Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Eugene H. Buck Specialist in Natural Resources Policy Harold F. Upton Analyst in Natural Resources Policy Charles V. Stern Specialist in Natural Resources Policy Cynthia Brougher Legislative Attorney March 18, 2013 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41082 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Summary Four species of non-indigenous Asian carp are expanding their range in U.S. waterways, resulting in a variety of concerns and problems. Three species—bighead, silver, and black carp—are of particular note, based on the perceived degree of environmental concern. Current controversy relates to what measures might be necessary and sufficient to prevent movement of Asian carp from the Mississippi River drainage into the Great Lakes through the Chicago Area Waterway System. Several bills have been introduced in the 113th Congress to direct actions to avoid the possibility of carp becoming established in the Great Lakes. According to the Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Asian carp pose a significant threat to commercial and recreational fisheries of the Great Lakes. Asian carp populations could expand rapidly and change the composition of Great Lakes ecosystems. Native species could be harmed because Asian carp are likely to compete with them for food and modify their habitat. It has been widely reported that Great Lakes fisheries generate economic activity of approximately $7 billion annually. Although Asian carp introduction is likely to modify Great Lakes ecosystems and cause harm to fisheries, studies forecasting the extent of potential harm are not available. Therefore, it is not possible to provide estimates of potential changes in the regional economy or economic value (social welfare) by lake, species, or fishery. The locks and waterways of the Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) have been a focal point for those debating how to prevent Asian carp encroachment on the Great Lakes. The CAWS is the only navigable link between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River, and many note the potential of these waterways to facilitate invasive species transfers from one basin to the other. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed and is operating electrical barriers to prevent fish passage through these waterways. In light of indications that Asian carp may be present upstream of the barriers, increased federal funding to prevent fish encroachment was announced by the Obama Administration. Part of this funding is being spent by the Corps of Engineers to explore options relating to the “hydrologic separation” of the Great Lakes and Mississippi River drainage basins (also known as the “GLMRIS” study). The potential closure of navigation structures in the CAWS is of particular interest to both the Chicago area shipping industry and Great Lakes fishery interests. Since December 2010, Michigan and other Great Lakes states have filed a number of requests for court ordered measures to stop the migration of invasive Asian carp toward Lake Michigan from the Mississippi River basin via the CAWS. The U.S. Supreme Court denied several motions for injunctions to force Illinois, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago to take necessary measures to prevent the carp from entering Lake Michigan. Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin sought a separate order in federal district court seeking similar relief, which was also denied. In the 112th Congress, P.L. 112-74 authorized the Corps of Engineers to continue to implement emergency measures to prevent Asian carp in the Great Lakes, and P.L. 112-141 contained further directions regarding the expedited completion of the GLMRIS study. In the 113th Congress, several bills, including H.R. 358, H.R. 709, H.R. 985 and S. 365, would require additional federal actions related to Asian carp. Some of these bills would require the Corps to study lock closure and control strategies for Asian carp in the Upper Mississippi Basin. Congressional Research Service Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Contents Background ...................................................................................................................................... 1 Grass Carp ................................................................................................................................. 1 Black Carp ................................................................................................................................. 1 Silver Carp ................................................................................................................................. 3 Bighead Carp ............................................................................................................................. 4 Managing Non-Native Species .................................................................................................. 5 Potential Impacts ............................................................................................................................. 6 Ecological Concerns .................................................................................................................. 6 Economic Concerns ................................................................................................................... 7 Social Concerns ....................................................................................................................... 10 The Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) .............................................................................. 11 Federal Response to Asian Carp .................................................................................................... 13 Response Efforts in the CAWS................................................................................................ 14 Electric Barriers................................................................................................................. 14 Other Prevention in the CAWS ......................................................................................... 15 Monitoring......................................................................................................................... 16 Coordination, Other Pathways ................................................................................................. 17 Nationwide Asian Carp Management................................................................................ 17 Asian Carp Control Strategy Framework .......................................................................... 17 GLMRIS Study ................................................................................................................. 18 Upper Mississippi River Prevention ................................................................................. 19 Litigation........................................................................................................................................ 19 Canadian Concern .......................................................................................................................... 21 Congressional Interest.................................................................................................................... 21 Legislation ............................................................................................................................... 21 Figures Figure 1. Records of Grass Carp Capture, as of May 24, 2012 ....................................................... 2 Figure 2. Records of Black Carp Capture, as of May 24, 2012 ....................................................... 2 Figure 3. Records of Silver Carp Capture, as of May 24, 2012 ....................................................... 3 Figure 4. Records of Bighead Carp Capture, as of May 24, 2012 ................................................... 4 Figure 5. Chicago Area Waterway System and Lake Michigan .................................................... 11 Tables Table 1. Great Lakes Recreational Fishing Activity and Economic Impacts in 2006...................... 9 Table 2. Great Lakes Commercial Fishing Landings and Revenue in 2008 .................................... 9 Table 3. Annual Economic Impact of Boating on Great Lakes States in 2003 .............................. 10 Table 4. Asian Carp Control Strategy Framework: GLRI and Base Funding ................................ 