparable provision. CRS-38 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) industry in international markets. Study results should be submitted as a report to the House and Senate Agriculture Committees by December 1, 2017. [Sec. 1439] Administrative Provisions Payment Limitations Establishes the maximum amount of payments per year to a person or legal entity for the sum of all covered commodities, except peanuts. Peanuts have a separate but equal payment limitation. —Direct payments: $40,000 —Direct payments under ACRE: $40,000 minus the reduction required for an ACRE participant. —Counter-cyclical payments: $65,000 —ACRE payments: $65,000 plus the reduction in the limit from the direct payment limit. —Marketing loan gains/LDP: no limit. [7 U.S.C. 1308 (a)-(d)] Establishes a limit on Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC) and adverse market payments, and reinstates limits on marketing loan gains and LDPs. —ARC and adverse market payments for the sum of all covered commodities except peanuts: $50,000 —ARC and adverse market payments for peanuts: $50,000 —Marketing loan gains/LDP for sum of all commodities except peanuts: $75,000 —Marketing loan gains/LDP for peanuts: $75,000 [Sec. 1603] Establishes a limit on the sum of Price Loss Coverage and Revenue Loss Coverage payments. Continues no limits on marketing loans/LDPs. For upland cotton, applies a limit on direct payments within the total payment limit. —PLC and RLC payments for the sum of all covered commodities except peanuts, and direct payments for upland cotton in 2014 and 2015 crop years: $125,000 —Direct payments for upland cotton in 2014 and 2015 crop years: $40,000 —PLC and RLC payments for peanuts: $125,000 —Marketing loan gains/LDP: no limit. [Sec. 1603] Payments are attributed to a person by accounting for the direct and indirect ownership in any legal entities. Payments made directly to a person are combined with the person’s pro rata share of payments from a legal entity. Payments to a legal entity cannot exceed the limits above, and are attributed to persons. Attribution of payments to legal entities is traced to four levels of ownership. If a payment has not been allocated to an individual after four levels of ownership, the payment to the first-level entity is reduced on a pro-rata basis. [7 U.S.C. 1308 (e)-(h)] Continues other payment limit provisions such as direct attribution, with the exception of the definition of active personal management (see below). Continues current law. CRS-39 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Deletes “active personal management” from the definition of actively engaged in farming. Effectively requires personal labor in the farming operation to be considered actively engaged. Members of legal entities collectively would need to make a significant contribution of personal labor. Adds a special class of “farm managers” that may be considered actively engaged by providing management but not personal labor. However the Secretary would take into account the size and complexity of the operation and whether such management requirements are normally needed by similar operations, A farm manager must be the only person to qualify an operation, may qualify only one operation, and must manage an operation that doesn’t share resources with another that collectively receives more than the payment limitations. Separately, clarifies that for the special class of landowner, a “landowner share-rents the land at a rate that is usual and customary” and that government payments are commensurate. [Sec. 1604] Continues current law. Prohibits farm commodity program benefits to an individual or entity if adjusted gross income exceeds certain thresholds. For this purpose, AGI is divided into two parts: farm AGI and non-farm AGI. Uses a 3-year average when comparing to the limit. Eliminates the distinction between non-farm AGI and farm AGI, and establishes a limit on total AGI. For most individuals, this tightens the limit. For some individuals with non-farm AGI between $500,000 and $750,000, it may restore program eligibility if farm AGI is low. Uses a 3-year average when comparing to the limit. Eliminates the distinction between non-farm AGI and farm AGI, and establishes a limit on total AGI. For some individuals, this tightens the limit if they use most of the former $500,000 and $750,000 limits. For other individuals, it may restore program eligibility if AGI is concentrated to either the farm or non-farm component (e.g., non-farm AGI between $500,000 and $950,000 and low farm AGI). Uses a 3-year average when comparing to the limit. —$500,000 limit on non-farm AGI to qualify for and receive any farm commodity program benefits, Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) program, noninsured crop assistance (NAP), or disaster payments. —$750,000 limit on total AGI to qualify for and receive ARC and adverse market payments, marketing loan gains or loan deficiency payments, supplemental agricultural disaster assistance, and noninsured crop assistance. [Sec. 1605] —$950,000 limit on total AGI to qualify for and receive PLC and RLC payments, marketing loan gains or loan deficiency payments, supplemental agricultural disaster assistance, noninsured crop assistance, and conservation programs. [Sec. 1604] Current Law/Policy To be eligible for payments, persons must be “actively engaged” in farming. Actively engaged, in general, is defined as making a significant contribution of (i) capital, equipment or land, and (ii) personal labor or active personal management. Also, profits are to be commensurate with the level of contributions, and contributions must be at risk. Legal entities can be actively engaged if members collectively contribute personal labor or active personal management. Special classes allow landowners to be considered actively engaged if they receive income based on the farm’s operating results, without providing labor or management, Spouses are considered actively engaged if the other spouse meets the qualification. [7 U.S.C. 1308-1] Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) Limitation —$750,000 limit on farm AGI to qualify for and CRS-40 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Eliminates the USDA waiver authority for “environmentally sensitive land of special significance.” Continues $1 million limit on non-farm AGI, and the exception, for conservation programs. [Sec. 2610] Eliminates the separate AGI limit for conservation programs, including the exception for 2/3 of AGI being farm AGI, and—like the Senate bill—the USDA waiver authority for “environmentally sensitive land of special significance.” Applies the same $950,000 total AGI limit to the conservation programs as for the farm commodity programs. [Sec. 1604(a)] Authorizes use of funds, facilities, and authorities of the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) to carry out Title I. Determinations by USDA shall be final. Allows promulgation of regulations, and adjusting expenditures if they will exceed allowable support levels under the Uruguay Round Agreements. [7 U.S.C. 8781] Same as current law. [Sec. 1601] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1601] Suspends the permanent price support authority of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 and the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1949 for the 200813 crops (covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar), and for milk through December 31, 2013. [7 U.S.C. 8782] Same as current law, except applies to 2014-2018 crop years, and milk through December 31, 2018. [Sec. 1602] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1602] Provides payments to “geographically disadvantaged farmers” in insular areas, Alaska, and Hawaii for transporting a commodity or input more than 30 miles. Reimbursement based on federal salary differentials defined elsewhere, with maximum of 25% transportation cost. Authorizes $15 million of discretionary appropriations annually for FY2009- Reauthorizes through FY2018. [Sec. 1606] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1605] Current Law/Policy receive direct payments, but counter-cyclical, ACRE and marketing loan benefits may continue if farm AGI exceeds $750,000. [7 U.S.C. 1308-3a(b)(1)] For FY2012 only, a separate, additional $1 million AGI limit applies to direct payments [P.L. 112-55, Sec. 745] For conservation programs, $1 million limit on nonfarm AGI, unless more than 66.66% of AGI is farm AGI. Provides USDA discretion to waive the limit for “environmentally sensitive land of special significance." [7 U.S.C. 1308-3a(b)(2)] Other Administrative Provisions CRS-41 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Exempts producers from liability for certain deficiencies in collateral to secure any nonrecourse loan. [7 U.S.C. 7284] Same as current law. [Sec. 1607] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1606] Requires regulations that describe the circumstances allowing payments to a deceased person to settle an estate, and to stop payments for those ineligible. Requires USDA to reconcile tax identification numbers with IRS data twice a year to determine living status. [7 U.S.C. 7284] Same as current law. [Sec. 1608] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1607] Any person who receives an adverse program decision from USDA’s Farm Service Agency, Risk Management Agency, Natural Resources Conservation Service, or the three USDA Rural Development agencies may file an appeal with the National Appeals Division (NAD), an independent office that reports directly to the Secretary of Agriculture. Its mission is to provide fair and timely hearings and appeals to USDA program participants. [7 U.S.C. 6992] Adds authorization for the Assistant Secretary of Administration to administer law and regulations that relate to competitive and excepted service position in NAD. [Sec. 1609(a)] No comparable provision. Requires that assignment of payments must be done in accordance with USDA regulations. [7 U.S.C. 8784] Same as current law. [Sec. 1611] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1609] Requires tracking of program benefits under Commodity and Conservation titles that are made directly or indirectly to individuals and entities. [7 U.S.C. 8785] Same as current law. [Sec. 1612] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1610] Requires that, if USDA approves a program document containing signatures of applicants, it shall not subsequently determine it to be inadequate or invalid unless the person signing the document knowingly and willfully falsified the evidence of signature authority or a signature. [7 U.S.C. 8790] Same as current law. [Sec. 1613] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 1611] Current Law/Policy 13. [7 U.S.C. 8792] CRS-42 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Provides $50 million of mandatory funds from the CCC to implement Title I. [7 U.S.C. 8793] Provides $97 million of mandatory funds from the CCC to implement Title I. USDA is to reduce administrative burdens on participants, improve information coordination among agencies, and take advantage of new technologies to deliver programs to producers. [Sec. 1614] The Secretary shall make available $100 million to implement Title I. Also directs USDA to maintain base acres and payment yields for covered commodities (and upland cotton), with separate bases acres for long grain and medium grain rice. [Sec. 1612] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Prohibits the Secretary of Agriculture, USDA employee, contractor, or officer or employee of another federal agency from disclosing information provided by a producer or owner of agricultural land concerning the operation, farming or conservation practices, or the land itself in order to participate in USDA or other federal programs. Specifies certain exceptions; disclosures must be reported to House and Senate Agriculture Committees. [Sec. 1613] Current Law/Policy CRS-43 Title II. Conservation Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Sec.1231(a-b) of the Food Security Act of 1985 (FSA) (P.L. 99-198, or the 1985 farm bill), as amended, authorizes the CRP through FY2013. CRP provides annual rental payments to producers to replace crops on highly erodible and environmentally sensitive land with long-term resource conserving plantings. [16 U.S.C. 3831(ab)] Extends authorization through FY2018. Adds grasslands to list of eligible lands, which is consistent with the consolidation of Grassland Reserve Program (GRP) rental agreements under CRP (also see Sec. 2004 below). Amends eligible land definition for land not enrolled in CRP. [Sec. 2001(a-b)] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. [Sec. 2001(a-b)] Sec. 1231(c) of the FSA, as amended, determines the planting status of certain land. [16 U.S.C. 3831(c)] Deletes language allowing land enrolled in the Water Bank Program and cropland expiring in CY2000-CY2002 to be enrolled. [Sec. 2001(c)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2001(c)] Sec. 1231(d) of the FSA, as amended, authorizes the maximum acreage enrollment levels; the program is currently authorized through FY2013 to enroll up to 32 million acres. [16 U.S.C. 3831(d)] Reduces enrollment to 30 million acres in FY2014; 27.5 million acres in FY2015; 26.5 million acres in FY2016; and 26.5 million acres in FY2017; and 25 million in FY2018. Also caps grassland enrollment at 1.5 million acres between FY2014-FY2018. Gives expiring CRP acres priority enrollment for grassland contracts; at least one grassland sign-up must be offered each year. [Sec. 2001(d)] Reduces enrollment to 27.5 million acres in FY2014; 26 million acres in FY2015; 25 million acres in FY2016; 24 million acres in both FY2017 and FY2018. Also caps grassland enrollment at 2 million acres between FY2014FY2018. Gives expiring CRP acres priority enrollment for grassland contracts. Grassland sign-up is continuous with one or more ranking periods. [Sec. 2001(d)] Sec. 1231(e) of the FSA, as amended, defines the duration of contracts. [16 U.S.C. 3831(e)] Amends language for land devoted to hardwood trees, shelterbelts, windbreaks, or wildlife corridors to allow flexible contract lengths beyond the current 10-15 years. [Sec. 2001(e)] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. [Sec. 2001(e)] Sec. 1231(f) of the FSA, as amended, lists priority areas as the Chesapeake Bay Region, the Great Lakes Region, and Long Island Sound. [16 U.S.C. 3831f] Deletes watershed-specific language, but retains the use of conservation priority areas as determined by USDA. [Sec. 2001(f)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2001(f)] Sec. 1231B(a-f) of the FSA, as amended, authorizes a pilot program for up to 1 million acres of wetland and buffer acreage in CRP. [16 U.S.C. 3831b] Renames the pilot program “Farmable Wetlands Program.” Reauthorizes the program through FY2018, and clarifies language related to constructed wetlands receiving water from agricultural drainage. [Sec. 2002] Similar to the Senate bill, but reduces acreage limitation from 1 million acres to 750,000 acres. [Sec. 2002] Current Law/Policy Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) CRS-44 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Sec. 1232(a)(8) of the FSA, as amended, establishes approved use of harvesting, grazing, and wind turbine use on CRP acres. [16 U.S.C. 3832(a)(8)] Deletes language related to harvesting, grazing, and wind turbine use on CRP acres. Adds similar language under Sec. 2004 (see below). [Sec. 2003(a)] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. [Sec. 2003(a)] Sec. 1232(b & d) of the FSA, as amended, requires a conservation plan on all CRP acres and reduces rental payment for certain authorized uses. [16 U.S.C. 3832(b & d)] Amends conservation plan language by removing possible base acre retirement. Deletes rental payment reduction requirement for certain authorized activities. Rental payment reduction language is added under Sec. 2004 (see below). [Sec. 2003(b-c)] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. [Sec. 2003(b-c)] Sec. 1233 of the FSA, as amended, specifies the duty of USDA to make cost-share payments and rental payments. [16 U.S.C. 3833] Deletes the current section and adds new section that specifies the duties of USDA as: making cost-share and rental payments; allowing for emergency harvesting, grazing, and other use of forage without a reduction in rental rate; allowing livestock grazing for a beginning farmer or rancher without a reduction in rental rate; certain permitted activities (harvesting, grazing, and wind turbines) in exchange for not less than a 25% reduction in rental rates. All permitted activities must be consistent with an approved conservation plan. Allows grazing, harvesting, and fire suppression on enrolled grasslands. In exchange for a reduced rental rate, a landowner may install land improvement practices up to one year before the CRP acres expire. This land may not reenroll in CRP for five years. [Sec. 2004] Similar to the Senate bill, but does not include the Senate provision allowing beginning farmers or ranchers to graze livestock without a reduction in rental rate. Includes a different rate (not more than once every three years) for identifying periods in which managed haying and other commercial uses may occur in exchange for a reduction in rental rate. Does not include the Senate provision that requires a reduced rental payment for landowners electing to install land improvement practices up to one year before the CRP acres expire. [Sec. 2004] Sec. 1234 of the FSA, as amended, establishes a framework for calculating annual rental payments. [16 U.S.C. 3834] Allows incentive payments for tree and shrub maintenance (thinning activities). Amends rental payment calculation to include grassland contracts for not more than 75% of the grazing value. Dryland cash rental rates may also be used as a factor for determining annual rental rates. Deletes language allowing for in-kind commodities as a form of CRP payment. [Sec. 2005] Sec. 2601(a) includes a limit of $10 million for thinning activities between FY2014-FY2018. Similar to the Senate bill, but does not include incentive payments for thinning activities. Also does not include the language allowing USDA to consider dryland cash rental rate when determining annual rental rates. [Sec. 2005] Sec. 2601(a) does not include a limit for thinning activities. Sec. 1235(f) of the FSA, as amended, facilitates the transfer of CRP acres from a retiring owner to a beginning/socially-disadvantaged producer to return Simplifies language and provides conforming amendments to the CRP transition option. Adds “rancher” and “veteran farmer or rancher” as eligible individuals in Amends the early termination provisions to allow producers with a CRP contract in place for five or more years to terminate the contract in FY2014. Expands the CRS-45 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) land to production, and allows new owner to begin land improvements or start organic certification process one year before CRP contract expires. [16 U.S.C. 3835(f)] addition to a farmer. The Secretary shall not consider an owner or operator in violation of terms and conditions of a CRP contract if (1) during the year prior to contract expiration the land is enrolled in the CSP; and (2) the activity required under CSP pursuant to the enrollment is consistent with this subsection. Authorizes the Secretary to terminate or modify a contract if eligible land subject to the contract is transferred into the ACEP. [Sec. 2006] Sec. 2601(a) includes a $50 million limit for the CRP transition option between FY2014-FY2018. list of land that may not be subject to early termination. Provides conforming amendments, similar to the Senate bill, to the CRP transition option. Adds a provision allowing landowners to enroll in CSP (see program beginning with Sec. 2101) and conduct activities required under CSP in the final year of the CRP contract without violating the terms of the contract. Also allows USDA to terminate or modify a CRP contract if land is enrolled in ACEP (see section beginning with Sec. 2301) Changes effective date of termination to the date that the request is approved by the Secretary. [Sec. 2006] Sec. 1235A of the FSA, as amended, allows land enrolled in CRP before enactment of the 1990 farm bill (P.L. 101-624, November 28, 1990) to convert vegetative cover to hardwood trees or restored wetlands [16 U.S.C. 3835a] Repeals a provision added in the 1990 farm bill that allows land to be converted from vegetative cover to hardwood trees or restored wetlands. [Sec. 2007] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2007] No comparable provision. Provides transition language for existing CRP contracts. Reductions in CRP acres (Sec. 2003) take effect upon enactment. All other amendments take effect on October 1, 2013. [Sec. 2008] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. [Sec. 2008] Sec. 1241(a)(1) of the FSA, as amended, limits payments for thinning activities to $100 million between FY2009-FY2013 and payments for the transition assistance (see Sec. 1235(f) above) to $25 million for FY2009-2013. [16 U.S.C. 3841(a)(1)] Reduces limit for thinning activities (see Sec. 2005) to $10 million between FY2013-FY2018 and increases limit for transition assistance (see Sec. 2006) to $50 million between FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 2601(a)] Does not include a limit for thinning activities (see Sec. 2005). Extends the $25 million limit for transition assistance to FY2014-FY2018 (see Sec. 2006). [Sec. 2601(a)] Sec. 1241(a)(1) of the FSA, as amended, limits payments for thinning activities to $100 million between FY2009-FY2013 and payments for the transition assistance (see Sec. 1235(f) above) to $25 million for FY2009-2013. [16 U.S.C. 3841(a)(1)] Reduces limit for thinning activities (see Sec. 2005) to $10 million between FY2013-FY2018 and increases limit for transition assistance (see Sec. 2006) to $50 million between FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 2601(a)] Does not include a limit for thinning activities (see Sec. 2005). Extends the $25 million limit for transition assistance to FY2014-FY2018 (see Sec. 2006). [Sec. 2601(a)] Deletes definition of ‘conservation measurement tools’ Similar to the Senate bill except that it further defines Current Law/Policy Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) Sec. 1238D of the FSA, as amended, defines CRS-46 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) program terms for CSP. CSP provides financial and technical assistance to promote the conservation and improvement of soil, water, air, energy, plant and animal life, and other conservation purposes on tribal and private working lands. [16 U.S.C. 3838d] and moves the definition of ‘eligible land’ from Sec. 1238E(b) of the FSA, as amended to the definition section. Adds pastureland as defined eligible lands. [Sec. 2101(a)] eligible land to include land used or capable of being used for production of livestock and pastureland. [Sec. 2101(a)] Sec. 1238E of the FSA, as amended, establishes the CSP program for FY2009-FY2014. Eligible land includes private agricultural land, tribal agricultural land (that has been planted to crops four of preceding six years), and nonindustrial private forest land. [16 U.S.C. 3838e] Reauthorizes the program through FY2018. Moves definition of ‘eligible land’ to the definition section (1238D of the FSA, as amended) and removes nonindustrial private forest land limit of not more than 10% of total annual acres. Permits CSP enrollment of land under a CRP contract provided the CRP contract is scheduled to expire at the end of the year in which the land is enrolled in CSP; and CRP payments for the land cease prior to the date of the first CSP payment. [Sec. 2101(a)] Similar to Senate bill, but allows CRP land in the last fiscal year of enrollment to be considered eligible for CSP. CRP payments must cease before CSP payments may begin. [Sec. 2101(a)] Sec. 1238F of the FSA, as amended, establishes contract requirements for addressing at least one resource concern upon application and meeting or exceeding the threshold for at least one priority resource concern by the end of the contract. Establishes a ranking criteria of applications, contract provisions, contract renewal, and contract terminations. [16 U.S.C. 3838f] Increases the entry requirement to address two resource concerns upon applying and meeting or exceeding the threshold for at least one additional priority resource concern. Adds expiring CRP acres transitioning to production as a consideration for ranking applications. Requires contract renewal participants to agree to, at a minimum, at least two additional priority resource concerns. [Sec. 2101(a)] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences As a condition of contract renewal, added requirement that participants at a minimum must meet the threshold for two “additional” priority resources concerns OR exceed the threshold for two “existing“ priority resource concerns.. [Sec. 2101(a)] Sec, 1238G of the FSA, as amended, outlines the duties of USDA, including offering continuous enrollment with at least one ranking period per year, identifying between 3-5 priority resource concerns, and developing a conservation measurement tool. Limits acreage enrollment to 12,769,000 acres for each fiscal year 2008 though 2017. Requires a national average rate of $18 per acre (to include all costs). Payments may be based on the costs incurred, income forgone, and expected environmental benefits. In general, payments are made at the beginning of each fiscal year and are limited to a total of $200,000 for all CSP contracts during any five year period. [16 Increases the number of priority resource concerns identified by USDA to not less than five. Removes references to a conservation measurement tool. Reduces the number of enrollable acres to 10,348,000 acres for each fiscal year 2014 through 2022. Adjusts the payment limit aggregate to $200,000 for all CSP contracts between FY2014 and FY2018. Provides additional payment direction and requires a prorated performance over the life of the contract to create equal payments each fiscal year. Removes data collection requirements. [Sec. 2101(a)] Similar to the Senate bill with a reduced level of enrollable acres––8.695 million acres––for each year FY2014-FY2021. Adjusts the payment limit to an aggregate of $200,000 for all CSP contracts between FY2013 and FY2017 [Sec. 2101(a)] Current Law/Policy CRS-47 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Provides transition language for existing CSP contracts. Amendments to CSP take effect on October 1, 2013. [Sec. 2101(b-c)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2101(b-c)] U.S.C. 3838g] No comparable provision. Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) Sec. 1240 of the FSA, as amended, authorizes EQIP, stating its purpose as promoting production and environmental quality as compatible goals, and optimizing environmental benefits by assisting producers: (1) with compliance with national regulatory requirements; (2) to avoid the need for regulation; (3) to install and maintain conservation practices; (4) to make cost-effective changes to current production systems, and (5) to reduce administrative burdens by consolidating planning and regulatory compliance . [16 U.S.C. 3839aa] Removes the 5th purpose area that requires the reduction of administrative burdens on the producer through consolidating conservation planning and streamlining regulatory compliance processes. Adds wildlife habitat improvement and development practices to the 3rd purpose area. [Sec. 2201] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. [Sec. 2201] Sec. 1240A of the FSA, as amended, defines six terms: eligible land, National Organic Program, organic system plan, payment, practice, and program. [16 U.S.C. 3839aa-1] Incorporates the definition of the National Organic Program into the definition of an organic system plan. [Sec. 2202] No comparable provision. Sec. 1240B(a-b) of the FSA, as amended, authorizes EQIP through FY2014. Contracts are 1-10 years in length. [16 U.S.C. 3839aa-2(a-b)] Reauthorizes EQIP through FY2018. Removes the minimum one-year contract length requirement. Establishes requirement that not more than 30% of amount determined under subparagraph (A) may be provided in advance for purchases or material and contracting [Sec. 2203(1-2)] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. Establishes requirement that not more than 50% of amount determined under subparagraph (A) may be provided in advance for purchases or material and contracting. [Sec. 2202(1-2)] CRS-48 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Sec. 1240B(d) of the FSA, as amended, limits EQIP payments to not more than 75% of the cost (up to 90% for limited resource, socially disadvantaged farm or rancher, or a beginning farmer or rancher) and not more than 100% of income forgone. Greater significance is provided for determining income forgone payments for specific management practices. Advance payments for certain producers are limited to 30% of the cost-share rate. [16 U.S.C. 3839aa-2(d)] Revises the list of practices afforded greater significance when determining income forgone. Adds veteran farmer or rancher to the list of certain producers eligible for cost-share rates up to 90% and advanced payments. Requires advanced payments not used within 90 days to be returned. [Sec. 2203(3)] Does not include the Senate bill’s list of practices. Adds veteran farmer or rancher to the list of certain producers eligible for higher cost-share rates. Increases the amount of advance payments from 30% to 50% of the cost-share rate. [Sec. 2202(3)] Sec. 1240B(f) of the FSA, as amended, requires that 60% of EQIP payments go to practices related to livestock production requirement between FY2008FY2013. [16 U.S.C. 3839aa-2(f)] Extends through FY2018 the requirement that 60% of payments be for livestock production. A minimum of 5% of funds go to payments benefiting wildlife habitat (see Sec. 2203(5)) Requires the Secretary to consult with State Technical Committee at least once per year in determining practices eligible for payment and targeted funding. Authorizes the Secretary to make payments to a state or local unit of government to enroll areas riparian to or submerged under water or wetland if the Secretary determines that it supports restoration, development and improvement of wildlife habitat. [Sec. 2203(4)] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. [Sec. 2202(4)] Sec. 1240B(g) of the FSA, as amended, allows USDA to enter into alternative funding arrangement with federally recognized Native American Indian Tribes and Alaska Native Corporations. [16 U.S.C. 3839aa-2(g)] No comparable provision. Changes the term ‘federally recognized Native American Indian Tribes and Alaska Native Corporations’ to ‘Indian Tribes.’ [Sec. 2202(5)] Sec. 1240N of the FSA, as amended, authorizes the Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program (WHIP), providing cost-sharing to landowners who improve habitat. Authorized to receive mandatory funding of $85 million annually through FY2013. [16 U.S.C. 3839bb-1] Adds a new provision under EQIP specifically for wildlife habitat incentive practices. Language is similar to the Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program, which is repealed in Sec. 2707. [Sec. 2203(5)] Funding for the provision is provided in Sec. 2203(4). Similar to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2202(6)]. The Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program is also repealed in Sec. 2707 and funding for the new wildlife provision is provided in Sec. 2202(4) above. Sec. 1240C(b) of the FSA, as amended, identifies priorities to program applications. Gives higher priority for producers using cost-effective Changes “environmental benefits” to “conservation benefits.” [Sec. 2204] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2203] Current Law/Policy CRS-49 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Sec. 1240D(2) of the FSA, as amended, states that in exchange for EQIP payments, producers will not conduct any practices on the farm, ranch, or forest land that could defeat the purpose of the program. [16 U.S.C. 3839aa-4(2)] Changes “farm, ranch, or forest” land to “enrolled” land. [Sec. 2205] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2204] Sec. 1240G of the FSA, as amended, limits EQIP participant’s payments to $300,000 for any six-year period. This may be waived to up to $450,000 for any six-year period if the contract is of environmental significance. [16 U.S.C. 3839aa-7] Limits EQIP payments for the period of authorization (FY2014-FY2018) rather than a rolling six-year period. [Sec. 2206] Raises the EQIP payment limit to an aggregate of $450,000 between FY2014-FY2018 and eliminates the waiver authority for contracts of environmental significance. [Sec. 2205] Sec. 1240H of the FSA, as amended, authorizes a competitive grants program within EQIP, known as the Conservation Innovation Grants (CIG). Grants are provided, on a matching basis, to implement innovative conservation practices. Provides $37.5 million of EQIP funds annually (FY2009-2013) to address air quality concerns. [16 U.S.C. 3839aa-8] Reauthorizes the air quality funding carve-out of $37.5 million of EQIP annually through FY2017. Adds a reporting requirement that no later than Dec. 31, 2013, and every 2 years thereafter, a report must be submitted to Congress regarding CIG funding, project results, and technology transfer efforts. [Sec. 2207] Eliminates the air quality funding carve-out of $37.5 million annually. Adds research and demonstration activities, and new technology pilot testing as eligible projects. Adds a reporting requirement identical to Senate bill. [Sec. 2206] No comparable provision. Provides transition language for existing EQIP contracts. Amendments to EQIP take effect on October 1, 2013. [Sec. 2208] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2207] Sec. 1241(a)(6) of the FSA, as amended, authorizes mandatory EQIP funding, rising from $1.2 billion in FY2008 to $1.75 billion in FY2014. [16 U.S.C. 3841(a)(6)] Authorizes mandatory EQIP funding: $500 million (FY2014); $1.6 billion (FY2015); and $1.65 billion (each FY2016-FY2018). Amended Sec. 1241(a)(5). [Sec. 2601(a)] Authorizes mandatory EQIP funding of $1.75 billion for each fiscal year 2013 through 2017. Amended Sec. 1241(a)(5) [Sec. 2601(a)] Current Law/Policy conservation practices to achieve environmental benefits. [16 U.S.C. 3839aa-3(b)] Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) No directly comparable provision. Similar to the establishment and purposes section of the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP, Sec. 1237(a)), the Farmland Protection Program (FPP, Sec. 1238I(a)&(b)), and the Grassland Reserve Program (GRP, Sec. 1238N(a)) of the FSA, as amended. [16 CRS-50 Establishes the Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP). Combines the purposes of WRP, FPP, and GRP. Amended Sec. 1265 [Sec. 2301(a)] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. Amended Sec. 1265 [Sec. 2301(a)] Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) No directly comparable provision. Similar to definitions found in Sec. 1237 (WRP) and Sec. 1238H (FPP) of the FSA, as amended. [16 U.S.C. 3837 & 3838h] Defines agricultural land easements, eligible entity, eligible land, program and wetland easement. Divides the easement program into two types––agricultural land easements, which include components of FPP and GRP and wetlands easements, which include components of WRP. Amended Sec. 1265A Eligible land is defined as land that conserves grassland or agricultural landscape of significant ecological value. [Sec. 2301(a)] Similar to the Senate bill with differences, including: the definition of agricultural land does not include the Senate language related to promoting agricultural viability; and the House bill contains wetland easements that may include cropland or grassland that has prior flooding from a closed basin lake or pothole if the state or other entity is willing to provide a 50% cost-share of the easement. House bill also includes land enrolled in the conservation reserve program. Amended Sec. 1265A [Sec. 2301(a)] No directly comparable provision. Similar to Sec. 1238I (FPP) of the FSA, as amended. Provides for the purchase of conservation easements by limiting the land’s nonagricultural uses. The federal cost may not exceed 50% of the appraised market value of the easement and entities must contribute a minimum of 25% of the acquisition purchase price. Prohibits bidding down. Requires USDA to include a contingent right of enforcement in the terms of the easement, and that a conservation plan be required for any easements that include highly erodible cropland. Establishes a certification process for USDA to enter into agreements with eligible entities to use FPP cost-share assistance to purchase easements. To become certified, entities must have the authority and resources to enforce easements, polices in place that are consistent with the purposes of the program, and clear procedures to protect the integrity of the program. Agreements with certified entities are a minimum of five years with a review and recertification required every three years. Agreements with noncertified entities are 3-5 years in length. [16 U.S.C. 3838i(c)-(h)] Retains much of the FPP easement requirements for costshare assistance, agreements with eligible entities, certification of eligible entities, including review and recertification requirements. Allows for grazing as a protected agricultural use, similar to GRP easements. Requires appraisals based on uniform standards of professional appraisal practice or any other industryapproved standard. Requires eligible entities to provide contributions equivalent to the federal share or at least 50% of the federal share if the entity includes contributions from the private landowner. Allows up to 75% federal cost-share for grasslands of special environmental significance. Establishes an evaluation and ranking criteria for applications. Authorizes the Secretary to waive any portion of the eligible entity cash contribution requirement for projects of special significance, subject to an increase of private landowner donation equal to the amount of the waiver if donation is voluntary. Amended Sec. 1265B [Sec. 2301(a)] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. Amended Sec. 1265B [Sec. 2301(a)] No directly comparable provision. Similar to Sec. 1237-1237F (WRP) of the FSA, as amended. WRP Retains much of the WRP easement requirements for land eligibility, easement terms, compatible uses, Identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. Reduces the land ownership requirement to the Current Law/Policy U.S.C. 3837(a); 3838i(a)&(b); 3838n(a)] CRS-51 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) enrolls lands through the use of permanent easements, 30-yea easements, restoration costshare agreements, or any combination thereof. Eligible lands under WRP include: farmed wetland or converted wetland, together with adjacent land, except wetlands converted before December 23, 1985; cropland or grassland that was used for agricultural production prior to flooding from the natural overflow of a closed basin lake or pothole; and possibly farmed wetlands enrolled in CRP that are likely to return to production upon contract expiration. Ineligible lands include CRP acres containing timber stands or CRP pasture established to trees. USDA is required to determine the value of easements and contracts by providing the lowest amount of compensation based on a comparison of the fair market value of the land, a geographic cap, or an offer made by the landowner. Easements with values less than $500,000 must be paid out over 1-30 years; easements with values greater than $500,000 are to be paid out over 5-30 years. Authorized to conduct a Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP) for agreements with states similar to CREP. Priority is given to easements based on the value of protecting and enhancing habitat for migratory birds and other wildlife, while taking into consideration costs and future agricultural and food needs. Eligible land cannot have changed ownership in the previous 7-year period unless the new ownership was by will, succession, foreclosure, or USDA is assured the land was not acquired for the purpose of enrolling in WRP. [16 U.S.C. 38373837f] easement compensation, violation procedures, duties of USDA and the owner, cost-share, restoration, and technical assistance requirements, and modification and termination procedures. Reauthorizes WREP-like program referred to as the wetland enhancement option. No longer allows for stand-alone cost-share restoration agreements, only 30-year easements, permanent easements (or maximum duration allowed under law), and 30-year contracts for Indian Tribes, which may include restoration assistance. Requires the establishment of an evaluation and ranking criteria that maximizes the benefit of federal investment. Retains priority for easements based