First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresses Jennifer E. Manning Information Research Specialist R. Eric Petersen Specialist in American National Government January 25, 2013 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41283 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Summary This report provides summary data on the number of Senators and Members of the House of Representatives who first entered Congress between the 64th Congress (1915-1917) and the 113th Congress (2013-2014). First-term membership is divided into two broad categories in each chamber: Members chosen prior to the convening of a Congress, and those chosen after a Congress convenes. The resulting data, combining pre-convening and post-convening first-term Members, provide a count of all Members who served a first term in the House or Senate. Since the convening of the 64th Congress, 4,126 individuals have entered the House of Representatives for their first, or “freshman,” terms as Representatives. An additional 26 have begun service as Delegates or Resident Commissioners. During the same period, 825 individuals began their first terms in the Senate. Data on pre-convening first-term Members provide partial insight into the extent of membership turnover in the House and Senate since 1915. In both chambers, the data suggest that the overall number of first-term Members elected to Congress who take their seats at the convening of a new Congress has declined since the 64th Congress. This appears to be consistent with findings that argue that the duration of Members’ careers has been increasing in the past century. Taken on their own, post-convening first-term Member data do not reveal clear patterns within individual Congresses, or over time. This is due in part to the wide range of reasons that a seat in the House and Senate may become vacant in the course of a Congress, and the circumstances under which it may be filled. Congressional Research Service First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Contents Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 1 Turnover........................................................................................................................................... 3 House Turnover ......................................................................................................................... 3 Senate Turnover ......................................................................................................................... 4 Data Tables ...................................................................................................................................... 6 Figures Figure 1. House of Representatives, Change in Pre-Convening, First-Term Membership, 64th-113th Congresses .................................................................................................................... 3 Figure 2. Senate, Change in Pre-Convening, First-Term Membership, 64th-113th Congresses ..................................................................................................................... 5 Tables Table 1. House of Representatives, Greatest Change in Pre-Convening, First-Term Membership, 64th-113th Congresses .............................................................................................. 4 Table 2. House of Representatives, Least Change in Pre-Convening, First-Term Membership, 64th-113th Congresses .............................................................................................. 4 Table 3. Senate, Greatest Change in First-Term, Pre-Convening Membership, 64th-113th Congresses .................................................................................................................................... 5 Table 4. Senate, Least Change in First-Term, Pre-Convening Membership, 64th-113th Congresses .................................................................................................................................... 6 Table 5. Membership Change in the House and Senate, 64th-113th Congresses .............................. 6 Table 6. First-Term Senators, 64th – 113th Congresses ..................................................................... 9 Table 7. First-Term Representatives, 64th – 113th Congresses ....................................................... 12 Table 8. Members of the House Serving a First Term as Delegates or Resident Commissioner, 64th-113th Congresses ......................................................................................... 15 Contacts Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 16 Acknowledgments ......................................................................................................................... 