American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Anne Leland Information Research Specialist November 15, 2012 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL32492 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Summary This report provides information for war casualty statistics. It includes tables, compiled from sources at the Department of Defense (DOD), indicating the number of casualties among American military personnel serving in principal wars and combat actions. Wars covered include the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Civil War, the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam Conflict, and the Persian Gulf War. Military operations covered include the Iranian Hostage Rescue Mission, Lebanon Peacekeeping, Urgent Fury in Grenada, Just Cause in Panama, Desert Shield and Desert Storm, Restore Hope in Somalia, Uphold Democracy in Haiti, and the ongoing Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND). For the more recent conflicts, starting with the Korean War, more detailed information on types of casualties, and, when available, demographics have been included. This report also cites sources of published lists of military personnel killed in principal wars and combat actions. This report will be updated as events warrant. Congressional Research Service American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Contents Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 1 Casualty Statistics ............................................................................................................................ 1 Resources ....................................................................................................................................... 25 Sources of Statistics ................................................................................................................. 25 Sources of Published Lists of Names of War Dead ................................................................. 25 Wars Prior to World War I ....................................................................................................... 26 Additional Websites ................................................................................................................. 33 CRS Reports ............................................................................................................................ 34 Tables Table 1. Casualty Statistics for Selected Military Actions ............................................................... 2 Table 2. Principal Wars in Which the United States Participated: U.S. Military Personnel Serving and Casualties.................................................................................................................. 3 Table 3. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths—Selected Military Operations ................. 6 Table 4. Active Duty Military Deaths—Race/Ethnicity Summary .................................................. 7 Table 5. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2010, Part I, Total Military Personnel ...................................................................................................................................... 8 Table 6. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2010, Part II, Cause of Death ............. 9 Table 7. Comparison of Death, Wounded and Amputation Statistics in American Conflicts...................................................................................................................................... 10 Table 8. Korean War: Casualty Summary ...................................................................................... 11 Table 9. Vietnam Conflict: Casualty Summary ............................................................................. 12 Table 10. Persian Gulf War: Casualty Summary ........................................................................... 13 Table 11. Operation Enduring Freedom Casualty Summary by Casualty Category ...................... 14 Table 12. Operation Enduring Freedom, Military Deaths ............................................................. 