on the value of protecting and enhancing habitat for migratory birds and other wildlife, but removes consideration for costs and future agricultural and food needs. Makes the reserved grazing rights pilot program permanent. Compensation provisions are similar to WRP, but adds a requirement that 30-year contract (Tribes only) and 30-year easement compensation be between 50% and 75% of a permanent easement’s compensation. Payment schedules are changed for easements with values less than $500,000 to be paid out not more than ten years and easements with values greater than $500,000 to be paid out over 5-10 years. Easement administration may still be delegated, however, the monitoring and enforcement responsibilities may not. Reduces the land ownership requirement to the preceding 12-month period. Excludes (A) Shelterbelts and Windbreaks and (B) Wetland and Saturated Soils - not subjecting such cropland, as designated by the Secretary, with subclass “w” in the land capability classes IV through VIII . Amended Sec. 1265C [Sec. 2301(a)] preceding 24-month period. Amended Sec. 1265C [Sec. 2301(a)] No comparable provision. Outlines administrative requirements for ACEP using elements of WRP, FPP, and GRP. Provides priority for expiring CRP acres to enter into 1) agricultural land Similar to the Senate bill, except the House bill allocates funding to no less than 40% annual for agricultural land easement for FY2014-FY2017 and 50% in FY2018. Current Law/Policy CRS-52 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) easements if they are grasslands that would benefit from long-term easements, or 2) wetland easements if they are wetlands with the highest functions and value that could return to production after leaving the CRP. Amended Sec. 1265D. [Sec. 2301(a)] Amended Sec. 1265D [Sec. 2301(a)] No comparable provision. Requires ACEP participants to meet highly erodible land and wetlands conservation (collectively known as conservation compliance) requirements (see 16 U.S.C. 3811 et seq. under Sec. 2609(a-b) for a description). Provides technical amendments for other sections. Amendments take effect on October 1, 2013. [Sec. 2301(b-d)] Similar to the Senate bill, including the conservation compliance requirement. Also amends acreage limitations to include the repealed WRP acres in the 25% county acreage cap in addition to CRP and the new wetland easements under ACEP. [Sec. 2301(b-d)] No directly comparable provision. Sec. 1241(a)(2) and (a)(5) of the FSA, as amended, authorizes mandatory funding to enroll WRP & GRP acres respectively. Sec. 1241(a)(4) authorizes mandatory FPP funding, rising from $97 million in FY2008 to $200 million in FY2014. [16 U.S.C. 3841(a)(2); (a)(4); (a)(5)] Authorizes mandatory ACEP funding: $450 million (FY2014), $475 million (FY2015); $500 million (FY2016); $525 million (FY2017); and $250 million (FY2018). Amended Sec. 1241(a)(2). [Sec. 2601(a)] Authorizes mandatory ACEP funding: $450 million (FY2013), $475 million (FY2014); $500 million (FY2015); $525 million (FY2016); and $266 million (FY2017). Amended Sec. 1241(a)(2). [Sec. 2601(a)] Current Law/Policy Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP) No directly comparable provision. Includes elements of the establishment and purposes section of the Agricultural Water Enhancement Program (AWEP, Sec. 1240I)), the Chesapeake Bay Watershed program (Sec. 1240Q), the Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative (CCPI, Sec. 1243) and the Great Lakes basin program for soil erosion and sediment control (Sec. 1240P) of the FSA, as amended. [16 U.S.C. 3839aa-9; 3839bb-4; 3843; 3839bb-3] Establishes the Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP). Combines the purposes of AWEP, the Chesapeake Bay Watershed program, CCPI, and the Great Lakes basin program to further conservation, restoration, and sustainability on a regional or watershed scale, and encourage partners to cooperate with producers in meeting or avoiding regulatory requirements and implementing projects. Amended Sec. 1271 [Sec. 2401] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. Amended Sec. 1271 [Sec. 2401] No directly comparable provision. Includes elements of previously mentioned programs. Defines covered programs as ACEP, EQIP,CSP & HFRP. Eligible activities include those that address water quality and quantity concerns, wildlife habitat, erosion, forest restoration, including T&E species, improved biodiversity, and enhancement to carbon sequestration and others Similar to the Senate bill with differences, including: a definition of eligible land; and adds water district, irrigation district, rural water district or association to the list of eligible partners. Amended Sec. 1271A [Sec. 2401(a)] CRS-53 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) determined by USDA. Eligible partners include state or local governments, Indian tribes, farmer cooperatives, organizations or other nongovernmental entity with a history of working with producers on conservation projects, municipal water or waste treatment entity. Amended Sec. 1271A [Sec. 2401(a)] No directly comparable provision. Includes elements of previously mentioned programs, primarily AWEP and CCPI. Authorizes competitive partnership agreements for a period not to exceed five years with a possible one-year extension. Describes the duties of partners as defining the scope of projects, conducting outreach, acting on the behalf of producers to apply for assistance, leveraging financial and technical assistance, conducting assessments, and reporting results. Provides application content, criteria, and priority. Amended Sec. 1271B [Sec. 2401(a)] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. Amended Sec. 1271B [Sec. 2401(a] No directly comparable provision. Includes elements of previously mentioned programs, primarily AWEP and CCPI. Directs USDA to enter into contracts to provide technical and financial assistance to producers participating in projects with eligible partners and producers within a project area or critical conservation area independent of working through an eligible partner. Program rules, requirements, and payments are to be consistent with the covered programs (ACEP, EQIP, & CSP). Authorizes up to ten alternative funding arrangements with multi-state water agencies or authorities. Provides the Secretary discretionary authority to adjust the rules of a covered program, including operational guidance and requirements in order to simplify the application and evaluation process. Prohibits the adjustment of application of statutory requirements for a covered program, including appeals, payment limits, and conservation compliance. Requires the Secretary to enter into at least 10, but not more than 20 alternative funding arrangements. Where irrigation has not been used significantly for agricultural purposes, the Secretary shall not limit program eligibility on the basis of prior irrigation history. Amended Sec. 1271C [Sec. 2401(a)] Similar to the Senate bill except the House bill does not include alternative funding arrangements. Amended Sec. 1271C [Sec. 2401(a)] CRS-54 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) No directly comparable provision. Sec. 1240I(j) of the FSA, as amended, authorizes mandatory AWEP funds of $73 million in FY2009 and FY2010, $74 million in FY2011, and $60 million each fiscal year thereafter. Sec. 1240Q(h) authorizes Chesapeake Bay Watershed program funds of $23 million in FY2009, $43 million in FY2010, $72 million in FY2011, & $50 million in FY2012. Sec. 1243(i) authorizes CCPI to use 6% of covered program for a state (90%) and national (10%) competition. Sec. 1240P(d) authorizes appropriations of $5 million annually for the Great Lakes basin program. [16 U.S.C. 3839aa-9(j); 3838bb-4(h); 3843(i); 3839bb-3(d)] Authorizes mandatory RCPP funding of $110 million annually for FY2014-FY2018, to remain available until expended. Retains the CCPI use of 8% of covered program funds and acres, but amends the CCPI allocation to: 25% for a state competition, 40% for a national competition, and 35% for critical conservation areas (new category). Retains the AWEP and CCPI restriction on paying no administrative expenses of eligible partners. Amended Sec. 1271D [Sec. 2401(a)] Authorizes mandatory RCPP funding of $100 million annually for FY2014-FY2018, to remain available until expended. Similar to the Senate bill except the House bill uses 6% of covered program funds and acres, and amends the allocation to include 25% for a state competition, 50% for a national competition, and 25% for critical conservation areas. Amended Sec. 1271D [Sec. 2401(a)] No comparable provision. Requires USDA to make information on selected projects publically available. Requires a report to Congress on December 31, 2014 (and every 2 years thereafter) on the status of projects funded. Amended Sec. 1271E [Sec. 2401(a)] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. [Sec. 2401(a)] No comparable provision. Requires USDA to use 35% of the funds and acres available for RCPP (see amended Sec. 1271D above) for partnership agreements within no more than six critical conservation areas that expire after 5 years, subject to redesignation. Vital habitat for migrating wildlife is a factor the Secretary shall consider in determining the six geographical critical conservation areas. Amended Sec. 1271F [Sec. 2401(a)] Similar to the Senate bill but limits the number of critical conservation areas to 8 that do not expire. Amended Sec. 1271F [Sec. 2401(a)] No comparable provision. Amendments take effect on October 1, 2013. [Sec. 2401(b)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2401(b)] Reduces and extends authorization of appropriations to $30 million annually through FY2018. [Sec. 2501] Extends authorization of appropriations at $60 million annually through FY2018. [Sec. 2501] Current Law/Policy Other Conservation Programs Sec. 1240M(e) of the FSA, as amended, authorizes the Conservation of Private Grazing Land Program. Authorizes appropriations of $60 million annually through FY2013. [16 U.S.C, CRS-55 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Sec. 1240O(b) of the FSA, as amended, authorizes the Grassroots Source Water Protection Program. Authorizes appropriations of $20 million annually through FY2013. [16 U.S.C. 3839bb-2(b)] Reduces and extends authorization of appropriations to $15 million annually through FY2018. [Sec. 2502] Extends annual authorization of appropriations ($20 million) through FY2018 and authorizes a one-time $5 million in mandatory funding to remain available until expended. [Sec. 2502] Sec. 1240R of the FSA, as amended authorizes state grants through a Voluntary Public Access and Habitat Incentive Program to encourage landowners to provide public access for wildlifedependent recreation. Sets application contents and award priorities providing $50 million in mandatory funds for the period FY2009-2013. [16 U.S.C. 3839bb-5] Reduces and extends authorization of $40 million in mandatory funding for the period of FY2014-FY2018. Requires USDA to submit a report to Congress no later than two years after enactment on the effectiveness of the program. Amendments are effective Oct. 1, 2013. [Sec. 2503] Reduces and extends authorization for $30 million of mandatory funding for the period of FY2014-FY2018. Requires USDA to submit a report to Congress no later than two years after enactment on the effectiveness of the program. [Sec. 2503] Sec. 1252 of FSA, as amended, authorizes an Agriculture Conservation Experienced Service Program (ACES), such that USDA can enter into agreements with organizations to provide technical assistance (excludes administrative tasks) using qualified individuals 55 years or older. [16 U.S.C. 3851] Allows funding for each conservation program in the Food Security Act of 1985, as amended, except CRP, to be used to carry out the ACES program. Amendments are effective Oct. 1, 2013. [Sec. 2504] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2504] Sec. 14(h)(2)(E) of the Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act (P.L. 106-472), as amended, authorizes up to $85 million annually in discretionary funding for the Small Watershed Rehabilitation Program for FY2008-FY2013 and $100 million in mandatory funding for FY2009 to remain available until expended. [16 U.S.C. 1012(h)(2)(E)] Extends authorization of appropriations through FY2018. Does not authorize any new mandatory funding. [Sec. 2505] Extends authorization of appropriations through FY2018 and authorizes $250 million in mandatory funding for FY2014 to remain available until expended. [Sec. 2505] Sec. 2507 of the Food, Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-171, 2002 farm bill), as amended, authorizes USDA to transfer $175 million of CCC funds to the Bureau of Reclamation to provide water for at-risk desert terminal lakes. [43 U.S.C. 2211] Deletes current section and replaces with new section that adds definitions for eligible land, program, and terminal lake. Also adds a new voluntary land purchase grant program with authorization to receive $25 million through appropriations to remain available until expended. Retains provisions for voluntary water No comparable provision. Current Law/Policy 3839bb(e)] CRS-56 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) purchases for desert terminal lakes, including the transfer of $150 million of CCC funds to the Bureau of Reclamation. Authorizes the Secretary to modify and terminate floodplain easements provided the current landowner agrees, and the modification or termination addresses a compelling public need for which there is no practical alternative, and is in the public interest. [Sec. 2506] No comparable provision Requires the Secretary to conduct a wetland mitigation study no later than 180 days after enactment to assess the use of wetland mitigation to determine certain impacts on wildlife, provide recommendations for improving wetland mitigation procedures, for the benefit of wildlife, and allow producers greater access to the wetland mitigation process. Also requires the Secretary to submit a report of its findings to Congress no later than two years after the date of enactment [Sec. 2508] No comparable provision. The Secretary is authorized and directed to develop in cooperation with and participation by the public through conservation districts, state and national organizations and agencies, and other appropriate means, a national soil and water conservation program to be used as a guide in carrying out the activities of the Secretary which assist landowners and land users, at their request, in furthering soil and water conservation on the private and non-federal lands of the nation. [16 U.S.C. 2005] Adds Indian tribes as being eligible to cooperate with and participate in the soil and water conservation program. [Sec. 2509] No comparable provision. Sec. 524(b) of the Federal Crop Insurance Act, as amended, authorizes the Agricultural Management Assistance (AMA) program. AMA provides financial and technical to producers in 16 specified states for conservation practices, risk mitigation, and market diversification. Provides $15 million in annual mandatory funding in FY2008 through FY2014, and $10 million each fiscal year Amendments made to AMA are discussed in the Crop Insurance title (XI) [Sec. 11029] Removes tree plantings and soil erosion control from the list of approved practices. Permanently authorizes $10 million in annual mandatory funding with 30% to NRCS (conservation), 10% to AMS (organic certification), and 60% to RMA (risk management). [Sec. 2506] CRS-57 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Reauthorizes through FY2018 with funding specified for ACEP and EQIP. Includes payment limits for specific CRP provisions. Provides $50 million to facilitate transfer of land subject to CRP contracts from retired or retiring owner/operators to beginning and socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers for FY2014 through FY2018, to the maximum extent practicable. Provides $450 million for ACEP in FY2014; $475 million for FY2015; $500 for FY2016, $525 million in FY2017, and $250 million in FY2018. EQIP is provided $1.5 billion for FY2014, $1.6 billion for FY2015, and $1.65 billion for each year FY2016-FY2018. [Sec. 2601(a)] Similar to Senate bill with different funding levels specified for EQIP and ACEP. Provides $25 million in FY2014FY2018 to facilitate transfer of land from retired or retiring owner/operators to beginning and socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers in FY2014 through FY2018to the maximum extent practicable. Provides $425 million for ACEP in FY2014; $450 million for FY2015; $475 for FY2016, $500 million in FY2017, and $200 million in FY2018. EQIP is provided $1.75 billion annually for FY2014 -FY2018. [Sec. 2601(a)] Note: Authorized funding levels for various programs are provided in individual program sections above. Note: Authorized funding levels for various programs are provided in individual program sections above. No comparable provision. Allows mandatory funding made available for CRP, ACEP, CSP, & EQIP to remain available until expended. Any funds from a previous fiscal year made available through modifications, cancellations, terminations and other related administrative actions may be reobligated in a different fiscal year, but it will reduce the program’s funding by an equal amount in the fiscal year the reobligation occurs. [Sec. 2601(b)] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2601(b)] Sec. 1241(c) of the FSA, as amended, allows CCC funds for conservation programs to also be used for technical assistance. [16 U.S.C. 3841(b)] Retains a similar provision and requires a report to Congress by December 31, 2013 (and each subsequent year), detailing the amount of technical assistance requested and apportioned for each conservation program. Authorizes the Secretary to determine the amount of technical assistance with the exception of technical assistance for CRP under subtitle D. Requires the Secretary to give priority to producers who request technical assistance to comply with subtitles B and C for the first time. Requires the Secretary to submit a report Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. [Sec. 2602] Current Law/Policy thereafter. Requires 50% to NRCS, 40% to RMA, and 10% to AMS. [7 U.S.C. 1524(b)] Funding and Administration Sec. 1241(a) of the FSA, as amended, authorizes mandatory funding through FY2012 (and FY2014 for CSP, EQIP, FPP, and WHIP) to carry out various conservation programs. [16 U.S.C. 3841] Note: Authorized funding levels for various programs are provided in individual program sections above. CRS-58 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) to Congress no later than 270 days after enactment on the extent to which conservation compliance requirements affect specialty crop growers. Requires the Secretary to submit a report to Congress describing the extent to which highly erodible land/wetland conservation (HEL/WC) determinations are being addressed in a timely manner, total number of requests completed the previous fiscal year, incomplete determinations on record, and the number of requests that remain outstanding more than 1 year since the date of receipt from producer. [Sec. 2602] Sec. 1241(d) of the FSA, as amended, requires that each state receives an aggregated minimum of $15 million annually from certain mandatory conservation programs in order to promote regional equity. [16 U.S.C. 3841(d)] Eliminates the $15 million annual requirement and allows states in the first quarter of the fiscal year to establish that they can use a total of 0.6% of certain conservation funds. If established, those states may receive 0.6% of funds. [Sec. 2603] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. [Sec. 2603] Sec. 1241(g) of the FSA, as amended, establishes an annual set-aside in EQIP and CSP from FY2009FY2013; 5% to beginning farmers or ranchers and 5% to socially disadvantaged farmers or ranchers. [16 U.S.C. 3841(g)] Reauthorizes the EQIP and CSP set-aside through FY2018. Provides preference for veteran farmers or ranchers eligible under the provision. [Sec. 2604] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. [Sec. 2604] Sec. 1241(h) of the FSA, as amended, establishes reporting requirements for program enrollments and assistance under WRP, FPP, GRP, EQIP, AWEP, CSP, and adjusted gross income waivers. [16 U.S.C. 3841(h)] Amends reporting requirements to reflect the repeal of WRP, FPP, GRP, and AWEP and the addition of ACEP and RCPP. Adds reporting requirements for CSP payments and waivers granted to grasslands under ACEP. [Sec. 2605] Similar to the Senate bill except the House bill does not include reporting requirements for CSP payments and waivers granted to grasslands under ACEP. [Sec. 2605] Sec. 1242(h) of the FSA, as amended, requires that USDA review the conservation practices standards in effect on the date of enactment of the 2008 farm bill. [16 U.S.C. 3842(h)] No comparable provision Replaces the 2008 farm bill title with the H.R. 6083 bill title requiring USDA to review the conservation practice standards in effect on the date of enactment. [Sec. 2606] Sec. 1244 of the FSA, as amended, outlines administrative requirements for conservation programs including incentives for certain farmers or ranchers, privacy information, conservation plans, acreage limitations, and applications, among others. Adds veteran farmers and ranchers to the list of eligible persons authorized to receive incentives. Makes conforming amendments to reflect the new ACEP program. Clarifies that conservation payments are in addition to and not included in any payment limit caps. Adds veteran farmers and ranchers to the list of eligible persons authorized to receive incentives. Makes conforming amendments to reflect the new ACEP program. Clarifies that conservation payments are in addition to and not included in any payment limit caps. CRS-59 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) [16 U.S.C. 3844] Allows for flexible funding arrangements for Indian Tribes. [Sec. 2606] [Sec. 2607] Sec. 2904 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, (P.L. 110-246, 2008 farm bill) requires USDA, in consultation with CCC, to issue rules and regulations implementing Title II provisions within 90 days. Waives certain rulemaking requirements. Amends and adds the 2008 farm bill regulations provision to a new Sec. 1246 of the FSA. Allows interim final rules to be effective upon issuance. Removes the 90 day promulgation requirement and CCC consultation. [Sec. 2607] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2609] Sec. 1261(b) of the FSA, as amended, requires USDA to develop standard committee operating procedures for State Technical Committees. [16 U.S.C. 3861(b)] Amends provision to allow USDA to review and update standards as necessary. [Sec. 2608] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2608] Sec. 1211 et seq. of the FSA, as amended, requires that in exchange for certain USDA program benefits, a producer agrees to maintain a minimum level of conservation on highly erodible land. Highly erodible land can be considered eligible for program benefits if the land user agrees to cultivate the land using an approved conservation plan or qualifies for an exemption. Examples of affected benefit include commodity support programs (e.g., Title I farm bill programs), conservation programs, disaster payments, and operating loans. [16 U.S.C. 3811 et seq.] Conservation Compliance: Adds the federally funded portion of crop insurance premiums to the list of program benefits that could be lost if a producer is found to produce an agricultural commodity on certain converted wetlands or highly erodible land without an approved conservation plan or qualifying exemption. A person found in violation during a crop year shall be ineligible for crop insurance payment. This applies to reinsurance years subsequent to the date of the final determination of a violation and does not apply to the existing reinsurance year or any reinsurance year prior to the date of the final determination. No comparable provision. Current Law/Policy Highly Erodible Land Program Ineligibility Ineligibility for crop insurance shall 1) only apply to reinsurance years subsequent to the date of a violation. 2) not apply to the existing reinsurance year or any reinsurance year prior to the date of final determination. A person subject to this part for the first time after May 1, 2013, would be given 5 reinsurance years to develop and comply with an approved conservation plan to remain eligible for payments. For any person who would have been determined in violation of of programs requiring compliance after CRS-60 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) enactment of the 2008 farm bill, and remains in violation must be granted 2 reinsurance years to develop and comply with an approved conservation plan. Wetland Conservation Program Ineligibility Under Wetland Conservation Program Ineligibility, a participant is provided one reinsurance year to initiate a conservation plan to remedy a violation before being determined ineligible. A person subject to this subsection or subsection (d) for the first time will be granted 2 reinsurance years after the date of the final determination to take steps to remedy the violation. For converted wetland violations determined converted after enactment of the 2008 farm bill but before May 1, 2013, and continue to be in violation—the person has 2 reinsurance years to begin the mitigation process. For wetlands converted after May 1, 2013—the person will be ineligible for premium subsidy in subsequent reinsurance years unless certain factors apply. When a wetland is converted prior to the date of enactment of the 2008 farm bill, ineligibility shall not apply. For an agricultural commodity for which an individual policy is available for the first time to a person after enactment of this bill, ineligibility shall only apply to conversions that are effective after the date on which the policy first becomes available to the person, and the person shall take steps to mitigate any prior conversion – not to exceed 2 calendar years. Requires the Secretary to give the person one reinsurance year to begin mitigation if the person acted in good faith and did not intend to violate the section. Requires the Secretary to provide an annual report to CRS-61 House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Congress regarding ineligibility determinations limited to previous 12 months. Persons seeking payment for a portion of a crop insurance policy must certify their compliance to the Secretary. If the Secretary does not make timely determinations and a person is later found in violation, the person will remain eligible for payment The Secretary has authority to determine the amount of the penalty for violations, with limits – not exceeding the total paid premium. The Secretary has sole responsibility to determine whether a producer is eligible for crop insurance. [Sec. 2609(a)] [Sec. 2609(a)] Sec. 1221 et seq. of the FSA, as amended, requires that in exchange for certain USDA program benefits, a producer agrees not to convert wetlands to crop production. The provision, known as Swampbuster, affects producers who plant a program crop on a wetland converted after December 23, 1985, or who convert wetlands, making agricultural commodity production possible, after November 28, 1990. Examples of affected benefit include commodity support programs (e.g., Title I farm bill programs), conservation programs, disaster payments, and operating loans. [16 U.S.C. 3812 et seq.] Adds the federally funded portion of crop insurance premiums to the list of program benefits that could be lost if a producer is found to have converted a wetland to crop production. [Sec. 2609(b)] No comparable provision. Repeal of Superseded Program Authorities and Transitional Provisions Sec. 1230 of the FSA, as amended authorizes and establishes the comprehensive conservation enhancement program between FY1996-FY2002. [16 U.S.C. 3830] Repeals the comprehensive conservation enhancement program. [Sec. 2701] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2701] Sec. 1231A of the FSA, as amended, authorizes and establishes the emergency forestry conservation reserve program within CRP for areas suffering Repeals the emergency forestry conservation reserve program with transition provisions for current contracts to receive CRP funding until expiration. Effective October Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2702] CRS-62 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) damage during the CY2005 hurricanes. [16 U.S.C. 3831a] 1, 2013. [Sec. 2702] Sec. 1237-1237F of the FSA, as amended, authorizes and establishes the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP). [16 U.S.C. 3837-3837f] Repeals WRP with transition provisions for current contracts and easements to receive CCC funding until expiration. ACEP funding may also be used. Effective October 1, 2013. [Sec. 2703] Similar to the Senate bill but does not allow the use of prior year CCC funding for contracts entered into before October 1, 2012. Does allow the use of ACEP funding. [Sec. 2703] Sec. 1238H-1238J of the FSA, as amended, authorizes and establishes the Farmland Protection Program (FPP) and the Farm Viability Program. [16 U.S.C. 3838h-3838j] Repeals FPP with transition provisions for current agreements and easements to receive CCC funding until expiration. ACEP funding may also be used once prior year funding is exhausted. Also repeals the Farm Viability Program. Effective October 1, 2013. [Sec. 2704] Similar to the Senate bill but does not allow the use of prior year CCC funding for contracts entered into before October 1, 2012. Does allow the use of ACEP funding. [Sec. 2704] Sec. 1238N-1238P of the FSA, as amended, authorizes and establishes the Grasslands Reserve Program (GRP). [16 U.S.C. 3838n-3838p] Repeals GRP with transition provisions for current contracts, agreements, and easements to receive CCC funding until expiration. ACEP funding may also be used. Effective October 1, 2013. [Sec. 2705] Similar to the Senate bill but does not allow the use of prior year CCC funding for contracts entered into before October 1, 2012. Does allow the use of ACEP funding. [Sec. 2705] Sec. 1240I of the FSA, as amended, authorizes and establishes the Agricultural Water Enhancement Program (AWEP) within EQIP. [16 U.S.C. 3839aa9] Repeals AWEP with transition provisions for current contracts and agreements to receive CCC funding until expiration. RCPP funding may also be used once prior year funding is exhausted. Effective October 1, 2013. [Sec. 2706] Similar to the Senate bill but does not allow the use of prior year CCC funding for contracts entered into before October 1, 2012. Does allow the use of RCPP funding. [Sec. 2706] Sec. 1240N of the FSA, as amended, authorizes and establishes the Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program (WHIP). [16 U.S.C. 3839bb-1] Repeals WHIP with transition provisions for current contracts to receive CCC funding until expiration. EQIP funding may also be used once prior year funding is exhausted. Effective October 1, 2013. [Sec. 2707] Similar to the Senate bill but does not allow the use of prior year CCC funding for contracts entered into before October 1, 2012. Does allow the use of EQIP funding. [Sec. 2707] Sec. 1240P of the FSA, as amended, authorizes and establishes the Great Lakes Basin Program for Soil Erosion and Sediment Control. [16 U.S.C. 3839bb-3]. Repeals the Great Lakes basin program effective October 1, 2013. [Sec. 2708] Identical to Senate bill. [Sec. 2708] Sec. 1240Q of the FSA, as amended, authorizes and establishes the Chesapeake Bay Watershed program. [16 U.S.C. 3839bb-4] Repeals the Chesapeake Bay Watershed program with transition provisions for current contracts, agreements, and easements entered into under the program to receive CCC funding until expiration. RCPP funding may also be used. Effective October 1, 2013. [Sec. 2709] Similar to the Senate bill but does not allow the use of prior year CCC funding for contracts entered into before October 1, 2012. Does allow the use of RCPP funding. [Sec. 2709] CRS-63 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Sec. 1243 of the FSA, as amended, authorizes and establishes the Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative (CCPI). [16 U.S.C. 3843] Repeals CCPI with transition provisions for current contracts and agreements to receive CCC funding until expiration. RCPP funding may also be used once prior year funding is exhausted. Effective October 1, 2013. [Sec. 2710] Similar to the Senate bill but does not allow the use of prior year CCC funding for contracts entered into before October 1, 2012. Does allow the use of RCPP funding. [Sec. 2710] Sec. 1239-1239D of the FSA, as amended, authorizes and establishes the environmental easement program between CY1991-CY1995. [16 U.S.C. 3839-3839d] Repeals the environmental easement program. [Sec. 2011] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 2711] No comparable provision. Provides technical amendments and spelling corrections. [Sec. 2012] Nearly identical to the Senate bill with minor differences. [Sec. 2712] Current Law/Policy CRS-64 Title III.Trade Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Food for Peace Act (All section references in this subsection are to this act.) No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Amends Sec. 201 of the Food for Peace Act to specify that Title II emergency and nonemergency assistance is to be implemented by the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) [Sec. 3001] Section 202(e)(1) Support for Eligible Organizations. Provides that of the funds made available for Title II emergency and nonemergency food assistance in each fiscal year, the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) shall make available to eligible organizations (private voluntary organizations, cooperatives and intergovernmental organizations) not less than 7.5% nor more than 13% to assist them in establishing new programs, meeting specific administrative, management, personnel and internal transportation and distribution costs for carrying out programs, and improving and implementing methodologies for food aid programs, including monitoring, and evaluation. [7 U.S.C. 1722(e)(1)] Amends Section 202(e)(1) to increase the funds made available to eligible organizations for program, administrative and distribution activities to not less than 13% nor more than 15% of funds available for Title II emergency and nonemergency assistance. [Sec. 3001] Reduces funds available to eligible organizations to not less than 7.5% nor more than 11% for program, administrative, and distribution activities. [Sec. 3002] Food Aid Quality. Section 202(h)(1) provides that the Administrator of USAID shall use the funds made available each fiscal year from 2009 and subsequent fiscal years to carry out Title II to assess the types and quality of agricultural commodities and products donated as food aid; adjust products and formulations (including the potential introduction of new fortificants and products) as necessary to cost-effectively meet nutrient needs of target populations; and to test prototypes. Authorizes not more than $4.5 million of funds made available for fiscal years 2009 through 2011 to carry out this section. [7 U.S.C. Replaces and expands Section 202(h)(1) to require that the Administrator use funds available to carry out Title II to assess types and quality of agricultural commodities donated as food aid; adjust products and formulation, as necessary to meet nutrient needs of target populations; test prototypes; adopt new specifications or improve existing specifications for micronutrient food aid products, based on latest development in food and nutrition science; develop new program guidance for eligible organizations to facilitate improved matching of products to purposes; develop improved guidance on how to address nutritional efficiencies among long-term recipients of food aid; and evaluate the performance and Requires the Administrator in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) to establish a mechanism to assure food aid quality. Inserts new language requiring evaluation of agricultural commodities and products in different program settings and for particular recipient groups; establish and implement protocols for quality assurance of food products; and periodically update program guidelines on recommended use of agricultural commodities and food products in food aid programs; requires that the Administrator consult with the Secretary in carrying out food quality activities. CRS-65 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) 1722 (h)] cost-effectiveness of new/modified food products and program approaches to meet nutritional needs of vulnerable groups. Extends authority to fund this section for fiscal years 2014 through FY2018. [Sec. 3002] Reduces funding for food aid quality activities from $4.5 million for fiscal years 2009 through 2011 to not more than $1 million for fiscal years 2013 through 2017. [Sec. 3003] Minimum Levels of Assistance. Requires the provision annually of a minimum of 2.5 million metric tons (mmt) of commodities under Title II, of which 1.875 mmt are designated for nonemergency programs under Title II. Both requirements may be waived, under certain conditions, by the USAID Administrator [7 U.S.C 1724] Extends current minimum levels of assistance through FY2017. [Section 3003] Same as the Senate bill. [Sec. 3004] Food Aid Consultative Group. Establishes the Food Aid Consultative Group (FACG) composed of the Administrator of USAID, the Secretary of Agriculture, representatives of eligible organizations, and indigenous nongovernmental organizations in recipient countries, U.S. producer groups, and representatives of the maritime transport sector who review overall program effectiveness. [7 U.S.C. 1725] Reauthorizes FACG through December 31, 2018. [Sec. 3004] Reauthorizes the FACG through 2017. Administration. Sec. 207(f). Provides for program oversight, monitoring, and evaluation, and requires that systems be established to accomplish these tasks. Requires an implementation report be prepared, to be reviewed by GAO, along with annual reporting. Authorizes appropriations up to $22 million of Title II funds be made available annually (FY2008-13). Requires procedures be developed for providing commodities overseas in a timely manner and according to delivery schedules. Authorizes use of up to $8 million of Title II funds to be used for the Famine Early Warning System Network. Authorizes $2.5 million (of the $22 Amends Sec. 207(f) to authorize activities under this section during the period FY2014 through FY2018. Removes requirements that GAO undertake a study of USAID’s oversight of nonemergency food aid programs. [Sec. 3005] Current Law/Policy CRS-66 Adds representatives from the U.S. agricultural processing sector to the list of members of the FACG. Amends Section 205(d) to require the Administrator to consult with the FACG 45 days in advance of the issuance of implementation regulations, handbooks, and guidelines. Requires that the Administrator seek input and consult with the FACG on matters relating to food aid quality. [Sec. 3005] Requires the Administrator to promptly issue guidance with respect to changes in operation or implementation of the Title II program. Requires that not less than 270 days after enactment of the farm bill, the Administrator must issue all regulations and revisions to agency guidance necessary to implement amendments made to Title II by the 2012 farm bill., Provides funding of up to $10 million for each fiscal year for program oversight, monitoring and evaluation through fiscal year 2017. (Reduced from $22 million for each fiscal year 2010 to 2012.) Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) million) to upgrade information technology systems in FY2009 to enhance monitoring of Title II nonemergency programs. [7 U.S.C. 1726a] House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Requires the Administrator to report, within 270 days after the date of enactment, to the House and Senate Agriculture Committees, and the House Foreign Affairs Committee on the implementation of regulations and guidance; plus surveys, monitoring, reporting and audits of programs conducted by the eligible organization and by intergovernmental organizations such as the WFP. [Sec. 3006] Assistance for Stockpiling and Rapid Transportation, Delivery, and Distribution of Shelf-Stable Prepackaged Foods. Authorizes grants for this assistance of $8 million each FY20082013. [7 U.S.C. 1726b(f)] No comparable provision. Reauthorizes this provision through FY2017. [Sec. 3006] Same as the House bill. [Sec. 3007] Limitation on Total Volume of Commodities Monetized. Amends Section 403 General Provisions of the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1733] to require that the rate of return for a commodity monetized (sold in recipient countries) be at least 70%. The “rate of return” is defined as equal to the proportion that the proceeds the implementing partners generate through monetization bears to the cost to the federal government to procure and ship the commodities to a recipient country for monetization. The USAID Administrator may waive this requirement but report the reasons for granting the waiver and other information to House and Senate Agriculture Committees, House Foreign Affairs, Senate Foreign Relations, and House and Senate Appropriations Committees. [Sec. 3007] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Impact on Local Farmers and Economy. Section 403(b) of the Food for Peace Act is amended to require the Secretary or the Administrator as appropriate to seek information as part of the proposal and submission process from implementing partners on the potential benefits to the local economy of sales of agricultural CRS-67 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) commodities within the recipient country. Amends Sec. 403(e) to require that monetized commodities be sold at “fair market value” rather than at “reasonable prices.” Requires the Secretary and Administrator to coordinate assessments and the development of approaches to be used by implementing organizations for determining the fair market value. Requires Administrator to submit to Congress 180 days after enactment and annually thereafter a report specifying amount of funds (for administrative costs, indirect cost recovery, internal transportation storage and handling and associated distribution costs) provided to each eligible organization that receives assistance under the act and describing how funds were used by eligible organizations. [Sec. 3008] Use of Commodity Credit Corporation. Sec. 406 of the Food for Peace Act permits the Commodity Credit Corporation to pay for costs associated with commodities made available, including cost of acquisition, costs of packaging, enrichment, preservation or fortification; costs of processing, transportation, and handling up to the time of delivery to U.S. ports; freight charges from US. ports (or designated Canadian transshipment ports) to ports of entry abroad; and costs of ocean transport. [7 U.S. C. 1736] Revises Sec. 406 of the Food for Peace Act to permit use of funds available under the Food for Peace Act to pay costs of up to 20% of activities conducted in recipient countries by nonprofit voluntary organizations, cooperative, or intergovernmental organizations. [Sec. 3008] No comparable provision. Procurement, Transportation, and Storage of Agricultural Commodities for Prepositioning in the United States and Foreign Countries. Sec. 407 authorizes the use of available funds to procure, transport and store agricultural commodities for prepositioning in the U.S. and abroad. Authorizes USAID to use Title II funds to procure transport, and store commodities for prepositioning. Authorizes to be appropriated up to $10 million in each of FY2008 through Extends authority for prepositioning until 2018. Authorizes from $10 million to $15 million of funds made available for prepositioning. [Sec. 3009] In addition to extending authority for prepositioning through 2017 and authorizing from $10 million to $15 million for such purposes, also authorizes the Administrator to establish additional prepositioning sites in foreign countries. [Sec. 3009] CRS-68 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Annual Report Regarding Agricultural Trade Programs and Activities. Sec. 407(f). Requires the Secretary and the Administrator to report to the appropriate committees on the programs and activities carried out under the act. Also requires the Administrator to report annually on the programs, commodities, provided, and transportation and administrative costs incurred. No comparable provision. Amends Sec. 407(f) of the Food for Peace Act to include programs and activities under the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. [Sec. 3010] Expiration Date. Provides that no agreement under the Food for Peace Act shall be entered into after December 31, 2013. Extends authority to enter into agreements to December 31, 2018. [Sec. 3010] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 3011] Minimum Level of Nonemergency Food Assistance. Sec. 412(e) specifies that of the funds available for programs under the act, not less than $375 million (FY2009), $400 million (FY2010), $425 million (FY2011), and $450 million (FY2012 and FY2013) shall be expended for nonemergency food aid. This “safe box” requirement can be waived only if the President determines that an extraordinary food emergency exists, that resources from the Bill Emerson Trust (see below) have been exhausted, and the President has submitted a request for additional appropriations to Congress equal to the amount needed to reach the required spending level for nonemergency food aid and the amount exhausted under the Emerson Trust. [7 U.S.C. 1736f] Repeals Section 412(e) and requires that of funds made available under the Food for Peace Act, not less than 20% nor more than 30% shall be expended for nonemergency food aid under Title II. Further, the amount made available to carry out nonemergency food aid programs under Title II shall not be less than $275 million for any fiscal year. [Sec. 3011] Authorizes $2 billion each year FY2013 through FY2017 for emergency and nonemergency food aid (reduced from $2.5. billion each fiscal year under the 2008 farm bill). Micronutrient Fortification Programs. Section 415 of the Food for Peace Act establishes a micronutrient fortification program for food aid provided to recipient countries through FY2013 [7 U.S.C. 1736g-2] Extends Micronutrient Fortification Programs through FY2018. [Sec. 3013] Identical to the House bill. [Sec. 3013] John Ogonowski and Doug Bereuter Farmerto-Farmer Program. Authorizes voluntary Extends program through FY2017 and provides for annual funding of not less than the greater of $10 million or 0.6% Extends program through FY2017 and provides that not less than the greater of $15 million or 0.5% of funds Current Law/Policy FY2013 for these purposes. [7 U.S.C. 1736(c)(4)] CRS-69 Requires $400 million each year FY2013 through FY2017 for nonemergency assistance (down from $450 million in FY2012 under the 2008 farm bill. Does not alter “safe box” waiver requirements. [Sec. 3012] Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) technical assistance to raise farm production/incomes in developing and middle income countries, emerging markets, and in SubSaharan Africa and the Caribbean Basin. Program is funded at the greater of not less than $10 million or 0.5% of funds available under the act, through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 1737] of the amounts made available for each of fiscal years 2013 through 2018 to carry out the Farmer-to-Farmer program. [Sec. 3014] available under the act shall be used to carry out the Farmer-to-Farmer program. [Sec. 3014] No comparable provision. Prohibition on Assistance for North Korea. No Title II funds can be used to provide assistance to North Korea. The President can waive this funding prohibition if the President determines and certifies to the House and Senate Agriculture Committees, the House Foreign Affairs Committee and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that the waiver is in the national interest of the United States. [Sec. 3015] No comparable provision. Food for Progress Act of 1985. The Food for Progress Act provides commodities to support countries that have made commitments to expand free enterprise in their agricultural economies. Authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 1736o] Extends program through 2018. Applies the flexibility and limitation on monetization of commodities provisions that apply to Title II nonemergency programs.(See Sec. 3007 and Sec. 3008 above.) [Sec. 3201] Same as the Senate bill. [Sec. 3201] Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust. Establishes a reserve of commodities and cash to meet emergency food needs in developing countries when there are unanticipated needs or when U.S. domestic supplies are short. The Trust can be held as a combination of cash and commodities. The commodities in the Trust may be exchanged for funds available under Title II or the McGovern-Dole Program, or for sale in the market. The funds in the Trust can be invested in low-risk short-term securities or instruments. [7 U.S.C. 1736f-1 note] Extends authority to replenish stocks to maintain the Trust until September 30, 2018. [Sec. 3202] Same as the Senate bill. [Sec. 3202] McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. Authorizes such sums as necessary to carry out the McGovern-Dole program for each of FY 2014 through Same as the Senate bill. [Sec. 3204] Current Law/Policy Other Food Aid Programs CRS-70 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Makes available U.S. agricultural commodities, financial and technical assistance to carry out food for education and child nutrition programs in foreign countries. Authorizes such sums as may be necessary during FY2008-2013. [7 U.S.C. 1736o-1] FY2018. [Sec. 3204] Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Pilot Projects. Establishes a pilot program for local and regional purchase of commodities for famine prevention to be conducted by USDA with $60 million in CCC funding (FY2009-2012). [7 U.S.C. 1726c] Establishes a local and regional procurement program with appropriations of $60 million authorized for each of FY2014 through FY2018. Preference in carrying out this program may be given to eligible organizations that have, or are working toward, projects under the McGovernDole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. [Sec. 3207] No comparable provision. No comparable provision Donald Payne Horn of Africa Food Resilience Program. Establishes a pilot program to effectively integrate all U.S.-funded emergency and long-term development activities that aim to improve food security in the Horn of Africa. Authorizes $10 million to carry out pilot project, subject to appropriations. Requires USAID Administrator to report to appropriate committees of Congress on the outcomes of the project. [Sec. 3208] No comparable provision. Export Credit Guarantee Program. Authorizes the Commodity Credit Corporation to guarantee the credit made available to finance commercial export sales of agricultural commodities. The CCC is required to make available the lesser of $5.5 billion annually of guarantees or the sum of guarantees supported by $40 million in budget authority plus the amount of guarantees that the CCC can make available from unobligated prior fiscal year balances. [ 7 U.S.C. 56419(b)] Amends 7 U.S.C. 5641(b) by striking the section and replacing it with the requirement that the Commodity Credit Corporation make available for each year FY2014 through FY2018 credit guarantees in an amount equal to not more than $4.5 billion. [Sec. 3101] Reauthorizes the Export Credit Guarantee Program through FY2017. [Sec. 3101] Market Access Program. The Market Access Program (MAP) provides for CCC funding of Reauthorizes MAP at current mandatory funding levels of $200 million annually through FY2018. [Sec. 3102] Identical to the Senate bill.[Sec. 3102] Trade Provisions CRS-71 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Foreign Market Development Cooperator Program. The Foreign Market Development Cooperator Program (FMDP) authorizes USDA to establish and carry out a program to maintain and develop foreign markets for bulk or generic U.S. agricultural commodities and products. [7 U.S.C. 5721] Reauthorizes at current mandatory funding levels of $34.5 million annually through FY2018. [Sec. 3103] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 3103] Promotion of Agricultural exports to Emerging Markets. The Emerging Markets Program (EMP) promotes U.S. agricultural exports in emerging markets. Authorizes direct credits or export credit guarantees of not less than $1 billion each fiscal year 2008 through 2013 for exports to emerging markets. Requires export credit guarantees be made available to establish or improve facilities and services for U.S. products. In addition, authorizes up to $10 million each fiscal year 2008 through 2013 of CCC funding to be made available to carry out technical assistance activities that promote the export of U.S. agricultural products and address technical barriers to trade in emerging markets, technical assistance can include feasibility studies, market research, industry sector assessments, specialized training, and business workshops. [7 U.S.C. 5622 note] Extends EMP through fiscal year 2018. [Sec. 3203] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 3203] Technical Assistance for Specialty Crops). Technical Assistance for Specialty Crops (TASC) authorizes USDA to address barriers prohibiting or threatening exports of U.S. specialty crops. Authorizes mandatory CCC funds reaching $9 Reauthorizes TASC at current mandatory funding levels of $9 million annually through FY2018. [Sec. 3205] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 3205] Current Law/Policy export market development for U.S. agricultural commodities (generic and branded) by eligible trade organizations. Authorizes CCC funding of $200 million annually, Provides also for market development for products that are organicallyproduced. [7 U.S.C. 5623] CRS-72 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Global Crop Diversity Trust. Requires USAID Administrator to contribute to the Global Crop Diversity Trust for germ plasm conservation (up to $60 million over 5 years) provided that the U.S. contribution not exceed one-fourth of the total of funds contributed to the Trust from all sources. [22 U.S.C. 2220a note] Reauthorizes U.S. contribution to the Global Crop Diversity Fund for FY2013-FY2018. [Sec. 3206] Reauthorizes U.S. contribution to the Global Crop Diversity Fund at $50 million for the period FY2013 through FY2017. [Sec. 3206] No comparable provision. Under Secretary of Agriculture for Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs. Requires the Secretary, in consultation with the House and Senate Agriculture Committees and House and Senate Appropriations Committees to propose a plan for reorganization of the trade functions of USDA, including the establishment of an Under Secretary of Agriculture for Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs. The Secretary is required to report on the plan 180 days after the farm bill’s enactment, and within one year of submission of the report, the Secretary shall implement the reorganization plan including establishment of the Under Secretary position. [Sec. 3209] Under Secretary of Agriculture for Foreign Agricultural Services. Authorizes the Secretary to establish the position of Under Secretary of Agriculture for Foreign Agricultural Services. [Sec. 3207] Current Law/Policy million annually (FY2011-FY2013). [7 U.S.C. 5680] CRS-73 Title IV. Nutrition Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Governmental or nonprofit grocery delivery services. Nonprofit grocery delivery services for the elderly and disabled are not defined as a “retail food store” that can accept SNAP benefits. Such establishments must negotiate waivers with USDA in order to accept SNAP benefits. Under various authorities and waivers other retailers may conduct deliveries to SNAP participants, but fees may not be paid with SNAP benefits. [7 U.S.C. 2012(k), (p)] Adds to the definition of retail food store any “public or private nonprofit food purchasing and delivery service” that serves the elderly and disabled. There is considerable drafting variation between this and the H.R. 1947 provision, but the policy changes are largely the same. [Sec. 4001] Adds “governmental and non-profit food purchasing and delivery service[s]” that serve the elderly and disabled to the definition of a retail food store, emphasizing that delivery fees are not to be paid with SNAP. Requires USDA regulations to include certain protections and limitations. [Sec. 4003] Standard Utility Allowances. A SNAP household can use a Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) payment (regardless of the amount of that payment) to document that the household has incurred heating and cooling costs. This documentation triggers a standard utility allowance (SUA), a figure that enters into the SNAP benefit calculation equation. Unless the household is already receiving the maximum SNAP benefit, a household’s monthly benefit can increase if the SUA calculation results in an excess shelter deduction. [7 U.S.C. 2014(e)(6)(C)] Only LIHEAP payments above $10 would confer this potential advantage. Payments of $10 or less would no longer entitle a household to earn a “standard utility allowance" (SUA) during the benefit calculation process. If a household received below $10 in LIHEAP assistance, households would have to present alternate documentation of utility costs in order to have utilities factored into calculating their excess shelter deduction. [Sec. 4003] Only LIHEAP payments above $20 would confer this potential advantage. Payments of $20 or less would no longer entitle a household to earn a “standard utility allowance" (SUA) during the benefit calculation process. If a household received below $20 in LIHEAP assistance, households would have to present alternate documentation of utility costs in order to have utilities factored into calculating their excess shelter deduction.. [Sec. 4007] Broad-based Categorical Eligibility. States may opt to implement broad-based categorical eligibility. Under broad-based categorical eligibility, a SNAP applicant that receives Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) cash assistance, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), state-funded general assistance cash benefits, or any TANFfunded benefit, may be deemed eligible for SNAP benefits, if certain income conditions are met. Per USDA regulation, the TANF-funded benefit must be for households at or below 200% of the federal No comparable provision. Ends “broad-based categorical eligibility," and limits categorical eligibility to SNAP applicants that receive Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) cash assistance, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and statefunded general assistance cash benefits. [Sec. 4005] CRS-74 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Verification of Immigration Status. Under current law and regulation, states must verify noncitizens’ immigration status, but do not have to use the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services’ Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE) Program. [7 U.S.C. 2020(p); 42 U.S.C. 1320b–7] No comparable provision. Requires all SNAP agencies to verify immigration status using the SAVE system. [Sec. 4014] Student Eligibility. In most cases, college students ages 18-50 (attending higher education courses half-time or more) are ineligible for SNAP. A student enrolled in an institution of higher education more than half-time is eligible for SNAP benefits only if the individual meets one or more of the following qualifications: (1) under 18 years old, or age 50 or older; (2) disabled; (3) employed at least 20 hours/week or participates in a work-study program during the school year; (4) a parent (in some circumstances); (5) receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) cash assistance benefits; OR (6) enrolled in school because of participation in certain programs. One program enrollment exception is a “SNAP Employment and Training” program. [7 U.S.C. 2015(e)] Adds the requirement that those students enrolled in post-secondary institutions as a requirement of participation in “SNAP Employment and Training,” must be enrolled in certain employment-oriented training to qualify for SNAP; specifically, this includes certain career and technical education, remedial courses, basic adult education, literacy, or English as a second language. [Sec. 4004] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 4008] Lottery and Gambling Winnings. No comparable provision. Authorizing statute establishes income and asset thresholds for SNAP eligibility, including that lump-sum, non-recurring payments are to be counted as resources (assets) not income. [7 U.S.C. 2014] Creates explicit ineligibility for households that receive “substantial lottery or gambling winnings” (as determined by USDA) until the household meets the SNAP resources (assets) and income eligibility limits. State SNAP agencies are to establish agreements with the state gaming agency in order to make determinations of winnings. [Sec. 4005] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 4009] Excess Medical Expense Deduction. Households that include an elderly or disabled member may have excess medical expenses, as defined and calculated by statute, deducted from No comparable provision. Requires USDA to promulgate regulations to ensure that medical marijuana is not treated as a medical expense in the calculation of the excess medical expenses deduction. [Sec. 4006] Current Law/Policy poverty line. [7 U.S.C. 2014(a)] CRS-75 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Amends retail food store definition so that perishable foods must be provided in at least three of the staple food categories. [Sec. 4006(a)] Amends retail food store definition so that perishable foods must be provided in at least three of the staple food categories (identical to Senate bill). [Sec. 4002(a)] Gives USDA the authority to consider whether the applicant store “is located in an area with significantly limited access to food” as well as the store’s “depth of stock, variety of staple food items, and the sale of [ineligible items listed in Food and Nutrition Act].” The bill also adds and strengthens requirements about the adequacy of the store’s EBT service. [Sec. 4006(c), (d)] Like Senate bill, gives USDA the authority to consider whether the applicant store “is located in an area with significantly limited access to food” and adds and strengthens requirements about the adequacy of the store’s EBT service. Does not include USDA authority to consider the store’s “depth of stock, variety of staple food items, and the sale of [ineligible items listed in Food and Nutrition Act].” [Sec. 4002 (c), (d)] Electronic Benefit Transfer, Manual Vouchers. An electronic benefit transfer (EBT) point-of-sale machine can be provided by the state agency to the retailer at no cost to the retailer (many retailers choose to purchase credit card machines that also accept EBT). Although SNAP has transitioned to being fully EBT, and paper coupon (“food stamps”) are no longer offered, authority exists to accept manual SNAP vouchers. Some small retailers use these rather than acquiring an EBT machine. No statutory requirements regarding unique terminal identification numbers for EBT machines. [7 U.S.C. 2016(f), 2018(h)(3)] Shifts the costs of EBT machinery to retailer (with exemptions for certain retailers, such as farmers’ markets). Bars states from issuing manual SNAP vouchers or allowing retailers to accept manual vouchers unless USDA makes such a determination that circumstances or categories of retailers warrant use of manual vouchers. Requires EBT service providers to provide for and maintain “unique terminal identification number information.” [Sec. 4006(b)] Similar to the Senate bill except in the “unique terminal identification number information” provision, (i) the House chair’s mark includes further specifications for USDA’s rulemaking including “the Secretary shall consider existing commercial practices for other point-of-sale debit transactions” and that proposed regulations must be issued “not earlier than 2 years after the date of enactment,” (ii) requires retailers to maintain “unique business identification” in addition to “terminal identification number” Also, specifies that the exemption to cost-sharing may apply to, not only farmers’ markets, but other “direct-to-consumer” markets. [Sec. 4002(b)] Replacement of Cards. Permits state agencies to collect a fee for replacement of an EBT card by reducing the monthly allotment of the participating household. [7 U.S.C. 2016(h)(8)] Adds additional measures regarding “purposeful loss of cards.” USDA may require a state agency to decline a request for a replacement card unless the household provides an explanation for the loss of the card. The Nearly identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 4010] Current Law/Policy the household’s gross income. It has been reported that some agencies are including medical marijuana expenses in this calculation. FNS issued a policy memorandum on July 10, 2012 clarifying that this is against SNAP law. [7 U.S.C. 2014(e)(5)] Retail Food Store Definition. SNAP benefits can be accepted only by authorized retailers. Among other application requirements, USDA authorization of a retailer is based on the retailer’s inventory and sales. SNAP law defines a retail food store, and includes within that definition an establishment that either (1) offers, on a continuous basis, a variety of foods in each of 4 staple food categories [defined in 7 U.S.C. 2012(r)(1)], including perishable foods in at least two of the categories, or (2) has over 50% of its sales in staple foods. Authority exists to consider the nature and extent of the food business conducted. [7 U.S.C. 2012(p)(1), 2018] CRS-76 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) USDA requirements must include protections for vulnerable individuals (homeless, disabled, victims of crimes). USDA is to assure certain procedures occur and that procedures are consistent with participants’ existing due process protections. [Sec. 4007] Technology Modernization. No explicit provisions regarding non-wired EBT machinery for redemption or online SNAP transactions are included in the authorizing statute. From FY2012 appropriations, USDA is using $4 million to expand EBT point of sale devices at farmers markets. A number of regulations would need to be rewritten or waived to allow redemption via the Internet. [7 U.S.C. 2016(h), P.L. 112-55] Requires, depending on results of a demonstration project, that USDA authorize retailers with EBT mobile technologies, if retailers meet certain requirements. Authorizes and requires the demonstration project and report to be completed by July 1, 2015, and USDA to authorize wireless retailers beginning January 1, 2016, unless USDA reports to congressional committees of jurisdiction that it determines authorization should not be implemented. Mobile technologies are defined as “electronic means other than wired point of sale devices.” A similar statutory provision is included for USDA to authorize retailers to accept benefits online, contingent upon results of a demonstration project and a report to Congress. [Sec. 4008] Mobile technologies provision is similar to the Senate bill except the language appears to limit the authority to a USDA pilot/demonstration on mobile technologies and does not create the authority to continue the redemptions after the end of pilot. The House provision does not set a date for the mobile technologies report to Congress. [Sec. 4011] With respect to authorizing retailers to accept benefits online, the House bill has no provision comparable to the Senate bill. No comparable provision. Community-Supported Agriculture. Makes SNAP benefits redeemable for shares of Community-Supported Agriculture (CSA). In a CSA, a farmer or community garden grows food for a group of local residents— members, shareholders, or subscribers—who pledge support to a farm at the beginning of each year by agreeing to cover the farm’s expected costs and risks. In return, the members receive shares of the farm's production during the growing season. [Sec. 4009] Nearly identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 4012] Restaurant Meals Program. States may choose to operate a restaurant meals program, allowing homeless, disabled, or elderly households to redeem SNAP benefits at restaurants that offer concessional prices. States contract with restaurants, and USDA authorizes them as SNAP retailers. [7 U.S.C. 2012(k)(3),(4),(9)] Creates added responsibilities for state agencies, private establishments, and USDA before restaurants may participate in a restaurant meals program. For restaurants that have contracted with the state to accept SNAP benefits before this provision is enacted, the restaurant may continue to accept SNAP without meeting the additional requirements for no more than 180 days. [Sec. 4010] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 4013] CRS-77 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Quality Control. SNAP’s Quality Control (QC) system measures the accuracy of the eligibility and benefits calculation in SNAP. Consistently low performing states are subject to financial penalties. The statute gives the Secretary authority to waive penalties. [7 U.S.C. 2025(c))] The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 temporarily changed the definition of the quality control error threshold by raising it from $25 to $50 (meaning that SNAP errors lower than $50 would not “count" as errors in the quality control system). USDA made the $50 threshold permanent in regulation in November 2011. [7 U.S.C. 2025(c); P.L. 111-5; 7 CFR 275.12(f)(2)] Strikes the Secretary’s authority to waive QC penalties. Makes no changes to the error threshold. [Sec. 4011] Sets $25 as the threshold level for reporting SNAP errors in the quality control system for FY2013. In subsequent years, adjusts for inflation based on the growth of the cost of the thrifty food plan. [Sec. 4030] Performance Bonus Awards. State agencies are currently eligible for, in total, $48 million per year in performance awards. These grant awards are provided to states for performance accomplishments in payment accuracy, program access, application timeliness, and best negative (improper denial) error rate. There is currently no requirement that these performance awards be reinvested in SNAP. [7 U.S.C. 2025(d)] Requires states to reinvest bonus payments into the state’s SNAP program. [Sec. 4012] Repeals the SNAP performance bonus awards. [Sec. 4018] Employment and Training (E&T). The federal government funds SNAP E&T in 4 ways: (1) $90 million in mandatory funds that are allocated and reallocated to states based on a formula, (2) $20 million in mandatory funding allocated to states that pledge to provide E&T to all able-bodied adults without dependents (ABAWDs), (3) open-ended matching funds for states' administrative costs for E&T, and (4) open-ended matching funds for states' reimbursement of E&T participants' dependent care and transportation costs. Program requirements, uptake of these funds, and activities designed vary by state. [7 U.S.C. 2025(h), et al] Provides $90 million in mandatory funds in FY2014, FY2015, FY2016, and FY2017. Reduces mandatory funding to $80 million for 2018 and each fiscal year thereafter. [Sec. 4013] Reduces the $90 million to $79 million. Establishes additional monitoring, performance measures, and reporting requirements for SNAP E&T. [Sec. 4019, 4020] See also Sec. 4021 below. Current Law/Policy CRS-78 Authorizes pilot projects to identify best practices for E&T programs “to raise the number of work registrants who obtain unsubsidized employment, increase their earned income, and reduce their reliance on public assistance.” Provides $10 million in mandatory funding for each of FY2014, FY2015, FY2016. USDA is to report to Congress on the pilot projects by the end of FY2017. [Sec. 4022] Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Appropriations. Authorizes appropriations for SNAP and related programs through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 2027(a), P.L. 112-240] Reauthorizes appropriations for SNAP and related programs through FY2018. [Sec. 4014] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 4023] Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program. Formerly SNAP Nutrition Education or “SNAP-Ed,” this program provides formula grant funding for states to provide programs for SNAP (and other domestic food assistance program) participants as well as other low-income households. With these funds, “[s]tate agencies may implement a nutrition education and obesity prevention program for eligible individuals that promotes healthy food choices consistent with the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans.” [7 U.S.C. 2036a(b)] FY2013 funding was reduced by $110 million by P.L. 112-240. Adds promoting physical activity as an allowable use of the funding. [Sec. 4017] Adds the same provision as the Senate bill, but also reduces funding for FY2014 and then adjusts for inflation in subsequent years. CBO has estimated that these changes will reduce funding for the program by $130 million over five years and $274 million over ten years. [Sec. 4027] Trafficking. Authorizes civil penalties and SNAP disqualification penalties for retailers that engage in SNAP trafficking (the sale of SNAP benefits for money or ineligible items). USDA enforces those penalties through a variety of activities and funds from the SNAP account. Approximately $8 million each year was obligated for retailer integrity and trafficking in FY2010, FY2011, and FY2012. [7 U.S.C. 2021(b)(3)] Provides USDA $5 million in FY2014 in additional mandatory funding to track and prevent SNAP trafficking. Also authorizes $12 million subject to appropriations for each year FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 4018] Similar to the Senate bill except that the House bill provides USDA $5 million annually in additional mandatory funding to track and prevent SNAP trafficking. [Sec. 4028] Bottle Deposits and Trafficking. Under current law, if SNAP is used to buy a bottle of nonalcoholic beverage, SNAP benefits will pay for a bottle deposit in a state where such deposits are in effect, and then the SNAP participant may return the bottle for the cash deposit in return. The 2008 farm bill added a provision barring SNAP recipients from intentionally destroying food (e.g., pouring out liquid) in order to claim the bottle deposit. [7 U.S.C. 2016(p)]. USDA has included this practice No comparable provision. Amends SNAP law, so that benefits cannot be used to pay for container deposits. Recipients would have to supplement their SNAP purchases of such bottles with their own cash to pay for bottle deposits. [Sec. 4001] Current Law/Policy CRS-79 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Retailer Trafficking Investigation and Enforcement. States enforce beneficiary trafficking and other fraudulent activities, while the federal government has jurisdiction over SNAP retailer trafficking and other fraud. [7 U.S.C. 2021, 7 C.F.R. 278.7] No comparable provision. Allows pilot project opportunities for states to run retailer fraud investigation. Additional federal funding is not provided. [Sec. 4016] Validating Participation. States are required to match Social Security data to assure that deceased individuals are not receiving SNAP benefits. Households are prohibited from receiving benefits in multiple states simultaneously. There is a database of individuals that have been disqualified from SNAP. [7 U.S.C. 2015(j), 2020(r)] No comparable provision. Requires states to submit annual reports demonstrating that the agency has not provided benefits to deceased individuals or to households simultaneously receiving benefits in another state or to an individual that was disqualified from receiving benefits. Penalty for noncompliance is a 50% reduction in federal share of administrative costs. [Sec. 4032] Outreach. While federal matching funds are provided for states’ SNAP administrative costs, those matching funds are not available for certain recruitment activities (defined in regulation). USDA may use appropriated funds for SNAP outreach activities including advertisements. Since 2004, the USDA has partnered with Mexico to provide information about the nutrition assistance programs for eligible new Americans at Mexican consulates in the United States. [7 U.S.C. 2025(a), 7 U.S.C. 2027(a), 7 CFR 272.5] No comparable provision. Further specifies that the federal administrative costsharing is not available for state “recruitment activities designed to persuade an individual to apply for program benefits or that promote the program via television, radio, or billboard advertisements.” Creates additional restrictions for the SNAP funding authorized to be appropriated, including recruitment activities designed to persuade an individual to apply, certain media advertisements (advertisement restriction does not apply to disaster assistance); and agreements with foreign governments designed to promote the program. Bans entities from compensating individuals for conducting SNAP outreach, if compensation is based on the number of individuals recruited for program. [Sec. 4017] Section 17 of the Food and Nutrition Act gives USDA SNAP (and other programs authorized by the act) research and evaluation authorities but does not explicitly require cooperation of related institutions. [7 U.S.C. 2026] No comparable provision. Mandates cooperation of “states, state agencies, local agencies, institutions, facilities such as data consortiums, and contractors” participating in Food and Nutrition Act programs in USDA evaluations and studies. [Sec. 4021] [See also Section 4020 (discussed above)] Data Exchange Standardization. In recent years, authorizing laws of the Temporary No comparable provision. Adds these data exchange standards for SNAP to the Food and Nutrition Act. [Sec. 4015] Current Law/Policy into the definition of trafficking [7 C.F.R. 271.2]. CRS-80 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Bars individuals convicted of specified federal crimes (including murder, rape, certain crimes against children), and state offenses determined by the Attorney General to be substantially similar, from receiving SNAP. Still allows the disqualified ex-offender’s household members to apply for and potentially receive benefits. Requires the state agency to collect, in writing, information on SNAP applicants’convictions. [Sec. 4020] No comparable provision. Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR). Authorizing statute for FDPIR contains discretionary authority for a “Traditionally and Locally-grown Food Fund.” These funds are for USDA purchase of traditional and locally-grown foods to be distributed to FDPIR households. Authority to appropriate $5 million annually to this fund for FY2008-FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 2013(b)(6); 7 U.S.C. 612c note(a)-(b), P.L. 9386]] Requires USDA to study the feasibility of a demonstration project for Tribes (in lieu of states or other administrating entities) administering nutrition assistance programs in lieu of states. Extends FDPIR’s appropriations authority for “Traditionally and Locallygrown Food Fund” through FY2018. Allows Tribes to substitute local, tribal foods for up to 5% of their FDPIR entitlement commodities. [Sec. 4003][See also Section 4101] Extends FDPIR’s appropriations authority for “Traditionally and Locally-grown Food Fund” through FY2018. [Sec. 4004] Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. While Guam and the Virgin Islands participate in SNAP, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) do not. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and CNMI, instead receive a nutrition assistance block grant in lieu of SNAP. [7 U.S.C. 2028; P.L. 96-597] No comparable provision. Authorizes and provides $1 million in FY2013 and FY2014 for a study to gauge CNMI’s capacity to administer a SNAP pilot. Authorizes and provides administrative and technical assistance funds to support pilot based on study results ($13.5 million in FY2015, $8.5 million in each of FY2016 and FY2017. [Sec. 4031] Puerto Rico. As part of Puerto Rico’s administration of Nutrition Assistance Program No comparable provision. Bars Puerto Rico from using the NAP federal funds to distribute cash benefits. [Sec. 4024] Current Law/Policy Assistance for Needy Families and Unemployment Insurance have been amended to include data exchange standards. [P.L. 112-96, Secs. 2105, 4003] Eligibility Disqualifications for Ex-offenders. Under SNAP current law, added by the 1996 welfare reform law, states have the option to disqualify individuals with drug-related convictions, opt out of the ban entirely, or modify the ban. As of August 2012, 12 states or territories implemented a lifetime drug-related felon disqualification. [Section 115 of P.L. 104-193] P.L. 104-193 also disqualified “fleeing felons.” Programs in Lieu of SNAP CRS-81 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Amends the definition of Community Food Project, to include many of the entities and areas of expertise that may have been eligible for Hunger-free Community Grants [see Section 4204 below]. Deletes Healthy Urban Food Enterprise Development Center and Innovative Programs for Addressing Common Community Problems provisions. Adds the requirement that USDA report to Congress on these Community Food Project grants by September 30, 2014. Funding remains at $5 million in annual mandatory funds. [Sec. 4015] Does not make any changes to organizations and purposes eligible for funds. Increases funding for community food projects to a total of $15 million annually and carves out $5 million of these funds for projects that would incentivize low-income households’ fruit and vegetable purchases. [Sec. 4025] block grant funds (see above), program recipients receive 25% of their benefits as cash. Current law does not bar this flexibility. Community Food Projects Permanently authorizes a grant program for eligible nonprofit organizations, in order to improve community access to food. Grants require 50% in matching funds. 