17 Congressional Research Service First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Introduction This report provides summary data on the number of Senators and Members of the House who first entered Congress between the 64th Congress (1915-1917) and the 113th Congress (20132014).1 Since the convening of the 64th Congress, 4,126 individuals have entered the House of Representatives for their first, or “freshman,” terms as a Representative. An additional 26 have begun service as a Delegate or Resident Commissioner. During the same period, 825 individuals began their first terms in the Senate.2 First-term membership is divided into two broad categories in each chamber; Members chosen prior to the convening of a Congress, and those chosen after a Congress convenes. The “preconvening” category includes Members who were elected in the general election, and in any special elections held prior to the convening of a Congress.3 The 64th Congress was chosen as the starting point for data collection because it was the first Congress for which Senators were chosen by direct popular election. This provides a single date upon which most Members in both chambers are chosen to serve prior to the convening of a Congress. In the Senate,4 the preconvening category also includes any Senators who were appointed to the Senate prior to the convening of a new Congress.5 The “post-convening” category includes Members who joined either chamber after the convening of a Congress. Means by which seats may be filled by a post-convening Member in either chamber include special elections held after a Congress convenes6 or electoral challenges that result in a new Member being seated.7 In the Senate, a first-term Member may also join the chamber through appointment or special election.8 1 Data for the 113th Congress are current as of the date of publication. 2 Detailed data identifying the number of first-term Members of the House and Senate by name, chamber, Congress, party, and timing of election (House and Senate) or appointment (Senate only) are available to congressional offices upon request. 3 An example of this type of election came prior to the convening of the 65th Congress (1917-1919), when Representative Charles Brand of Georgia was first elected to the House by a special election held on January 11, 1917. Representative Brand took the seat left vacant by the death of Representative Samuel Tribble, who had won reelection but died before being sworn in. See U.S. Congress, House, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress 1774 – 2005: The Continental Congress, September 5, 1774, to October 21, 1788, and The Congress Of The United States From The First Through the One Hundred Eighth Congresses March 4, 1789, to January 3, 2005, Inclusive (hereafter, Biographical Directory of Congress), 108th Cong., 2nd sess., H.Doc. 108-222 (Washington: GPO, 2005), p.297, at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-CDOC-108hdoc222/pdf/GPO-CDOC-108hdoc222-3-65.pdf. The entire document is available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-CDOC-108hdoc222/pdf/GPO-CDOC-108hdoc222-3.pdf. An updated, searchable version of the Biographical Directory of Congress is available at http://bioguide.congress.gov/ biosearch/biosearch.asp. 4 For information and analysis on filling vacancies in the Senate, see CRS Report R40421, Filling U.S. Senate Vacancies: Perspectives and Contemporary Developments, by Thomas H. Neale. 5 One such example is the appointment of Nathan Lynn Bachman of Tennessee, who was appointed to the United States Senate after the resignation of Senator Cordell Hull. Senator Bachman was appointed on February 28, 1933, before the convening of Congress on March 9, 1933. See Biographical Directory of Congress, p. 347, at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-CDOC-108hdoc222/pdf/GPO-CDOC-108hdoc222-3-73.pdf. 6 An example of this occurred during the 89th Congress (1965-1966), when Representative Jerome Waldie of California was first elected to the House on June 7, 1966, following the death of Representative John Finley Baldwin, Jr. on March 9, 1966.See Biographical Directory of Congress, p. 431, at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-CDOC108hdoc222/pdf/GPO-CDOC-108hdoc222-3-73.pdf. 7 In the House, instances of successful challenges have been rare, occurring eight times between the 64th and 113th (continued...) Congressional Research Service 1 First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Members whose congressional service in one chamber is not consecutive are counted as first-term Members in the first instance of their service as a Member, if that term occurred between the 64th and 113th Congresses. For example, a Representative who served in the 87th Congress (19611962), and 89th Congress (1965-1966), but not the 88th Congress (1963-1964), would be counted as a first-term Representative only for the 87th Congress. Members with service in the House and Senate are listed in each capacity in which they served a first term,9 if those terms occurred between the 64th and 113th Congresses.10 The resulting data, combining pre-convening and post-convening first-term Members, provide a count of all Members who served a first