15 Table 13. Operation Enduring Freedom, Military Wounded in Action.......................................... 16 Table 14. Operation Iraqi Freedom, Casualty Summary by Casualty Category ............................ 17 Table 15. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Military Deaths..................................................................... 18 Table 16. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Wounded In Action .............................................................. 19 Table 17. Operation New Dawn, Casualty Summary by Casualty Category................................. 20 Table 18. Operation New Dawn: Military Deaths ......................................................................... 21 Table 19. Operation New Dawn: Military Wounded in Action...................................................... 22 Table 20. Deaths by Operation, Race, and Hispanic Indicator ...................................................... 23 Table 21. U.S. Coast Guard Service Casualties ............................................................................. 24 Congressional Research Service American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Contacts Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 34 Acknowledgments ......................................................................................................................... 34 Congressional Research Service American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Introduction This report provides war casualty statistics. It includes tables compiled from Department of Defense (DOD) sources, listing the number of fatalities and numbers of wounded among American military personnel serving in principal wars and combat actions from the Revolutionary War to current conflicts. A review of the composite data reveals the following: • During the period between the Revolutionary War and the present, it was the Civil War that produced the most American fatalities, when Union statistics and Confederate estimates are taken into account. • World War II was the first war in which there were more battle deaths than deaths from other causes, such as accidents, disease, and infections. Casualty statistics for wars long ended are updated periodically, sometimes yearly. This almost always reflects the identification of remains of persons previously listed as missing in action and those persons’ reclassification as dead. Other reasons, much less frequent, include the discovery of errors in casualty records for individuals or categories of people. Casualty Statistics Casualty statistics for conflicts prior to the Persian Gulf War (Desert Shield/Desert Storm) are updated periodically by the Defense Casualty Analysis System (DCAS), Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC). Casualty figures for Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) are updated monthly, or in some cases, daily. Links to the sources for casualty figures are found below each table in this report. Table 1 lists battles, attacks, or operations for which the Congressional Research Service (CRS) receives numerous requests. Table 21 lists information published by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Historian’s Office. In response to congressional requests, CRS includes Coast Guard casualty data as provided by USCG in addition to the DOD data. The USCG, although an armed service, was an agency under the jurisdiction of several federal agencies, including the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT). The Coast Guard remained under USDOT until February 2003, when it was placed within the Department of Homeland Security. Congressional Research Service 1 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 1. Casualty Statistics for Selected Military Actions Conflict American Revolution Attack/Battle Date(s) Killed/Wounded Brandywine Creek September 11, 1777 Americans Killed: 160 Yorktown September 28-October 19, 1781 Americans Wounded: 600 Americans Killed: 23 Americans Wounded: 65 Civil War Antietam September 17, 1862 