2008 farm bill added an authority and $1 million in mandatory funding for FY20092011 for a Healthy Urban Food Enterprise Development Center. 2002 farm bill added a $200,000 set-aside for Innovative Programs for Addressing Common Community Problems. Provides $5 million annually in mandatory funding for this purpose. [7 U.S.C. 2034] The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) For FY2009, mandates $250 million in TEFAP commodity purchases. For FY2010-FY2013, the $250 million in FY2009 is to be adjusted for foodprice inflation each year. This funding is available only in the year that it is provided. [7 U.S.C. 7511a(d), P.L. 112-240] Increases funding by $54 million over 10 years. Entitlement commodity funding increases are in the first 5 years of the budget window: +$22 million for FY2014, +$18 million for FY2015, +$10 million for FY2016, +$4 million for FY2017. Inflation adjustment between years remains in place. Makes annual commodity entitlement funding available for a 2-year period. [Sec. 4016] Increases funding by $103 million over 5 years and $217 million over 10 years (according to CBO). Makes annual commodity entitlement funding available for a 2-year period. [Sec. 4026(a)] Authorizes appropriations ($15 million a year through FY2013) for TEFAP “infrastructure grants.” Grants are to be made to emergency feeding organizations (emphasizing those serving mostly rural communities) for projects that improve storage, distribution, and other capacity building. [7 U.S.C. 7511a(d), P.L. 112-240] Extends discretionary authority through FY2018. [Sec. 4016] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 4026(b)] Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP) Authority to purchase and distribute CSFP and FDPIR foods expires at the end of FY2013. [7 CRS-82 Reauthorizes through FY2018. [Sec. 4101] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 4101] Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Only income-eligible elderly would be eligible for CSFP. Enrolled women, infants, and children (who are disqualified by this new provision) would be allowed to participate until their certification period expires. [Sec. 4102] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 4102] Authority for USDA to enter into reprocessing agreements with private companies in order to process commodity foods for donation and distribution to nutrition programs expires at the end of FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 1431e(2)(A), P.L. 112240] USDA, through a pilot project, is currently contracting with processors to provide processed foods to schools. Reauthorizes through FY2018. [Sec. 4103] Explicitly authorizes USDA to contract with a processor and retain title to those foods during processing. [Sec. 4104] Identical to Senate bill. [Sec. 4103, 4104] In addition to the minimum ($200 million-a-year) acquisitions required by the 2002 farm bill, USDA is required to purchase additional fruits, vegetables, and tree nuts for use in domestic nutrition assistance programs using Section 32 funds. The added purchases required are: $190 million (FY2008), $193 million (FY2009), $199 million (FY2010), $203 million (FY2011), and $206 million (FY2012 and each year thereafter). Of this money for additional purchases, at least $50 million annually is required for USDA fresh fruit and vegetable acquisitions for schools. (The Department of Defense Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (“DoD Fresh”) is one of the ways this is accomplished). [7 U.S.C. 612c-4] Establishes that the $50 million fresh fruit and vegetable acquisition requirement remains in effect through FY2018. [Sec. 4201] Similar to the Senate bill except that it also includes a pilot grant program that would allow 5 states to use this fresh fruit and vegetable funding for their own local sourcing of produce. [Sec. 4204] No comparable provision. Creates a pilot project to purchase pulse crops (dry beans, dry peas, lentils, and chick peas) and pulse crop products for schools. This pilot is analogous to the whole grain pilot and also includes an evaluation component [42 No comparable provision. Current Law/Policy U.S.C. 612c note(a)-(b), P.L. 93-86, P.L. 112-240] Income-eligible pregnant and post-partum women, infants, children, and the elderly (defined as 60 years or older) are eligible to participate in CSFP. [7 U.S.C. 612c note(g), P.L. 93-86] (According to FY2011 USDA-FNS data, 97% of CSFP participants were elderly.) Food Distribution for Child Nutrition Programs CRS-83 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) U.S.C. 1755a; Sec. 14222(d) of P.L. 110-246]. Authorizes up to $10 million in discretionary appropriations. [Sec. 4206] Farm-to-School Programs. Section 9(d) of the Russell National School Lunch Act encourages schools to use available school lunch funds for local food purchases and to incorporate a local preference [42 U.S.C. 1758(d)]. Schools redeem National School Lunch Program commodity entitlement food assistance based on USDA’s purchases and offerings [42 U.S.C. 1754]. P.L. 111296 authorized and provided $4 million for farm-toschool projects [42 U.S.C. 1769(g)]. Requires USDA to conduct demonstration projects “to facilitate the purchase of unprocessed and minimally processed locally grown and locally raised agricultural products” for schools that participate in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs. [Sec. 4208] Allows USDA to permit school food authorities with low annual commodity entitlement values to substitute local foods entirely or partially instead of USDA provided foods. Gives USDA discretion to establish cost-neutral farm-to-school demonstration projects. [Sec. 4205] (See also [Sec. 4204] discussed above) Reauthorizes and continues to provide CCC mandatory funding of $20.6 million annually through FY2018. [Sec. 4202] Similar to Senate except expands eligibility from “lowincome seniors” to “low-income seniors and low-income families who are determined to be at nutritional risk.” Also adds an authorization to appropriate “such sums as are necessary” to the mandatory funding of $20.6 million per year. [Sec. 4201] Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (program that provides fruit and vegetable snack to school children throughout the day) purchases are limited to fresh fruits and vegetables. [42 U.S.C. 1769a] No comparable provision. Changes the name of the program to “Fruit and Vegetable Program.” Would allow purchase and provision of frozen, canned, dried fruits and vegetables. [Sec. 4203] Authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary through FY2012 for matching grants (1) to food program service providers and nonprofits for collaborative efforts to assess community hunger problems and to achieve “hunger-free communities” and (2) to emergency feeding organizations for infrastructure development. Any available funding is to be divided equally between Amends the hunger-free community grants to “incentive grants” for projects that incentivize SNAP participants to buy fruits and vegetables. Limits federal cost share to 50 percent. Provides $100 million in mandatory funding over 5 years. Discretionary authority of $5 million per year. [Sec. 4204] No comparable provision. Senior Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program Authorizes and provides $20.6 million annually for the Senior Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program through FY2012. [7 U.S.C. 612c-4(b)] Other Nutrition and Food Security Programs CRS-84 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) 2002 farm bill authorized and 2008 farm bill extended discretionary authority for a “Nutrition Information Awareness Pilot Program. “ [7 U.S.C. 1755a] Repeals this section. [Sec. 4203] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 4202] Currently, the Administration administers a “Healthy Food Financing Initiative” (HFFI) by requesting appropriations for several existing statutory authorities in order to provide grants and tax credits to support development of food retailers in underserved communities. Congress provided no funding for USDA for this initiative, but did provide $22 million for the U.S. Department of the Treasury to administer the New Market Tax Credits for retail food outlets. [P.L. 112-55] Authorizes up to $125 million to be appropriated for a “Healthy Food Financing Initiative” to remain available until expended. USDA is authorized to approve a community development financial institution as “national fund manager” that would administer these funds by supporting food retail projects that would “expand or preserve access to staple foods” (as defined within this section) and accept SNAP benefits. [Sec. 4205] Identical to Senate bill [Sec. 4207]. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are jointly published by USDA and the Department of Health and Human Services. The Guidelines provide advice for people 2 years and older about how good dietary habits can promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. Every five years, the two departments charter a committee to review the peer-reviewed, published science on diet and health and develop a report of its recommendations for the next edition of the Guidelines. [7 U.S.C. 5341(a)] Requires that the Guidelines include specifications for pregnant women and children under the age of 2 years, by no later than the 2020 edition. [Sec. 4207] No comparable provision. Current Law/Policy these 2 grant initiatives, and the federal matching percentage is limited to 80%. [P.L. 110-246, Sec. 4405] The 2008 farm bill also authorized pilot projects designed to improve the health status of participants, including a mandatory provision of $20 million for "point of purchase incentive" projects. (USDA has since implemented the Healthy Incentives Pilot in Hampden County, Massachusetts) [7 U.S.C. 2026(k)] CRS-85 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) In recent years, USDA has promulgated regulations for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and School Breakfast Program (SBP) that affect consumption of white potatoes by program participants’. Regulations for NSLP and SBP implement the most recent child nutrition reauthorization (P.L. 111296). [42 U.S.C. 1753(b)(3); 7 C.F.R. parts 210, 225, 246] No comparable provision. Requires USDA to conduct “a review of the economic and public health benefits of white potatoes on lowincome families who are determined to be at nutrition risk.” [Sec. 4206] No comparable provision in current law. In 1994, USDA convened a tri-agency “Commodity Improvement Council” to discuss the balance of nutrition content of products with support for domestic agriculture. The Council was composed of the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition and Consumer Services; Under Secretary for Farm and Foreign Agriculture Services; and, the Assistant Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs. The council published a report in 1995. Requires USDA to establish a multiagency task force to provide guidance to the commodity distribution programs. Task force must be composed of at least 4 members, representing FNS’s Food Distribution Division, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), Farm Service Agency (FSA), and Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Task force is to report to Congress not later than one year after convening. The section does not include appropriations language. [Sec. 4209] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Creates a Food and Agriculture Service Learning Program with statutory purposes that include: increasing capacity for food, garden, and nutrition education; complementing the work of the federal farm-to-school grants; coordinating with the related National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) work. USDA is to evaluate the program regularly and report the results to congressional committees of jurisdiction. $25 million is authorized to be appropriated and is to remain available until expended. 20% of funds set aside for NIFA for particular purposes. Funding is to “supplement not supplant” current efforts. [Sec. 4210] No comparable provision. Current Law/Policy CRS-86 Title V. Credit Current Law/Policy Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (a.k.a. ConAct) [7 U.S.C. 1921 et seq.] Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Restructures the ConAct by updating language and more clearly organizing the farm and rural development programs into separate titles. Minor changes to some program parameters as described below, though most provisions are substantially the same and renumbered. [Sec. 5001] Does not restructure the ConAct, but makes minor changes as described below. [Title V] Note: References below cite the new numbering of the ConAct, for provisions notably amended by the Senate bill, followed by the section of S. 954 making the change. Farm Loans Farm Ownership Loans. Authorizes direct and guaranteed loans for farm real estate purchases to eligible producers who do not qualify for credit from other lenders. [7 U.S.C. 1922-1925, 1927, 1934-1936] Substantially the same, except as noted below. Subtitle A, Chapter 1 of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] No restructuring of the ConAct. Changes to specific provisions noted below. Allows farm ownership loans for the following types of entities: cooperatives, corporations, partnerships, joint operations, trusts, and limited liability companies. [7 U.S.C. 1922(a)] Gives USDA discretion to allow alternative legal entities to qualify for farm ownership loans. Section 3101(b)(3) of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] Similar to the Senate bill, but specifies a 75% ownership requirement in certain instances. [Sec. 5001(a)] For direct loans, requires at least three years of farming experience and either be a beginning farmer, not have received prior direct farm ownership loans, or not have received a direct farm ownership loan more than 10 years ago. [7 U.S.C. 1922(b)(1)] Gives USDA discretion to allow alternatives to meet the three-year experience requirement for direct loans. Section 3101(c)(1) of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 5001(b)] Allows conservation loans for the following types of entities: cooperatives, corporations, partnerships, joint operations, trusts, and limited liability companies. [7 U.S.C. 1924(c)(1)] Gives USDA discretion to allow alternative legal entities to qualify for conservation loans, by reference. Section 3103(c)(2) of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] Gives USDA discretion to allow alternative legal entities to qualify for conservation loans. [Sec. 5002(a)] Maximum conservation loan guarantee amount is No change. Section 3013(e) of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] Increases maximum conservation loan guarantee to 90%. CRS-87 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) 75%. [7 U.S.C. 1924 (e)] House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) [Sec. 5002(b)] Authorizes appropriations for conservation loans through FY2013 [7 U.S.C. 1924(h)] Reauthorizes appropriations through FY2018. Section 3103(h) of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec 5002(c)] Authorizes a down-payment loan program within the farm ownership loan program for beginning farmers and ranchers and socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers. Maximum down payment loan size is 45% of $500,000, among other terms. [7 U.S.C. 1935] Substantially the same, except increases the maximum down payment loan to 45% of $667,000. Section 3107(b)(1) of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001]. Increases the maximum down payment loan to 45% of $667,000 (same as Senate bill). [Sec 5003] For mineral rights to be included as part of the collateral securing a loan, the mineral rights must be specifically appraised. [7 U.S.C. 1927(d)] No change. Section 3105(e) of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] Eliminates the requirement that mineral rights be specifically appraised. [Sec. 5004] Farm Operating Loans. Authorizes direct and guaranteed loans for purchasing livestock, poultry, equipment, feed, seed, fertilizer, other supplies, financing land or water development, reorganization, and certain other purposes to eligible producers who do not qualify for operating credit at other lenders. [7 U.S.C. 1941-1949] Substantially the same, except as noted below. Subtitle A, Chapter 2 of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] No reorganization of the ConAct. Changes to specific provisions noted below. Allows operating loans for the following types of entities: cooperatives, corporations, partnerships, joint operations, trusts, and limited liability companies. [7 U.S.C. 1941(a)] Gives USDA discretion to allow alternative legal entities to qualify for farm operating loans. Section 3201(b)(3) of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] Similar to the Senate bill, but specifies a 75% ownership requirement in certain instances. [Sec. 5101] Allows farm operating loans to youth for projects for in 4-H Clubs, Future Farmers of America, etc. [7 U.S.C. 1941(b)(1)] No change. Eliminates rural residency requirement for youth loans. [Sec. 5102] Youth loans are made under the personal liability of the borrower, and have the option of a cosigner. [7 U.S.C. 1941(b)(2)-(3)] Allows a borrower who defaults on a youth loan to still qualify for federal educational loans. Section 3201(d)(5) of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] Gives USDA the option to waive personal liability for youth loans if default is due to circumstances beyond the borrower’s control. [Sec. 5103] USDA created a microloan program within the existing direct farm operating loan program, using its regulatory prerogative. The program allows a maximum of $35,000 per loan, with streamlined No comparable provision. Creates a microloan program for direct or guaranteed loans. The maximum microloan is $35,000, with a total microloan indebtedness of $70,000 to any borrower. USDA may contract with community-based, state entities CRS-88 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) loan applications, and relaxed/flexible eligibility requirements. [Federal Register, Vol. 78, No. 12, pp. 3828-3836, Jan. 17, 2013] House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) or other intermediaries to make or guarantee loans or to provide services. [Sec. 5104] No comparable provision. Creates a “Pilot Loan Program To Support Healthy Foods for the Hungry.” Individual loans of between $500 and $5,000 to gleaners (defined as collecting surplus food that would be discarded or harvesting donated crops for free distribution) and other regular farm operating loan borrowers for the purpose of assisting the borrowers in providing food to the hungry. Funded from within the farm operating loan program, up to a maximum total of $500,000. Section 3201(e) of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] No comparable provision. Limits eligibility for direct farm operating loans to 6 years, with a one-time 2-year extension under certain terms at USDA’s discretion. [7 U.S.C. 1941(c)(1)(C)] Limits eligibility for direct farm operating loans to “10 years, excluding years that the farmer did not receive a direct operating loan. Section 3201(c)(1)(C) of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] No change to current law. Limits eligibility for guaranteed farm operating loans to 15 years [7 U.S.C. 1949(b)]. his limit had been suspended through 2010 [P.L. 110-246, Sec. 5103], but since Jan. 1, 2011, has been in effect. Eliminates (omits in reorganization of the ConAct) any term limit on guaranteed farm operating loans. No change to current law. Allows loans to soil conservation districts that cannot obtain credit elsewhere, up to $500,000, for the purchase of equipment [7 U.S.C. 1944] Omits reference to conservation districts. No change to current law. No comparable provision. Adds local and regional food production to the allowed purposes for farm operating loans. Includes direct-toconsumer/institution/store and value-added activities. Ensures for training of USDA loan officers, outreach, and crop valuation methods for loan purposes. Section 3202(a)(11) and 3202(e) of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] No comparable provision. Emergency Loans. Authorizes direct and guaranteed loans for recovery from natural disasters and quarantines declared by the Secretary or Stafford Act emergencies declared by the President. [7 U.S.C. 1961-1970] Substantially the same, except as noted below. Subtitle A, Chapter 3 of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] No reorganization of the ConAct. Changes to specific provisions noted below. CRS-89 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Includes equine farmers and ranchers [7 U.S.C. 1961(a)] Does not mention equine farmers and ranchers in Sec. 3301 or Sec. 3002 (definitions) of the ConAct. No change to current law. No comparable provision. Adds commercial fishermen to list of eligible borrowers for emergency loans. Section 3301(a) of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] No comparable provision. Allows emergency loans for the following types of entities: cooperatives, corporations, partnerships, joint operations, trusts, and limited liability companies. [7 U.S.C. 1961(a)] Gives USDA discretion to allow alternative legal entities to qualify for emergency loans. Section 3301(b)(3) of the ConAct. [Sec. 5001] Similar to the Senate bill, but specifies a 75% ownership requirement in certain instances. [Sec. 5201] Requires hazard insurance at the time the loss occurred. Provides an exception for poultry farmers who were unable to obtain insurance. [7 U.S.C. 1961(b)(3)] Omits any exception for poultry farmers in the hazard insurance requirement. Section 3301(d) of the ConAct [Sec. 5001] No change to current law. Administrative Provisions. Sets other terms, including loan servicing. [7 U.S.C. 1981-2008l] Substantially the same, except as noted below. Subtitle A, Chapter 4 and Subtitle C of the ConAct [Sec. 5001] No reorganization of the ConAct. Changes to specific provisions noted below. Definitions. A qualified beginning farmer or rancher is defined, in general, as one with less than 10 years of farming experience, meets participation and other requirements especially if more than one person or entity is involved, and owns a farm that is smaller than 30% of the median acreage size of farms in the county. [7 U.S.C. 1991(a)(11)] Replaces “median” with “average” in the definition of a qualified beginning farmer’s ownership limitation: “does not exceed 30% of the average county acreage.” This would expand eligibility if the average exceeds the median, such as when small farms outnumber larger farms and a few large farms raise the average. Sec. 3002(26) of the ConAct. [Section 6001] Similar to the Senate bill (replaces “median” with “average” in the definition of a qualified beginning farmer). [Sec. 5302(b)] Also, gives USDA discretion to allow alternative legal entities to qualify as a beginning farmer or rancher. [Sec. 5302(a)] Authorizes appropriations of $5 million each year through FY2013 for a Beginning Farmer Individual Development Account pilot program. [7 U.S.C. 1983b] Reauthorizes appropriations of $5 million each year through FY2018. Section 3428 of the ConAct [Sec. 5001] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 5301] Authorizes specific loan levels for direct and guaranteed farm ownership and farm operating loans through FY2013, and reserves or targets funding for certain types of borrowers. [7 U.S.C. 1994] Reauthorizes the same loan levels through FY2018 and continues the same program targets and reservations. Section 3431 of the ConAct [Sec. 5001] Reauthorizes the same loan levels, targets, and reservations through FY2018. [Sec. 5303 and Sec. 5305] CRS-90 Adds a new priority for direct loans to beginning farmers and ranchers who apply under the down payment loan program or for joint financing arrangements. [Sec. 5304] Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) State Agricultural Loan Mediation Programs. Authorizes a matching grant program for states that provide third party mediation services for agricultural credit disputes. Appropriations authorized at $7.5 million annually through FY2015. [7 U.S C. 5106] Reauthorizes appropriations of $7.5 million annually through FY2018. [Sec. 5101] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 5401] Loans to Purchasers of Highly Fractionated Land. Authorizes the USDA farm loan program to lend to Indian tribes or tribal corporations to buy highly fractionated land within the reservation. [25 U.S.C. 488] Allows lending to intermediaries that may create revolving loan funds to relend to purchasers of highly fractionated land. Updates references to other laws, and requires regulatory consultation between USDA and the Department of the Interior. [Sec. 5102] Similar to the Senate bill by allowing lending to intermediaries that may create revolving loan funds to relend to purchasers of highly fractionated land. The House bill does not contain a provision for updating references or requiring interagency consultation. [Sec. 5501] Requires certain levels of appraisal for land to qualify for highly fractionated land loans. [25 U.S.C. 488] Simplifies appraisals for purchasers of highly fractionated land by requiring only one appraisal recognized by USDA or the Department of the Interior. [Sec. 5103] No change. No comparable provision. Prior to 1990, however, the Farm Credit Administration (federal regulator of the Farm Credit System) could approve compensation packages of employees and executives of the Farm Credit System, with Board approval. (Formerly 12 U.S.C. 2252(a)(13) before being removed by P.L. 101-624) Instructs the Farm Credit Administration to review rules to reflect congressional intent that a primary responsibility of boards of directors in the Farm Credit System is to review compensation packages of senior officers, in order to improve compensation disclosure. [Sec. 5104] No comparable provision. Current Law/Policy Credit Programs in Other Laws CRS-91 Title VI. Rural Development Current Law/Policy Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (ConAct) Authorizing statute for USDA’s rural development programs. [7 U.S.C. 1921 et seq.] Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Reorganizes the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (ConAct). Consolidates rural development programs, makes technical changes to various programs, eliminates programs, establishes criteria for prioritizing loan and grants, eliminates the definition of “rural” and “rural area” for water assistance and community facilities. Makes technical changes to the Delta Regional Authority and the Northern Great Plains Regional Authority. [Sec. 6001] No comparable provision. Note: References below cite the new numbering of the ConAct for provisions notably amended by the Senate bill, followed in bold by the section of S. 954 making the change. Defining Rural Eligibility Sec. 343(a)(13)(A) of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (ConAct), as amended, defines rural as any area other than a city or town with a population greater than 50,000 and the urbanized area contiguous and adjacent to such a city or town. Defines rural and rural area for water and waste water programs as any town, city, or unincorporated area under 10,000 population. Defines rural and rural area for community facility loan and grant program as any area other than a town or city with a population greater than 20,000. Establishes criteria for determining areas as “rural in character” and makes certain exclusions for rural areas that could be classified as lying within an “urbanized area.” [7 U.S.C. 1991(a(13)(A)] CRS-92 Retains Sec. 343 (a) definition of rural as any area other than a city or town with a population greater than 50,000 and the urbanized area contiguous and adjacent to such a city or town. No change to current law. Eliminates the rural definition for water and waste water projects so that the definition above applies. Areas that were eligible for water and waste water funding under the prior definition will remain eligible for funding unless USDA determines that the area is no longer “rural in character.” No change to current law. Eliminates the rural definition for community facility loan and grants so that the definition above applies. Areas that were eligible for community facility funding under the prior definition will remain eligible for funding unless USDA determines that the area is no longer “rural in character.” No change to current law. Amends criteria for determining areas “rural in character” and establishes priorities in making these No change to current law. Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) determinations. Extends the current exclusion for “urbanized areas” where a single road may cause a rural town to be included within an urbanized area. Section 3002 28(A)(i) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] Definition of Rural Area for Purposes of the Housing Act of 1949. Section 520 of the Housing Act of 1949 defines “rural area” as any area so defined between 1990 and 2000 to remain so classified until receipt of the 2010 decennial census. The provision also caps the eligible rural population threshold at 25,000 residents or less. [7 U.S.C. 1490] Amends Section 520 of the Housing Act of 1949 to define a “rural area” as any area deemed to be a “rural area” at any time between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 to continue to be so classified until receipt of data from the 2020 decennial census. Raises the eligible population threshold of a rural area to a maximum of 35,000 residents. [Sec. 6202] No comparable provision. Reauthorizes funding to make loans, grants, and loan guarantees for the Rural Water and Waste Disposal Loan and Grant Programs. Establishes priorities for rural water programs, including a priority for rural communities of 5,500 or fewer permanent residents. Section 3501 (a)(d)(f) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] Reauthorizes the Rural Water and Waste Disposal Loan and Grant Programs. Decreases the current authorization for grants from $30 million to $15 million each fiscal year 2014-2018. [Sec. 6001] No comparable provision Amends the water and waste water direct and guaranteed loan programs to encourage financing by private or cooperative lenders to the maximum extent possible; by using loan guarantees where the population exceeds 5,500; by using direct loans where the impact on rate payers would be significant if a loan guarantee were to be used; by requiring projects that require interim financing in excess of $500,000 initially to seek funding from private or cooperative lenders; and determining if an existing direct loan borrower can refinance with a private or cooperative lender prior to providing a new direct loan. [Sec. 6015] Reauthorizes funding for Revolving Funds for Financing Water and Wastewater Projects at $30 million annually for FY2014-FY2018, subject to appropriations. Section No change to current law, including no extension of authorization to appropriate funds to the program. Rural Community Programs Rural Water and Waste Disposal Loan and Grant Programs. Loans and grants to support improvements to rural water systems. Authorizes $30 million in grants annually FY2009-2013, subject to annual appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 1926(a)(2] Revolving Funds for Financing Water and Waste Water Projects Program. Provides capital to fund revolving loan funds for supporting CRS-93 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) rural water projects. Authorizes $30 million annually for 2008-2013, subject to annual appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 1926(a)(2)(B)] 3501(e)(1) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] Emergency and Imminent Community Water Assistance Program. Provides assistance to water systems in rural communities of 10,000 or less where there is a threat to potable water supplies. Authorizes funding of $35 million for each fiscal year FY2008-2013. [7 U.S.C. 1926a(i)(2)] Reauthorizes funding for Emergency and Imminent Community Water Assistance Program at $35 million annually for FY2014-FY2018, subject to appropriations. Section 3501(e)(2) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] Reauthorizes funding for Emergency and Imminent Community Water Assistance Program. Decreases current authorization of $35 million to $27 million annually for FY2014-FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 6008] Water and Waste Facility Loans and Grants to Alleviate Health Risks Provides loan and grant support to rural water systems to improve sanitation and potable water supplies. Authorizes an annual appropriation of $30 million in loan subsidies, $30 million in grants, and $20 million in grants specifically for Tribal groups. [7 U.S.C. 1926c] Reauthorizes funding for Water and Waste Facility Loans and Grants to Alleviate Health Risks at $60 million in loan subsidies, $60 million in grants, and $20 million in grants specifically for Tribal groups annually for FY2014-FY2018, subject to appropriations. Section 3501(e)(3)(B) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] No change to current law. Grants for Water Systems for Rural and Native Villages in Alaska. Funding for water projects to improve sanitation and potable water in rural Alaska. Authorizes $30 million annually for FY2008-FY2013, subject to appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 1926d] Reauthorizes funding for the program and specifies eligibility for native villages for Alaska and Hawaii for Water and Waste Facility Loans and Grants to Alleviate Health Risks to include Native Tribes, rural or native villages in Alaska and Hawaii. Section 3501(e)(3)(B) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] No change to current law, including no extension of authorization to appropriate funds to the program. Solid Waste Management Grants. Provides grant assistance for communities to establish or improve solid waste management facilities. Subject to annual appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 1932(b)] Reauthorizes funding for Solid Waste Management Grants at $10 million annually for FY2014-FY2018, subject to appropriations. Section 3501(e)(4) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] No change to current law. CRS-94 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Rural Water and Wastewater Technical Assistance and Training Grants. Provides funding for technical and managerial expertise assistance from third-parties (e.g., National Rural Water Association Program) to assist rural communities with various water and waste water issues. Authorizes that between 1% and 3% of total water and waste water appropriation be allocated to these grants annually for FY2008-FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 1926(a)(14)] Reauthorizes funding for Rural Water and Wastewater Technical Assistance and Training Grants at the current allocation rate of between 1% and 3% of the total water and waste water appropriation annually for FY2014FY2018. Section 3501(e)(5) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] No change to current law. Rural Water and Waste Water Circuit Rider Program. Provides funding to support technical assistance to water rural water systems. [7 U.S.C. 1926(a)(19)] Reauthorizes the Rural Water and Waste Water Circuit Rider Program. Authorizes funding of $25 million for FY2014 and each year thereafter, subject to annual appropriations. [Sec. 6001] Reauthorizes the Rural Water and Waste Water Circuit Rider Program. Authorizes funding of $20 million for FY2014 and each fiscal year thereafter, subject to annual appropriations. [Sec. 6005] Special Evaluation Assistance for Rural Communities and Households (SEARCH) Program. Provides grant assistance to communities under 2,500 to help them prepare an application for a water or waste water loan and grant. Up to 4% of the funds appropriated for water and waste disposal projects and essential community facilities may be used to fund SEARCH grants. Authorizes funding not to exceed $30 million in any fiscal year. [7 U.S.C. 2009ee] Reauthorizes funding for the SEARCH Program at such sums as necessary for FY2014-FY2018, subject to annual appropriations. Section 3501(e)(6) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] No change to current law. Grants to Nonprofit Organizations to Finance the Construction, Refurbishing, and Servicing of Individually-Owned Household Water Well Systems in Rural Areas for Individuals with Low or Moderate Incomes. Provides funding to third-party organizations with expertise in residential well-water systems. Authorizes $10 million annually FY2008-2013, subject to appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 1926(d)] No comparable provision. Reauthorizes the Household Water Well Systems Program. Decreases current authorization of appropriations from $10 million to $5 million for each fiscal year 2014-2018. [Sec. 6009] Current Law/Policy CRS-95 Current Law/Policy Community Facilities Loan and Grant Program. Provides loan, grant, and loan guarantees for “essential community facilities.” Most funding has supported projects for improved community health and safety (e.g., health clinics, elder care facilities, fire protection, and emergency responders). Authorizes such sums as necessary annually, subject to appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 1926(a)(19)] Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Reauthorizes funding for Community Facilities Programs at $10 million annually for FY2014-FY2018, subject to annual appropriations. Eliminates the provision in current law that reserves 10% of Community Facility funds for child day care facilities. [Sec. 6003] Establishes new priorities for Community Facilities loans and grants, including prioritization for communities with less than 20,000 in population. No comparable provision. Also authorizes a new Technical Assistance for Community Facilities Program as part of the current Community Facilities Program. Provides technical assistance and planning assistance to rural communities in developing essential community facilities. Reauthorizes such sums as necessary for FY2014-FY2018, subject to annual appropriations. Section 3502(a)-(d)(e)(g) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] No comparable provision No comparable provision Tribal College and University Essential Community Facilities. Provides grant funding to entities that are tribal colleges to provide the federal share of the cost of developing specific tribal college or university essential community facilities. Authorizes funding of $10 million each fiscal year FY2008-2013. [7 U.S.C. 1926(a)(25)(C)] CRS-96 Reauthorizes funding of $10 million each fiscal year FY2014-2018. Reserves at least 3% and no more than 5% of the appropriation for Community Facilities to provide technical assistance for Community Facility projects. [Sec. 6007] Directs the Secretary to use loan guarantees in the Community Facilities program to the maximum extent possible. [Sec. 6004] Reserves at least 3% and not more than 5% of the appropriation for essential community facilities for technical assistance support to community facility projects. [Sec. 6007] Decreases the current authorization of appropriations from $10 million to $5 million each fiscal year 2014-2018. [Sec. 6006] Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Rural Business Opportunity Grants. Provides grant assistance of up to $1.5 million to identify business opportunities that will use local rural resources, to train and provide technical assistance to existing or prospective rural entrepreneurs, to establish business support centers, and to support local and regional economic development planning. Authorizes $15 million annually for FY2008FY2013, subject to appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 1926(a)(11)] Eliminates the program, but consolidates the program’s objectives within a broad rural business development grants program. Authorizes $65 million annually for the broader program for FY2014-FY2018, subject to annual appropriations. Section 3601(a] of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] Authorizes $15 million annually for each fiscal year FY2013-FY2017. [Sec. 6002] Rural Business Enterprise Grants. Provides grant support of up to $50,000 to public bodies and nonprofit corporations for measures designed to facilitate small and emerging business enterprises, or the creation and expansion of rural distance learning networks, among