term in the House or Senate. Data on pre-convening firstterm Members provide partial insight into the extent of membership turnover in the House and Senate since 1915, and are discussed in greater detail below. Post-convening first-term Member data do not reveal clear patterns within individual Congresses, or over time. This is due in part to the wide range of reasons that a seat in the House and Senate may become vacant in the course of a Congress, and the circumstances under which it may be filled. Data describing the number and partisan breakdown of first-term membership in the Senate are provided in the “Data Tables” section in Table 6. Data describing first-term Representatives are available in Table 7, Table 8 in the same section provides information for Members of the House serving as a Delegate or Resident Commissioner. (...continued) Congresses (1915-2013), with none occurring after the 75th Congress (1937-1938). For example, following the 1936 general election, the New Hampshire Secretary of State certified that Representative Arthur Jenks had won election, after a recount, by 30 votes. Representative Jenks presented his credentials as a Representative –elect, took the oath of office, and served from January 3, 1937, until June 9, 1938. He is counted as a pre-convening first-term Member. A House Committee on Elections in 1938 reviewed the results of the election and found that Representative Jenks’ opponent, Alphonse Roy, won the election and deserved to be seated. The House concurred in this finding, and Representative Roy was sworn in on June 9, 1938. Representative Roy is counted as a post-convening first-term Member for the 75th Congress. See Biographical Directory of Congress, p. 357 at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPOCDOC-108hdoc222/pdf/GPO-CDOC-108hdoc222-3-75.pdf. The only example of a successful contested Senate seat since the introduction of direct elections to that chamber occurred in the 69th Congress (1925-1927). Senator Smith Brookhart of Iowa was certified the winner of the 1924 election and served in the 69th Congress from the day the Senate convened on March 4, 1925, until April 12, 1926, when his election was successfully challenged and he was removed. Senator Daniel Steck was subsequently sworn in to fill the seat, and is counted as a post-convening senator. See Biographical Directory of Congress, p. 321 at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-CDOC-108hdoc222/pdf/GPO-CDOC-108hdoc222-3-75.pdf. 8 Due to the differences in state laws regarding the appointment or election of individuals to fill a U.S. Senate vacancy, there have been instances of two or more people holding the same Senate seat in the course of a Congress. For example, in the 77th Congress (1941-1942), Senator James Byrnes of North Carolina resigned on July 8, 1941 upon his appointment as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. On July 22, 1941, Alva Lumpkin was appointed to the Senate seat by the governor of North Carolina and was sworn in. On August 1, 1941, Lumpkin died, and a new Senator, Roger Peace, was appointed on August 6, 1941. On November 6, 1941, Burnet Maybank won a special election and was sworn into office. Senators Lumpkin, Peace, and Maybank were all counted as post-convening first-term Senators. See Biographical Directory of Congress, p. 371 at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-CDOC-108hdoc222/pdf/GPOCDOC-108hdoc222-3-77.pdf. 9 Prior to the 64th Congress, some Members served as a Delegate, and then as a Representative after the territory they represented was admitted to the Union as a state. (The data collected do not identify any Members who served as both Delegate and Representative in the 64th Congress or later.) 10 For example, prior to his service in the Senate, Edward Lewis (Bob) Bartlett of Alaska served as a Delegate in the House. Senator Bartlett is counted as a first-term Delegate for the 79th Congress (1945-1946), and as a first-term Senator for the 86th Congress (1959-1960). Congressional Research Service 2 First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Turnover Data on pre-convening first-term Members provide insight into the extent of membership turnover in the House and Senate. Table 5 in the “Data Tables” section summarizes the number of pre-convening Members entering the House and Senate at the beginning of a new Congress, and as a percentage of the seats in each chamber. These data identify most of the turnover in each chamber, but they may not identify all of the changes in every Congress, since they only reflect the number of Members who served their first term in the chamber. Some Members who had prior service that is not consecutive may have been reelected to the House, or reelected or appointed to the Senate.11 In those circumstances, the data in Table 5 may understate the extent of change in some Congresses. House Turnover Since the 64th Congress, the average turnover in the House with each election has been 