18 Congressional Research Service Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Contacts Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 22 Congressional Research Service Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Background Four species of non-indigenous Asian carp are expanding their range in U.S. waterways, resulting in a variety of concerns and problems. Three species—bighead, silver, and black carp—are of particular note, based on the perceived degree of environmental concern. Current controversy relates to what measures might be necessary and sufficient to prevent movement of Asian carp from the Mississippi River drainage into the Great Lakes through the Chicago Area Waterway System. Movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes is ultimately of concern because increased numbers of carp in the Great Lakes increases the risk that Asian carp will establish reproducing populations in these waters. Several bills have been introduced in the 112th Congress to direct actions to avoid the possibility of carp becoming established in the Great Lakes. Grass Carp1 The grass carp or white amur, Ctenopharyngodon idella, was first imported to the United States in 1963 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for biological control of vegetation in aquatic environments. Grass carp are stocked to biologically control invasive aquatic plants, such as Hydrilla and Eurasian water milfoil. Shallow, quiet waters are their typical habitat, and this species easily tolerates waters near freezing. Grass carp initially escaped from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fish Farming Experimental Station in Stuttgart, AR. By 1970, grass carp had been stocked in lakes and reservoirs throughout the southeast United States and in Arizona, including some that were open to stream systems.2 It has since spread widely across the country (Figure 1), including to four of the Great Lakes. Most grass carp now are stocked as sterile triploids,3 and grass carp have not established breeding populations in the Great Lakes basin. Black Carp4 The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, arrived in the United States in 1973 with silver and bighead carp. Subsequently, this species was imported as a food fish, as the only cost-effective biological control agent to control non-native snails in catfish aquaculture ponds in Arkansas and Mississippi, and as a potential sterile biological control agent for zebra mussels. Of the four species of carp in U.S. waterways, black carp has the most limited known distribution (Figure 2). The preferred habitat of black carp is along the bottom in deep water of large rivers. Owing to this habitat preference for deeper waters, sampling to determine black carp distribution is considered incomplete, since sampling is more difficult in deeper waters. Black carp feed primarily on mussels and snails, and there are concerns that black carp may harm native mollusks, many of which are listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. 1 Information from U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet, at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=514; and A.J. Mitchell and A.M. Kelly, “The Public Sector Role in the Establishment of Grass Carp in the United States,” Fisheries, Vol. 31, no. 3 (March 2006):113-121. 2 F.J. Guscio and E.O. Gangstad, Research and Planning Conference on the Biological Control of Aquatic Weeds with the White Amur, prepared for the interagency Research Advisory Committee, Aquatic Plant Control Program, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of Army, 1970. 3 The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service established a Triploid Grass Carp Inspection Program in 1985 to certify that only genetically triploid (i.e., sterile) grass carp are shipped among 32 states restricting the import of any non-sterile grass carp. For more information on this program, see http://www.fws.gov/policy/aquatichandbook/Volume_9/Volume9.htm. 4 Information from U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet, at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=573. Congressional Research Service 1 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Figure 1. Records of Grass Carp Capture, as of May 24, 2012 Source: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Fact Sheet on grass carp. Notes: HUC (Hydrologic Unit Code) indicates to how much of a drainage basin the data apply. HUC 8 = one or more grass carp captured in the drainage subbasin. Records should not be interpreted as indicating the current presence of grass carp in all these areas. Figure 2. Records of Black Carp Capture, as of May 24, 2012 Source: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Fact Sheet on black carp. Notes: HUC 8 = one or more black carp captured in the drainage subbasin. Records should not be interpreted as indicating the current presence of black carp in all these areas. Congressional Research Service 2 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Silver Carp5 Silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, were brought into the United States in 1973 under an agreement of maintenance between a private fish farmer and the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission.6 This species has been used to control phytoplankton (microscopic drifting algae) in nutrient-rich water bodies and is also a food fish. Escapes from a state fish hatchery and from research projects involving use of these fish in municipal sewage systems,7 as well as possible inclusion of silver carp among other fish shipments, contributed to the spread of this species. Silver carp proved unsuitable for U.S. aquaculture, and were never widely used. The U.S. distribution of silver carp is confined primarily to the Mississippi River drainage, with no record of capture in the Great Lakes (Figure 3). Figure 3. Records of Silver Carp Capture, as of May 24, 2012 Source: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Fact Sheet on silver carp. Notes: HUC (Hydrologic Unit Code) indicates to how much of a drainage basin the data apply. HUC 8 = one or more silver carp captured in the drainage subbasin. Records should not be interpreted as indicating the current presence of silver carp in all these areas. The silver carp is a filter-feeder, capable of consuming large amounts of phytoplankton, zooplankton (small drifting and/or swimming invertebrates), and detritus. Silver carp are easily startled by outboard motors, causing them to jump several feet out of the water. 5 Information from U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet, at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=549. W.L. Shelton and R. O. Smitherman, “Exotic Fishes in Warm-Water Aquaculture,” Distribution, Biology, and Management of Exotic Fishes, W.R. Courtenay, Jr. and J.R. Stauffer, eds., Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984, p. 262-301. 7 Scott Henderson, An Evaluation of Filter Feeding Fishes for Removing Excessive Nutrients and Algae from Wastewater, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Project Summary, EPA-600/S2-83-019, May 1983. 6 Congressional Research Service 3 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region There are no population estimates of silver carp in U.S. waters. However, the population of silver carp in the La Grange Reach of the Illinois River during 2007-2008 was estimated to be about 4,000 fish per river mile, with a biomass of about 19,000 pounds per river mile.8 Bighead Carp9 Bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, were brought into the United States in 1973 under an agreement of maintenance between the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission and a private fish farmer.10 They proved suitable for U.S. aquaculture11 and continue to be economically important in Arkansas, Mississippi, and Alabama.12 This species was discovered in open waters of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers in the 1980s, probably after escaping from fish hatcheries and/or research projects involving use of these fish in municipal sewage systems.13 In the United States, bighead carp are found primarily in the Mississippi River drainage. However, a limited number of bighead carp were captured by commercial fishermen in Lake Erie between 1995 and 2003 (Figure 4). Figure 4. Records of Bighead Carp Capture, as of May 24, 2012 Source: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Fact Sheet on bighead carp. Notes: HUC (Hydrologic Unit Code) indicates to how much of a drainage basin the data apply. HUC 8 = one or more bighead carp captured in the drainage subbasin. Records should not be interpreted as indicating the current presence of bighead carp in all these areas. 8 Greg G. Sass, et al., “A Mark-Recapture Population Estimate for Invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the La Grange Reach, Illinois River,” Biological Invasions, v. 12, no. 3 (2010): 433-436. 9 Information from U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet, at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=551. 10 W.L. Shelton and R. O. Smitherman, “Exotic Fishes in Warm-Water Aquaculture,” Distribution, Biology, and Management of Exotic Fishes, W.R. Courtenay, Jr. and J.R. Stauffer, eds., Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984, p. 262-301. 11 At one time, the market for this species produced by aquaculture was primarily the ethnic live-fish trade in large cities. However, live sale of this species is now prohibited in many cities. For California markets, these fish were killed before entering the state to keep them as fresh as possible. An exception is New York City, where it is still legal to sell live bighead carp, but they must be killed before they leave the store. 12 This species also was raised previously by aquaculture operations in Kansas and Illinois. 13 Scott Henderson, An Evaluation of Filter Feeding Fishes for Removing Excessive Nutrients and Algae from Wastewater, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Project Summary, EPA-600/S2-83-019, May 1983. Congressional Research Service 4 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Like silver carp, bighead carp typically require large rivers for spawning, but inhabit lakes, backwaters, reservoirs, and other low-current areas during most of their life cycle. They are filterfeeders, consuming primarily phytoplankton and zooplankton. Managing Non-Native Species Non-native species that do become established commonly exist at low populations for several generations, after which some begin a period of rapid population growth and range expansion. Although initial captures of wild silver carp were reported in the early 1970s, silver carp only rarely were captured in U.S. rivers until about 1999, after which their population began to grow at an exponential rate. Some suggest that floods in the early 1990s may have provided excellent spawning and recruitment opportunities for silver carp, and stimulated their later exponential growth phase.14 Field experience in the United States has shown that silver carp generally follow a few years after bighead carp in colonizing new habitat.15 Many factors may contribute to the introduction and spread of non-native species. For example, juvenile silver and bighead carp are easily mistaken for native baitfish. Thus, the dumping of unused bait by sport fishermen may contribute to the introduction and spread of these species. In addition, bighead carp (as well as a number of other potentially invasive non-native fish species) have been reared, transported, and traded in large numbers as live fish for human food, especially in large metropolitan areas. Such commerce in bighead carp occurred with relatively limited state and local regulation until recently. Eradication of non-native species in aquatic environments is difficult and rare, having only occasionally been successful when efforts were focused on small-scale and closed systems like reservoirs, ponds, small locks, and marinas. Since eradication of a non-native species, once it has become established, is unlikely, difficult, and therefore expensive, management more often focuses on preventing troublesome species from entering new habitats, through regulating imports of certain nuisance species, preventing or slowing the spread of already introduced species, and monitoring to detect new invaders when their populations may be localized and at low densities such that eradication might still be possible.16 While efforts to prevent introduction may be costly, it almost always will be less expensive than continued attempts to eradicate or control non-native species that become established. 