other eligible activities. Authorizes funding not to exceed $50 million annually. Subject to annual appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 1932(c)] Eliminates the program, but consolidates the program’s objectives within a broad rural business development grants program. Authorizes $65 million annually for the broader program (as above) for FY2014-FY2018, subject to appropriations. Section 3601(a)of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] No change to current law. Value-Added Producer Grants. Provides grant support to agricultural producers to undertake projects that add value to commodities and thereby increase producer income. Also supports planning and business development for value-added projects. Authorizes $40 million annually FY2009-2013 subject to annual appropriations, in addition to $15 million in mandatory spending to remain available until expended. [7 U.S.C. 1621] Reauthorizes funding for Value-Added Agricultural Producer Grants at $40 million annually for FY2014FY2018, subject to annual appropriations. Also authorizes $12.5 million annually in mandatory spending for FY2014FY2018. Establishes priority for projects in which at least 25% of the project recipients are beginning farmers or ranchers or socially disadvantaged farmers or ranchers. Section 3601(b) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] Reauthorizes the Value-Added Product Grant Program. Increases authorization of mandatory spending from $15 million to $50 million. [Sec. 6202] Locally or Regionally Produced Agricultural Food Products. Provides funding to increase Reauthorizes the program for FY2014-2018. Requires that USDA produce an annual report describing the Current Law/Policy Rural Business and Cooperative Development CRS-97 Amends Section 231(b) of the Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000 to give funding priority to, among other groups, veteran farmers and ranchers (as defined by the Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act of 1990). [Sec. 6207] Reauthorizes the program for FY2014-2018. Amends the provision so that not more than 7% of the funds of the Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) domestic consumption of locally and regionally produced agricultural products and to provide affordable food products in underserved rural and urban areas. Reserves not less than 5% of the funds of the Business and Industry Loan Guarantee program for support of locally and regionally produced food. [7 U.S.C. 1932(g)(9)(B)(v)(I)] projects carried out by the program. [Sec. 6001] Business and Industry Loan Guarantee program can be used to fund locally or regionally produced agricultural food products. [Sec. 6012] Agriculture Innovation Center Demonstration Program. Provides grant funding to producers for technical assistance in developing agricultural-based businesses based on value-added production. Authorizes funding of $6 million annually for FY2008-2013, subject to annual appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 1632(b)(i)] No comparable provision. Decreases the current authorization of appropriations from $6 million to $1 million each fiscal year 2014-2018. [Sec. 6203] Rural Cooperative Development Grants. Facilitate the creation of jobs in rural areas through the development of new rural cooperatives, valueadded processing, and rural businesses. Authorizes $50 million annually for FY2008-FY2013, subject to appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 1932(e)(5)] Reauthorizes funding for grants at $50 million annually for FY2014-FY2018 subject to appropriations. Includes directive to coordinate an interagency working group among federal agencies to support cooperative development. Section 3601(c) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] Decreases the current authorization of appropriations from $50 million to $40 million each fiscal year 20142018. [Sec. 6011] Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA). Provides grant support at an agricultural institution (e.g., universities) for information activities to agricultural producers. Authorizes $5 million annually for FY2008-FY2013, subject to appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 1932] Reauthorizes funding for ATTRA at $5 million annually for FY2014-FY2018, subject to appropriations. Section 3601(d) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] No change to current law, including no extension of authorization to appropriate funds to the program. Business and Industry Direct and Guaranteed Loans. Provides loans for a wide variety of projects to support business development in rural areas and to increase and retain jobs in rural areas. Subject to annual appropriations. (Note: Direct loan program has not been funded since 2002.) [7 U.S.C. 1932(a)(2)(A)] Reauthorizes funding of $75 million annually for FY2014FY2018, subject to appropriations. Raises initial fee to 3% from current authorization of 2%. Reauthorizes a 5% carve-out of guaranteed loan authority for Locally or Regionally Produced Agricultural Food Products. Section 3601(e) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] No change to current law. Intermediary Relending Program (IRP). The IRP provides direct loans at 1% interest to Reauthorizes funding for IRP at $50 million annually for FY2014-FY2018, subject to appropriations. Section Reauthorizes and amends the program. Authorizes $10 million, subject to appropriations, for each fiscal year Current Law/Policy CRS-98 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) intermediaries to finance business facilities and community development projects in rural areas of 25,000 population or less. The Rural Business Service loan to an intermediary is used to establish or fund a revolving loan program to provide financial assistance to ultimate recipients for community development projects, establishment of new businesses or expansion of existing businesses. Subject to annual appropriations. [7 U.S.C 1932] 3601(f)(1) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] FY2014-2018. [Sec. 6013] Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program. Provides grant support to third-party entities that assist rural entrepreneurs in establishing microenterprises in rural areas. Authorizes $4 million in mandatory spending for FY2009-FY2011 and $3 million for FY2012. Also authorizes $40 million annually in discretionary spending for FY2009-FY2013, subject to appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 1981 et seq.] Reauthorizes funding the program at $40 million annually for FY2014-FY2018, subject to appropriations. Also provides $3.0 million annually in mandatory spending for FY2014-FY2018. Section 3601(f)(2) of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] Decreases the current authorization of appropriations from $40 million to $20 million each fiscal year 20142018. [Sec. 6018] Rural Business Investment Program. Modeled on the Small Business Administration’s Small Business Investment Companies, the Rural Business Investment Program provides funding to help capitalized Rural Business Companies that, in turn, provide loans to rural businesses. Authorizes $50 million for the period FY2008-FY2013, subject to appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 2009cc et seq.] Reauthorizes funding for the program at $25 million annually through FY2018, subject to appropriations. Provides authority for USDA to establish capital requirements, establish fees for applicants applying for a license to operate as a rural business investment company, and ensures the majority of capital of each rural business company is invested in rural concerns. Section 3602 of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] Decreases the current authorization of appropriations from $50 million to $20 million each fiscal year 20142018. [Sec. 6021] Rural Business Collaborative Investment Program. Provides loan and grant support to rural regions to establish regional competitiveness by fostering collaboration among rural businesses, rural institutions, and entrepreneurs. Establishes multijurisdictional and multisectoral Regional Rural Investment Boards and provides Regional Innovation Grants. Authorizes $135 million for the period FY2008-FY2013, subject to annual appropriations. Program was never implemented. Eliminates the program. No change to current law, including no extension of authorization to appropriate funds to the program. Current Law/Policy CRS-99 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) General authority for USDA to award grants and to make and guarantee loans to various entities [7 U.S.C. 1926] Reauthorizes and contains general provisions for loan and grant authority. Section 3701of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] No change to current law. No comparable provision. Strategic Economic and Community Development. Authorizes USDA to prioritize otherwise eligible applications that support multijurisdictional strategic economic and community development and establishes criteria for evaluating applications. Reserves 20% of a fiscal year’s appropriated funds for rural community facilities, water and waste water projects, and loans and grants under Rural Business and Cooperative Development. Also reserves 15% of the total funds available for these functional categories for strategic economic and community development projects. Section 3703(a)of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] No comparable provision. Rural Development Loan Procedures. Provision addresses procedures for approving USDA Rural Development loans and grants. [7 U.S.C. 1983(a)] No comparable provision. Simplifies the loan application process. Directs USDA to the maximum extent possible to provide a one-page application and other simplified application procedures. Within two years of enactment, requires USDA to submit a report to the House and Senate Agriculture Committees evaluating the implementation of this provision.[Sec. 6016] Rural Development Insurance Fund. Authorizes a revolving fund for the discharge of the obligations of USDA under contracts guaranteeing or insuring rural development loans. Funds not needed for current operations are deposited in the U.S. Treasury for credit to the fund, or invested in obligations guaranteed by the United States [7 U.S.C. 1929a] Continues permanent authority for the Rural Development Insurance Fund. Section 3704 of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] No change to current law. Rural Economic Area Partnership (REAP). The program assists communities dealing with Establishes process for USDA to designate new Rural Economic Area Partnership zones. Section 3705(a) of the No change to current law. Current Law/Policy [7 U.S.C. 2009dd] General Rural Development Provisions CRS-100 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) geographic and economic isolation, low density population, absence of nearby metropolitan centers, and historic dependence on agribusiness, out-migration, and economic upheaval to develop strategies for revitalization Zones. [7 U.S.C. 1932] ConAct. [Sec. 6001] National Rural Development Partnership. A state-federal rural economic development coordinating entity operating through State Rural Development Councils and a National Rural Development Coordinating Committee. [7 U.S.C. 2008m] State Rural Development Partnership. Establishes a federal-state partnership called the State Rural Development Partnership. The Partnership is composed of state rural development councils whose purpose is to build regional capacity in rural communities. The Partnership is designed to maximize public- and privatesector cooperation to minimize regulatory redundancy. The federal government will act as a partner or facilitator to provide states with technical and administrative support necessary to plan and implement rural development strategies tailored to meet local needs. [Sec. 6001] No comparable provision. No comparable provision No comparable provision Rural College Coordination Strategy. Instructs the Secretary to develop a coordination strategy within USDA Rural Development programs to serve the specific needs of rural community and technical colleges .[Sec. 6014] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Program Metrics. Directs USDA to begin collecting data on the economic activities created through its loan and grant funding. Specifically directs USDA to measure the short and long-term viability of award recipients, and to submit a report to Congress every two years on the actions taken to use the data, the number of jobs created, the value of wages, and other economic data deemed relevant. [Sec. 6204] Rural Telecommunications and Electrification: Rural Electrification Act Rural Electrification Act of 1936. The act CRS-101 No comparable provision Relending for Certain Purposes. Amends the Rural Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) authorizes loans for rural electrification and telecommunications infrastructure development. [9 U.S.C. 901 et seq.] House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Electrification Act to authorize loan for borrower relending to ultimate consumers for the purpose of energy efficiency. Loans and grants are also authorized under the Cushion of Credit Payments Program for relending to ultimate consumers for the purpose of energy efficiency. [Sec. 6101] No comparable provision Fees for Certain Loan Guarantees. Amends the Rural Electrification Act to require that the Secretary, at the request of a baseload generation loan guarantee borrower, charge an upfront fee equal to the costs of the loan guarantee. A borrower may not use funds from a loan or other debt obligation made or guaranteed by the federal government to pay the fee. [Sec. 6102] Definition of Rural Area. Defines rural and rural area to mean any area other than a city or town or unincorporated place with a population greater than 20,000 residents, and any area within the service area of an electric, telephone, or telephone bank borrower under Section 13(3)the Rural Electrification Act. [7 U.S.C. 913] Amends the definition of rural area for programs authorized by the Rural Electrification Act to be the same as the definition in Section 3002 (28)(A)(i): any area other than a city or town with a population greater than 50,000 and the urbanized area contiguous and adjacent to such a city or town. [Sec. 6101] No change to current law. Guarantees for Bonds and Notes Issued for Electrification or Telephone Purposes. Provides for federal guarantees for bonds and notes that finance rural electrification and telephone infrastructure. [7 U.S.C. 940c-1(f)] Reauthorizes guarantees for bonds and notes issued for electrification or telephone purposes for 2014-2018. [Sec. 6102] Identical to the Senate provision. [Sec. 6103] Expansion of 911 Access. Authorizes expanding the emergency telephone service of 911 in rural areas by using any funds otherwise made available for telephone loans for each of FY2008-FY2013. Section 315(d) of the Rural Electrification Act. [7 U.S.C. 940(e)d] Reauthorizes expansion of 911 access through FY2018. [Sec. 6103] Identical to the Senate provision. [Sec. 6104] Access to Broadband Telecommunications Services in Rural Area. Provides loan guarantees to establish broadband Reauthorizes funding for the program at $50 million annually for FY2014-FY2018, subject to appropriations. Amends Section 601 of the Rural Electrification Act to Reauthorizes the program through FY2018. Gives priority to applications that are not predominantly for business service but where at least 25% of customers in the CRS-102 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) telecommunications infrastructure in rural areas. Subject to annual appropriations [7 U.S.C. 950bb] establish a grant component to the Broadband Loan Program. Establishes priorities for communities: (1) without a local service provider, (2) with populations of less than 20,000, (3) with a high proportion of lowincome residents, and (4) experiencing significant outmigration. Also establishes a maximum grant limit of 50% of a project’s development costs, but gives USDA the authority to increase the grant amount to 75% for remote communities and those with low-income residents. Also establishes priority to broadband applications that offer service to the greatest proportion of unserved rural households or rural households that do not have broadband service but meet the minimum acceptable levels of service. Priority would be given to communities with populations of 20,000 or less, or those experiencing outmigration, or those that are isolated from population centers, or those that have a high percentage of low-income residents. Also authorizes a pilot program for “ultra-high speed” broadband connectivity. [Sec. 6104] proposed service territory are commercial interests. Publication of notice of applications shall include the amount and type of support requested and a list of the Census block groups or tracts to be served. The Secretary is authorized to establish a process where, at the time of an application notice, an incumbent service provider who is providing service to a remote rural area may submit to the Secretary information regarding the service offered in the application’s proposed service area, so the Secretary may assess whether the application is an eligible project. The Secretary is also authorized to consider upgrade or replacement cost for construction or acquisition of facilities and equipment in considering the technology needs of customers in the proposed service area. [Sec. 6105] Grants for NOAA Weather Radio Transmitters. Provides grant funding to public and nonprofit entities for the federal share of the cost of acquiring radio transmitter to increase coverage of rural areas by the all hazards weather radio broadcast system of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Authorizes funding of such sums as necessary for FY2008-2013, subject to annual appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 2008p] No comparable provision. Authorizes $1 million each fiscal year FY2014-FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 6017] Distance Learning and Telemedicine Program. Provides grants to rural hospitals, clinics, schools, and libraries to develop and improve their telecommunications infrastructure. Section 233A of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990. Authorizes Reauthorizes funding at current level through FY2018. [Sec. 6201] Decreases the current authorization of appropriations from $100 million to $65 million each fiscal year 20142018. [Sec. 6201] Current Law/Policy CRS-103 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) No comparable provision. Amends Subtitle E of Title VI of the 2002 farm bill (P.L. 101-171) to authorize a new Rural Energy Savings Program, which would provide 0% interest rate loans to eligible Rural Utilities Service borrowers to fund loans to qualified consumers to implement energy efficiency measures. [Sec. 6203] No comparable provision. Backlog of Rural Development Applications. Section 6029 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-246) provided a onetime $120 million in mandatory spending for pending rural development loan and grant applications. [122 Stat. 1955] Provides for one-time mandatory funding of $150 million for pending rural development loan and grant applications. [Sec. 6204] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Study of Rural Transportation Issues. Directs USDA and the Department of Transportation to jointly conduct a study regarding the movement of agricultural products, domestically renewable fuels, domestically produced resources for electricity production, and economic development for rural areas. Designates particular topics for the study to address. Study is to be updated triennially. [Sec. 6205] Identical to the Senate bill, but also requires an update on the study to be submitted not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this act. Also expands the study to include transportation infrastructure of water ways. [Sec. 6205] No comparable provision. Amends Section 203 of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (7 U.S.C. 1622) to direct USDA to participate on behalf of the interests of agriculture and rural America in all proceedings pertaining to freight rail policy of the Surface Transportation Board. [Sec. 6206] No comparable provision. Current Law/Policy funding of $100 million annually through FY2013, subject to appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 950aaa] CRS-104 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) No comparable provision No comparable provision Certain Federal Action not to be Considered Major. An action by the Secretary that does not involve the provision of federal dollars or a loan guarantee from USDA, including a debt settlement or restructuring, a lien accommodation or subordination, or the restructuring of a business entity by a borrower, in the case of a loan, grant, or loan guaranteed in the USDA Rural Development mission area, shall not be considered a major federal action. [Sec. 6206] Delta Regional Authority. The Authority is an 8-state state-federal regional planning and development entity that provides loan and grant support for economic development projects in rural counties in the Mississippi Delta area. Authorizes $30 million annually for FY2008-2012 subject to appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 2009aa et seq.] Reauthorizes funding FY2014-FY2018 at the current level of $30 million annually, subject to annual appropriations. Also makes technical amendments to the operation of the Authority. Sections 3801 through 3814 of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] Decreases the current authorization of appropriations from $30 million to $12 million each fiscal year 20142018. [Sec. 6019] Northern Great Plains Regional Authority. Authorizes an economic development commission that develops regional plans and makes loans and grants for infrastructure and economic development in five Great Plains States. Authorizes $30 million annually for FY2008-2012, subject to appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 2009bb et seq.] Reauthorizes funding FY2014-FY2018 at the current level of $30 million annually, subject to annual appropriations. Also makes technical amendments to the authority. Increases the cap on administrative expenses from 5% to 10%. Sections 3821 through 3835 of the ConAct. [Sec. 6001] Decreases the current authorization of appropriations from $30 million to $2 million each fiscal year 2014-2018. [Sec. 6020] Regional Development Authorities NOTE: See also Title XII-Miscellaneous, Section 12206, for changes made in the Senate bill to other regional commissions authorized by the 2008 farm bill. CRS-105 Title VII. Research, Extension, and Related Matters Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Establishes the “Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research,” a new nonprofit corporation designed to supplement USDA’s basic and applied research activities, and provides total mandatory funding of up to $200 million from the Commodity Credit Corporation. Federal funding is available only to the extent that the foundation secures an equal amount of non-federal matching funds for each dollar of expenditure. The foundation will solicit and accept private donations to award grants or enter into agreements for collaborative public/private partnerships with scientists at USDA and in academia, non-profits, and the private sector. [Sec. 7601] No comparable provision. Foundation for Food and Agricultural Research No comparable provision. National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (NARETPA), As Amended Authorizes the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. The Board reviews and provides consultation on priorities for research, extension, education, and economics to the Secretary, landgrant colleges and universities, and Congress. [7 U.S.C. 3123] Extends authority through FY2018 and adds “consult with industry groups” to the Board’s list of duties. [Sec. 7101] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7102] Amended by the Specialty Crops Competitiveness Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-465) to establish and allow USDA to appoint members to a permanent specialty crops committee responsible for studying the scope and effectiveness of research, extension, and economics programs affecting the specialty crop industry. [7 U.S.C. 3123a] Amends requirements to provide for diversity of the specialty crops represented, and to ensure ongoing consultation with diverse sectors of the specialty crop industry. [Sec. 7102] Amends requirements to include research on: (1) improving quality and taste of processed specialty crops and (2) use of remote sensing in production practices. [Sec. 7103] Authorizes a program to defray the school loans of veterinary medical school graduates who agree to serve for limited time periods in underserved areas. Funding subject to appropriations. [7 U.S.C. Authorizes an additional matching competitive grant program with qualified entities to develop, implement, and sustain veterinary services. Authorizes $10 million per year, subject to annual appropriations. [Sec. 7103] Nearly identical to Senate bill. [Sec. 7104] CRS-106 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Authorizes grants/fellowships to land grant colleges and universities for food and agricultural sciences education. Annual appropriations of $60 million authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3152] Reauthorizes at $40 million per year for FY2014-18, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7104] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7105] Authorizes USDA to enter into a wide variety of grants and other collaborative agreements with private and public educational institutions, corporations, and individuals to conduct independent research and public policy analysis on food and agriculture. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3155] Reauthorizes at $10 million per year, subject to appropriations. Provides preference to policy research centers that have extensive databases, models, and demonstrated experience in providing Congress with agricultural projections and analysis at the farm, regional, national, and international levels, including information and analysis relating to drought mitigation. [Sec. 7105] Similar to the Senate bill except removes authority for making non-competitive grants and reauthorizes at $5 million per year for FY2014-2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7106] Authorizes USDA to make grants to Alaska Nativeserving institutions to assist in carrying out education, applied research, and related community development programs. Annual appropriations of $10 million authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3156] Reauthorizes at $10 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7106] No comparable provision. Authorizes USDA to make grants for research on human nutrition intervention and health promotion. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [Sec. 3174] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7107] Requires USDA to conduct pilot research program to combine medical and agricultural research. Annual appropriations of $10 million authorized through FY2013. [Sec. 3174] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7108] Authorizes USDA to establish a national education program for disseminating results of food and human nutrition research performed or funded by USDA. Annual appropriations of $90 million authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3175] Reauthorizes at $90 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7107] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7109] Authorizes animal health and disease research. Authorizes annual appropriations of $25 million per Reauthorizes at $25 million per year through FY2018, Reauthorizes at $15 million per year for FY2013-2018, Current Law/Policy 3151a] CRS-107 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) year through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3195(a)] subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7108] subject to appropriations [Sec. 7110] Authorizes research on national or regional problems in agriculture. [7 U.S.C. 3196] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7111] Authorizes annual appropriations of $25 million through FY2012 for NARETPA Grants to upgrade agricultural and food sciences facilities at 1890 land grant colleges, including Tuskegee University. [7 U.S.C. 3222b(b)] Annual appropriations of $8 million authorized through FY2013 for insular area land-grant institutions. [7 U.S.C. 3222b–2(d)] Reauthorizes at $25 million per year and $8 million per year, respectively, through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7109 and Sec. 7110] Similar to the Senate bill and amends to support tropical agricultural research in insular areas. [Sec. 7112 and Sec. 7113] Authorizes grants to Hispanic-serving institutions to strengthen educational capacity. Annual appropriations of $40 million authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3241] Reauthorizes at $40 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7111] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7115] The term "cooperating forestry schools" means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of October 10, 1962 (16 U.S.C. 582a et seq.), commonly known as the McIntire-Stennis Act of 1962. [7 U.S.C. 3103(5)] The term "Hispanicserving agricultural colleges and universities" means colleges or universities that qualify as Hispanicserving institutions and offer degree programs in agriculture-related fields. [7 U.S.C. 3103(10)(A)] No comparable provision. Allows institutions to opt out of the respective designations. [Sec. 7101] Authorizes national research and training virtual centers. [7 U.S.C. 3222c] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7114] Authorizes a competitive grant program to fund research and extension at Hispanic-serving agricultural universities. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized beginning FY2008 and each fiscal year thereafter. [7 U.S.C. 3243(e)(1)] No comparable provision. Expands authority to award competitive grants for training of Hispanic agricultural workers and Hispanic youth working in the food and agricultural sciences. [Sec. 7116] Authorizes competitive grants for international agricultural science and education programs. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are Reauthorizes at $5 million per year for FY2014-2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7112] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7117] CRS-108 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Authorizes competitive grants for the acquisition of special purpose scientific research equipment. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3310a] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7118] Authorizes university agricultural research. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3311] Reauthorizes through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7113] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7119] Authorizes agricultural extension activities. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3312] Reauthorizes through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7114] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7120] USDA may retain up to 4% of amounts made available for agricultural research, extension, and teaching assistance programs for the administration of those programs. [7 U.S.C. 3315] No comparable provision. The 4% limit does not apply to programs that currently contain a limitation that is less than 4%. To the maximum extent practicable, USDA shall enter into grants and cooperative agreements with former Department of Agriculture agricultural research facilities. USDA may enter into agreements with agricultural research organizations. [Sec. 7121] Authorizes research on supplemental and alternative crops. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3319d] Reauthorizes at $1 million per year for FY2014-2018, subject to appropriations, and amends so that only competitive grants can be awarded. [Sec. 7115] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7122] Authorizes competitive grants to non-land grant colleges of agriculture. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3319i(b)] Reauthorizes through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7116] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7123] Authorizes grants for a cooperative research and extension program to encourage the development, management, and production of aquatic food species. Annual appropriations of $7.5 million authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3322(b) and U.S.C. 3324] Reauthorizes at $5 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations, and amends so that only competitive grants can be awarded. [Sec. 7117] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7124] Current Law/Policy authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3292b] CRS-109 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Authorizes rangeland research. Annual appropriations of $10 million authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3336(a)] Reauthorizes at $2 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7118] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7125] Authorizes biosecurity planning/response. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3351(a)] Reauthorizes at $20 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7119] Identical to the Senate bill, except annual funding is $10 million. [Sec. 7126] Authorizes resident instruction & distance education grants for insular area institutions of higher education. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3362(a)] Reauthorizes at $2 million per year for through FY2018, subject to appropriations, and amends so that only competitive grants can be awarded. [Sec. 7120] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7127] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. The recipient of a competitive grant under a covered law that involves applied research or extension and is commodity-specific or state-specific must provide matching funds or in-kind contributions of equal value to the grant. [Sec. 7128] Current Law/Policy Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, As Amended Provides for research on best utilization of biological applications. Annual appropriations of $40 million authorized. [7 U.S.C. 5814] Reauthorizes at $40 million per year for FY2014-2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7201] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7201] Provides for a research and education program on integrated resource management and integrated crop management. Annual appropriations of $20 million authorized. [7 U.S.C. 5821] Reauthorizes at $20 million per year for FY2014-2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7202] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7202] Provides for information on sustainable agriculture. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized. [7 U.S.C. 5831] Education/training for Cooperative Extension Service agents and other professionals is also provided. Annual appropriations of $20 million authorized. [7 U.S.C. 5832] For FY2014-18, reauthorizes appropriations of such sums as necessary for sustainable agriculture [Sec. 7203] and $20 million per year for education/training [Sec. 7204], subject to appropriations. Identical to the Senate bill except reauthorizes appropriations of $5 million per year for sustainable agriculture [Sec. 7203] and $20 million per year for education/training. [Sec. 7204] Provides for a national genetics resources program. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are Reauthorizes at $1 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7205] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7205] CRS-110 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Provides for a national agricultural weather information system. Annual appropriations of $5 million authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 5851 et seq.] Reauthorizes at $1 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7206] Repeals current law. [Sec. 7206] Provides for a rural electronic commerce extension program to expand and enhance electronic commerce practices and technology to be used by small businesses in rural areas. [7 U.S.C. 5923] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7207] Provides for a research initiative called the "Agricultural Genome Initiative" to study and map agriculturally significant genes. [7 U.S.C. 5924] Requires USDA to encourage awards to consortia of eligible entities. [Sec. 7207] Repeals current law. [Sec. 7208] Provides for “high-priority research and extension” areas and initiatives, and other programs. Among other program areas identified in the 2008 farm bill included pollinator protection with specific amounts of authorized appropriations. For other programs, appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 5925] Retains and/or removes some research areas as a “highpriority” and adds some new areas including a pulse health initiative, forestry products research, and training coordination. For other programs, reauthorizes to be appropriated “such sums as are necessary” through FY2018. [Sec. 7208] Retains and/or removes some research areas as a “highpriority.” Reauthorizes appropriations through FY2018 for pollinator protection research grants, USDA coordination efforts, and a nationwide honey bee pest and pathogen surveillance program. For other programs, reauthorizes appropriations of “such sums as are necessary” through FY2018.. [Sec. 7209] Provides for research and extension on technologies for animal waste management and related air quality management and odor control. [7 U.S.C. 5925a] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7210] Section 7206 of the 2008 farm bill established the Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative (OREI), providing grants to facilitate the development of organic agriculture production and processing. Provides mandatory CCC funds of $18 million (FY2009) and $20 million annually (FY2010FY2012), and authorizes annual appropriations of $25 million (FY2009-FY2013). [7 U.S.C. 5925b] Reauthorizes OREI with some program changes. Reauthorizes CCC funds of $16 million (FY2014-FY2018) and extends authority for appropriated funding of $25 million through FY2018.. [Sec. 7209] Reauthorizes OREI and establishes a priority for grant proposals found to be “scientifically meritorious” during grant proposal review. Reauthorizes CCC funds of $20 million (FY2014-FY2018) and extends authority for appropriated funding of $25 million through FY2018. [Sec. 7211] Provides for research and extension to enhance the production of biomass energy crops and the energy efficiency of agricultural operations. [7 U.S.C. No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7212] Current Law/Policy authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 5844(b)] CRS-111 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Authorizes competitive research and extension grants for improving the farm business management knowledge and skills of agricultural producers. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized. [7 U.S.C. 5925f(d)] Reauthorizes at $5 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7210] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7213] Authorizes regional centers of excellence. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 5925] Reauthorizes at $10 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. USDA may prioritize funding. [Sec. 7211] Similar to the Senate bill. Requires USDA to prioritize funding. [Sec. 7214] Authorizes red meat food safety research center. [7 U.S.C. 5929] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7215] Authorizes an assistive technology program for farmers with disabilities. Annual appropriations of $6 million authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 5933(c)(1)] Reauthorizes at $5 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7212] Identical to the Senate bill except reauthorizes at $3 million per year for FY2013-FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7216] Authorizes National Rural Information Center Clearinghouse. Annual appropriations of $500,000 authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 3125b(e)] Reauthorizes at $500,000 per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7213] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7217] Current Law/Policy 5925e] Agriculture Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 (AREERA), As Amended USDA establishes procedures that provide for scientific peer review of agricultural research grants administered, on a competitive basis, by its National Institute of Food and Agriculture. [7 U.S.C. 7613] Amends law to emphasize that “relevance” of the underlying research and extension programs to the affected industry shall be considered in evaluating grant applications. [Sec. 7301] Nearly identical to Senate bill. [Sec. 7301] Section 406, as amended, establishes the “Integrated Research, Education, And Extension Competitive Grants Program.” Included is the Organic Transitions Program (ORG), which funds research, extension, and education programs to improve the competitiveness of organic producers and producers transitioning to organic practices. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 7626] Reauthorizes program and extends authority to appropriate funds through FY2018. [Sec. 7302] Nearly identical to Senate bill. [Sec. 7302] CRS-112 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Provides for a coordinated program of research, extension, and education to improve the competitiveness, viability, and sustainability of small and medium size dairy, livestock, and poultry operations. [7 U.S.C. 7627] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7303] Section 408(e) authorizes research on diseases of wheat, triticale, and barley caused by Fusarium graminearum or by Tilletia indica. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C.7628(e)] Reauthorizes program at $10 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7303] Reauthorizes program at $7.5 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7304] Provides for establish a program to conduct research, testing, and evaluation of programs for the control and management of Johne's disease in livestock. [7 U.S.C. 7629] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7305] Section 410(d) authorizes grants for youth organizations. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C.7630(d)] Reauthorizes program at $3 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7304] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7306] Section 7311 of the 2008 farm bill amended the AREERA to establish the Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI), providing mandatory CCC funds of $30 million (FY2008) and $50 million annually (FY2009-FY2012), plus authorizes $100 million annually (FY2008-FY2013), subject to appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 7632] Reauthorizes SCRI and provides mandatory CCC funds of $25 million (FY2014); $30 million annually (FY2015FY2016); $65 million (FY2017); and $50 million (FY2018 and each fiscal year thereafter). Requires USDA consult with the specialty crops committee during the peer and merit review process. [Sec. 7305] Reauthorizes SCRI and mandatory CCC funds of $25 million (FY2013); $50 million annually (FY2014-FY2015); $55 million (FY2016-FY2017); and $65 million (FY2018 and each fiscal year thereafter). Extends authority to appropriate funds through FY2018. Requires USDA to award competitive grants based on an initial scientific peer review conducted by a panel of subject matter experts and a USDA review and ranking for merit, relevance, and impact conducted by a panel of specialty crop industry representatives. [Sec. 7307] Sec. 604 of AREERA authorizes the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Database. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 7642] Reauthorizes program and extends authority to appropriate funds through FY2018. [Sec. 7306] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7308] Sec. 612 of AREERA authorizes National Swine Research Center. [P.L. 105-185; 112 Stat. 605] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7309] Current Law/Policy CRS-113 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Reauthorizes appropriations of $3 million annually (FY2014- FY2018). [Section 7307] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7310] Amends Title VI of AREERA [7 U.S.C. 7651 et seq.] to establish four “Regional Integrated Pest Management Centers” (located in the north central, northeastern, southern, and western regions) to provide research and extension programs, outreach, and response to information needs, among other purposes. [Sec. 7308] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7311] Provides for development of critical agricultural materials. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 178n] Reauthorizes at $2 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7401] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7401] 1994 institutions (tribally controlled colleges) are defined. [7 U.S.C. 301] Updates the list of institutions. Makes changes in grant process. [Sec. 7402] Nearly identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7402] Authorizes funding for costs of agricultural research facilities (experiment stations) under the Research Facilities Act. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 390d(a)] Extends authority to appropriate funds through FY2018. [Sec. 7403] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7403] Authorizes carbon cycle research. [7 U.S.C. 6711] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7404] The Agriculture and Food Research Initiative (AFRI) makes competitive grants for fundamental and applied research, and for purchasing research equipment. Authorized funding at $700 million annually from FY2008 through FY2013, subject to Reauthorizes at $700 million per year for AFRI through FY2018. Directs USDA to streamline the competitive grant process for eligible institutions with limited resources. [Sec. 7404] Similar to the Senate bill. Adds emphasis on plant-based foods that are major sources of nutrients of concern, zoonotic diseases in wildlife reservoirs presenting a potential concern to public health or domestic livestock, data for safe and effective therapeutic applications of Current Law/Policy AREERA establishes the Office of Pest Management Policy to coordinate USDA’s policies and activities related to pesticides and pest management tools. Authorizes appropriations of such sums as necessary through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 7653] Requires USDA to conduct a performance evaluation to determine whether federally funded agricultural research, extension, and education programs result in public goods that have national or multistate significance. [7 U.S.C. 7671 et seq.] Authorities in Other Laws CRS-114 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 450i] USDA operates a National Agricultural Library to serve as the primary agricultural information resource of the United States. [7 U.S.C. 3125a] House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) animal drugs, conservation practices and technologies designed to address nutrient losses and improve water quality, pest management for minor agricultural use and for use on specialty crops. [Sec. 7405] Reauthorizes through FY2018 the authority to lease property of the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center or the Library to any individual or entity. [Sec. 7405] Similar to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7511] For annual funds made available to the National Agricultural Library, the Secretary shall use not more than $5 million per year to support the dissemination of objective agricultural and food law research and information through partnerships with institutions of higher education. [Sec. 7602] No comparable provision. The Renewable Resources Extension Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-306) authorizes educational and technical aid via state extension agencies and eligible universities and colleges. Authorizes annual appropriations of $30 million (FY2009-FY2013). [16 U.S.C. 1671-1676] Reauthorizes at $30 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7406] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7406] Section 10 of the National Aquaculture Act of 1980 establishes USDA as the lead Federal agency for coordinating and disseminating national aquaculture information. Authorizes annual appropriations of $3 million through FY2013. [16 U.S.C. 2801] Extends authority to appropriate funds through FY2018. [Sec. 7407] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7407] Authorized through April 4, 2001, the use of remote sensing to anticipate potential food, feed, and fiber shortages, and to provide timely information to assist farmers with planting decisions. [7 U.S.C. 5935] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7408] Requires reports on producers and handlers for organic products [7 U.S.C. 5925b note; P.L. 107171], genetically modified pest-protected plants [P.L. 107-171; 116 Stat. 462], and nutrient banking for the purpose of enhancing the health No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7409] CRS-115 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Establishes the Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program; provides training, education, outreach/technical assistance initiatives. Provides mandatory CCC funds of $18 million (FY2009) and $19 million annually (FY2010FY2012), plus authorizes $30 million annually (FY2008-FY2013), subject to appropriations. [7 U.S.C. 3319f] Reauthorizes mandatory funding of $17 million per year for FY2014-FY2018 (to be available until expended) and extends authority to appropriate funds through FY2018. State grants are to be made on a competitive basis for establishing and improving farm safety at the local level.[Sec. 7408] Reauthorizes mandatory funding of $20 million per year for FY2014-FY2018 (to be available until expended) and extends authority to appropriate funds through FY2018. Not less than 5% of funds are to be used to support beginning farmers who are military veterans. Recipients of grants may not use more than 10% of funds for indirect costs. [Sec. 7410] Under Section 8 of P.L. 87-788 (commonly known as the McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Act), the term “State" includes Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam. [16 U.S.C. 582a-7] No comparable provision. Adds the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands to the list of included territories. [Sec. 7411] Establishes a communication center to prepare for an agricultural disease emergency or threat to agricultural biosecurity. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized for FY2008 through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 8912] Reauthorizes programs at $2 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7501] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7501] Provides assistance to build local capacity in agricultural biosecurity planning, preparedness, and response. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized for FY2008 through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 8913] Reauthorizes at $15 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7502] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7502] Establishes a competitive grant program to encourage basic and applied research and the development of qualified agricultural countermeasures to respond to an outbreak of plant disease. Annual appropriations of $50 million are authorized for FY2008 through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 8921(b)] Reauthorizes program at $15 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7503] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7503] Current Law/Policy and viability of watersheds in areas with large concentrations of animal producing units [7 U.S.C. 5925a note; P.L. 107-171]. Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 CRS-116 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Establishes a competitive grant program to promote the development of teaching programs in disciplines closely allied to the food and agriculture system to increase the number of trained individuals with an expertise in agricultural biosecurity. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized for FY2008 through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 8922(e)] Reauthorizes at $5 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7504] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7504] Prohibits the Grazinglands Research Laboratory at El Reno, Oklahoma from being declared excess or surplus Federal property. Reauthorizes provision through FY2018. [Sec. 7511] Nearly identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7512] In the annual budget process, the President is required to submit to Congress a single budget line item reflecting the total amount requested by the President for funding for research, education, and extension activities of the Research, Education, and Economics mission area of USDA for each fiscal year and for the preceding 5 years. [7 U.S.C. 7614c] Requires the budget submission to include sufficient information for Congress to thoroughly evaluate and approve future spending plans with regard to extramural competitive grants programs and intramural research spending. New language is added to create transparency and accountability for USDA research programs. [Sec. 7512] Nearly identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7513] Establishes a program of research relating to natural products, including products from plant, marine, and microbial sources. Appropriations of such sums as necessary are authorized for FY2008 through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 5937] Reauthorizes at $7 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7513] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7517] Establishes bioenergy research programs through “sun” grants to land grant institutions and five regional centers. The research is to enhance national energy security through the development, distribution, and implementation of biobased energy technologies. Annual appropriations of $75 million (FY2008-FY2013) are authorized [7 U.S.C. 8114] Consolidates and amends the Sun Grant Program to expand input from other appropriate federal agencies and replace authority for gasification research with bioproducts research. Makes program competitive by removing designation of certain universities as regional centers. Reauthorizes at $75 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 7514] Nearly identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 7518] Authorizes research and education grants to study the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. [7 U.S.C. 3202] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7514] Current Law/Policy CRS-117 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Authorizes competitive grants for a Farm and Ranch Stress Assistance Network. [7 U.S.C. 5936] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7515] Authorizes competitive grants to carry out a seed distribution program to administer and maintain the distribution of vegetable seeds donated by commercial seed companies. [7 U.S.C. 415-1] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7516] Requires a study and report on food deserts (area with limited access to affordable food). [P.L. 110246; 122 Stat. 2039] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7519] Authorizes competitive grants for agricultural and rural transportation research and education activities. [Sec. 7 U.S.C. 5938] No comparable provision. Repeals current law. [Sec. 7520] USDA may negotiate agreements granting concessions at the National Arboretum to nonprofit scientific or educational organizations. [Sec. 20 U.S.C. 196] No comparable provision. USDA may negotiate agreements for the National Arboretum with nonprofit scientific or educational organizations. Net proceeds from the agreements shall be used exclusively for research and educational work for the benefit of the National Arboretum. A non-profit organization that entered into an agreement may recognize donors if that recognition is approved in advance by the Secretary. [Sec. 7601] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Requires USDA to submit to Congress a report on the fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4 and the impact of such fungus on cotton. [Sec. 7602] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. USDA may authorize a non-federal entity to construct, at no cost and without obligation of the federal government, a facility for use by the Agricultural Research Service on land owned by the agency. Subject to certain conditions, the facility may be accepted as a gift if the value does not exceed $5 million. [Sec. 7603] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Miscellaneous technical correction. [Sec. 7604] Current Law/Policy CRS-118 Title VIII. Forestry Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Sec. 4 of the Cooperative Forestry Assistance Act of 1978 (CFAA, P.L. 95-313), as amended, authorizes and establishes the Forest Land Enhancement Program (FLEP) between FY2002-FY2008. The program was not reauthorized in the 2008 farm bill. [16 U.S.C. 2301] Repeals FLEP, effective October 1, 2013. [Sec. 8001] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 8001] Sec. 6 of the CFAA, as amended, authorizes and establishes the Watershed Forestry Assistance Program (WFAP) between FY2004-FY2008. Funding has never been appropriated. [16 U.S.C. 2301b] No comparable provision. Repeals WFAP, effective October, 1, 2013. [Sec. 8002] Sec. 18 of the CFAA, as amended, authorizes and establishes the Cooperative National Forest Products Marketing Program between FY1988-FY1991. Since FY1993, funding is appropriated through the Economic Action Program (EAP), administered by the U.S. Forest Service. [16 U.S.C. 2112] No comparable provision. Repeals the Cooperative National Forest Products Marketing Program. [Sec. 8003] S. 8402 of the 2008 farm bill, as amended, authorizes the Hispanic-serving institution agricultural land national resources leadership program to provide undergraduate forestry scholarships. Funding has never been appropriated. [16 U.S.C. 1649a] Repeals the Hispanic-serving institution agricultural land national resources leadership program, effective October 1, 2013. [Sec. 8002] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 8004] Sec. 303 of the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 (HFRA, P.L. 108-148), as amended, authorizes and establishes the Tribal watershed forestry assistance program between FY2004-FY2008. Funding has never been appropriated. [16. U.S.C. 6542] Repeals the Tribal watershed forestry assistance program, effective October, 1, 2013. [Sec. 8003] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 8005] Current Law/Policy Program Repeal CRS-119 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Sec. 322 of the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1993 (P.L. 102-381, also known as the Appeals Reform Act), requires the U.S. Forest Service to provide public notice, comment, and appeals for land and resource management plans and projects developed under the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 [16 U.S.C. 1612, note] No comparable provision. Repeals Sec. 322. [Sec. 8006] Sec. 428 of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2012, requires USDA to implement a pre-decisional objection process for projects implementing land and resource management plans developed under the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974. [16 U.S.C. 6515, note] No comparable provision. Prohibits Sec. 428 from applying to any project or activity implementing a land and resource management plan that is categorically excluded from an environmental assessment (EA) or environmental impact statement (EIS) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). [Sec. 8006] Sec. 2A(f)(1) of the CFAA, as amended, authorizes up to $10 million in annual appropriations between FY2008-FY2012 to carry out the state-wide assessment and strategies for forest resources. [16 U.S.C. 2101a(f)(1)] Reauthorizes funding to carry out the state-wide assessment and strategies for forest resources at $10 million annually through FY2018. [Sec. 8101] No comparable provision. Sec. 2A(c) of the CFAA, as amended, directs the coordination of certain specified federal, state, and tribal parties in the development of state-wide assessment and strategies for forest resources. [16 U.S.C. 2101a(c)] No comparable provision. Adds military installments, where feasible, to the list of coordinating agencies. [Sec. 8101] Sec. 7 of the CFAA, as amended, permanently authorizes such sums as necessary to be appropriated to carry out the Forest Legacy Program (FLP). FLP was created to protect forests that might soon be cleared for non-forest uses and received average annual appropriations of approximately $58 million from FY2008-FY2012. [16 U.S.C. 2103c] No comparable provision. Eliminates permanent authority to receive annual appropriations of such sums as necessary, and instead authorizes FLP to receive such sums as necessary for FY2013 and $55 million annually between FY2014 and FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 8102] Sec. 7a of the CFAA, as amended, permanently No comparable provision. Eliminates permanent authority to receive annual Current Law/Policy Reauthorization of Forestry-Related Programs CRS-120 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) authorizes such sums as necessary to be appropriated to carry out the Community Forest and Open Space Conservation program. The program provides financial assistance to local governments, tribes, and nonprofit organizations for preventing the conversion of forestland to non-forest uses. Appropriations between FY2010-FY2012 for this program were less than $2 million annually. [16 U.S.C. 2103d] House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) appropriations of such sums as necessary, and instead authorizes the program to receive such sums as necessary for FY2013 and $1.5 million annually for FY2014-FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 8103] Sec. 2371(d)(2) of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-624, 1990 farm bill), as amended, authorizes appropriations of $5 million annually through FY2013 to carry out the rural revitalization technologies program. [7 U.S.C. 6601(d)(2)] Reauthorizes funding to carry out the rural revitalization technologies program at $5 million annually through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 8201] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 8201] Sec. 2405 of the Global Climate Change Prevention Act of 1990 (within the 1990 farm bill), as amended, authorizes such sums as necessary to be appropriated to administer the Office of International Forestry until FY2013. The office received an average annual appropriation of approximately $7.5 million from FY2008-FY2012. [7 U.S.C. 6704] Reauthorizes the Office of International Forestry to receive such sums as necessary through FY2018 subject to appropriations. [Sec. 8202] Similar to Senate bill, except authorizes such sums as necessary for FY2013 and $6 million annually for FY2014FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 8202] Sec. 347 of the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1999 (P.L. 105-277), as amended, authorizes the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management to enter into stewardship end-result contracting projects (stewardship contracts) to enter into contracts or agreements for services to achieve land management goals. Authority expires September 30, 2013. [16 U.S.C. 2104, note] Repeals current authority and adds similar provisions to create a new Sec. 603 of the HFRA, as amended. Authorizes stewardship contracts, of 5-10 years, to achieve land management goals. Includes performance, monitoring, evaluation, and reporting requirements. [Sec. 8204] Reauthorizes current authority to September 30, 2018 and gives the Secretary of Agriculture the discretion to consider a contract entered under this authority as a contract for the sale of property. [Sec. 8204] Sec. 508 of the HFRA, as amended, authorizes the Healthy Forests Reserve Program (HFRP) to Eliminates mandatory funding authority and replaces with authorization to receive appropriations of $9.75 million Eliminates mandatory funding authority and replaces with authorization to receive appropriations of $9.75 million CRS-121 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) annually through FY2018. Adds a definition of “acreage owned by Indian tribes.” Enrollment options are unchanged. Provides flexibility for funding technical assistance. [Sec. 8205] annually through FY2018. Provides flexibility for funding technical assistance. Does not include the Senate language related to acreage owned by Indian tribes. [Sec. 8203] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Note: The National Forest Critical Area Response subtitle is similar to a stand-alone bill introduced in the House (H.R. 1895). [Sec. 8301-8304] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Defines critical area, National Forest System, and Secretary. [Sec.8301] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Requires the designation of critical areas with the National Forest system to address deteriorating forest health and future risks to forest health. Requires USDA to use the most recent annual forest health aerial surveys to determine current forest health, and the National Insect and Disease Risk map to determine future risks to forest health. The first critical area must be designated within 60-days of enactment and critical areas will not expire for 10-years. [Sec. 8302] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Allows the use of expedited procedures set forth in HFRA (environmental analysis, administrative review, and judicial review), with some modifications, to be used for critical areas. Exempts critical areas from the notice and comment and appeals requirements for land and resource management plans and projects. Excludes projects less than 10,000 acres from conducting an EA or an EIS under NEPA, or a special administrative review under Sec. 105 of the HFRA, unless the land is in a National Wilderness Preservation System, federal land where vegetation removal is prohibited, wilderness study area, or inconsistent with the land and resource management plan. [Sec. 8303] Current Law/Policy receive $9.75 million of mandatory funding annually through FY2012. [16 U.S.C. 3578] Sec. 502(e)(3) of the HFRA, as amended, authorizes the enrollment of acreage owned by Indian tribes into HFRP through 30-year contracts, 10-year costshare agreements, or any combination thereof. [16 U.S.C. 6572(e)(3)] National Forest Critical Area Response CRS-122 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) No comparable provision. Authorizes the Good Neighbor Authority to any state that contains National Forest System land. Agreements and contracts are exempt from certain timber sale requirements. NEPA decisions may not be delegated through agreements or contracts. [Sec. 8304] Sec. 4 of the McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Act (P.L. 87-788), as amended, establishes funding requirements for college and university forestryrelated research. [16 U.S.C. 582a-3] Waives the matching requirements for 1890 Institutions for allocations below $200,000. [Sec. 8301(a)] No comparable provision. Sec. 8 of the McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Act, as amended, defines ‘states’ as including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam. [16 U.S.C. 582a-7] Adds Federated States of Micronesia, American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands, and the District of Columbia to the definition of ‘state.’ [Sec. 8301(b)] No comparable provision. Sec. 3(e) of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Research Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-307), as amended, requires USDA to establish a program to inventory and analyze public and private forests and their resources. [16 U.S.C. 1642(e)] Requires USDA to revise the strategic plan for forest inventory and analysis and report revisions to Congress. [Sec. 8302] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 8401] Sec. 1252 of FSA, as amended, authorizes an Agriculture Conservation Experienced Service Program (ACES), such that USDA can enter into agreements with organizations to provide technical assistance (excludes administrative tasks) using qualified individuals 55 years or older. [16 U.S.C. 3851] No comparable provision. Authorizes a program similar to the Agricultural Conservation Experienced Services (ACES) program under the conservation title (Title II) to provide technical services for conservation-related programs and authorities on National Forest Service lands. [Sec. 8402] Current Law/Policy Sec. 331 of the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 2001 (P.L. 106-291), as amended, authorizes the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management in Colorado to enter into cooperative agreements or contracts with the State of Colorado to provide watershed restoration and protection services on adjacent federal land—referred to as the Good Neighbor Authority. Sec. 337 of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2005 (P.L. 108-447), as amended, extends the authority to the Forest Service in the state of Utah. Authority expires September 30, 2013. Miscellaneous Forestry Provisions CRS-123 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Sec. 3(d)(2) of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Research Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-307), as amended, sets research and education priorities for the Forest Service. [16 U.S.C. 1642(d)(2)] No comparable provision. Adds demonstrating the beneficial characteristics of wood as a green building material as a research and education priority and requires the Secretary to submit an annual report to Congress describing the Forest Service’s research on and application of wood as a green building material. [Sec. 8403] Sec. 14(g) of the National Forest Management Act of 1976 [16 U.S.C. 472a(g)] requires the physical designation or marking of trees or forest products for timber sale harvests. No comparable provision. Authorizes the Forest Service to designate harvest material through description (describing specific characteristics of trees for harvest, such as a certain species of tree with a given stump diameter) or prescription (prescribing the desired post-harvest characteristics, such as thinning a stand to a specific basal area factor), in addition to physically designating or marking individual trees for harvest. [Sec. 8404] No comparable provision. Allows the Secretary of Agriculture to serve as an intermediary between States seeking reimbursement of fire funds, subject to terms and conditions. [Sec. 8303] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 8405] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Requires the Secretary of Agriculture to submit a report to Congress containing an assessment of the raw material needs and ability of the national forests to fulfill those needs of wood-producing facilities located within 100 miles of a national forest, and a comparison of the volume of timber sold and harvested from each national forest to the allowable sale quality indicated in each Forest Plan for the past decade [Sec. 8406] No comparable provisions. No comparable provision. Requires the Secretary to submit a report to Congress on the status of national forest roads and trails. [Sec. 8407] No comparable provision. Requires USDA to designate treatment areas in at least one national forest in each state, if requested by the Governor of the state, where there is declining forest health from insect or disease infestation. Authorizes appropriations of $200 million annually through FY2018. New Sec. 602 of the HFRA [Sec. 8203] No comparable provision. Current Law/Policy CRS-124 Title IX. Energy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Advanced Biofuel. Fuel derived from renewable biomass other than corn kernel starch. Includes biofuel derived from sugar and starch other than corn kernel starch, renewable biodiesel, biogas produced from organic matter, as well as other fuels (e.g., home heating fuels, and aviation and jet fuels) from cellulosic biomass (including organic waste material). [7 U.S.C. 8101(3)] Same as current law. [Sec. 9001] Same as current law. [Sec. 9001] Biobased Product. A commercial or industrial product—i.e., intermediate, feedstock, or end product (other than food or feed)—composed in whole or in part of biological products including renewable agricultural and forestry materials. [7 U.S.C. 8101(4)] Same as current law. [Sec. 9001] Similar to current law except for the explicit inclusion of forestry materials that meet biobased content requirements, notwithstanding the market share the product holds, the age of the product, or whether the market for the product is new or emerging. [Sec. 9001] Biofuel. A fuel derived from renewable biomass. [7 U.S.C. 8101(5)] Same as current law. [Sec. 9001] Same as current law. [Sec. 9001] Biomass Conversion Facility. A facility that converts renewable biomass into heat, power, biobased products, or advanced biofuels. [7 U.S.C. 8101(6)] Same as current law. [Sec. 9001] Same as current law. [Sec. 9001] Biorefinery. A facility (including equipment and processes) that converts renewable biomass into biofuels and biobased products, and may produce electricity. [7 U.S.C. 8101(7)] Same as current law. [Sec. 9001] Same as current law. [Sec. 9001] No comparable provision. Forest Product. A product made from materials derived from the practice of forestry or the management of growing timber including pulp, paper, paperboard, pellets, lumber, and wood products, and any recycled products derived from forest materials. [Sec. 9001] Identical to the Senate bill.. [Sec. 9001] Renewable Biomass. Includes- (A) materials, pre-commercial thinnings, or invasive species from Same as current law. [Sec. 9001] Same as current law. [Sec. 9001] Current Law/Policy Definitions CRS-125 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) No comparable definition. Renewable Chemical. A monomer, polymer, plastic, formulated product, or chemical substance produced from renewable biomass. [Sec. 9001] No comparable definition. Renewable Energy. Energy derived from a wind, solar, renewable biomass, ocean (including tidal, wave, current, and thermal), geothermal, or hydroelectric source. [7 U.S.C. 8101(13)] Same as current law. [Sec. 9001] Same as current law. [Sec. 9001] No comparable definition. No comparable definition. Renewable Energy System. a system that produces energy from a renewable source including distribution components necessary to move energy produced by such a system to the initial point of sale, but not any mechanism for dispensing energy at retail (e.g., a blender pump). [Sec. 9001] Extends the Biobased Markets Program through FY2018 including, in addition to preference for biobased products, establish a targeted biobased-only procurement requirement for federal agencies. Limits reporting on the Extends current law through FY2018. Authorizes to be appropriated $2 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. No mandatory funding is authorized. [Sec. 9002] Current Law/Policy National Forest System land and public lands that are: byproducts of designated preventive treatments (removed to reduce hazardous fuels, to reduce or to contain disease or insect infestation, or to restore ecosystem health), not used for higher value products, and harvested in accordance with applicable law and land management plans and requirements for old-growth maintenance, restoration, and management and large-tree retention, or (B) any organic matter available on a recurring basis from non-federal or Indian land including: renewable plant material (including agricultural commodities, plants and trees, and algae) and waste material (including crop residue, vegetative waste, wood waste and residues, animal waste and byproducts, and food and yard waste). [7 U.S.C. 8101(12)] Authorized Programs Biobased Markets Program. Extended by the 2008 farm bill. Requires federal agencies to purchase products with maximum biobased content subject to availability and flexibility and CRS-126 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) performance standards. Minimum biobased content standards applied to federal contracts on case-bycase basis. Continued voluntary labeling. Authorized mandatory funding of $1 million for FY2008 and $2 million annually for FY2009-FY2012; no mandatory funding was authorized for FY2013. Authorized to be appropriated $2 million annually for FY2009-FY2013 for testing and labeling. [7 U.S.C. 8102] availability, relative price, performance and environmental and public health benefits of biobased materials subject to the availability of data. Adds reporting requirements of quantities and types of biobased products purchased by procuring federal agencies and a focus on biobased content requirements (explicitly including forest products). Mandates (within 1 year of enactment) designation of intermediate ingredients or feedstocks and assembled and finished biobased products according to guidelines. Adds auditing and compliance activities to ensure proper use of biobased labeling. Adds an outreach, education, and promotion component (with annual reports) to increase awareness of biobased products. Mandates study (and report) by USDA to assess economic impact of biobased product industry, due 180 days after enactment. Encourages expedited coordination, review and approval (with appropriate technical assistance) of forest-related biobased products. Authorizes mandatory funding of $3 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. Authorizes to be appropriated $2 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 9002] Biorefinery Assistance Program. Established by the 2008 farm bill. Assists in development of new and emerging technologies for advanced biofuels by providing competitive grants (up to 30% of total project costs) and loan guarantees (limited to $250 million or 80% of project cost) for construction and/or retrofitting of demonstration-scale biorefineries to demonstrate the commercial viability of one or more processes for converting renewable biomass to advanced biofuels. Provided mandatory funding of $75 million in FY2009 and $245 million in FY2010, available until expended, for loan guarantees. Authorized to be appropriated $150 million annually for FY2009-13 for grants. [7 U.S.C. 8103] Renamed as the Biorefinery, Renewable Chemical, and Biobased Product Manufacturing Assistance Program. Extends and expands the program to include renewable chemical (as defined above in Sec. 9001) and biobased product manufacturing (defined as development, construction, and retrofitting of technologically new commercial-scale processing and manufacturing equipment and required facilities used to convert renewable chemicals and other biobased outputs into commercial-scale end products). Extends grants and loan guarantee availability to the development and construction of renewable chemical and biobased product manufacturing facilities. Authorized mandatory funding of $100 million for FY2014 and $58 million each for FY2015FY2016, but not more than $25 million of FY2014FY2015 may be used to promote biobased product CRS-127 House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Extends current law through FY2018 except that the program is limited to loan guarantees (grants are eliminated); demonstration-scale biorefineries are no longer eligible for loan guarantees. Authorizes to be appropriated $75 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. No mandatory funding is authorized. [Sec. 9003] Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) manufacturing. Authorized to be appropriated $150 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 9003] Repowering Assistance Program. Established by the 2008 farm bill. Provides funds to reduce or eliminate the use of fossil fuels for processing or power in biorefineries in existence at enactment. Not more than 5% of funds are available to eligible producers with a refining capacity exceeding 150 million gallons of advanced biofuel per year. Provided mandatory CCC funding of $35 million for FY2009, available until expended. Authorized to be appropriated $15 million annually for FY200913. [7 U.S.C. 8104] No comparable provision. Extends current law through FY2018. Authorizes to be appropriated $10 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. No mandatory funding is authorized. [Sec. 9004] Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels. Established by the 2008 farm bill. Provides payments to producers to support and expand production of advanced biofuels by entering into contracts to pay producers for production of eligible advanced biofuels. Provided mandatory funding of $55 million (FY2009), $55 million (FY2010), $85 million (FY2011), and $105 million (FY2012), available until expended. Authorized to be appropriated $25 million annually (FY2009-13) [7 U.S.C. 8105] Extends the Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels Program through FY2018. Authorizes to be appropriated $20 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. No mandatory funding is authorized. [Sec. 9004] Nearly identical to the Senate bill, except the House authorizes to be appropriated $50 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 9005] Biodiesel Fuel Education Program. Extended by the 2008 farm bill. Awards competitive grants to nonprofit organizations that educate fleet operators and the public on biodiesel benefits. Provided mandatory CCC funding of $1 million annually (FY2008-FY2012). Authorized to be appropriated $1 million for FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 8106] Extends the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program through FY2018. Authorizes mandatory funding of $1 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. Authorizes to be appropriated $1 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 9005] Extends the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program through FY2018. Authorizes to be appropriated $2 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. No mandatory funding is authorized. [Sec. 9006] Rural Energy for America Program (REAP). Established by the 2008 farm bill. Provides financial assistance of grants, guaranteed loans, and combined grants and guaranteed loans for the Extends REAP through FY2018. Grants are limited to the lesser of $500,000 or 25% of the cost of the RES or EEI activity. Repeals the use of REAP funds for feasibility studies. Adds a 3-tiered application process with separate Nearly identical to the Senate bill except that the grant ceiling of $500,000 is not imposed in the House, and no mandatory funding is authorized—instead, $45 million is authorized to be appropriated annually for FY2014- CRS-128 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) development and construction of renewable energy systems (RES) and for energy efficiency improvement (EEI) projects (eligible entities include rural small businesses and agricultural producers); grants for conducting energy audits and for conducting renewable energy development assistance (eligible entities include state, tribe, or local governments, land-grant colleges and universities, rural electric cooperatives, and public power entities); and grants for conducting RES feasibility studies (eligible entities include rural small businesses and agricultural producers). Grants are limited to $500,000 for RES and $250,000 for EEI activities up to 25% of the cost of the RES or EEI activity. Loan guarantees are limited to a max of $25 million and a min of $5,000 up to 75% of the cost of a funded activity. Provides mandatory funds: $55 million (FY2009), $60 million (FY2010), $70 million (FY2011), and $70 million (FY2012), available until expended. Authorizes $25 million annually, subject to appropriations (FY2009-FY2013). [7 U.S.C. 8107] application processes for grants and loan guarantees for RES and EEI projects based on the project cost: tier-1 for projects < $80,000; tier-2 for $80,000 < projects < $200,000; and tier-3 for projects > $200,000. Authorizes mandatory funding of $68.2 million annually for FY2014FY2018. Authorizes to be appropriated $20 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 9006] FY2018. [Sec. 9007] Biomass Research & Development Initiative (BRDI). Created originally under the Biomass Research & Development Act of 2000 [P.L. 106224], and extended by the 2008 farm bill. Provides competitive funding as grants, contracts, and financial assistance for research, development, and demonstration of technologies and processes leading to commercial production of biofuels and biobased products. Provides for coordination between USDA and DOE work related to biofuels and biobased products research and development programs through the Biomass Research and Development Board. Provides mandatory funding: $20 million (FY2009), $28 million (FY2010), $30 million (FY1022), and $40 million (FY2012). Extends BRDI through FY2018. Authorizes mandatory funding of $26 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. Authorizes to be appropriated $30 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 9007] Extends BRDI through FY2018. No mandatory funding is authorized. Authorizes to be appropriated $20 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 9008] Current Law/Policy CRS-129 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Rural Energy Self-Sufficiency Initiative. Established by amended Sec. 9009 [Sec. 9001] of 2008 farm bill. Provides cost-share grants (up to 50%) for rural communities to assess energy systems and make improvements. Authorizes to be appropriated $5 million annually (FY2009-FY2013); however, no funds were ever appropriated and no rules were ever promulgated. [7 U.S.C. 8109] No provision. Hence, program funding authority would expire after FY2013. No provision. Hence, program funding authority would expire after FY2013. Feedstock Flexibility Program. Established by the 2008 farm bill. Authorizes use of CCC funds (such sums as necessary) to purchase sugar (intended for food use but deemed to be in surplus) for resale as a biomass feedstock to produce bioenergy. USDA would implement the program only in those years where purchases are determined to be necessary to ensure that the sugar program operates at no cost to the federal government. [7 U.S.C. 8110] Extends the Feed Stock Flexibility Program through FY2018. [Sec. 9008] Identical to the Senate bill. Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP). Established by the 2008 farm bill. Provides financial assistance to owners and operators of agricultural land and nonindustrial private forest land who wish to establish, produce, and deliver biomass feedstocks under two categories of assistance: (A) establishment and annual payments provided under contract between USDA and participating producers, including a one-time payment of up to 75% of cost of establishment for perennial crops, and annual payments (rental rates based on a set of criteria) of up to 5 years for non-woody and 15 years for woody perennial biomass crops, and (B) matching payments at a rate of $1 for each $1 per ton provided, up to $45 per ton, for a period of 2 years to help eligible material owners with Extends BCAP through FY2018. Excludes algae as an eligible crop; changes enrolled land eligibility; includes residue from crops receiving Title I payments as eligible material, but extends exclusion to any whole grain from a Title I crop, as well as bagasse. One-time establishment payments are limited to no more than 50% of cost of establishment, not to exceed $500 per acre ($750/acre for socially disadvantaged farmers or ranchers). CHST matching payments may not exceed $20 per dry ton but are available for a 4-year period. Not later than 4 years after enactment, USDA shall submit a report on best practice data and information gathered from participants. Authorizes mandatory funding of $38.6 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. Not less than 10% or more than 50% of funding may be used for CHST. [Sec. 9009] Extends BCAP through FY2018. Removes criteria defining eligible materials and exclusions to eligible materials. Removes all support for CHST. No mandatory funding is authorized. Authorizes to be appropriated $75 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 9010] Current Law/Policy Authorizes to be appropriated $35 million annually (FY2009-FY2013). [7 U.S.C. 8108] CRS-130 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Forest Biomass for Energy Program. Established by the 2008 farm bill. Requires the Forest Service to conduct a competitive research and development program to encourage use of forest biomass for energy. Authorized to be appropriated $15 million annually (FY2009FY2013). [7 U.S.C. 8112] Repeals the Forest Biomass for Energy Program. [Sec. 9010] No comparable provision. Community Wood Energy Program. Established by the 2008 farm bill. Provides grants of up to $50,000 for up to 50% of the cost for communities to plan and install wood energy systems in public buildings. The energy system acquired with grant funds shall not exceed an output of 50,000,000 Btu per hour for heating and 2 megawatts for electric power production. Authorized to be appropriated $5 million annually (FY2009-FY13). [7 U.S.C. 8113] Extends the Community Wood Energy Program through FY2018. Authorizes grants of up to $50,000 to be made to establish or expand biomass consumer cooperatives that will provide consumers with services or discounts relating to the purchase of biomass heating systems or products (including their delivery and storage). Any biomass consumer cooperative that receives a grant must match at least the equivalent of 50% of the funds toward the establishment of expansion of a biomass consumer cooperative. Authorizes to be appropriated $5 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 9011] Extends the Community Wood Energy Program through FY2018. Authorizes to be appropriated $2 million annually for FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 9011] Biofuels Infrastructure Study. The 2008 farm bill required USDA to conduct a study (and report) to assess the infrastructure needs for expanding the domestic production, transport, and distribution of biofuels given current and likely future market trends with recommendations for such infrastructure through 2025 based on needs, costs, and other factors. No specific time frame or funding was provided. [Sec. 9002 of P.L. 110-246] No comparable provision. Repeals the requirement to conduct the study (and report). [Sec. 9012] Current Law/Policy collection, harvest, storage, and transportation (CHST) of eligible material for use in a qualified biomass conversion facility. Eligible material excludes Title I crops, animal waste and byproducts, food and yard waste, and algae. Provides mandatory CCC funding of such sums as necessary annually for FY2008-FY2012. Authorized to be appropriated $20 million for FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 8111] CRS-131 Current Law/Policy Renewable Fertilizer Study. The 2008 farm bill required USDA to conduct a study to assess the current state of knowledge on the potential for the production of fertilizer from renewable energy sources in rural areas. Study was to be completed within one year of receiving an appropriation. Authorized to be appropriated $1 million for FY2009. [Sec. 9003 of P.L. 110-246] CRS-132 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Requirement to conduct the study is repealed. [Sec. 9012] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 9013] Title X. Horticulture (unless otherwise specified) Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Block Grants to States. The Specialty Crops Competitiveness Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-465), as amended by the 2008 farm bill, authorized block grants to states to support projects in marketing, research, pest management, and food safety, among other purposes. Current mandatory CCC funding is $55 million annually (FY2010-FY2013). [7 U.S.C. 1621 note] Reauthorizes program through FY2018. Increases mandatory funding to $70 million annually (FY2014 through FY2018), which would also raise the minimum grant amount received by each state/territory. Changes additional allocation to be based on both production value and acreage (instead of production value only). Of the funds provided, allows for multistate project grants involving food safety, plant pests and disease, crop-specific projects addressing common issues, and any other area as determined by USDA, with increased funding starting at $1 million (FY2013) to $5 million (FY2017). Allows for multistate projects for research. Limits administrative costs to 3% at the federal level and 8% at the state level. [Sec. 10008] Similar to the Senate bill, but provides higher funding levels: $72.5 million annually (FY2014-2017) and $85 million (FY2018). Requires 50% cost-sharing by states for equipment or capital-related research costs. [Sec. 10007] Farmers' Market Promotion Program (FMPP). The Farmer-to-Consumer Direct Marketing Act (P.L. 94-463), as amended, originally authorized the FMPP to promote farmers' markets, roadside stands, community-supported agriculture programs, agri-tourism activities, and other direct producer-to-consumer market opportunities. Authorized annual appropriations for grants to local governments and nonprofit organizations. Current mandatory CCC funding is $10 million annually (FY2011-FY2012). [7 U.S.C. 3005] Reauthorizes the current grant program, but changes the scope and name of the program to the “Farmer’s Market and Local Food Promotion Program.” Expands the program to include local and regional food enterprises that process, distribute, aggregate, store, and market locally or regionally produced food products, designating 50% of available funds for this purpose. Increases mandatory funding to $20 million annually (FY2014 through FY2018), and separately authorizes appropriations of $20 million each year (FY2014-FY2018). Limits use of funds for administration to 10%. Requires USDA, when awarding grants, to give priority to proposals for projects that benefit underserved communities, mid-sized farm and ranch operations, and build capacity for local/regional food systems. [Sec. 10003] Similar to the Senate bill, except that the House bill provides $30 million annually (FY2014-FY2018) in CCC funding but limits the appropriations authority to $10 million annually, and caps administrative expenses at 3% of funding. [Sec. 10003] Current Law/Policy Marketing and Promotion, and Trade Note: Among the programs not included in the one-year extension of the 2008 farm bill in the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (P.L. 112240). Note: Another related provision is in Title IV (Nutrition, the Seniors Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program). [Sec. 4202] CRS-133 Note: Another related provision is in Title IV (Nutrition), the Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program). [Sec. 4201] Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Transporting Specialty Crops. Section 10403 of the 2008 farm bill authorized grants to various public and private entities to improve transporting specialty crops to markets. Authorized appropriations of such sums as necessary. Repeals authorization under section 10403 of the 2008 farm bill. [Sec. 10002] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 10002] The Export Apple Act provides for the inspection and certification of U.S. apples before entering foreign commerce. [7 U.S.C. 584] Exempts apples shipped to Canada in bulk bins (i.e., bins with apples weighing more than 100 lbs.) from inspection. [Sec. 10011] Exempts apples shipped to Canada in bulk bins (i.e., bins with apples weighing more than 100 lbs.) from provisions of the Export Apple Act. Requires USDA to issue regulations to carry out this provision within 60 days of enactment. [Sec. 10009] Import Controls. The Agricultural Adjustment Act prohibits the importation of certain agricultural commodities unless those imports meet the grade, size, quality, and maturity provisions that govern the marketing of domestic production under federal marketing orders. [7 U.S.C. 608-e1(a)] No comparable provision. Adds olive oil imports to the list of commodities regulated under the Agricultural Adjustment Act. [Sec. 10010] Trade Promotion. See also Title III (Trade) for reauthorization of Technical Assistance for Specialty Crops (TASC) [7 U.S.C. 5680] and the Market Access Program (MAP) [7 U.S.C. 5623] See Title III, Trade. [Sec. 3205] and [Sec. 3102] See Title III, Trade. [Sec. 3205] and [Sec. 3102] The Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 authorizes AMS to facilitate and oversee the operation of marketing orders and agreements, usually at the request of industry. [7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] No comparable provision. Requires that USDA lift a stay of regulations related to establishing an industry-funded promotion, research, and information program for fresh-cut Christmas trees. [Sec. 10015] Reauthorizes NOP and appropriations of $15 million annually (FY2014- FY2018). Provides mandatory funding of $5 million in FY2013 (available until expended) to modernize the NOP database and technology systems. [Sec. 10005(b-c)] Amends OFPA’s recordkeeping, investigations, and enforcement provisions. [Sec. 10009] Reauthorizes NOP and appropriations of $11 million annually (FY2014-FY2018). Requires the NOP to modernize its database and technology systems [Sec. 10004(b-c)] Amends OFPA’s investigations and enforcement provisions. [Sec. 10005] Current Law/Policy Organic Certification National Organic Program (NOP). The Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA) of 1990 (P.L. 101-624, Title XXI; in 1990 farm bill), as amended by the 2008 farm bill, authorized the NOP to develop and enforce national standards for organically-produced agricultural products. Authorized appropriations were $11 million in FY2013, plus additional sums as necessary. [7 CRS-134 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) The Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 authorizes AMS to facilitate and oversee the operation of marketing orders and agreements, usually at the request of industry. [7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] No program for organic products currently exists. Allows for USDA to develop a process to establish an organic research and promotion program (“check-off” program) for organic products. [Sec. 10012] Does not require USDA lift a stay of regulations related to Christmas tree promotion and research, similar to the House bill. Allows for USDA to develop an organic research and promotion program (“check-off” program) for organic products, similar to Senate bill. [Sec. 10004(f)] Financial Assistance. Section 524(b) of the Federal Crop Insurance Act, as amended, authorizes the Agricultural Management Assistance (AMA) program. AMA provides financial and technical to producers in 16 specified states for conservation practices, risk mitigation, and market diversification. Provides $15 million in annual mandatory funding in FY2008 through FY2014, and $10 million each fiscal year thereafter. Requires 50% to NRCS, 40% to RMA, and 10% to AMS. [7 U.S.C. 1524(b)] Authorizes $23 million in mandatory CCC funding annually (FY2014-FY2018) and combines the two programs to include (1) organic certification cost share assistance (50% of funds); (2) activities to support risk management education and outreach under the Federal Crop Insurance Act (26% of funds); and (3) agricultural management assistance grants to producers in states with low federal crop insurance participation, for various conservation purposes (24% of funds). See Title XI, Crop Insurance. [Sec. 11034] Per-person payments are limited to $50,000 in any one year. Repeals the National Organic Certification Cost-Share program. [Sec. 10004(d)] Section 10606 of the 2002 farm bill established the National Organic Certification Cost Share Program (NOCCSP) to help producers and handlers of organic products obtain certification. Provided $22 million in mandatory funding in FY2008 (available until expended). [7 U.S.C. 6523] For NOCCSP, based on the stated formula, total funding over the 5-year period (FY2014-FY2018) would be about $57.5 million. Current Law/Policy U.S.C. 6522] Provides for enforcement and penalties for violations of NOP’s labeling requirements for certified organic products. [7 U.S.C. 6519] Data and Information Collection Market News. Section 10107 of the 2008 farm bill authorized support for the collection and dissemination of market news for specialty crops. Authorized appropriations $9 million annually (FY2008-FY2013) to remain available until expended. [7 U.S.C. 1622b(b)] CRS-135 Reauthorizes program at $9 million subject to annual appropriations through FY2018. [Sec. 10001] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 10001] Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Organic Production and Market Data Initiatives (ODI). Section 7407 of the 2002 farm bill, as amended by the 2008 farm bill, required USDA to keep segregated data on organic production and marketing. Provided $5 million in mandatory CCC funding, plus authorized appropriations of $5 million annually (FY2008FY2012), both available until expended. Specified that $3.5 million of available mandatory funds be allocated to AMS. [7 U.S.C. 5925c] Reauthorizes appropriations of $5 million through FY2018 (available until expended) and provides for funds to be available “annually thereafter.” Provides an additional $5 million in mandatory CCC funds (to remain available until expended). Requires coordination of USDA’s data user agencies. [Sec. 10005(a)] Reauthorizes appropriations of $5 million through FY2018 (available until expended). [Sec. 10004(a)] No comparable provision. Requires USDA to collect data on the production and marketing of locally or regionally produced agricultural food products; facilitate interagency collaboration and data sharing on programs related to local and regional food systems; and monitor the effectiveness of programs designed to expand or facilitate local food systems. Requires USDA to submit a report to House and Senate agriculture committees, within 1 year after enactment, describing its progress and identifying any additional needs related to developing local and regional food systems. [Sec. 10004] Similar to Senate provision. [Sec. 10017] Produce Safety Education. Section 10105 of the 2008 farm bill amended the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-185) to implement a program to educate fresh produce industry personnel and consumers on ways to reduce pathogens in fresh produce. Authorized appropriations of $1 million annually to remain available until expended [7 U.S.C. 7655a(c)] Reauthorizes to be appropriated $1 million annually to remain available until expended (FY2013- FY2018). [Sec. 10006] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 10006] No comparable provision. Within 180 days after enactment, requires USDA to submit to the Food and Drug Administration a report that describes an appropriate federal standard for the identity of honey, and shall consider the March 2006 Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 10008] Current Law/Policy Food Safety and Quality Standards CRS-136 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Standard of Identity citizens petition filed with FDA. [Sec. 10010] Plant Pest and Disease Management Pest and Disease Control. Sections 10201 and 10202 of the 2008 farm bill amended the Plant Protection Act (PPA) to authorize an early plant pest detection and surveillance system and threat identification/mitigation, among other activities, and a National Clean Plant Network where the specialty crop industry can obtain pest- and diseasefree planting stock. Provided mandatory CCC funds reaching $50 million in FY2012 (with provisions for annual funding of $50 million annually thereafter), plus another $5 million in FY2008 (available until expended). [7 U.S.C. 7721] Repeals program under Section 10202 of the 2008 farm bill and authorizes a consolidated plant pest and disease management and disaster prevention program, named the “National Clean Plant Network”. Consolidates and increases available mandatory funding levels: $60 million annually (FY2014-FY2017) and $65 million for FY2018 and each fiscal year thereafter. [Sec. 10007] Similar to the Senate bill, except that the House bill provides mandatory funding of $5 million for FY2013, $62.5 million annually (FY2014-FY2017), and $75 million for FY2018. Of the available funds, requires at least $5 million annually for the Clean Plant Network. [Sec. 10011] See also Title VII (Research) for reauthorization of the Office of Pest Management Policy and other pest management policies [7 U.S.C. 7653] See Title VII, Research. [Sec. 7307] and [Sec. 7308] See Title VII, Research. [Sec. 7310] Exemptions from Certain Regulatory Requirements Biological Opinions. Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), federal agencies (such as EPA) are required to avoid jeopardy to listed species and adverse modification of designated critical habitat in their actions. They consult with the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), which issue Biological Opinions (BiOps) on jeopardy. If a BiOp finds a pesticide, or a specific use of it, would jeopardize a listed species, EPA would violate ESA if it allowed that pesticide or specific use. EPA restricts specific uses through labeling requirements. [16 U.S.C. 1536] No comparable provision. Creates an exception for amending pesticide registrations from ESA requirements for consultation, when a BiOp was issued before a certain date. The exception would require BiOps to comply with recommendations by a study to be conducted by the National Academy of Sciences. Explicitly applies to BiOps completed prior to the date of completion of the study yet allows amendment of the pesticide registration only if that BiOp complies with the recommendations of the forthcoming study. [Sec. 10012] Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) [7 U.S.C.136-136y] No comparable provision. Amends FIFRA so that “seed, including treated seed, shall not be considered a pesticide or device.” [Sec. 10014] CRS-137 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) [21 U.S.C. §346a)] are among the major statutory authorities governing pesticide regulation. Discharge Permits. In October 2011, EPA issued a Pesticide General Permit (PGP) requiring a Clean Water Act (CWA) discharge permit for certain pesticide applications in or near waters of the United States. EPA and states are implementing this permit requirement. Pertains to section 402 of CWA [33 U.S.C. 1342] House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Requires EPA, in conjunction with USDA, to submit a report on the potential economic and public health effects of finalizing a proposed order (published on January 19, 2011) pertaining to the pesticide sulfuryl flouride. [Sec. 10016] No comparable provision. Use and Discharges of Authorized Pesticides. Amends FIFRA and the CWA to provide that neither EPA nor a state may require a CWA permit for discharge of a pesticide whose use has been authorized pursuant to FIFRA. Defines specified circumstances where a permit would be required (e.g., municipal or industrial treatment works effluent that contains pesticide or pesticide residue). [Sec. 10013] See Title VII, Research. See Title VII, Research. See Title IV, Nutrition. See Title IV. Nutrition. Research (Title VII) – Related Issues See also Title VII (Research) for reauthorization of the Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI) [7 U.S.C. 7632], the Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative (OREI) [7 U.S.C. 5925b], the Organic Transitions Program (ORG) [7 U.S.C. 7626], and certain pest management activities [7 U.S.C. 7653] Nutrition (Title IV) – Related Issues See also Title IV (Nutrition) for reauthorization of Section 32 funding to purchase fruits, vegetables, and certain other specialty food crops [7 U.S.C. 612c-4] and grants to achieve “hunger-free communities", among others [7 U.S.C. 7517] CRS-138 Title XI. Crop Insurance Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Permanently authorized by the Federal Crop Insurance Act, the federal crop insurance program makes available subsidized crop insurance to producers who purchase a policy to protect against individual farm losses in yield, crop revenue, or whole farm revenue. In general, policies offer a guarantee at the individual farm level or area-wide (e.g., county) level. The producer selects coverage level and absorbs the initial loss through the deductible. The insurance guarantee is based on the expected market price (i.e., no statutory minimum prices as in some farm programs). Retains current program and makes available to crop producers an additional policy called Supplemental Coverage Option (SCO) to cover part of the deductible under the producer’s underlying policy. SCO is an areawide (e.g., county) yield or revenue loss policy, whereby an indemnity is paid on area losses not more than the deductible level (e.g., 25%) selected by the producer for the underlying individual policy. On the SCO policy, the farmer incurs a deductible equal to 10% of the producer’s expected crop value. If the farmer participates in ARC under Title I, the deductible is 22%. SCO policies are to be made available for all crops if sufficient data are available. Premium subsidized at 65%. Coverage to begin no later than the 2014 crop year. [Sec. 11001] A crop margin coverage option is available as a single policy or in combination with a yield or revenue loss policy. [Sec. 11002] SCO provision is similar to the Senate bill. t Coverage is triggered only if the area loss exceeds 10% and policy coverage does not exceed the difference between 90% and the coverage level selected by the producer for the underlying policy. Also, acres covered by Revenue Loss Coverage (RLC) or STAX (see below) are not eligible for SCO. [Sec. 11003] Crop insurance policies are available for more than 100 crops, including farm program crops such as wheat, corn, soybeans, cotton, peanuts, and rice, as well as many specialty crops, fruit trees, pasture, rangeland, and forage crops. Area-wide policies are available for some but not all program crops. Policies are sold and serviced through private insurance companies. The insurance companies' losses are reinsured by USDA, and their administrative and operating costs are reimbursed by the federal government. Crop insurance is administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA's) Risk Management Agency (RMA), which operates and manages the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) [7 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.] Beginning with the 2014 crop, the FCIC shall make available to producers of upland cotton the Stacked Income Protection Plan (STAX), which is a revenuebased, area-wide policy that may be purchased as a standalone policy or purchased in addition to any other individual or area policy. Indemnifies losses in county revenue of greater than 10% of expected revenue but not more than the deductible level (e.g., 25%) selected by the producer for the underlying individual policy (or not more than 30% if used as stand-alone policy). Premium subsidy is 80%. For individual producers, indemnities for STAX and other policies cannot overlap. Includes a provision that allows use of recent yields in the guarantee. A factor of not more than 120% is available to increase protection per acre [Sec. 11013] STAX provision is same as in Senate bill. [Sec. 11016] Current Law/Policy New or Revised Insurance Products CRS-139 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Beginning with the 2014 crop, the FCIC shall make available a revenue crop insurance program for peanuts based on a price equal to the Rotterdam price index for peanuts, as adjusted to reflect the farmer stock price of peanuts in the United States. [Sec. 11014] By crop year 2014, FCIC is required to make available a revenue policy for peanut producers [Sec. 11010 and Sec. 11017] as in Senate bill and a margin coverage policy for rice producers. [Sec. 11010] Requires FCIC to improve coverage for organic crops. [U.S.C. 1522(c)(10)] By 2015, requires FCIC to offer price elections for all organic crops that reflect prices of organic (not conventional) crops. FCIC must submit an annual report to Congress on crop insurance for organic crops. [Sec. 11027] Extends 2008 farm bill provision to improve organic crop insurance. [Sec. 11021] FCIC shall not conduct any pilot program that provides insurance protection against a risk if a policy is generally available from private companies. [7 U.S.C. 1523(a)] FCIC may conduct a pilot program to provide financial assistance for producers of underserved crops and livestock (including specialty crops) to purchase an indexbased weather insurance product from a qualified private insurance company. The subsidy shall not exceed 60% of the estimated premium amount. Unlike FCIC policies, the private insurance companies would maintain exclusive rights to rate and manage the policies. Provides mandatory funds of $10 million per year for FY2014 through FY2018. [Sec. 11030] No comparable provision. Catastrophic yield policies (CAT) are available for yield losses greater than 50%. Premium is fully subsidized, and producer pays an administrative fee of $300 per crop per county. [7 U.S.C. 1508(d)(2)] To reduce government costs, the CAT premium (fully paid by government) shall be reduced by the percentage equal to the difference between the average loss ratio (premiums divided by indemnities times 100) for the crop and 100%, plus a reasonable reserve. [Sec. 11003] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 11004] Administrative fee on CAT policy is waived for limited resources farmers. [7 U.S.C. 1508(b)(5)(E)] Fee is also waived for beginning farmers or ranchers. [Sec. 11032] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 11015] Premium subsidies for buy-up coverage (above CAT) depend on level of coverage. [7 U.S.C. 1508(e)] Beginning farmers or ranchers shall receive premium assistance that is 10 percentage points greater than provided to others. Other provisions are also designed to assist beginning farmers and ranchers. [Sec. 11032] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 11015] Current Law/Policy Policy Fees and Premiums CRS-140 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) No comparable provision. Establishes an adjusted gross income (AGI) limit on crop insurance subsidies. Beginning with the 2014 reinsurance year (2014 crop year), crop insurance premium subsidies are reduced by 15 percentage points for producers with average AGI greater than $750,000. Reduction in effect only after USDA, in consultation with the Government Accountability Office, determines that the change does not (1) significantly increase premiums for producers at lower income levels, (2) reduce crop insurance coverage availability, or (3) increase total cost of the crop insurance program. [Sec. 11033] No comparable provision. FCIC may provide a performance-based premium discount for a producer of an agricultural commodity who has good insurance or production experience relative to other producers in the same area. [7 U.S.C. 1508(d)] No change from current law. Repeals provision. [Sec. 11005] The subsidy for enterprise and whole farm units is made permanent (previously a pilot basis). [Sec. 11004] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 11006] Current Law/Policy Enterprise Units and Coverage Crops are insured based on geographic units defined in the insurance policy. The basic unit covers land in one county with the same tenant/landlord. An optional unit is a basic unit divided into smaller units by township section. An enterprise unit covers all land of a single crop in a county for a producer, regardless of tenant/landlord structure. A whole farm unit covers more than one crop. For a policy with an enterprise or whole farm unit paragraph, on a pilot basis, the percentage of the premium paid by the government shall provide the same dollar amount of premium subsidy per acre as for other units, up to 80%. [7 U.S.C. 1508(e)(5)] Beginning with the 2014 crop year, separate enterprise units will be available for irrigated and nonirrigated acreages of crops. [Sec. 11005] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 11007] Also, beginning with the 2015 crop year, a producer who grows a crop on both dry land and irrigated land may elect a different coverage level for each production practice. [Sec. 11014] Data Collection for Yield Guarantees; Yield Adjustments FCIC bases policy guarantees on a producer’s actual production history (APH) for the crop, or on CRS-141 Specifically directs FCIC to use county data collected by USDA’s Risk Management Agency and/or National Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 11008] Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) county yields for area-wide policies. The APH is based on producer yields for the prior 4 to 10 years. [7 U.S.C. 1508(g)(2)] Agricultural Statistics Service. If such data are not available, it may use other data considered appropriate by the Secretary of Agriculture. [Sec. 11006] If, for one or more of the crop years used to establish the producer’s actual production history of an agricultural commodity, the producer's recorded or appraised yield of the commodity was less than 60% of the applicable transitional yield (based on 10-year historical county average yield), FCIC shall either exclude any of such recorded or appraised yield or replace each excluded yield with a yield equal to 60% of the applicable transitional yield. Concept is known as a “yield plug.” [7 U.S.C. 1508(g)(4)(B)] Beginning with the 2014 crop year, the yield plug is increased to 65% of the applicable transitional yield. [Sec. 11007] House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) For all crop years, the yield plug is increased to 70% of the applicable transitional yield. [Sec. 11009] Policy Research Development, Review, and Approval Under sections 522 and 523 of the Federal Crop Insurance Act, FCIC may enter into contracts to carry out research and development for new crop insurance policies (but may not conduct research itself). FCIC shall establish as one of the highest research priorities the development of a pasture, range, and forage program. It shall provide a payment to an applicant for research and development costs. FCIC may approve up to 50% of the projected total research and development costs to be paid in advance to an applicant. [7 U.S.C. 1522] Allows FCIC to conduct research and development activities to maintain or improve existing policies or develop new policies. Highest research priorities become policies that increase participation by producers of underserved agricultural commodities, including sweet sorghum, sorghum for biomass, specialty crops, sugarcane, and dedicated energy crops. [Sec. 11028] FCIC shall review any policy developed under section 522(c)or any pilot program developed under section 523 and submit the policy or program to the Board if it finds that the policy or program will likely result in a viable and marketable policy and would provide coverage in a significantly improved form. [Sec. 11008] For cost reimbursement, the 50% limitation may be waived and, upon request of the submitter, an additional 25% advance payment may be made. [Sec. 11018] CRS-142 Same as Senate bill except crop list adds rice, peanuts, and alfalfa and excludes dedicated energy crops. [Sec. 11020] Authorizes FCIC to enter into partnerships with public and private entities for the purpose of increasing the availability of loss mitigation, financial, and other risk management tools or improving analysis tools and technology regarding compliance. [Sec. 11022] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 11010] Up to 75% of the projected cost may be paid in advance. [Sec. 11010] Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) FCIC is required to contract for studies on the feasibility of insuring (1) specialty crop producers for food safety and contamination-related losses [Sec. 11020], (2) swine producers for a catastrophic disease event [Sec. 11021], (3) producers of fresh-water catfish against reduction in the margin between the market value of catfish and selected production costs (the FCIC Board shall review this policy and approve it under certain conditions) [Sec. 11022], (4) commercial poultry production against business disruptions caused by integrator bankruptcy and poultry producers for a catastrophic event [Sec. 11023], (5) seafood harvesters [Sec. 11023], and producers of biomass sorghum or sweet sorghum grown as feedstock for renewable energy [Sec. 11025], (6) alfalfa producers [11026]. Similar to the Senate bill; excludes study on insurance for seafood harvesters. [Sec. Sec. 11021] Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) and AGR-Lite policies insure revenue of the entire farm rather than an individual crop. Both use a producer's fiveyear historical farm average revenue as reported on the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax return form (Schedule F or equivalent forms). Coverage levels range from 65% to 80% of historical revenue. [7 U.S.C. 1523] FCIC is to conduct activities or enter into contracts to develop a whole farm risk management insurance plan (with liability up to $1.5 million) that pays an indemnity if gross farm revenue is below 85% (compared with 80% currently). Coverage may include value of packing, packaging or other on-farm activities. FCIC may provide diversification-based discounts for producers with diversified operations. FCIC is to submit a report to Congress on the feasibility of additional coverage, including an analysis of potential market distortions. [Sec. 11019] Identical to the Senate bill, except maximum liability is $1.25 million. [Sec. 11021] A private sector entity can propose an insurance plan to be added to the FCIC portfolio of products. A process must be established to review and approve products. [7 U.S.C. 1508(h)] For private sector submissions, directs FCIC to establish priorities for specific types of submissions. [Section 11009] As part of the submission process, the applicant must consult with producer groups potentially