72 seats,12 or 16.61%. The election with the greatest change occurred in 1932, resulting in a turnover of 158 seats, or 36.32% of the Representatives between the 72nd Congress (1931-1933) and the 73rd Congress (1933-1934). The smallest pre-convening turnover among Representatives in the House occurred in the 101st Congress (1989-1990), with a change in 30 seats, or 6.90%. Figure 1 provides a graphic representation of the percentage change in House membership between the 64th Congress and the 113th Congress. The data suggest that while there is no consistent pattern of change from Congress to Congress, the overall number of new, pre-convening, first-term Representatives has declined. This appears to be consistent with some academic findings that argue that the duration of Members’ careers have been increasing in the past century.13 Figure 1. House of Representatives, Change in Pre-Convening, First-Term Membership, 64th-113th Congresses 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 64th 68th 72nd 76th 80th 84th 88th 92nd 96th 100th 104th 108th 112th Source: Biographical Directory of Congress, CRS calculations. Notes: Percentage change in the number of Representatives. Excludes Delegates and the Resident Commissioner. Table 1 provides data for the House on the number of seats and percentage change of the five Congresses that saw the greatest change in pre-convening Representatives between the 64th and 113th Congresses. With one exception, the 103rd Congress (1993-1994), these changes occurred in 11 Data on Members whose service was not consecutive is not readily available. This figure has been rounded to reflect a whole seat. 13 See, for example, John R. Hibbing, Careerism in Congress: For Better or For Worse?, in Congress Reconsidered, ed. Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, 5th ed. (Washington: CQ Press, 1993), pp. 67-88. 12 Congressional Research Service 3 First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Congresses convening prior to the 74th Congress (1935-1936). Table 2 provides data on the number of seats and percentage change of the six Congresses that saw the least change between the 64th and 113th Congresses. The smallest pre-convening turnover among Representatives in the House occurred in the 101st Congress (1989-1990), with a change in 30 seats, or 6.90%. All of the smallest changes occurred after the 89th Congress (1965-1966). The distribution of greater changes occurring earlier in the period between the 64th-113th Congresses, and smaller changes happening in the later period may also support contentions regarding the duration of Representatives’ careers. Data describing the number and partisan distribution of first-term Representatives are provided in Table 7. Table 8 provides similar information for Members of the House serving as a Delegate or Resident Commissioner. Table 1. House of Representatives, Greatest Change in Pre-Convening, First-Term Membership, 64th-113th Congresses Congress Seats % 73rd 158 36.32% 64th 139 31.95% 68th 125 28.74% 67th 117 26.90% 103rd 109 25.06% Source: Biographical Directory of Congress, CRS calculations. Notes: House percentages based on 435 seats for Representatives in all Congresses. Data may understate membership change because it does not account for Members whose service is not consecutive. Table 2. House of Representatives, Least Change in Pre-Convening, First-Term Membership, 64th-113th Congresses Congress Seats % 106th and 109th 39 8.97% 99th 37 8.51% 91st 35 8.05% 90th 31 7.13% 101st 30 6.90% Source: Biographical Directory of Congress, CRS calculations. Notes: House percentages based on 435 seats for Representatives in all Congresses. Data may understate membership change because it does not account for Members whose service is not consecutive. Senate Turnover As shown in Table 5, in the “Data Tables” section, since the 64th Congress, the average number of pre-convening first-term Senators each Congress has been 10. Table 6 shows that the 79th Congress (1945-1946) produced the greatest change in membership with 33 new Senators, 34.38%, taking seats in the chamber in the course of the Congress. Figure 2 provides a graphic representation of the percentage change in first-term Senate membership between the 64th Congress and the 113th Congress. The data suggest that while there is no consistent pattern of Congressional Research Service 4 First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse change from Congress to Congress, the overall number of pre-convening, first-term Senators has declined since the 64th Congress. Changes in Member career patterns in the Senate may explain some of the change. Figure 2. Senate, Change in Pre-Convening, First-Term Membership, 64th-113th Congresses 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 64th 68th 72nd 76th 80th 84th 88th 92nd 96th 100th 104th 108th 112th Source: Biographical Directory of Congress, CRS calculations. Table 3 provides data on the number of Senate seats and percentage