14 Duane Chapman, research fisheries biologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia MO, personal communication, February 26, 2010. 15 Greg Conover, “The Asian Carp Working Group Update,” ANS Task Force Spring Meeting Minutes, May 26-27, 2004, p. 35-37; Available at http://www.anstaskforce.gov/Minutes/Spring04_Minutes.pdf. 16 For more background on prevention and control methods, see CRS Report RL30123, Invasive Non-Native Species: Background and Issues for Congress, by M. Lynne Corn et al. Congressional Research Service 5 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Potential Impacts Ecological Concerns Scientists disagree on the ability of Asian carp to thrive in the Great Lakes and the potential damage these fish might cause to Great Lakes ecosystems.17 According to the Great Lakes Fishery Commission,18 Asian carp pose a significant threat to fisheries of the Great Lakes.19 Asian carp populations could expand rapidly and change the composition of Great Lakes ecosystems. Direct ecological effects are likely to result from their various diets: silver carp eat phytoplankton, bighead carp eat zooplankton, black carp eat invertebrates such as snails and mussels, and grass carp eat aquatic plants. Resident Great Lakes fish species could be harmed, because Asian carp are likely to compete with them for food and modify their habitat. Species at greatest risk include native mussels, other aquatic invertebrates, and fishes.20 As bighead and silver carp have dispersed and migrated within the Mississippi River drainage, these species have out-competed native fish to become the most abundant fish in certain areas.21 In the Lake Erie basin, the Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were determined to be the most likely to be able to support spawning of Asian carp.22 In July 2012, a Bi-national U.S.-Canadian Asian Carp Risk Assessment concluded that bighead and silver carp pose a substantial environmental risk to the Great Lakes within 20 years, with the risk increasing over time, especially for Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie.23 This assessment further concluded that should bighead and silver carp become established in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited. Ecological consequences might include competition for planktonic food, leading to reduced growth rates, and recruitment and abundance of fish dependent upon this plankton, as well as reduced abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. On the other hand, others have predicted that black carp are not likely to become established in the Great Lakes if introduced, while silver carp are predicted neither to spread quickly nor to be perceived as a nuisance in the Great Lakes.24 Bighead carp were not considered in this analysis. Furthermore, the Great Lakes today are hardly pristine habitat, with the intentional human introduction of non-native species (e.g., brown and rainbow trout, coho and Chinook salmon) characterizing fishery management of the waters for many years. The intentional and accidental introduction of non-native species has changed this historic ecosystem in many ways, including depletion of previously dominant lake trout and whitefish species. In addition, the ecological changes wrought by non-native species arriving in ship ballast water (e.g., zebra mussels, round goby) and by other means (e.g., lamprey and alewife) have been substantial. 17 See Adam Hinterthuer, “The Explosive Spread of Asian Carp.” BioScience, v. 62, no. 3 (March 2012): 220-224. Established in 1954 under the bilateral U.S./Canada Convention on Great Lakes Fisheries. 19 See http://www.glfc.org/fishmgmt/carp.php. 20 See http://www.asiancarp.org/rapidresponse/documents/AsianCarp.pdf. 21 See http://www.glfc.org/fishmgmt/carp.php. 22 Patrick M. Kocovsky, et al., “Thermal and Hydrologic Suitability of Lake Erie and Its Major Tributaries for Spawning of Asian Carps,” Journal of Great Lakes Research, v. 38, no. 1 (March 2012): 159-166. 23 Available at http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Csas-sccs/publications/resdocs-docrech/2011/2011_114-eng.pdf. 24 Cynthia S. Kolar and David M. Lodge, “Ecological Predictions and Risk Assessment for Alien Fishes in North America,” Science, vol. 298 (November 8, 2002), pp. 1233-1236. 18 Congressional Research Service 6 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Economic Concerns Recreational and commercial fisheries of the Great Lakes depend on fish populations that could be affected by Asian carp. The primary economic impacts of Asian carp are likely to be related to these fisheries, although concerns have also been raised about potential effects on recreational boating and hunting.25 Although the net effects are likely to be negative, it is also possible that the introduction of Asian carp to the Great Lakes may provide some utility, such as the development of new commercial and recreational fisheries.26 It has been widely reported that Great Lakes fisheries generate U.S. economic activity of approximately $7 billion annually.27 One should exercise caution in using this figure for assessing public policy alternatives or to make comparisons with the value of other economic sectors. The Great Lakes is composed of many fisheries, each specific to different water bodies, species, and groups of users. Asian carp are likely to affect each lake and areas within lakes to varying degrees because of different biological, chemical, and physical conditions. Anglers will be affected to different degrees depending on local ecological interactions and substitute angling opportunities. Measures of economic activity such as the $7 billion of economic impacts are only one dimension of economic analysis. The economic input-output studies of the recreational and boating sectors provided below cannot be used to estimate changes in social welfare,28 to assess trade-offs among public policy alternatives, or to conduct benefit-cost analysis. To more fully understand how society would be affected, valuation studies would be required to estimate the potential changes in social welfare resulting from Asian carp introduction. Although Asian carp introduction is likely to harm many Great Lakes fisheries, potential changes to ecosystems and the associated economy are not well understood. It is questionable whether accurate predictions of changes by lake, species, and associated fishery are possible. Potential changes resulting from species invasions are difficult to assess because of the underlying complexity of ecological and economic systems. Data and models required to make these assessments are not available and complete assessments would be costly and likely require years of research. The lack of definitive predictions does not mean that the effects of Asian carp introduction would not be significant or that managers should wait to assess the actual effects as Asian carp become established in the Great Lakes. Existing information related to Asian carp movement and population increases in the Mississippi Basin and the magnitude of recreational activities in the Great Lakes indicate that a major threat exists and the effects are likely to be significant. The economic contributions of recreational and commercial activities on state and regional economies of the Great Lakes region are significant. The economic input-output data cited below measure financial activities associated with the money people spend to buy goods and services on 25 According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Asian carp degrade waterfowl habitat and put waterfowl production areas at risk. Reductions of waterfowl populations could decrease hunting opportunities and associated economic impacts from hunting expenditures. 26 Dan Brannan, “Business Hopes to Sell Invasive Carp to Asians,” The Telegraph , March 14, 2010. 27 This discussion only considers the U.S. economy; Canadian fisheries and recreation might also be affected. See the later section “Canadian Concern.” 