affected. [Sec. 11010] No comparable provision. FCIC may conduct a pilot program approved by the Board to evaluate whether a proposal or new risk management tool is suitable for the marketplace and addresses the needs of producers. [7 U.S.C. 1523(a)] Eliminates the requirement that FCIC evaluate pilot programs and submit a report to Congress. [Sec. 11029] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 11023] Current Law/Policy CRS-143 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Crop Production on Native Sod and Conservation Compliance Subject to a geographic condition below, native sod planted to an insurable crop (over 5 acres) is ineligible for crop insurance and the noninsured crop disaster assistance program for the first 5 years of planting. May apply to virgin prairie converted to cropland only in the Prairie Pothole National Priority Area, if elected by the state. [7 U.S.C. 1508(o)] Nationwide, for native sod during the first four years of planting, crop insurance premium subsidies are 50 percentage points less than under current schedule and yield guarantees are affected. Also, no benefits are available under NAP or general commodity programs. Requires annual report on the change in cropland areas and the number of acres of native sod converted to cropland in each county and state. [Sec. 11035] Same as Senate bill, except provision only applies to the Prairie Pothole National Priority Area. [Sec. 11013] See “Title II: Conservation” for a provision that establishes a prerequisite that a producer must be in compliance with conservation requirements and wetland requirements in order to receive crop insurance premium subsidies. [Sec. 2609] No comparable provision. Standard Reinsurance Agreement and Risk-Sharing The Standard Reinsurance Agreement (SRA) between FCIC and private companies defines expense reimbursements and risk-sharing by the government, including the terms under which the government provides subsidies and reinsurance (i.e., insurance for insurance companies) on eligible crop insurance contracts sold or reinsured by insurance companies. FCIC may renegotiate the SRA once every 5 years. [7 U.S.C. 1508(k)] Any savings generated from a renegotiated SRA must be used for programs administered by the Risk Management Agency. [Sec. 11011] Same as Senate bill [Sec. 11012]. Also directs FCIC to make an additional annual expense reimbursement of $41 million (for reinsurance years 2011 through 2015) to insurance companies selling polices for crops not eligible for benefit under Title I (i.e., specialty crops). [Sec. 11011] The U.S. Government Accountability Office is directed to conduct a study regarding fraudulent claims filed, and benefits provided under the crop insurance program. [Sec. 11038] No comparable provision. Miscellaneous Crop Insurance Provisions Under an insurance policy, if an agricultural commodity does not meet established quality standards, actual production (used for determining the indemnity) is reduced accordingly. [7 U.S.C. 1508(m)] FCIC shall establish procedures to allow insured producers not more than 120 days to settle claims involving corn that is determined to have low test weight. Authority for this provision terminates 5 years after implementation of the provision. [Sec. 11012] Inaccurate information on an insurance application can result in noncompliance, which voids the policy FCIC shall establish procedures that allow an agent and approved insurance provider to correct information CRS-144 Similar provision as in the Senate bill. [Sec. 11018] Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) and may disqualify the producer for up to 5 years. [7 U.S.C. 1515(c)] regarding producer name and eligibility information that is provided by a producer for the purpose of obtaining coverage. [Sec. 11015] USDA, an approved insurance provider and its employees and contractors, and any other person may not disclose to the public information furnished by a producer. [7 U.S.C. 1502(c)] No comparable provision. If authorized by a producer, USDA’s Farm Service Agency shall provide to an insurance agent or approved insurance provider any information or maps that may assist the agent or provider insuring the producer. [Sec. 11001] Adjustments to producer premiums are prohibited as an inducement to purchase crop insurance, with few exceptions. [7 U.S.C. 1508(a)(9)] No comparable provision. To deter potential violators, FCIC is required to publish in detail (but without disclosing identities) any violations of this provision. [Sec. 11002] All information provided to the public by the agency shall be in plain, understandable language. [5 U.S.C. 601 note relating to regulatory planning and review] Requires FCIC and RMA to use plain language when issuing regulations and guidance related to plans and polices of crop insurance, and to improve its website for producers seeking information on crop insurance. Requires a report to Congress describing the Department’s efforts. [Sec. 11037] No comparable provision. USDA is to ensure that new hardware and software for administering the program are compatible with that already used by USDA agencies in order to maximize data sharing needed for proper program delivery. [7 U.S.C. 1515(j)] Funding is provided from the insurance fund: $15 million for each of FY2008 through FY2010 and not more than $9 million in FY2011. [7 U.S.C. 1515(k] USDA shall develop and implement an acreage report streamlining initiative project to allow producers to report acreage and other information directly to USDA. FCIC may use up to $25 million in fiscal 2014 and $10 to $15 million per year for FY2015 through FY2018 from the insurance fund. USDA shall notify Congress on the status of the project no later than July 1, 2013. [Sec. 11016] Identical to the Senate bill, except notification date is July 1, 2015. [Sec. 11019] FCIC may use up to $3.5 million of the insurance fund to pay for costs associated with implementing plans of insurance and for review of policies. [7 U.S.C. 1516(b)(2)] Adds authority to use up to $5 million of the insurance fund to pay for costs associated with maintaining program integrity and compliance activities. [Sec. 11017] No comparable provision. The Agricultural Management Assistance Program provides financial assistance to producers in 16 specific states to mitigate risk through financial instruments, diversification, or resource conservation practices. Provides $15 million in annual mandatory funding in FY2008 through Authorizes $23 million in mandatory CCC funding annually (FY2014-FY2018) and combines the two programs to include (1) organic certification cost share assistance (50% of funds); (2) activities to support risk management education and outreach under the Federal Crop Insurance Act (26% of funds); and (3) agricultural Repeals the National Organic Certification Cost-Share program. [Sec. 10004] Removes tree plantings and soil erosion control from the list of approved practices. Permanently authorizes $10 million in annual mandatory funding with 30% to NRCS (conservation), 10% to AMS (organic certification), and 60% RMA (risk management). CRS-145 Current Law/Policy FY2014, and $10 million each fiscal year thereafter. Requires 50% for conservation, 40% for risk management, and 10% for organic certification. [7 U.S.C. 1524] Section 10606 of the 2002 farm bill established a National Organic Certification CostShare Program to help producers and handlers of organic products obtain certification. Provided $22 million in mandatory funding in FY2008 (available until expended). [7 U.S.C. 6523] Noninsured Crop Assistance Program for crops not insurable. The Noninsured Crop Assistance Program (NAP) has permanent authority under Section 196 of the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, and receives such sums as necessary in mandatory funding. Growers of crops not insurable under the crop insurance program are eligible for NAP. [7 USC 7333] CRS-146 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) management assistance grants to producers in states with low federal crop insurance participation, for various conservation purposes (24% of funds). Per-person payments are limited to $50,000 in any one year. [Sec. 11034] [Sec. 2506 in Title II—Conservation] See “Title XII: Miscellaneous” for a provision that enhances NAP and provides payments for fruit crop losses in 2012. [Sec. 12204] See “Title XII: Miscellaneous” for a provision that enhances NAP [Sec. 12307] Title XII. Miscellaneous Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Socially Disadvantage Producers and Limited-Resource Producers Outreach and Assistance for Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers. Outreach and Assistance for Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers was established by Sec. 2501 of the 1990 farm bill. The program provides education and outreach to minority and limitedresource farmers and ranchers. The 2008 farm bill created an Office of Small Farms and Beginning Farmers and Ranchers to ensure access to all USDA programs for small, beginning, and socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers. Also requires USDA to document the number, location, and economic contributions of socially disadvantaged and limited-resource farmers and ranchers. Provides the program with $15 million in mandatory funding for FY2009 and $20 million annually for FY2010-FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 2279(a)] Expands program authority to include farmers and ranchers who are veterans. Provides $10 million per year in mandatory funding for FY2014-FY2018, and authorizes $20 million annually, subject to annual appropriations for FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 12001] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 12201] No comparable provision. Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers Policy Research Center. Amends Sec. 2501 of the 1990 farm bill (see above) to establish the “Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers Policy Research Center” to develop policy recommendations for socially and disadvantaged farmers and ranchers. The Secretary of Agriculture shall establish the Center through a competitive grant to an eligible 1890 Institution (defined in 7 U.S.C. 7601). [Sec. 12002] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 12203] Office of Advocacy and Outreach. The Office of Advocacy and Outreach as authorized in the 2008 farm bill carries out the Outreach and Assistance for Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers and Veteran Farmers and Ranchers, and also oversees the Minority Farmer Advisory For the Office of Advocacy and Outreach, authorizes such sums as necessary for FY2009 through FY2013, and $2 million annually for FY2014-FY2018, subject to annual appropriations. [Sec. 12003] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 12202] CRS-147 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) No comparable provision. Wildlife Reservoir Zoonotic Disease Initiative. Amends Title IV of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998. [7 U.S.C. 7621 et seq.] Establishes an initiative through competitive grants for research and development of surveillance methods, vaccinations, vaccination delivery systems, or diagnostic tests. The targeted diseases are brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, and other high priority disease initiatives conducted under Sec. 1672 of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 [7 U.S.C. 5925]. The research may be conducted by federal agencies, national laboratories, universities, research institutes, and state agricultural experiment stations. The grants are not to exceed 10 years and require matching funds of at least 25% of the federal contribution. $7 million per year is authorized to be appropriated FY2014-FY2018, and at least 30% of appropriated funds must be spent on bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis. [Sec. 12101] No comparable provision. Trichinae Certification Program. Sec. 11010 of the 2008 farm bill established a voluntary trichinae certification program. [7 U.S.C. §8304 note] The program certifies compliance with best production practices and is designed to enhance swine and pork producers’ ability to export fresh pork and pork products. Authorizes appropriation of $1.5 million for Sec. 11010 and funds as necessary to carry out Sec. 10405 of the Animal Health Protection Act (AHPA) for FY2008 through FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 8304(d)(1)] Amends Sec. 11010 of the 2008 farm bill to establish an alternative trichinae certification process that is based on surveillance or other methods consistent with international standards for categorizing compartments as having negligible risk for trichinae. Within one year of adopting an alternative certification process, the Secretary shall finalize the rule for the process. Reauthorizes current level of $1.5 million each year through FY2018, subject to annual appropriations. [Sec. 12102] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 12103] Current Law/Policy Committee and carries out the functions of the Office of Outreach and Diversity previously handled by the Office of Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights. Such sums as necessary are authorized to be appropriated for each year FY2009-FY2012. [7 U.S.C. 6934(f)(3)] Livestock CRS-148 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) National Aquatic Animal Health Plan. Sec. 11013 of the 2008 farm bill authorized USDA, under Sec. 10411 of the AHPA, [7 U.S.C. 8310] to enter into cooperative agreements for the purpose of detecting, controlling, or eradicating diseases of aquaculture species and promoting species-specific best management practices on a cost-share basis. Secretary may use authorities from AHPA [7 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.] to carry out the plan. Authorizes such sums as necessary to be appropriated in each fiscal year, FY2008-FY2013. [7 U.S.C. 8322] Extends funding authority for the plan through FY2018. [Sec. 12103] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 12104] No comparable provision. Sheep Production and Marketing Grant Program. Establishes a competitive grant program through USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service to improve the sheep industry, including infrastructure, business, resource development, or innovative approaches for long-term needs. $1.5 million in CCC mandatory funds for FY2014 to be used and remain available until expended. [Sec. 12104] No comparable provision. National Sheep Industry Improvement Center (NSIIC). NSIIC promotes the strategic development of the U.S. sheep and goat industry. It provides financial assistance for the enhancement and marketing of sheep and goat products with an emphasis on infrastructure development. NSIIC is funded through appropriations, as well as receipts from products or services, fees and royalties from licensing, proceeds from sales of assets, loan or equity interest, and donations. [7 U.S.C. 2008(j)] Amends provisions of the NSIIC. Amends the percentage of funds from 3% to 10% that may be used for administration of the NSIIC, and removes the authorization of appropriations. Re-designates the NSIIC from the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act [7 U.S.C. 2008(j)] to the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 [7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.]. [Sec. 12104] No comparable provision. National Sheep Industry Improvement Center. See description above. See row above. Removes authorization of appropriations. [Sec. 12104] Reauthorizes $10 million per year through FY2018, subject to appropriations. [Sec. 12101] No comparable provision. Feral Swine Eradication Pilot Program. Establishes a pilot program to study the (1) nature and extent of damage caused by feral swine; (2) methods to eradicate No comparable provision. Current Law/Policy CRS-149 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) or control feral swine; and (3) methods to restore damage caused by feral swine. USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service are to coordinate on the program. The program is to be administered on a cost-sharing basis with the federal share not to exceed 75%. The nonfederal share may be in-kind contribution. $2 million per year is authorized to be appropriated for FY2014-2018. [Sec. 12105] Animal Health Protection Act (AHPA). The AHPA was authorized in the 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171). It contains provisions to prevent, detect, control, and eradicate diseases and pests to protect animal health. [7 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.] National Animal Health Laboratory Network. Amends the AHPA to establish a national animal health laboratory network to enhance the ability to respond to bioterrorist threats, and to provide capability for standardized 1) test procedures, reference materials and equipment, 2) lab biosafety and biosecurity levels, 3) quality management requirements, 4) interconnected reporting and transmission, and 5) evaluation of emergency preparedness. The network is to develop and enhance national veterinary diagnostic capabilities, with emphasis on surveillance planning, vulnerability analysis and technology development and validation. When practicable, the Secretary shall give priority to facilities of federal, state, and institutions of higher learning. Authorizes appropriations of $15 million per year for FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 12106] Nearly identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 12106] National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP). NPIP was established in the early 1930's to provide a cooperative industry, state, and federal program for developing new diagnostic technology to improve poultry and poultry products throughout the country. NPIP is managed through a memorandum of understanding between USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and official state agencies. APHIS publishes NPIP regulations in 9 C.F.R. 145, 146, and 147. Requires that USDA continue to administer the avian influenza (AI) surveillance of commercial poultry through the NPIP, and meet any relevant standards established by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). [Sec. 12107]. Requires that USDA continue to administer the diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza [9 C.F.R. 146.14] without amending regulations on the governance of the General Conference Committee [9 C.F.R. 147.43] as to physical location of the Committee and the organizational structure within USDA. The Secretary is to maintain funding for NPIP at the FY2013 level. [Sec. 12108] CRS-150 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Country-of-Origin Labeling (COOL). The 2002 and 2008 farm bills established mandatory COOL for fruits and vegetables, red meats, chicken, seafood, peanuts, pecans, macadamia nuts, and ginseng. In response to Canada’s and Mexico’s World Trade Organization (WTO) challenge of COOL, the WTO found that parts of COOL violate WTO rules. [7 U.S.C. 1638 et seq.] No comparable provision. Requires that USDA conduct an economic analysis of USDA’s March 12, 2013 proposed COOL rule [78 Federal Register 15645] no later than 180 days after enactment of the farm bill. The analysis shall include, with respect to beef, pork, and chicken, the impact on consumers, producers, and packers of the COOL law and the above proposed rule. [Sec. 12105] Sections 11005 and 11006 of the 2008 farm bill (P.L. 110-246) addressed livestock and poultry marketing practices by amending the Packers and Stockyards Act, and requiring USDA to issue regulations implementing the changes. The Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) issued a proposed rule Implementation of Regulations Required Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008; Conduct in Violation of the Act [75 Federal Register 35338] in June 2010 and finalized parts of the rule [76 Federal Register 76874] in December 2011. The final regulations address the applicability to live poultry, the suspension of the delivery of birds, additional capital investments, remedying a breach of contract, and arbitration. [7 U.S.C. 181 et seq.] No comparable provision. Repeal of Regulations Under the Packers and Stockyard Act. Repeals the definition of additional capital investment [9 C.F.R. 201.2(n)] that was implemented in February 2011, and halts USDA from finalizing or implementing other provisions from the GIPSA rule, or from issuing or adopting similar rules.[Sec. 12102] Section 11016 of the 2008 farm bill (P.L. 110-246] made catfish an amenable species under the Federal Meat Inspection Act [21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] and subject to inspection by USDA instead of FDA, and amended the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 [7 U.S.C. 1622 et seq.] to establish a voluntary fee based grading program for catfish. No comparable provision. Repeal of Catfish Inspection and Grading Program at USDA. Repeals the provisions of Section 11016 of the 2008 farm bill. [Sec.12107] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Report on Bovine Tuberculosis in Texas. Requires USDA to submit a report to the House and Senate Agriculture Committees on the incidence of bovine Current Law/Policy CRS-151 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) tuberculosis in Texas from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2013. The report is to be submitted no later than December 31, 2014. [Sec. 12109] Other Miscellaneous Provisions No comparable provision. Military Veterans Agricultural Liaison. Amends Subtitle A of the Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 [7 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.] by establishing in USDA a position of Military Veterans Agricultural Liaison to provide information to returning veterans on beginning farmer training, agricultural vocational and rehabilitation programs. Liaison would provide information on availability and eligibility for participation, serve as a resource, and advocate on behalf of veterans within USDA. To carry out this provision, the liaison may enter into contracts or cooperative agreements with research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, institutes of higher education, and nonprofit organizations to conduct research on small farms, develop educational materials, and conduct workshops, training, mentoring activities, and provide internships. [Sec. 12201] Similar to Senate bill, except it does not include a section on contracts and cooperative agreements. [Sec. 12305] Information Gathering. USDA may not disclose information about an agricultural operation, farming or conservation practice, or land that was provided by the producer or landowner in order to qualify for a USDA program, nor the geospatial information maintained by USDA about the agricultural land or operations mentioned above. Exceptions are provided for the limited release of data to federal, state, local or tribal agencies working in cooperation with USDA when providing technical or financial assistance for the above land or when responding to pest and disease threats. However, USDA must determine that the data will not be subsequently disclosed. The prohibition on data disclosure does not affect the release of Adds language to clarify and strengthen the conditions necessary to release data about farms to state and local government agencies. Such state and other government agencies would need to prove that the data are “required for implementing” the state program. Moreover, the data may only be used by the state agency, political subdivision, or local agency; and the data would be protected from subsequent disclosure by the state or agency. [Sec. 12202] Adds a separate, new provision that prohibits data disclosure. Similar to the current law provision, but does not appear to allow data sharing with other agencies to provide technical assistance, for example. Disclosure is allowed if information is required to be publically available by Federal law, is disclosed to the Attorney General for compliance and law enforcement, or if the producer has lawfully disclosed or consents to the disclosure. Requires prompt notification of disclosure to the Agriculture committees. House provisions are in Title I. [Sec. 1613] CRS-152 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Grants to Improve Supply, Stability, Safety, and Training of Agricultural Labor Force. Provides grants to train farm workers in new technologies and workers with specialized skills for higher value crops. Authorized funds to be appropriated as necessary for FY2008-FY2012. [7 U.S.C. 2008q-1(d)] Extends the grant program with $10 million per year authorized to be appropriated for FY2014-FY2018. [Sec. 12203] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 12302] Noninsured Crop Assistance Program. The Noninsured Crop Assistance Program (NAP) has permanent authority under Section 196 of the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, and receives such sums as necessary in mandatory funding. Growers of crops not insurable under the crop insurance program are eligible for NAP. A payment is made to an eligible producer whose actual production is less than 50% of the established (historical) yield for the crop. The payment rate is 55% of the average market price. Producers pay a fee of $250 per crop per county, or $750 per producer per county, not to exceed $1,875 per producer. [7 USC 7333] Reauthorizes through FY2018, and makes available additional coverage for NAP at 50% to 65% of established yield and 100% of average market price. Premium for additional coverage is 5.25% times the product of the selected coverage level and value of production (acreage times yield times average market price). The premium for additional coverage is reduced by 50% for limited resource, beginning, and socially disadvantaged farmers. Similar to the Senate bill except as indicated below. [Sec. 12307] For producers with fruit crop losses in 2012, payments associated with additional coverage are made retroactively (minus premium fees) in counties declared a disaster due to freeze or frost. No comparable provision. Current Law/Policy payment information that is otherwise authorized or data that are released in an aggregate, personally unidentifiable form. [7 U.S.C. 8791; also known as Section 1619 of the 2008 farm bill] Noninsured Crop Assistance Program. See description above. CRS-153 Eliminates NAP for crops/grasses used for grazing (to reduce overlap with livestock disaster programs in Title I—Commodity Programs), ferns, and tropical fish. No comparable provision. Increases base NAP fee to $260 per crop per county, or $780 per producer per county, not to exceed $1,950 per producer. [Sec. 12204] No comparable provision. Bioenergy Coverage in Noninsured Crop Assistance Program. Amends the 1996 farm bill (7 U.S.C. 7333) to add crops grown for feedstock for renewable biofuel, renewable electricity, or biobased products. [Sec. 12205] No comparable provision. Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Regional Economic and Infrastructure Development. The 2008 farm bill (Section 14217) established three new regional development authorities: a Northern Border Regional Commission, a Southeast Crescent Regional Commission, and a Southwest Border Regional Commission. These commissions develop a regional development plan and then make infrastructure loans and grants to eligible entities in their respective regions. [40 U.S.C. 15101 et seq.] Authorizes annual appropriations of $30 million to each of the Commissions. Not more than 10% of appropriated funds to any Commission can be used for administrative expenses. [40 U.S.C. 15751(b)] Extends the authorization of appropriations through FY2018. Allows the cap on administrative expenses for any Commission to exceed 10% should the Commission receive an annual appropriation of less than $10 million. [Sec. 12206] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Office of Tribal Relations. Amends Title III of the Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 3125a note) to establish an Office of Tribal Relations within the Office of the Secretary of Agriculture. The Office of Tribal Relations will coordinate the Department’s activities with Native American tribes. [Sec. 12207] Identical to the Senate bill. [Sec. 12304] No comparable provision. Acer Access and Development Program. Authorizes grants to state and tribal governments to promote the domestic maple syrup industry. The grants are to promote research and education, resource sustainability, and marketing, and to encourage owners of private lands with species of trees in the genus Acer to initiate or expand maple sugaring activities. The provision defines maple sugaring as the collection of sap from any species of trees in the genus Acer for the purpose of boiling to produce food. USDA is to promulgate regulations to carry out the provision; $20 million per year is authorized to be appropriated for FY2014 and FY2015. [Sec. 12208] Nearly identical to the Senate bill, except that the House authorizes appropriations of $20 million each year for the program through FY2018. [Sec. 12310] Animal Fighting Venture Prohibition. The Animal Welfare Act prohibits and provides Amends the Animal Welfare Act to prohibit knowingly attending an animal fighting venture or causing a minor to Similar to the Senate bill in that it prohibits knowingly attending or causing a minor to attend an animal fighting Current Law/Policy CRS-154 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) penalties for sponsoring or exhibiting an animal in an animal fighting venture. [7 U.S.C 2156] Penalties are prescribed and enforced by 18 U.S.C. 49. attend such a venture. Confirms that penalties for violations are prescribed and enforced under 18 U.S.C. 49. Sets the penalty for each violation for attending an animal fighting venture at a fine and/or not more than one year in prison; penalty for causing a minor to attend set at a fine and/or not more than three years in prison. [Sec. 12209] venture, but does not include penalty provisions. [Sec. 12313] Cotton Trust Fund. Section 407 of the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-432; 120 Stat. 3060) established a Cotton Trust Fund to bolster the competitiveness of U.S.-based cotton shirt manufacturers. Tariff revenue from imports of certain products that entered under chapter 52 (Cotton) of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule funded this Trust Fund. Funding was used to provide duty refunds to domestic manufacturers that continue to make shirts in the United States, cotton growers, and yarn suppliers. This authority expired September 30, 2008. Pima Cotton Trust Fund. Establishes a trust fund in the Treasury of the United States that consists of amounts that are authorized to be appropriated as necessary to carry out the section. Authorization of appropriations is for each year FY2014-FY2019. The Secretary may make payments to nationally recognized associations that promote pima cotton use, yarn spinners who produced ring spun cotton from January 1, 1998 to December 21, 2003, and manufacturers who cut and sew cotton shirts and used imported cotton fabric from January 1, 1998 through July 1, 2003. Payments to spinners and manufacturers are based on a production ratio and must be certified through affidavit. [Sec. 12210] No comparable provision. Wool Apparel Manufacturers Trust Fund. Section 4002(c) of the Miscellaneous Trade and Technical Corrections Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-429; 118 Stat. 2602-2604) authorized the Wool Apparel Manufacturers Trust Fund. This Trust Fund is funded by the U.S. Treasury from duties imposed on articles imported under chapter 51 (Wool) of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS). The Trust Fund pays out limited refunds to importers of worsted wool fabrics, wool yarn, wool fiber and wool top. Refunds are based on a formula that calculates each company’s share of the relevant wool market in 1999, 2000, and 2001. The U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency is responsible for distributing the refunds to eligible wool manufacturers. Separately, this Trust Fund is used to provide grants, administered by the Agriculture Wool Apparel Manufacturers Trust Fund. Establishes a complementary trust fund in the Treasury of the United States that consists of amounts that are authorized to be appropriated as necessary to carry out the section. Authorization of appropriations is for each year FY2014-FY2019. The Secretary may make payments to eligible manufacturers under paragraphs (3) and (6) of section 4002(c) of the Wool Suit and Textile Trade Extension Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-429), as amended. Payments are to be made to eligible manufacturers for 2010-2013 no later than 30 days after funds are transferred to the trust fund. For 2014-2019, payments are to be made no later than April 15 of the year of payment, [Sec. 12211] No comparable provision. Current Law/Policy CRS-155 Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) No comparable provision. Citrus Disease Research and Development Trust Fund. Establishes a trust fund in the Treasury of the United States that consists of amounts that are authorized to be appropriated as necessary to carry out the section. Authorization of appropriations is for each year FY2014-FY2019. The Secretary may make payments to entities engaged in 1) scientific research on diseases and pests, 2) the dissemination and commercialization of relevant information, techniques, or technology to solve citrus production disease or pest problems, and 3) the Citrus Disease Research and Development Trust Fund Advisory Board, if established. The Citrus Advisory Board would have five members from Florida, three from Arizona or California, and one from Texas. The Secretary may prescribe rules and regulations as necessary, and not more than 5% of the Citrus Trust Fund may be used for the operations of the advisory board. The Secretary shall give strong deference to funding research projects on the proximity of citrus producers and the effects of such diseases as huanglongbing (citrus greening). [Sec. 12212] No comparable provision. High Plains Water Study. Section 2901 of the 2008 farm bill (P.L. 110-246) requires that agricultural producers who participate in a onetime study of the Ogallala aquifer recharge potential in the High Plains of Texas not be denied program benefits available under the 2008 farm bill. The studies inform state and local water conservation investments and policies to help manage the Ogallala aquifer. No comparable provision. Extends provisions so that participants will not be denied program benefits under the 2013 farm bill. [Sec. 12303] Current Law/Policy International Trade Administration, to manufacturers of worsted wool fabrics (HTS 9902.51.11 and 9902.51.12). Section 325 of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (P.L 110-343) extended this Trust Fund through April 15, 2015. [7 U.S.C. 7101 note] CRS-156 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Prohibition on Keeping GSA Leased Cars Overnight. Upon enactment, a federal employee of a state office of USDA’s Farm Service Agency (FSA) in the field and non-federal employees of FSA county and area committees are prohibited from keeping leased vehicles overnight unless the employee assigned the vehicle is on overnight, approved travel status with a per diem. [Sec. 12306] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Ensuring High Standards for Agency Use of Scientific Information. By January 1, 2014 federal agencies are required to establish guidelines to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of scientific information used by the agencies. Policy decisions that are issued without guidelines after January 1, 2014 shall be deemed not in accordance with the law, with the exception of policy decisions necessary to protect imminent threat to health or safety. [Sec. 12308] Prohibition on closure or relocation of county offices for the Farm Service Agency. Section 14212 of the 2008 farm bill sets limits and requires notifications for closing or relocating Farm Service Agency (FSA) offices. [7 U.S.C. 6932a] No comparable provision. Prohibits USDA from closing or relocating a county or field office of the FSA if the office has a high workload compared with other offices in the state. Requires USDA to conduct an evaluation of the workload of all FSA offices open on January 1, 2012. The evaluations are to be completed 18 months after enactment. [Sec. 12309] The Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (SBREFA, 110 Stat. 867) requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to convene small business advocacy review panels when the agencies are developing proposed rules. No comparable provision. Regulatory Review by the Secretary of Agriculture. Directs the Secretary of Agriculture to convene a review panel to analyze guidance, policy, memorandum, regulation, or statement of general applicability and future effect that is planned or proposed by EPA, which may have a significant impact on a substantial number of agricultural entities. USDA must solicit information from the EPA administrator, use the Office of Chief Economist to produce an economic impact statement, and identify individuals who are representative of those who might be impacted. Within 60 days of convening a review panel, the Secretary must provide EPA comments, and publish comments in the CRS-157 Current Law/Policy Senate-Passed 2013 Farm Bill (S. 954, June 10, 2013) House Agriculture Committee 2013 Farm Bill (H.R. 1947, as of June 10, 2013) Federal Register for public comment. [Sec. 12311] The Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 established the ‘‘commodity promotion law’’ that provides for the operation of a promotion program for agricultural commodities that include promotion, research, industry information, or consumer information activities, and is funded by mandatory assessments (checkoff) on producers or processors, and is designed to maintain or expand markets and uses for the commodity. [7 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.] No comparable provision. Agricultural Commodity Definition. Adds natural stone to the definition of agricultural products defined in section 513(1) of the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 [7 U.S.C. 7412(1)]. [Sec. 12312] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Interference in Interstate Commerce. Prohibits any state or local government from setting standards or conditions on the production or manufacture of agricultural products, and then using such standards to prevent interstate sales of the agricultural products. Agriculture products are defined in the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (7 U.S.C. 1626) [Sec. 12314] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Increased Protection for Agricultural Interests in the Missouri River Basin. In response to 2011 floods, this provision directs USDA to take steps to increase flood protection for agricultural producers in the Missouri River basin, specifically to recalculate the space within the Missouri River Mainstem Reservoir System allocated to flood control storage, and to increase the channel capacity between the reservoirs and below Gavins Point. [Sec. 12315] No comparable provision. No comparable provision. Increased Protection for Agricultural Interests in the Black Dirt Region. Directs the Secretary of Agriculture to take action to promote immediate increased flood protection for farmers, producers, and other agricultural interests around the Wallkill River and the Black Dirt region. [Sec. 12316] CRS-158 The 2013 Farm Bill: Comparison of S. 954 and H.R. 1947 with Current Law Author Contact Information Ralph M. Chite, Coordinator Section Research Manager rchite@crs.loc.gov, 7-7296 Randy Schnepf Specialist in Agricultural Policy rschnepf@crs.loc.gov, 7-4277 Dennis A. Shields Specialist in Agricultural Policy dshields@crs.loc.gov, 7-9051 Renée Johnson Specialist in Agricultural Policy rjohnson@crs.loc.gov, 7-9588 Megan Stubbs Specialist in Agricultural Conservation and Natural Resources Policy mstubbs@crs.loc.gov, 7-8707 Joel L. Greene Analyst in Agricultural Policy jgreene@crs.loc.gov, 7-9877 Charles E. Hanrahan Senior Specialist in Agricultural Policy chanrahan@crs.loc.gov, 7-7235 Remy Jurenas Specialist in Agricultural Policy rjurenas@crs.loc.gov, 7-7281 Randy Alison Aussenberg Analyst in Nutrition Assistance Policy raussenberg@crs.loc.gov, 7-8641 John Glover Visiting Analyst jglover@crs.loc.gov, 7-9087 Jim Monke Specialist in Agricultural Policy jmonke@crs.loc.gov, 7-9664 Katie Hoover Analyst in Natural Resources Policy khoover@crs.loc.gov, 7-9008 Tadlock Cowan Analyst in Natural Resources and Rural Development tcowan@crs.loc.gov, 7-7600 Claudia Copeland Specialist in Resources and Environmental Policy ccopeland@crs.loc.gov, 7-7227 Acknowledgments Special thanks to CRS editor Laura Comay for her technical assistance in publishing this report. Congressional Research Service 159