change of the five Congresses that saw greatest change between the 64th and 113th Congresses. All of those Congresses occurred before the 87th Congress (1961-1962). The smallest turnover of preconvening Senators occurred in the 102nd Congress (1991-1992), with a change of three seats. In the 73rd Congress (1932-1933), a 15-seat change amounted to a percentage change of 15.63%, since the Senate had 96 seats. Table 4 provides data on the number of seats and percentage change of the seven Congresses that saw the least change between the 64th and 113th Congresses. Smaller changes appear to be more evenly distributed through the latter half of the Congresses observed. This may be explained in part by electoral patterns. While the entire House stands for election every two years,14 only one-third of the seats in the Senate are subject to election in the same period; barring change in membership for other reasons, this assures that two-thirds of Senate membership will remain unchanged. Data describing the first-term membership of the Senate is provided in Table 6. Table 3. Senate, Greatest Change in First-Term, Pre-Convening Membership, 64th-113th Congresses Congress Seats % 65th 18 18.75% 72nd 17 17.71% 86th 16 16.33% 97th 15 15% 73rd 15 15.63%a Source: Biographical Directory of Congress, CRS calculations. Notes: Senate percentages based on 96 seats in the 65th, 72nd, and 73rd Congresses (48 states), 98 seats in the 86th Congress (49 states), and 100 seats (50 states) in the 86th and 97th Congresses. Data may understate membership change because it does not account for Members whose service is not consecutive. a. 14 In the 73rd Congress (1933-1934), a 15-seat change amounted to a percentage change of 15.63% since the Senate had 96 seats. The Resident Commissioner for Puerto Rico serves a four-year term. Congressional Research Service 5 First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Table 4. Senate, Least Change in First-Term, Pre-Convening Membership, 64th-113th Congresses Congress Seats % 84th 5 5.21%a 90th, 94th 5 5% 87th, 89th, 98th 4 4% 102nd 3 3% Source: Biographical Directory of Congress, CRS calculations. Notes: Senate percentages based on 96 seats in the 84th Congress (48 states), and 100 seats (50 states) in the 86th and 97th Congresses. Data may understate membership change because it does not account for Members whose service is not consecutive. a. In the 84th Congress (1955-1956), a five-seat change amounted to a percentage change of 5.21% since the Senate had 96 seats. Data Tables Table 5. Membership Change in the House and Senate, 64th-113th Congresses Based on Members Selected Prior to Convening to Join Each Chamber for Their First Terms Senate House Congress Seatsa % Seatsb % 64th 139 31.95% 10 10.42% 65th 88 20.23% 18 18.75% 66th 104 23.91% 13 13.54% 67th 117 26.90% 14 14.58% 68th 125 28.74% 19 19.79% 69th 72 16.55% 13 13.54% 70th 52 11.95% 9 9.38% 71st 61 14.02% 9 9.38% 72nd 80 18.39% 17 17.71% 73rd 158 36.32% 15 15.63% 74th 98 22.53% 11 11.46% 75th 91 20.92% 11 11.46% 76th 104 23.91% 9 9.38% 77th 61 14.02% 10 10.42% 78th 95 21.84% 11 11.46% 79th 66 15.17% 13 13.54% 80th 90 20.69% 13 13.54% 81st 93 21.38% 14 14.58% Congressional Research Service 6 First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Senate House Congress Seatsa % Seatsb % 82nd 55 12.64% 10 10.42% 83rd 77 17.70% 10 10.42% 84th 51 11.72% 5 5.21% 85th 40 9.20% 7 7.29% 86th 80 18.35% 16 16.33% 87th 53 12.13% 4 4% 88th 65 14.94% 9 9% 89th 85 19.54% 4 4% 90th 31 7.13% 5 5% 91st 35 8.05% 12 12% 92nd 48 11.03% 7 7% 93rd 66 15.17% 11 11% 94th 87 20.00% 5 5% 95th 63 14.48% 11 11% 96th 75 17.24% 12 12% 97th 72 16.55% 15 15% 98th 78 17.93% 4 4% 99th 37 8.51% 8 8% 100th 46 10.57% 12 12% 101st 30 6.90% 10 10% 102nd 41 9.43% 3 3% 103rd 109 25.06% 10 10% 104th 86 19.77% 9 9% 105th 67 15.40% 14 14% 106th 39 8.97% 8 8% 107th 40 9.20% 11 11% 108th 53 12.18% 8 8% 109th 39 8.97% 9 9% 110th 52 11.95% 10 10% 111th 54 12.41% 10 10% 112th 91 20.92% 12 12% 113th 75 17.24% 12 12% Average 72c 16.60% 10c 10.66% Source: Biographical Directory of Congress, CRS calculations. Notes: House percentages based on 435 seats for Representatives in all Congresses except the 86th Congress, 436 seats, and the 87th Congress, 437 seats (temporary increases to accommodate new Representatives from Congressional Research Service 7 First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Alaska in the 86th and 87th Congresses and Hawaii in the 87th Congress, due to the admission of those states to the Union). Senate percentages based on 96 seats in the 64th – 85th Congresses (48 states), 98 seats in the 86th Congress (49 states), and 100 seats (50 states) in the 87th – 113th Congresses. Data may understate membership change because it does not account for Members whose service is not consecutive. a. Number of Representatives serving their first term at the time Congress convenes. Excludes Delegates and the Resident Commissioner. Excludes all Members of the House who join as a