Union Killed: 2,108 Union Wounded: 9,549 Confederate Killed: 1,924 Confederate Wounded: 9,381 Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863 Union Killed: 3,155 Union Wounded: 18,735 Confederate Killed: 3,903 Confederate Wounded: 18,735 World War I Meuse-Argonne September-November 1918 Americans Killed: 26,227 Americans Wounded: 95,778 World War II Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Killed: 2,335 Wounded: 1,143 Corregidor April 10-May 5, 1942 Killed or Wounded: 2,000 Taken Prisoner: 11,500 Midway June 4-5, 1942 Killed: 307 Anzio January 22-May 23, 1944 Killed: 2,960 Wounded: 11,166 Monte Cassino February 12- June 4, 1944 Killed: 3,145 Wounded: 13,704 Missing: 1,082 D-Day June 6, 1944 Killed: 1,465 Wounded: 3,184 Iwo Jima February 19-March 16, 1945 Killed: 7,726 Wounded: 20,378 Okinawa April 1-June 22,1945 Killed: 12,281 Wounded: 32,602 Korean Conflict Inchon-Seoul September 15-27, 1950 Killed: 556 Wounded: 2724 Vietnam Tet Offensive January 29-30, 1968 Killed: 416 Wounded: 2,757 Source: Michael Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference, vol.2, McFarland and Co. Inc., Philadelphia, 1991. Congressional Research Service 2 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 2. Principal Wars in Which the United States Participated: U.S. Military Personnel Serving and Casualties (1775-1991) Casualties War/ Conflict Branch of Service Number Serving Total Deaths Battle Deaths Other Deaths Wounds Not Mortala Revolutionary Warb Total — 4,435 4,435 — 6,188 1775-1783 Army — 4,044 4,044 — 6,004 Navy — 342 342 — 114 Marines — 49 49 — 70 Total 286,730 2,260 2,260 — 4,505 Army — 1,950 1,950 — 4,000 Navy — 265 265 — 439 Marines — 45 45 — 66 War of 1812c 1812-1815 Mexican Warc Total 78,718 13,283 1,733 11,550 4,152 1846-1848 Army — 13,271 1,721 11,550 4,102 Navy — 1 1 — 3 Marines — 11 11 — 47 Civil Warc (Union Forces Only)d 1861-1865 Total 2,213,363 364,511 140,414 224,097 281,881 Army 2,128,948 359,528 138,154 221,374 280,040 Navy 84,415 4,523 2,112 2,411 1,710 e 460 148 312 131 Marines Spanish-American War Total 306,760 2,446 385 2,061 1,662 1898-1901 Armyf 280,564 2,430 369 2,061 1,594 Navy 22,875 10 10 — 47 3,321 6 6 — 21 Marines World War I Total 4,734,991 116,516 53,402 63,114 204,002 1917-1918 Armyg 4,057,101 106,378 50,510 55,868 193,663 599,051 7,287 431 6,856 819 78,839 2,851 2,461 390 9,520 Navy Marines World War II Total 16,112,566 405,399 291,557 113,842 670,846 1941-1946h Armyi 11,260,000 318,274 234,874 83,400 565,861 Navyj 4,183,466 62,614 36,950 25,664 37,778 669,100 24,511 19,733 4,778 67,207 Marines Congressional Research Service 3 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Casualties Branch of Service Number Serving Total Deaths Battle Deaths Other Deaths Korean Wark Total 5,720,000 36,574 33,739 2,835 103,284 1950-1953 Army 2,834,000 29,856 27,731 2,125 77,596 Navy 1,177,000 657 503 154 1,576 424,000 4,509 4,267 242 23,744 Air Force 1,285,000 1,552 1,238 314 368 Total 8,744,000 58,220 47,434 10,786 Army 4,368,000 38,224 30,963 7,261 Navy 1,842,000 2,566 1,631 935 794,000 14,844 13,095 1,749 Air Force 1,740,000 2,586 1,745 841 Persian Gulf Warm Total 2,225,000 383 148 235 467 1990-1991 Army 782,000 224 98 126 354 Navy 669,000 56 6 50 12 Marines 213,000 68 24 44 92 Air Force 561,000 35 20 15 9 War/ Conflict Marines Vietnam Conflictl 1964-1973 Marines Wounds Not Mortala Hosp. Care Req’d: 153,303 No Hospital Care: 150,341 Hosp. Care Req’d: 96,802 No Hospital Care: 104,723 Hosp. Care Req’d: 4,178 No Hospital Care: 5,898 Hosp. Care Req’d: 51,392 No Hospital Care: 37,202 Hosp. Care Req’d: 931 No Hospital Care: 2,518 Source: Defense Casualty Analysis System (DCAS), https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/ report_principal_wars.xhtml. Notes: Data prior to World War I are based on incomplete records in many cases. Casualty data are confined to dead and wounded and, therefore, exclude personnel captured or missing in action who were subsequently returned to military control. a. Marine Corps data for World War II, the Spanish-American War, and prior wars represent the number of individuals