Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections Barbara Salazar Torreon Information Research Specialist March 12, 2013 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov 98-684 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections Table 1. South America Country Independence Date Head of Government Last Election Next Election Argentina July 9, 1816 FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER, Cristina Oct. 23, 2011 Oct. 2015 Bolivia Aug. 6, 1825 MORALES, Evo Dec. 6, 2009 Dec. 2014 Brazil Sept. 7, 1822 ROUSSEFF, Dilma Oct. 3, 2010/ Oct. 31, 2010 Oct. 2014 Chile Sept. 18, 1810 PIÑERA, Sebastián Dec. 13, 2009/ Jan. 17, 2010 Nov. 17, 2013 Colombia July 20, 1810 SANTOS, Juan Manuel May 30, 2010/June 20, 2010 May 2014 Ecuador May 24, 1822 CORREA, Rafael Feb. 17, 2013 Feb. 2017 Guyana May 26, 1966 RAMOTAR, Donald Nov. 28, 2011 by Nov. 2016 Paraguay May 14, 1811 FRANCO, Federicoa Apr. 20, 2008 Apr. 21, 2013 Peru July 28, 1821 HUMALA, Ollanta Apr. 10, 2011/June 5, 2011 (2nd round) Apr. 2016 Suriname Nov. 25, 1975 BOUTERSE, Desicb May 25, 2010 May 2015 Uruguay Aug. 25, 1825 MUJICA, José Oct. 25, 2009/ Nov. 29, 2009 Oct. 2014 Venezuela July 5, 1811 MADURO, Nicolásc Oct. 7, 2012 April 14 2013 Source: The Congressional Research Service (CRS). a. Fernando Lugo, elected Paraguay’s President on April 20, 2008, was impeached by Paraguay’s Congress on June 22, 2012, and succeeded by Vice President Federico Franco. The rapid impeachment process raised concern about President Lugo’s due process, and created tensions with several countries in the region. Two regional bodies, the Common Market of the South (Mercosur) and the Union of South American Nations (Unasur), suspended Paraguay’s participation. b. Suriname held National Assembly elections on May 25, 2010, but under Suriname’s system of government, the country’s president is not elected directly by voters, but by a two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly (or failing that, by a majority of the United People’s Assembly comprised of more than 800 regional and municipal officials). On July 19, 2010, the National Assembly elected Desi Bouterse as president, with 36 out of 51 votes. c. President Hugo Chávez died on March 5, 2013. His term lasted February 2, 1999 - March 5, 2013. Vice President Nicolás Maduro was sworn in as acting president on March 8. The country’s constitution calls for an election within 30 day. Venezuela will hold a special election on April 14, 2013. Table 2. Mexico and Central America Country Independence Date Head of Government Last Election Next Election Mexico Sept. 16, 1810 PEÑA NIETO, Enriquea July 1, 2012 July 2018 Belize Sept. 21, 1981 BARROW, Dean Mar. 7, 2012 by June 2017 Costa Rica Sept. 15, 1821 CHINCHILLA Miranda, Laura Feb. 7, 2010 Feb. 2014 El Salvador Sept. 15, 1821 FUNES, Mauricio Mar. 15, 2009 Mar. 2014 Congressional Research Service 1 Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections Independence Date Country Head of Government Last Election Next Election Guatemala Sept. 15, 1821 PÉREZ MOLINA, Otto Sept. 11, 2011/ Nov. 6, 2011 Sept. 2015 Honduras Sept. 15, 1821 LOBO SOSA, Porfirio Nov. 29, 2009 Nov. 10, 2013 Nicaragua Sept. 15, 1821 ORTEGA, Daniel Nov. 6, 2011 Nov. 2016 Panama Nov. 3, 1903 MARTINELLI, Ricardo May 3, 2009 May 2014 Source: CRS. a. Enrique Peña Nieto won Mexico’s presidential election on July 1, 2012. He took office on Dec. 1, 2012. Table 3. Caribbean Country Independence Date Head of Government Last Election Next Election Antigua and Barbuda Nov. 1, 1981 SPENCER, Baldwin Mar. 12, 2009 by July 2014 Bahamas July 10, 1973 CHRISTIE, Perry May 7, 2012 by May 2017 Barbados Nov. 30, 1966 STUART, Freundela Feb. 21, 2013 by Feb. 2018 Cuba May 20, 1902 CASTRO RUZ, Raúl b b Dominica Nov. 3, 1978 SKERRITT, Roosevelt Dec. 18, 2009 Dec. 2014 Dominican Republic Feb. 27, 1844 MEDINA, Danilo May 20, 2012 May 2016 Grenada Feb. 7, 1974 MITCHELL, Keith Feb. 19, 2013 Feb. 2018 Haiti Jan. 1, 1804 MARTELLY, Michel Nov. 28, 2010/ Mar. 20, 2011 late 2015 Jamaica Aug. 6, 1962 SIMPSON MILLER, Portia Dec. 29, 2011 by December 2016 St. Kitts and Nevis Sept. 19, 1983 DOUGLAS, Denzil Jan. 25, 2010 by Jan. 2015 St. Lucia Feb. 22, 1979 ANTHONY, Kenny Nov. 28, 2011 by Nov. 2016 St. Vincent and the Grenadines Oct. 27, 1979 GONSALVES, Ralph Dec. 13, 2010 by Dec. 2015 Trinidad and Tobago Aug. 31, 1962 CARMONA, Anthony Feb. 15, 2013 by Feb. 2018 Source: CRS. a. Freundel Stuart was selected as prime minister on October 23, 2010, following the death of Prime Minister David Thompson. Stuart was elected on Feb. 21, 2013. b. On February 24, 2008, Raúl Castro was selected by Cuba’s legislature as president of the Council of State, a position that makes him head of state and government. Raúl had been serving as acting president since July 31, 2006, when Cuba’s long-serving communist leader, Fidel Castro, stepped down provisionally because of poor health. Since the 1959 Cuban Revolution, there have been no elections for head of government. Congressional Research Service 2 Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections Author Contact Information Barbara Salazar Torreon Information Research Specialist btorreon@crs.loc.gov, 7-8996 Acknowledgments Mark P. Sullivan, CRS specialist in Latin American Affairs, was the former author of this report. Congressional Research Service 3