consequence of special election held after convening. b. Number of Senators serving their first term at the time Congress convenes. Excludes all Senators who join after convening. c. Rounded to reflect a whole number. Congressional Research Service 8 First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Table 6. First-Term Senators, 64th – 113th Congresses First-Term Pre-Convening Senators First-Term, Post-Convening Senators Congress Democratic Republican Other Total Democratic Republican Other Total Total FirstTerm Senators 64th 7 3 0 10 2 2 0 4 14 65th 8 10 0 18 7 6 0 13 31 66th 5 8 0 13 3 2 0 5 18 67th 3 11 0 14 4 8 0 12 26 68th 11 6 2 19 0 4 0 4 23 69th 3 10 0 13 2 3 0 5 18 70th 6 3 0 9 1 7 0 8 17 71st 1 8 0 9 5 9 0 14 23 72nd 14 3 0 17 3 1 0 4 21 73rd 15 0 0 15 6 2 0 8 23 74th 11 0 0 11 9 2 1 12 23 75th 8 2 1 11 5 1 0 6 17 76th 3 6 0 9 4 4 0 8 17 77th 4 6 0 10 10 3 0 13 23 78th 1 10 0 11 3 4 0 7 18 79th 8 5 0 13 14 6 0 20 33 80th 2 11 0 13 4 1 0 5 18 81st 11 3 0 14 8 4 0 12 26 82nd 3 7 0 10 2 5 0 7 17 83rd 6 4 0 10 7 10 0 17 27 84th 3 2 0 5 3 1 0 4 9 CRS-9 First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse First-Term, Post-Convening Senators First-Term Pre-Convening Senators Congress Democratic Republican Other Total Democratic Republican Other Total Total FirstTerm Senators 85th 5 2 0 7 5 1 0 6 13 86th 13 3 0 16 4 1 0 5 21 87th 2 2 0 4 3 7 0 10 14 88th 7 2 0 9 6 0 0 6 15 89th 3 1 0 4 3 1 0 4 8 90th 0 5 0 5 1 3 0 4 9 91st 4 8 0 12 2 2 0 4 16 92nd 2 4 1 7 4 1 0 5 12 93rd 6 5 0 11 3 3 0 6 17 94th 5 0 0 5 3 3 0 6 11 95th 6 5 0 11 5 6 0 11 22 96th 7 5 0 12 1 3 0 4 16 97th 2 13 0 15 0 2 0 2 17 98th 1 3 0 4 0 1 0 1 5 99th 6 2 0 8 0 1 0 1 9 100th 10 2 0 12 0 1 0 1 13 101st 5 5 0 10 1 2 0 3 13 102nd 1 2 0 3 5 1 0 6 9 103rd 5 5 0 10 2 3 0 5 15 104th 0 9 0 9 1 2 0 3 12 105th 6 8 0 14 0 0 0 0 14 106th 4 4 0 8 1 1 0 2 10 107th 8 3 0 11 1 3 1 5 16 CRS-10 First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse First-Term, Post-Convening Senators First-Term Pre-Convening Senators Congress Democratic Republican Other Total Democratic Republican Other Total Total FirstTerm Senators 108th 2 6 0 8 0 0 0 0 8 109th 2 7 0 9 1 0 0 1 10 110th 8 1 1 10 0 2 0 2 12 111th 8 2 0 10 6 5 0 11 21 112th 1 11 0 12 0 0 0 0 12 113tha 8 3 1 12 0 0 0 0 12 Source: Biographical Directory of Congress, CRS calculations. Notes: These data may understate the turnover in seats for some Congresses, since some Members with prior, non-continuous service may have been reelected or appointed to the Senate. Data identifying the services of Members who served discontinuous terms is not readily available. a. CRS-11 Through date of publication. First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Table 7. First-Term Representatives, 64th – 113th Congresses Pre-Convening First-Term Representatives Post-Convening First-Term Representatives Congress Democratic Republican Other Total Democratic Republican Other Totals Total First-Term Representatives 64th 36 99 4 139 4 3 0 7 146 65th 39 48 1 88 5 8 0 13 101 66th 35 68 1 104 10 8 1 19 123 67th 27 90 0 117 6 10 0 16 133 68th 81 42 2 125 3 3 0 6 131 69th 19 53 0 72 1 3 0 4 76 70th 23 29 0 52 3 6 0 9 61 71st 13 48 0 61 13 9 1 23 84 72nd 58 20 2 80 8 2 0 10 90 73rd 128 26 4 158 10 3 0 13 171 74th 75 20 3 98 7 2 0 9 107 75th 73 14 4 91 9 6 0 15 106 76th 30 74 0 104 15 9 0 24 128 77th 33 28 0 61 11 7 0 18 79 78th 37 57 1 95 7 10 0 17 112 79th 49 17 0 66 9 6 0 15 81 80th 28 62 0 90 9 8 1 18 108 81st 80 13 0 93 5 5 1 11 104 82nd 17 37 1 55 7 7 0 14 69 83rd 30 47 0 77 7 2 0 9 86 84th 34 16 1 51 2 0 0 2 53 CRS-12 First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Post-Convening First-Term Representatives Pre-Convening First-Term Representatives Congress Democratic Republican Other Total Democratic Republican Other Totals Total First-Term Representatives 85th 19 21 0 40 7 3 0 10 50 86th 60 19 1 80 4 6 0 10 90 87th 17 36 0 53 10 3 0 13 66 88th 33 30 2 65 5 6 0 11 76 89th 65 19 1 85 6 2 0 8 93 90th 10 21 0 31 1 3 0 4 35 91st 18 17 0 35 7 7 0 14 49 92nd 28 20 0 48 4 6 0 10 58 93rd 24 42 0 66 7 3 0 10 76 94th 71 16 0 87 6 3 0 9 96 95th 43 19 1 63 2 4 0 6 69 96th 41 34 0 75 4 3 0 7 82 97th 21 51 0 72 6 3 0 9 81 98th 54 24 0 78 6 2 0 8 86 99th 9 28 0 37 5 1 0 6 43 100th 25 21 0 46 5 3 0 8 54 101st 15 15 0 30 9 3 0 12 42 102nd 22 18 1 41 5 3 0 8 49 103rd 62 47 0 109 3 5 0 8 117 104th 13 73 0 86 4 3 0 7 93 105th 40 27 0 67 5 4 0 9 76 106th 22 17 0 39 1 2 0 3 42 107th 12 28 0 40 3 6 0 9 49 CRS-13 First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Post-Convening First-Term Representatives Pre-Convening First-Term Representatives Congress Democratic Republican Other Total Democratic Republican Other Totals Total First-Term Representatives 108th 20 33 0 53 2 1 0 3 56 109th 16 23 0 39 1 4 0 5 44 110th 39 13 0 52 8 4 0 12 64 111th 31 23 0 54 6 4 0 10 64 112th 9 82 0 91 0 0 0 0 91 113tha 42 33 0 75 0 0 0 0 75 Source: Biographical Directory of Congress, CRS calculations. Notes: Pre-Convening First-Term Representatives