wounded, whereas all other data in this column represent the total number (incidence) of wounds. b. Number serving, not known, but estimates range from 184,000 to 250,000. c. As reported by the Commissioner of Pensions in the annual report for FY1903. d. Authoritative statistics for the Confederate forces are not available. Estimates of the number who served range from 600,000 to 1,500,000. The final report of the Provost Marshal General, 1863-1866, indicated 133,821Confederate deaths (74,524 battle and 59,297 other) based upon incomplete returns. In addition, an estimated 26,000 to 31,000 Confederate personnel died in Union prisons. Congressional Research Service 4 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics e. The Marine Corps number serving is included in the Navy total. f. Number serving covers the period April 21 to August 13, 1898, while dead and wounded data are for the period May 1 to August 31, 1898. Active hostilities ceased on August 13, 1898, but ratifications of the Treaty of Peace were not exchanged between the United States and Spain until April 11, 1899. g. Includes air service. Battle deaths and wounds not mortal include casualties suffered by American forces in northern Russia to August 25, 1919, and in Siberia to April 1, 1920. Other deaths cover the period April 1, 1917, to December 31, 1918. h. Data are for the period December 1, 1941, through December 31, 1946, when hostilities were officially terminated by Presidential Proclamation, but a few battle deaths or wounds not mortal were incurred after the Japanese acceptance of the Allied peace terms on August 14, 1945. Number serving from December 1, 1941, through August 31, 1945, were Total 14,903,213; Army 10,420,000; Navy 3,883,520; and Marine Corps 599,693. i. Includes Army air forces, also known as the Army Air Corps. j. Battle deaths and wounds not mortal include casualties incurred in October 1941 due to hostile action. k. Worldwide military deaths during the Korean War totaled 54,246. In-theater casualty records are updated annually. l. Number serving covers the period August 5, 1964, (“Vietnam era” begins) through January 27, 1973 (date of cease-fire). Deaths include the period November 1, 1955, (commencement date for the Military Assistance Advisory Group) through May 15, 1975 (date last American service members left Southeast Asia). Wounds not mortal exclude 150,332 persons not requiring hospital care. Casualty records are updated annually, including current deaths that are directly attributed to combat in the Vietnam Conflict. Additional detail shows the number of WIA service members not requiring hospital care. m. For this conflict, Coast Guard numbers are included with Navy. Casualty records are updated annually. Congressional Research Service 5 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 3. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths—Selected Military Operations (1980-1996) Military Operation/Incident Casualty Type Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps Total Iranian Hostage Rescue Mission April 25, 1980 Non-Hostilea 0 0 5 3 8 Lebanon Peacekeeping August 25, 1982 - February 26, 1984 Hostileb 3 19 0 234 256 Non-Hostile 5 2 0 2 9 Total 8 21 0 236 265 Hostile 11 4 0 3 18 Non-Hostile 1 0 0 0 1 Total 12 4 0 3 19 Hostile 18 4 0 1 23 —Desert Shield Non-Hostile 21 36 9 18 84 —Desert Storm Hostile 98 6 20 24 148 Non-Hostile 105 14 6 26 151 Subtotal 203 20 26 50 299 Desert Shield/Storm Total 224 56 35 68 383 Restore Hope/Unosom, Somalia, 1992-1994 Hostile 27 0 0 2 29 Non-Hostile 4 0 8 2 14 Total 31 0 8 4 43 Non-Hostile 3 0 0 1 4 Urgent Fury, Grenada, 1983 Just Cause, Panama, 1989 Persian Gulf War, 1990-1991 Uphold Democracy, Haiti, 1994-1996 Source: DCAS, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_operations.xhtml. a. According to the Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, as amended through 31 August 2005, a “non-hostile casualty” is a casualty that is not directly attributable to hostile action or terrorist activity, such as casualties due to the elements, self-inflicted wounds, or combat fatigue, available