28 Social welfare is a measure of the well-being of society or of a community. Estimates of changes in social welfare determine whether society loses or gains from a given action. Congressional Research Service 7 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region their fishing trips. Expenditures at businesses that provide goods and services have direct, indirect, and induced effects on business revenues, jobs, and personal income in the local area and at the state level. This approach to assessing recreational fishing is the expenditure and economic impact approach. The following descriptions provide recent economic information, but do not consider the effects of Asian carp introduction. The Great Lakes’ recreational fisheries target perch, black bass, walleye, lake trout, salmon, pike, steelhead, and others. In 2006, approximately 1.5 million anglers fished 17.9 million recreational days on the Great Lakes.29 These anglers spent an estimated $1.2 billion during Great Lakes fishing trips and $1.3 billion on equipment for activities related to Great Lakes fishing.30 Economic impacts resulting from these expenditures included more than 58,000 jobs, salaries of $2.1 billion, and total impacts31 throughout the U.S. economy of slightly more than $7 billion.32 Great Lakes fisheries also support charter boat fishing businesses that provide recreational fishing services to anglers. In 2002, an estimated 1,746 charter firms made more than 93,000 charter trips in the Great Lakes region.33 Table 1 provides a breakdown of angling activity and economic impacts of recreational fishing by state. In 2008, Great Lakes commercial fishing produced 18.3 million pounds of fish with a landed value34 of nearly $17 million (Table 2).35 Commercial fisheries are important to many coastal communities, and except for Lake Erie, each lake supports tribal fisheries. Top species are lake whitefish, yellow perch, walleye, chubs, and smelt. For certain species, specific lakes contribute the bulk of commercial landings—including Lake Huron (60% of whitefish), Lake Erie (84% of yellow perch, and 94% of smelt), and Lake Michigan (80% of chubs).36 Record harvests occurred in 1899, when 120 million pounds were landed in the United States.37 Landings were dominated by lake herring and chubs (64 million pounds), lake trout (10 million pounds), and yellow perch (10 million pounds).38 Landings and value of commercial fisheries in the Great Lakes have declined dramatically because of factors such as invasive species, pollution, habitat degradation, overfishing, competition with imports, personal tastes and preferences, and regulatory changes. 29 U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, and U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, 2006 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation, Washington, DC, 2007. 30 Southwick Associates, Sportfishing in America: An Economic Engine and Conservation Powerhouse, American Sportfishing Association, Multistate Conservation Grant Program, 2007. Hereinafter cited as “Southwick Associates 2007.” 31 Total impacts include direct, indirect, and induced impacts as money is cycled through the economy, in this case as a result of expenditures on recreational fishing equipment and trips. 32 Southwick Associates 2007. 33 See http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/seagrant/FEE/05-504-Economics.pdf. 34 In this case, landed value is the amount paid to fishermen at the dock. 35 U.S. Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries of the United States 2008, Silver Spring, MD, July 2009. 36 Ronald E. Kinnunen, Great Lakes Commercial Fisheries, Michigan Sea Grant Extension, Marquette, MI, August 2003. 37 Norman S. Baldwin, Robert W. Saafeld, and Margaret A. Ross, et al., Commercial Fish Production in the Great Lakes 1867-1977, Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Technical Report No. 3, Ann Arbor, MI, September 1979. Hereinafter cited as Great Lakes Fishery Commission 1979. 38 Great Lakes Fishery Commission 1979. Congressional Research Service 8 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Table 1. Great Lakes Recreational Fishing Activity and Economic Impacts in 2006 States Anglers Days Fished Retail Sales (000s) Salaries (000s) Jobs Total Impact (000s) Illinois 56,000 728,000 $93,589 $55,158 1,511 $175,074 Indiana 46,000 759,000 $224,588 $117,321 4,170 $394,866 461,000 6,981,000 $562,654 $312,197 8,283 $1,001,641 Minnesota 48,000 272,000 NR NR NR NR New York 247,000 2,060,000 $213,174 $122,147 3,288 $369,194 Ohio 328,000 2,807,000 $480,482 $248,301 9,915 $801,817 85,000 598,000 $399,342 $213,921 5,200 $725,705 235,000 3,705,000 $315,336 $159,420 6,153 $528,274 1,506,000 17,910,000 $2,289,165 $1,228,465 38,520 $3,996,571 $2,524,266 $2,189,490 58,291 $7,089,230 Michigan Pennsylvania Wisconsin Totals (Great Lakes States) Totals (United States) Sources: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, and U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, 2006 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation, Washington, DC, 2007. Southwick Associates, Sportfishing in America: An Economic Engine and Conservation Powerhouse, American Sportfishing Association, Multistate Conservation Grant Program, 2007. Notes: Great Lakes fishing includes lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Ontario, Erie, and St. Clair, connecting waters, and fishing in tributaries for smelt, steelhead, and salmon. Minnesota economic impacts were not reported (NR) because of small sample size. Illinois (<10), Indiana, and Pennsylvania estimates should also be used with caution because of small sample sizes (10 to 30). Retail sales include trip and equipment expenditures. Equipment expenditures were prorated according to how and where equipment such as boats were used. United States totals include economic impacts outside Great Lakes states that resulted from trip and equipment expenditures for Great Lakes fishing. Table 2. Great Lakes Commercial Fishing Landings and Revenue in 2008 State Michigan Minnesota New York Ohio Pennsylvania Wisconsin Total Landings (pounds) Revenue 9,998,000 $7,448,000 318,000 $158,000 44,000 $65,000 4,493,000 $5,315,000 50,000 $140,000 3,376,000 $3,641,000 18,279,000 $16,767,000 Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries of the United States 2008, Silver Spring, MD, July 2009. p.6. There are 4.3 million boats registered in the Great Lakes states, and it has been estimated that 911,000 operate on the Great Lakes.39 When disturbed by a boat motor, silver carp may jump as high as 10 feet out of the water. In parts of the Mississippi River drainage, silver carp have caused injuries and damaged equipment when large fish have jumped into moving boats. Silver carp also 39 Great Lakes Commission, Great Lakes Recreational Boating’s Economic Punch, Ann Arbor, MI, 2004. Hereinafter cited as “Great Lakes Commission 2004.” Congressional Research Service 9 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region could injure boaters and water-skiers and detract from boating in the Great Lakes. As in the case of fisheries, predictions of the potential magnitude of economic effects on Great Lakes boating are not available. In 2004, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in partnership with the Great Lakes Commission undertook a study of recreational boating in the Great Lakes states. Recreational boaters spent approximately $9.8 billion during trips and $5.7 billion on craft in Great Lakes states.40 Economic results from these expenditures included more than 246,000 jobs and salaries of $6.5 billion. Table 3 provides economic measures of boating on Great Lakes states. The study found that a significant share of boating expenditures took place at Great Lakes marinas. It is also likely that a significant portion of boating expenditures are related to fishing activity. Table 3. Annual Economic Impact of Boating on Great Lakes States in 2003 (includes all registered boats and boating in Great Lakes states) State Boats (000s) Sales (000s) Jobs Salaries (000s) Illinois 360,252 $1,958,000 22,407 $678,000 Indiana 216,145 $2,203,000 30,437 $710,000 Michigan 953,554 $3,905,000 51,329 $1,342,000 Minnesota 845,094 $3,709,000 49,060 $1,247,000 New York 528,094 $2,749,000 28,901 $987,000 Ohio 413,048 $1,959,000 26,148 $656,000 Pennsylvania 355,235 $71,000 1,195 $24,000 Wisconsin 610,800 $2,493,000 36,640 $825,000 4,282,222 $19,047,000 246,117 $6,479,000 Total Source: Great Lakes Commission, Great Lakes Recreational Boating’s Economic Punch, Ann Arbor, MI, 2004. Social Concerns The introduction of Asian carp to the Great Lakes, potentially changing lake ecosystems from “salmon and trout dominated” to “carp dominated,” has the potential to damage the public image of these lakes and to lower the feeling of “well being” and pride of area residents.41 As such, the introduction of these species could reduce the social value of lake-related activities. The popularity of live Asian carp in some ethnic markets continues to stimulate illegal transport of these fish across state and international borders. In February 2012, Canadian border enforcement personnel intercepted the third illegal shipment of live Asian carp in two months and the fifth in a year. These fish allegedly originated from fish farms in the southern United States and were bound for Toronto.42 40 Great Lakes Commission 2004. For example, see John Schneider, “Asian Carp’s Threat Goes Far Beyond Economics,” Lansing State Journal, June 3, 2010; available at http://www.lansingstatejournal.com/article/20100603/COLUMNISTS09/6030341. 42 See http://www.eenews.net/Greenwire/print/2012/03/27/11. 41 Congressional Research Service 10 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region The Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) The Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) is a segment of the Illinois Waterway in northeastern Illinois and northwestern Indiana. The Illinois Waterway is a 327-mile channel running from Chicago to St. Louis. It is maintained at a minimum depth of 9 feet by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (hereinafter referred to as the Corps).43 It is the only navigable link between two of the largest freshwater drainage basins in the world, the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. The CAWS portion of the Illinois Waterway includes modified rivers, locks, canals and other structures that control the flow of water through the Chicago metropolitan area. It has recently received attention for its potential to provide a pathway for Asian carp to migrate from the Mississippi River and its tributaries into the Great Lakes. The system of projects comprising the CAWS is shown in Figure 5. Figure 5. Chicago Area Waterway System and Lake Michigan Source: Adapted by the Congressional Research Service, February 2010. 