may be used as an indication of membership turnover in the House between Congresses. These data may understate the turnover in seats for some Congresses, since some Members with prior, non-continuous service may have been reelected to the House. Data identifying the services of Members who served discontinuous terms is not readily available. a. CRS-14 Through date of publication. First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Table 8. Members of the House Serving a First Term as Delegates or Resident Commissioner, 64th-113th Congresses Post-Convening First Year Members Pre-Convening First Year Members Congress Democratic Republican Other Total Democratic Republican Other Total Total First Year Members 64th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 65th 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 66th 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 67th 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 68th 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 69th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 70th 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 71st 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 72nd 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 73rd 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 74th 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 75th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 76th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 77th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 78th 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 79th 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 80th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 81st 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 82nd 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 83rd 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 84th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 85th 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 86th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 87th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 88th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 89th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 90th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 91st 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 92nd 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 93rd 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 94th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 95th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 96th 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Congressional Research Service 15 First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Post-Convening First Year Members Pre-Convening First Year Members Congress Democratic Republican Other Total Democratic Republican Other Total Total First Year Members 97th 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 98th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 99th 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 100th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 101st 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 102nd 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 103rd 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 104th 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 105th 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 106th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 107th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 108th 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 109th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 110th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 111th 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 112th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 113tha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Source: Biographical Directory of Congress, CRS calculations. Notes: For more information on congressional Delegates and the Resident Commissioner, see CRS Report R40555, Delegates to the U.S. Congress: History and Current Status, by Betsy Palmer; CRS Report R40170, Parliamentary Rights of the Delegates and Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico, by Christopher M. Davis; and CRS Report RL31856, Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico, by R. Eric Petersen. a. Through date of publication. Author Contact Information Jennifer E. Manning Information Research Specialist jmanning@crs.loc.gov, 7-7565 Congressional Research Service R. Eric Petersen Specialist in American National Government epetersen@crs.loc.gov, 7-0643 16 First-Term Members of the House of Representatives and Senate, 64th – 113th Congresse Acknowledgments Parker H. Reynolds, formerly an Analyst in American National Government, was an original coauthor of this report. Amber Hope Wilhelm, Graphics Specialist, assisted in the development of figures. Congressional Research Service 17