43 Although the Corps has the primary authority to maintain the CAWS for navigation, multiple federal, state, and local entities also possess authorities that must be considered in the context of management actions in the CAWS. Some of these entities include the state of Illinois, the Metropolitan Water and Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, the City of Chicago, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Coast Guard. Congressional Research Service 11 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Historically, an important geologic feature in the Chicago area’s watershed was the Chicago Portage. The Chicago Portage separated the drainage basins of the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes prior to modification of these waterways. These bodies of water were first artificially connected for navigation in 1848 through a privately constructed 97-mile canal connecting the Chicago River to the Illinois River. This canal, known as the Illinois and Michigan (I&M) Canal, was maintained for commercial use from 1848 to 1933. It was eventually replaced by the network of canals and locks that comprises the CAWS.44 Canals within the CAWS today include the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (or CSSC, completed in 1900), the North Shore Channel (completed in 1910) and the Cal-Sag Channel (completed in 1922). During construction of these canals, the flows of the Chicago River and the Calumet River were also permanently reversed away from Lake Michigan and toward the Mississippi River drainage basin through structural modifications and pumping.45 The altered flow of the rivers prevented sewage discharge into the canals from contaminating Chicago’s drinking water supply intakes on Lake Michigan. In recent years, the locks of the CAWS have become a focal point for those debating how to prevent invasive species (and specifically, Asian carp) encroachment between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. The Corps operates multiple lock sites that connect the CAWS to the Great Lakes, including the O’Brien Lock (on the Cal-Sag Channel) and the Chicago Lock (on the Chicago River; see Figure 5). Both of these locks include sluice gates operated by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRD) that can provide flood control in severe rainstorms.46 The MWRD independently owns and operates a third site (the Wilmette pumping station) on the North Shore Channel that directly connects the CAWS to the Great Lakes. The Corps also owns and operates the lock at Lockport Powerhouse and Lock, which is southwest of Chicago on the CSSC. (See Figure 5.) Due to its distance from the Great Lakes and the fact that the Corp’s electric fish barriers (see below section “Electric Barriers”) operate upstream on the CSSC, this third lock has not been as prominent in recent invasive species debates. The CAWS plays a significant role in the region’s commercial and recreational navigation, although estimates of the full economic value of the locks within the CAWS (in particular, O’Brien Lock) vary widely. The Chicago Lock, one of the country’s busiest locks for traffic, handled 36,256 vessels and conducted 11,599 lockages in 2008.47 The O’Brien Lock handled 17,532 vessels and conducted 6,310 lockages in 2008.48 While most of the traffic on the Chicago Lock is recreational, the transit of commodity-laden commercial barges is higher at O’Brien Lock, which allows for shippers to offload onto deepwater vessels.49 Statistics from the Corps 44 Today the I&M Canal remains open as a state park site. The I&M Canal’s potential to move Asian carp into other CAWS canals has been an additional item of discussion in recent invasive species debates. 45 The canal was designed to run southwest from Lake Michigan toward the Mississippi at a small gradient. 46 The Corps and the MWRD coordinate during severe rainstorms, and may open both the locks themselves and the sluice gates to allow for discharge of floodwaters into Lake Michigan to prevent flooding of downtown Chicago. This last occurred in 2008. 47 For additional information, see http://www.ndc.iwr.usace.army.mil/lpms/pdf/lpmsstat_v3.pdf. 48 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center, 2008. http://www.ndc.iwr.usace.army.mil/ lpms/lock2008web.htm. 49 Ibid. According to Corps statistics, approximately 6.8 million tons in bulk commodities transported through the O’Brien Lock in 2008, while 105,000 tons of commodities were transported through the Chicago Lock in 2008. For additional analysis of vessel movement and lockages based on Corps data, see Joel Brammeier, Irwin Polls, and Scudder Mackey, Preliminary Feasibility of Ecological Separation of the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes to Prevent the Transfer of Aquatic Invasive Species, Alliance for the Great Lakes, 2008 Project Completion Report, Chicago, IL, November 2008, pp. 50-55. Congressional Research Service 12 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region indicate that approximately 7 million tons worth of commodities move through O’Brien lock annually, including bulk quantities of sand and gravel, coal, and steel.50 Additional analysis, including a comparison of alternative means of freight transit, is necessary to fully understand the value of the locks to the region. In response to an estimate by the Corps that shippers saved approximately $192 million by using the O’Brien and Chicago locks in 2008 (or an addition of approximately $27 per ton of freight shipped), the state of Michigan commissioned a study which concluded that the locks are of considerably less value (thus any closure of locks would have a minimal impact). The Michigan study estimated that a shift from barge to overland shipping would result in additional costs of approximately $64 million-$69 million annually, or approximately $10 per ton.51 This study was criticized by the Illinois Chamber of Commerce, which published several academic critiques of the Michigan study, as well as a separate study estimating a much higher cost associated with lock closure.52 In contrast to the Michigan Study, the Illinois Chamber of Commerce study estimated a total cost of $530 million-$580 million annually over the next eight years for lock closure, and a net cost to the Chicago economy of $4.7 billion over a 20-year horizon.53 The two studies differ considerably in their treatment of several important assumptions, including those related to both direct and indirect costs for the transition to overland shipping in the areas around the locks. The studies have ramifications for ongoing actions to prevent Asian carp, including any decision by the federal government to permanently separate the drainage basins.54 Federal Response to Asian Carp Prior to 2010, Congress directed the Corps and other agencies to undertake several specific actions to block the downstream passage of Asian carp in the CAWS. This work was largely conducted by the Corps with planning coordination and funding from other agencies. Additionally, the federal government has been engaged in long-term, nationwide planning and management of Asian carp under authorities codified in the Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-646, as amended) and other statutes.55 These actions were conducted by the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force (ANS Task Force), chaired by the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with support provided by various other agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the Corps. 50 See U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterborne Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 2008, Part 3— Waterways and Harbors, Great Lakes, IWR-WCUS-08-03, Alexandria, VA, 2008. Available at http://www.iwr.usace.army.mil/ndc/wcsc/pdf/wcusgl08.pdf. 51 The study was included as an appendix to Michigan’s recent Supreme Court filing, and is available at http://www.michigan.gov/documents/ag/1-Appendix-Renewed_Motion_310133_7.pdf. For more information on this litigation, see the “Litigation” section of this report. 52 Documents available at http://www.ilchamber.org/lockclosingstudy.html. 53 Joseph P. Schwieterman, An Analysis of the Economic Effects of Terminating Operations at the Chicago River Controlling Works and the O’Brien Locks On the Chicago Area Waterway System, DePaul University, Chicago, IL, April 7, 2010, at http://www.ilchamber.org/documents/lockstudy/ DePaul%20University%20Study%20on%20Terminating%20Lock%20Operations.pdf. 54 The status of the federal efforts to study this issue is discussed in the below section “Asian Carp Control Strategy Framework.” 55 16 U.S.C. § 4701. Congressional Research Service 13 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Due to the increasing profile of Asian carp and its potential establishment in the Great Lakes, efforts to impede the spread of Asian carp have intensified over time. The White House prioritized the issue in early 2010 with the White House Commission on Environmental Quality (CEQ) announcement of a forum of Great Lakes governors and a suite of new actions to control Asian carp. Total federal funding for Asian carp activities since the announcement of the framework has exceeded $175 million, with much of this funding derived from the EPA Great Lakes Restoration Initiative. Response Efforts in the CAWS Electric Barriers In the National Invasive Species Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-332), Congress directed the Corps and the ANS Task Force to investigate environmentally sound methods to prevent the dispersal of aquatic nuisance species from the Great Lakes into the Mississippi River drainage.56 In response, an advisory panel of federal, state, local, and international representatives (known as the Dispersal Barrier Panel) recommended an electronic dispersal barrier demonstration project at the southwestern end of the CSSC north of Lockport Powerhouse and Lock (see Figure 5) as the preferred short-term method to stop the movement of invasive species through the CAWS.57 This type of barrier uses steel cables secured to the bottom of the canal to create a pulsating field of electricity that discourages fish from passing. It was selected based on projected cost, likelihood of success, environmental impacts, commercial availability, permit requirements, and effect on existing canal uses. The barrier was completed in 2001 and became operational in 2002.58 This barrier experiences occasional power outages,59 raising concerns that Asian carp might use these opportunities to migrate through the area. Around the same time the dispersal barrier became operational, rapid upstream encroachment of Asian carp toward Lake Michigan was becoming a management concern for the Fish and Wildlife Service. As a result, the demonstration barrier became the default method to prevent short-term encroachment for Asian carp. Based on subsequent experience and testing, the Dispersal Barrier Panel determined that the demonstration barrier should be upgraded into a stronger, more permanent barrier (Barrier I), and that construction of a second large barrier (Barrier II) would provide additional protection through redundancy in the barrier system. These recommendations were subsequently authorized by Congress.60 56 The waters of the CAWS were widely noted to be polluted and oxygen-deprived through the early 1980s. These conditions likely prevented the spread of aquatic species through the area over the earlier history of the CAWS. Recent efforts to clean up the waterway have also made possible the survival of many species in the area, including invasive species. 57 16 U.S.C. § 4722(i)(3). Although the barrier was authorized and designed to repel multiple aquatic invasive species, the primary goal of the original barrier was to impede the downstream movement of round goby from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River basin. Because of funding and construction delays, the demonstration barrier was not operational in time to prevent this movement, and round goby were found downstream of the barrier site in 1999. 58 A full history of the demonstration barrier, including the rationale for the preferred barrier technology, is available at http://www.seagrant.wisc.edu/ais/default.aspx?tabid=1543. 59 For example, see http://www.brown.senate.gov/newsroom/press/release/after-electronic-asian-carp-barriers-failbrown-renews-call-for-permanent-hydrological-separation_to-prevent-invasive-species-from-reaching-lake-erie. 60 The demonstration barrier was originally authorized in the National Invasive Species Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-332) and its funding level was increased in Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Hurricane Recovery, 2006 (P.L. 109-234). Funding for Barrier II was first provided as an environmental restoration (continued...) Congressional Research Service 14 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Preliminary repairs to Barrier I were completed in October 2008, and the Corps plans to make Barrier I permanent and enhance its operating parameters after Barrier II is complete. Barrier II is located approximately 800 feet downstream from Barrier I, and has two sets of electrical arrays (known as Barriers IIA and IIB). Construction of Barrier IIA began in 2004, and this part of the barrier became permanently operational in 2009 at a total cost of approximately $10 million. Barrier IIB was completed in 2010, at a cost of approximately $13 million.61 In recent budget requests, the Corps has estimated the cost to operate these barriers at approximately $7.25 million per year.62 Federal agencies have also coordinated rapid response activities to supplement the barrier protection system through the Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee (ACRCC), formed in 2009.63 The ACRCC, led by Council on Environmental Quality, includes representatives from federal agencies, as well as some state and local government organizations. To date, the most visible action by the committee have been chemical treatments on the CSSC (December 1-7, 2009) and the Little Calumet River (May 20-27, 2010). For the CSSC action, more than 450 individuals were involved in the mass rotenone treatment of a 5.7-mile stretch of the CSSC while Barrier IIA was taken down for scheduled maintenance. This effort located a single bighead carp, 500 feet above the Lockport Powerhouse and Lock and downstream from the electric barriers.64 Other Prevention in the CAWS In addition to building the electrical barriers, in §3061 of WRDA 2007 Congress directed the Corps to study other means to prevent the spread of Asian carp through the CAWS, including the range of options for technologies to prevent passage beyond the electrical barriers.65 In recent appropriations acts, Congress has generally extended the authority for the Corps to implement these emergency actions, which relate to a number of studies by the Corps that are completed or in progress:66 • Interim Report I recommended a network of concrete and chain link barricades to deter fish passage over the Des Plaines River during flooding or through culverts (...continued) project under WRDA 1986 (P.L. 99-662, §1135) in 2002 and required a local cost sharing partner. The project was subsequently authorized at a level of $9 million in the District of Columbia Appropriations Act, 2005 (P.L. 108-335, § 345). In WRDA 2007 (P.L. 110-114, §3061), Congress consolidated the multiple authorizations for barrier construction and authorized the Corps to permanently operate both barriers at a 100% federal cost. 61 Personal Communication with Charles Shea, Dispersal Barrier Project Director, Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District, February 24, 2010. 62 Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army, FY 2011 Civil Works Budget for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers., Washington, DC, February 2010, p. LRD-132. 63 See http://www.asiancarp.us/. 64 Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Bighead Asian Carp Found in Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, December 3, 2009. Available at http://dnr.state.il.us/pubaffairs/2009/December/asianCarp3Dec2009.htm. At the time, this finding was significant for its confirmation of Asian carp presence in the CSSC. In June 2010, a fish was discovered upstream of the barriers in Lake Calumet. For more information, see “Asian Carp Control Strategy Framework” section. 65 See 121 Stat. 1121. The Corps is studying four areas in this regard: optimal operating parameters for the barriers, ANS barrier bypass, ANS human transfer, and ANS abundance reduction. 66 Most recently, Congress extended the Corps emergency authorities in §105 of the enacted appropriations bill for FY2012 (P.L. 112-74). Congressional Research Service 15 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region connecting the CSSC to the I&M canal.67 This project was built with approximately $13 million in funding and was completed in 2010. • Interim Report II includes Report IIA, which studied optimal operating parameters for the electrical barriers and was completed in 2011, and Report IIB, which is in progress and will be used to improve barrier operations along with Report IIA. • Interim Report III explored how locks and other structures could be operated to minimize the likelihood of Asian carp infestation. This study concluded that partial changes in operating parameters would not be beneficial in slowing Asian carp migration; however, the Corps installed fish screens on certain sluice gates and modified operations to provide lock closure during chemical and other control efforts in response to this study.68 • Interim Report IIIa focused on other deterrent measures to prevent Asian carp migration into the Great Lakes.69 The study was completed in July 2010, but the Corps currently lacks authority to implement its recommendations, including an acoustic bubble curtain demonstration project. Monitoring The Corps and other agencies, including the FWS, EPA, and USGS, have contributed resources toward monitoring efforts to evaluate the presence and movements of Asian carp in the CAWS. In addition to conventional sampling methods such as electrofishing and netting, the Corps worked with the University of Notre Dame to conduct an experimental fish sampling method known as environmental DNA (eDNA) testing. This method filters water samples, then extracts fragments of shed DNA to search for genetic markers unique to Asian carp.70 While few Asian carp have been located upstream of the barriers using conventional sampling methods, an increasing number of positive eDNA test results for silver carp from multiple locations upstream suggest that they may be present on the lake side of the barriers. In addition, recent reports indicate positive DNA test results for both silver and bighead carp from Lake Erie.71 A 2013 study by the Corps, 67 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers—Chicago District, Interim I Dispersal Barrier Bypass Risk Reduction Study & Integrated Environmental Assessment, Final Report, Chicago, IL, January 2010. Available at http://www.lrc.usace.army.mil/pao/ANS_DispersalBarrierEfficacyStudy_Interim_I_FINAL.pdf. 68 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers—Chicago District, Interim III Dispersal Barrier Efficacy Study: Modified Structures and Operations, Illinois and Chicago Area Waterways, Risk Reduction Study and Integrated Environmental Assessment, Final Report, Chicago, IL, June 2, 2010. p iii. Available at http://www.lrc.usace.army.mil/pao/ 02June2010_InterimIII.pdf. Notably, the Corps did not consider extended lock closure (i.e., more than two months) under this study. 69 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers—Chicago District, Interim IIIA Dispersal Barrier Efficacy Study: Modified Fish Dispersal Deterrents, Illinois and Chicago Waterways Risk Reduction Study and Integrated Environmental Assessment, Chicago, IL, April 2010. Available at http://www.lrc.usace.army.mil/pao/02June2010_InterimIIIA.pdf. 70 An audit of eDNA methodology by EPA in February 2010 concluded that the technique is sufficiently reliable and robust in reporting a pattern of detection that should be considered actionable in a management context. See U.S. Congress, House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment, Statement of Professor David Lodge, Director, Center for Aquatic Conservation, hearing on Asian Carp and the Great Lakes, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., February 8, 2010. Appendix: Laboratory Audit Report, Lodge Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame. See also Christopher L. Jerde, et al., “Sight-Unseen Detection of Rare Aquatic Species Using Environmental DNA,” Conservation Letters, v. 4, no. 2 (April/May 2011): 150-157. 71 See http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/asian-carp-dna-found-year-lake-erie-samples-16775132. Congressional Research Service 16 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region FWS, and the USGS analyzed potential alternative sources for these positive eDNA samples (other than live fish) and concluded that a number of sources could potentially lead to positive samples.72 Coordination, Other Pathways Nationwide Asian Carp Management Separate from efforts focusing on short-term prevention and other actions in the CAWS, the ANS task force has studied and initiated a number of nationwide management actions through its Asian Carp Working Group. Beginning around 2001, the working group requested and co-funded USGS risk assessments of multiple Asian carp species that found a high potential for black, silver, and bighead carp to become established in the United States.73 In response to these findings, FWS listed black and silver carp as injurious under the Lacey Act in 2007.74 On December 7, 2010, the President signed P.L. 111-307, which listed bighead carp as injurious under the Lacey Act. Also in 2007, FWS authored a study, Management and Control Plan for Bighead, Black, Grass, and Silver Carps in the United States, produced in collaboration with federal and non-federal stakeholders. The final plan outlines seven broad goals (divided into 133 short- and long-term recommendations) that would contribute to a goal of extermination of wild Asian carp. Recommendations in that report included a wide array of methods, including methods to stop Asian carp encroachment such as electric barriers, bubble curtains, and sonic barriers. Asian Carp Control Strategy Framework Several developments raised the profile of the Asian carp issue and led to White House involvement in control efforts. As previously mentioned, eDNA testing in 2009 and 2010 indicated that Asian carp are potentially present at multiple locations upstream of the electric barriers. Additionally, in June 2010 the Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee announced the capture of a live bighead carp at Lake Calumet (upstream of the electric barriers, between O’Brien Lock and Lake Michigan) by a fisherman under contract with the Illinois Department of 72 The study, known as “ECALS,” mentioned runoff from fish markets, fertilizers, fisheries gear, and bird droppings, among other things, as potential alternative sources for positive eDNA samples. See Dr. Richard Fischer et al., Environmental DNA Calibration Study, Interim Technical Review Report, February 2013. Available at http://www.asiancarp.us/documents/ECALS_INTERIM.pdf. 73 See Leo G. Nico and J. D. Williams, Black Carp: A Biological Synopsis and Updated Risk Assessment, U.S. Geological Survey, Final Report to the Risk Assessment and Management Committee of the ANSTF., Gainesville, FL, 2001, available at http://www.fisheries.org/html/publications/catbooks/x51032C.shtml; and C. S. Kolar, D. C. Chapman, and W. R. Courtenay et al., Asian Carps of the Genus Hypophthalmichthys (Pisces, Cyprinidae):A Biological Synopsis and Environmental Risk Assessment, U.S. Geological Survey, Report to the Fish and Wildlife Service, LaCrosse, WI, 2005, available at http://www.fws.gov/contaminants/OtherDocuments/ ACBSRAFinalReport2005.pdf. 74 The Lacey Act, 16 U.S.C. §§ 3371-3378, makes it unlawful to import, export, sell, acquire, or purchase fish, wildlife or plants taken, possessed, transported, or sold (1) in violation of U.S. or Indian law or (2) in interstate or foreign commerce involving any fish, wildlife, or plants taken, possessed or sold in violation of state or foreign law. Under this law, designated injurious species are identified at 50 C.F.R. § 16. See also http://www.anstaskforce.gov/Documents/ Injurious_Wildlife_Fact_Sheet_2007.pdf. Congressional Research Service 17 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Natural Resources.75 The finding was significant, as it represented the first live Asian carp located upstream of the barriers.76 In response to these events, in 2010 the White House convened a Summit for Great Lakes governors on the threat of Asian carp. This meeting focused on defining strategies to combat the spread of Asian carp and improving coordination and effective response across all levels of government. At this summit, the Obama Administration unveiled a framework, known as the Asian Carp Control Strategy Framework (referred to here as the framework).77 The framework was subsequently finalized and has been updated to report on new actions and funding over each of the last three years. The original FY2010 framework built on the existing work by federal agencies (including barrier operations and monitoring) and outlined future actions and new funding sources to eliminate the threat of Asian carp in the Great Lakes. Many of the new expenditures at the time were funded through transfers from the Environmental Protection Agency’s Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI). Subsequent frameworks for FY2011 and FY2012 have included less funding overall, including less funding from the GLRI. Major actions that have been funded in these frameworks include targeted monitoring and assessment above and below the electric barrier system, commercial harvesting and removal action below the barrier system, barrier action and waterway separation measures, the Great Lakes Mississippi River Interbasin Study (see below section, “GLMRIS Study”), research and technology development, eDNA analysis and refinement, nonfederal funding opportunities, and other support activities. Overall funding levels as reported in the frameworks are shown below in Table 4. Table 4. Asian Carp Control Strategy Framework: GLRI and Base Funding (totals rounded to the nearest million) FY2010 FY2011 FY2012 Agency “Base” Funding $21 million $20 million $32 million GLRI Funding $58 million $26 million $19 million Total Funding $79 million $46 million $52 million Source: Asian Carp Regional Control Frameworks for 2010, 2011, and 2012. GLMRIS Study The most prominent of long-term Asian carp prevention options has been the potential separation of the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins, both in Chicago and in other areas, so as to prevent all interbasin movement of aquatic nuisance species.78 Permanent hydrologic separation of the basins in the Chicago area would make further encroachment of Asian carp in that area 75 See http://asiancarp.org/Wordpress/news/bighead-asian-carp-found-in-chicago-area-waterway-system/. Subsequently, no live fish have been located. 77 See Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee, FY2012 Asian Carp Control Strategy Framework, February 2012. Available at http://www.asiancarp.us/documents/2012Framework.pdf. 78 See also Jerry L. Rasmussen, et al., “Dividing the Waters: The Case for Hydrologic Separation of the North American Great Lakes and Mississippi River Basins,” Journal of Great Lakes Research, v. 37, no. 3 (Sept 2011): 588592. 76 Congressional Research Service 18 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region unlikely, but would involve significant changes to existing navigation structures and operations in the CAWS. Efforts to separate other areas of potential encroachment between the two basins would likely be even more costly, and would require significant modifications and construction throughout the region. The Corps began a study in 2010, known as known as the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study (GLMRIS), to evaluate potential options, including hydrologic separation, to prevent or reduce the spread of aquatic invasive species between the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins. At the time, the Corps cited general Asian carp prevention study authorization under §345 of WRDA 2007 (P.L. 110-114) as providing authorization for the study. Congress subsequently provided additional authorization and guidance for GLMRIS in MAP-21 (P.L. 112141), enacted on July 6, 2012.79 According to the Obama Administration, the technologies to be considered under GLMRIS will include but are not limited to physical separation, as well as temporary or permanent lock closure.80 In response to the requirements enacted in P.L. 112-141, the Administration announced that it will release an interim GLMRIS report by December 2013. That report is expected to provide summary information and options to inform further study, but would not make a recommendation on a single alternative.81 As of early 2013, the full GLMRIS study was expected to be conducted in two phases: Focus Area I, expected to be completed in 2015, is to study and recommend an alternative for the CAWS. Focus Area II, with an unknown completion date, is to concentrate on other pathways. Total estimated costs for both studies have previously been estimated at $25.5 million.82 Upper Mississippi River Prevention Some have expressed concern that Asian carp could continue north on the Mississippi River and its tributaries and damage ecosystems in the Upper Mississippi. Section 5016 of WRDA 2007 authorized the Corps to study and construct a project to prevent dispersal of aquatic nuisance species into the northern reaches of the Upper Mississippi River system. However, to date the project has not received federal funding. Legislation in the 113th Congress would authorize other means to prevent aquatic invasive species encroachment, potentially to include lock operation limits and closure. (See below section, “Legislation.”) Litigation The apparent ecological and economic threat posed by the migration of Asian carp into the Great Lakes via the CAWS has prompted litigation to prevent such risks. Several Great Lakes states, particularly Michigan, have pursued a number of legal options, seeking court orders to restrict the entry of Asian carp into Lake Michigan and the Great Lakes generally. 79 See P.L. 110-114, §345, and P.L. 112-141, §1538. The latter authorization, which was enacted on July 6, 2012, directed the Corps to complete the portion of the study focusing on the CAWS within 18 months of enactment. 80 2011 Framework, p. 22. 81 See http://glmris.anl.gov/faq/index.cfm. 82 Assuming enactment of its FY2012 request for this study, the Corps projects $17.8 million remains to complete the study after FY2012. See FY2012 Budget Justifications, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, p. LRD-70. Available at http://www.usace.army.mil/CECW/PID/Documents/j_sheets/just_2012.pdf. Congressional Research Service 19 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region In December 2009, Michigan petitioned the U.S. Supreme Court to amend its 1967 decree regarding diversion of water between Lake Michigan and the Illinois Waterway, including the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal.83 With the support of other Great Lakes state and regional governments, Michigan sought an order from the Court that would declare the operation of diversion facilities within the CAWS to be a public nuisance that threatened natural resources and allowed the introduction of invasive species into Lake Michigan.84 Michigan also requested that the Court order Illinois, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago to prevent the spread of Asian carp into the lake by closing shipping locks and taking other necessary measures to prevent the carp from entering Lake Michigan.85 Without comment, the Court denied Michigan’s requests.86 In February 2010, Michigan renewed its motion and requested that the Court reconsider an order to close the Chicago-area locks based on new evidence showing Asian carp to be present in Lake Michigan.87 The Court again denied Michigan’s motion without comment.88 After a live Asian carp was found beyond the electric barrier in the summer of 2010, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin sued the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRD) in federal district court, seeking similar remedial measures as they requested in their attempt to amend the Supreme Court’s 1967 decree. The states sought an order compelling the Corps and MWRD to abate the public nuisance created by the migration of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, to minimize the risk of migration from the CAWS to Lake Michigan, and to implement permanent measures to separate Illinois waters from Lake Michigan.89 The court rejected each of the proposed remedial measures, noting a lack of consensus on the extent of the threat and the efficacy of the proposed solutions.90 It held that the discovery of a live fish above the barrier did not prove that the barrier had failed and noted that the cause of the introduction of the fish to that particular section of the waterway was not known.91 The court emphasized “its recognition that the potential harm in a 83 Motion to Reopen and For a Supplemental Decree, Petition, and Brief and Appendix in Support of Motion, Wisconsin v. Illinois, 388 U.S. 426 (1967), available at http://www.supremecourt.gov/SpecMastRpt/ Orig%201,%202%20&%203%20Motion%20to%20Reopen.pdf. The Court’s 1967 decree controls the diversion of water from Lake Michigan into the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and provides that any of the parties to the disputes resolved by the decree may petition the Court to modify the decree or issue a supplemental decree for issues that would affect the operation of the waterway. Wisconsin, 388 U.S. at 430. 84 Mot. to Reopen at 1-2. Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Wisconsin, and the Canadian Province of Ontario filed briefs in support of Michigan’s request. 85 Motion for Preliminary Injunction at 29-30, Wisconsin v. Illinois, 388 U.S. 426. 86 Wisconsin v. Illinois, Nos. 1, 2, and 3, Orig., 130 S.Ct. 1166 (Jan. 19, 2010) (order denying Michigan’s motion for preliminary injunction); Wisconsin v. Illinois, Nos. 1, 2, and 3, Orig., 130 S.Ct. 2397 (Apr. 26, 2010) (order denying Michigan’s motion to reopen and for supplemental decree). 87 Renewed Motion for Preliminary Injunction, Wisconsin v. Illinois, 388 U.S. 426, available at http://www.supremecourt.gov/SpecMastRpt/1-Renewed%20Motion%20for%20PI.pdf. 88 Wisconsin v. Illinois, Nos. 1, 2, and 3, Orig., 130 S.Ct. 1934 (Mar. 22, 2010) (order denying Michigan’s renewed motion for preliminary injunction). 89 Complaint for Injunctive and Declaratory Relief at 2, Michigan v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, No. 1:10-cv-04457 (N.D. Ill. July 19, 2010). 90 Michigan v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, No. 1:10-cv-04457, 11-21 (filed Dec. 2, 2010), available at http://www.greatlakeslaw.org/files/dist_ct_pi_opinion_order.pdf. 91 Id. at 49-50 (“the presence of a single live fish (or a small number of individual live fish) above the barrier is far too thin a basis from which to infer that the barrier is not effective”). Congressional Research Service 20 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region worst case scenario is great” but concluded that “the level of certainty of harm is low based on the evidence adduced to date.”92 Canadian Concern For many decades, the United States and Canada have conducted a major cooperative program to deal with the consequences arising from the introduction of the non-native sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, to the Great Lakes. Through the Great Lakes Fishery Commission, the governments of the United States and Canada, together with neighboring states and provinces, spend millions of dollars annually to control this invasive parasite and limit its damage to sport and commercial fisheries. Canada has assessed the risks posed by the introduction of Asian carp,93 concluding that the risk of impact would be high in some parts of Canada, including the southern Great Lakes basin, by the four species of Asian carp. Canada is currently addressing these concerns through its participation in the bilateral Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Congressional Interest As previously mentioned, Section 5, Title I, of P.L. 111-85 directed the Corps to implement additional measures to prevent aquatic nuisance species from bypassing the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal Dispersal Barrier Project and to prevent aquatic nuisance species from dispersing into the Great Lakes. The 111th Congress held several hearings on Asian carp. On February 9, 2010, the House Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment held a hearing on Asian carp in the Great Lakes. On February 25, 2010, the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Water and Power held a hearing to examine the science and policy behind efforts to prevent the introduction of Asian carp into the Great Lakes. On July 14, 2010, the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Water and Power held an oversight hearing to examine the federal response to the discovery of Asian carp in Lake Calumet, Illinois. Legislation In the 112th Congress, Division B, Section 105, of P.L. 112-74 authorized the Corps of Engineers to implement emergency measures to exclude Asian carp from the Great Lakes, and Section 1538 of P.L. 112-141 authorized expedited completion of parts of the GLMRIS study (see above section, “GLMRIS Study”). In the 113th Congress, H.R. 358 and S. 125 would authorize multiple agencies to conduct efforts to control and eventually eliminate the spread of Asian carp, while H.R. 985 would designate the Secretary of the Army as the lead coordinator for federal Asian carp prevention efforts in the Great Lakes and surrounding areas and authorize the Corps to carry out other projects to prevent the spread of Asian carp. H.R. 709 and S. 365 would authorize the Army 92 93 Id. at 54, 61. Available at http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/DocREC/2004/RES2004_103_E.pdf. Congressional Research Service 21 Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region Corps of Engineers to take actions to manage Asian carp traveling up the Mississippi River in the state of Minnesota.94 Author Contact Information Eugene H. Buck Specialist in Natural Resources Policy gbuck@crs.loc.gov, 7-7262 Charles V. Stern Specialist in Natural Resources Policy cstern@crs.loc.gov, 7-7786 Harold F. Upton Analyst in Natural Resources Policy hupton@crs.loc.gov, 7-2264 Cynthia Brougher Legislative Attorney cbrougher@crs.loc.gov, 7-9121 94 See previous section, “Upper Mississippi River Prevention.” Congressional Research Service 22