at http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp1_02.pdf. b. The above-named reference defines a “hostile casualty” as a victim of a terrorist activity or a casualty as the result of combat or attack by any force against U.S. forces. Congressional Research Service 6 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 4. Active Duty Military Deaths—Race/Ethnicity Summary (as of July 25, 2009) Korean War Race/ Ethnicity Number of Deaths F M Vietnam Conflict F M Persian Gulf War Since 1980 (all) F M F M American Indian or Alaska Native 104 226 3 27 308 Asian 241 139 1 32 624 3,075 7,243 63 664 7,533 1 67 1,108 Black or African American 3 Hispanic or Latino 306 Hispanic or Latino-One or More Races 576 350 14 37 498 More Than One Race or Unknown 2,853 204 3 57 851 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 148 229 2 7 177 White 2 29,269 8 49,826 12 280 1,604 32,549 Total 2 36,572 8 58,217 15 367 2,495 43,648 Percentagea F M F M F M F M American Indian or Alaska Native 0.3 0.4 0.8 1.1 .7 Asian 0.7 0.2 0.3 1.3 1.4 Black or African American 8.4 12.4 17.2 26.6 17.3 Hispanic or Latino 0.8 0.3 2.7 2.5 Hispanic or Latino—One or More Races 1.6 0.6 3.8 1.5 1.1 More Than One Race or Unknown 7.8 0.4 0.8 2.3 1.9 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 White 80.0 85.6 80.0 76.3 64.3 74.6 Totalb 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 20.0 Source: DMDC, http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/RACE-OMB-WC.pdf, accessed October 22, 2012; per contact with DMDC official, database may no longer be accessible. Note: Prior to the Korean War, race often went untracked. In the few cases in which race was tracked or recorded, soldiers were given the a choice between some variation of “White” or “Black;” categories such as “Hispanic or Latino,” “Asian,” or “Native American” were not used; “F” indicates female and “M” indicates male. a. Percentages of total female or male deaths, divided by ethnicity. For instance, in the Persian Gulf War, 20% of female deaths were Black or African American and 80% of female deaths were White. b. Totals may not equal 100.0 due to rounding; include Worldwide and Global War on Terror deaths Congressional Research Service 7 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 5. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2010, Part I, Total Military Personnel (as of November 2011) Calendar Year Active Duty Full-Time (est.) Guard-Reserve Selected Reserve FTEa Total Military FTE Total Deaths 1980 2,050,758 22,000 86,872 2,159,630 2,392 1981 2,093,032 22,000 91,719 2,206,751 2,380 1982 2,112,609 41,000 97,458 2,251,067 2,319 1983 2,123,909 49,000 100,455 2,273,364 2,465 1984 2,138,339 55,000 104,583 2,297,922 1,999 1985 2,150,379 64,000 108,806 2,323,185 2,252 1986 2,177,845 69,000 113,010 2,359,855 1,984 1987 2,166,611 71,000 115,086 2,352,697 1,983 1988 2,121,659 72,000 115,836 2,309,495 1,819 1989 2,112,128 74,200 117,056 2,303,384 1,636 1990 2,046,806 74,250 137,268 2,258,324 1,507 1991 1,943,937 70,250 184,002 2,198,189 1,787 1992 1,773,996 67,850 111,491 1,953,337 1,293 1993 1,675,269 68,500 105,768 1,849,537 1,213 1994 1,581,649 65,000 99,833 1,746,482 1,075 1995 1,502,343 65,000 94,585 1,661,928 1,040 1996 1,456,266 65,000 92,409 1,613,675 974 1997 1,418,773 65,000 94,609 1,578,382 817 1998 1,381,034 65,000 92,536 1,538,570 827 1999 1,367,838 65,000 93,104 1,525,942 796 2000 1,372,352 65,000 93,078 1,530,430 832 2001 1,384,812 65,000 102,284 1,552,096 943 2002 1,411,200 66,000 149,942 1,627,142 1,051 2003 1,423,348 66,000 243,284 1,732,632 1,399 2004 1,411,287 66,000 234,629 1,711,916 1,847 2005 1,378,014 66,000 220,000 1,664,014 1,929 2006 1,371,533 72,000 168,000 1,611,533 1,882 2007 1,368,226 72,000 168,000 1,608,226 1,953 2008 1,402,227 73,000 207,917 1,683,144 1,440 2009 1,421,668 75,000 144,083 1,640,751 1,515 2010 1,430,985 76,000 178,193 1,685,178 1,485 Source: DCAS, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_by_year_manner.xhtml. Note: Official Department of Defense end-strengths as of December 31 for military pay accounts. Excludes full time Guard and Reserve. a. Full time equivalent (FTE) is based on official Department of Defense fiscal year end selected reserve strength (10% of the figure is used to estimate days on active duty). Congressional Research Service 8 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 6. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2010, Part II, Cause of Death (as of November 2011) Calendar Year Total Deaths Accident Hostile Action Homicide Illness Pending Self Inflicted Terrorist Attack Undetermined 1980 2,392 1,556 0 174 419 0 231 1 11 1981 2,380 1,524 0 145 457 0 241 0 13 1982 2,319 1,493 0 108 446 0 254 2 16 1983 2,465 1,413 18 115 419 0 218 263 19 1984 1,999 1,293 1 84 374 0 225 6 16 1985 2,252 1,476 0 111 363 0 275 5 22 1986 1,984 1,199 2 103 384 0 269 0 27 1987 1,983 1,172 37 104 383 0 260 2 25 1988 1,819 1,080 0 90 321 0 285 17 26 1989 1,636 1,000 23 58 294 0 224 0 37 1990 1,507 880 0 74 277 0 232 1 43 1991 1,787 931 147 112 308 0 256 0 33 1992 1,293 676 0 109 252 0 238 1 17 1993 1,213 632 0 86 221 0 236 29 9 1994 1,075 544 0 83 206 0 232 0 10 1995 1,040 538 0 67 174 0 250 7 4 1996 974 527 1 52 173 0 188 19 14 1997 817 433 0 42 170 0 159 0 13 1998 827 445 0 26 174 0 165 3 14 1999 796 439 0 38 154 0 150 0 15 2000 832 429 0 37 180 0 153 17 16 2001 943 461 12 49 197 0 153 46 25 2002 1,051 565 17 54 213 0 174 0 28 2003 1,399 597 312 46 231 1 190 0 22 2004 1,847 605 735 46 256 0 197 0 8 2005 1,929 646 739 54 280 1 182 0 27 2006 1,882 561 769 47 257 8 213 0 27 2007 1,953 561 847 52 237 22 211 0 23 2008 1,440 506 352 47 244 6 259 1 25 2009 1,515 467 346 77 277 19 302 0 27 2010 1,485 424 456 39 238 22 289 0 17 Source: DCAS, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_by_year_manner.xhtml. Congressional Research Service 9 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 7. Comparison of Death, Wounded and Amputation Statistics in American Conflicts Conflict Deathsa Woundedb Amputations 6,589 49,885 6,144c 383 467 21d Vietname 58,820 153,303 5,283e Korea 36,574 103,284 1,477e World War II 291,557 670,846 10,912f World War I 53,402 204,002 692f Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation New Dawn, Operation Enduring Freedom Persian Gulf War: Desert Storm, Desert Shield (in-theater) Sources: Table compiled by CRS from various sources as listed in the table notes below. Note: In some cases, service members sustained multiple amputations. a. DCAS, Summary Data through Persian Gulf War, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/ report_principal_wars.xhtml b. See Tables 12, 13, 15, 18, and 19. c. Monthly Surveillance Medical Report (MSMR). “Amputations of Upper and Lower Extremities, Active and Reserve Components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2011,” July 2012, 19 (7), 2-6. d. Military Medicine. October 1994, 159 (10), 635-9. e. Amputation information provided by Dr. Michael Carino of the Office of the Surgeon General, U.S. Army. f. United States Army Office of the Surgeon General. Medical Statistics in World War II, 16. Congressional Research Service 10 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 8. Korean War: Casualty Summary (as of October 23, 2012) Casualty Type Total Army Air Force Marines Navy Killed in Action 23,613 19,715 209 3,320 369 Died of Wounds 2,460 1,887 14 532 27 Missing in Action—Declared Dead 4,817 3,337 991 386 103 Captured—Declared Dead 2,849 2,792 24 29 4 33,739 27,731 1,238 4,267 503 8 4 4 0 0 Other Deaths 2,827 2,121 310 242 154 Total Non-Hostile Deaths 2,835 2,125 314 242 154 Total In-Theater Deathsa 36,574 29,856 1,552 4,509 657 Total Non-Theater Deaths 17,672 7,277 5,532 1,019 3,844 Total Deaths 54,246 37,133 7,084 5,528 4,501 1,521 1,072 49 252 148 22 22 0 0 0 Missing in Action—Declared Dead—No Remains 4,549 3,276 807 372 94 Captured—Declared Dead—No Remains 1,891 1,850 13 25 3 8 4 4 0 0 84 5 37 6 36 8,075 6,229 910 655 281 Total Hostile Deaths Missing—Presumed Dead Killed in Action—No Remains Died of Wounds—No Remains Non-Hostile Missing—Presumed Dead—No Remains Non-Hostile Other Deaths—No Remains Total—No Remains Wounded—Not Mortal 103,284 77,596 368 23,744 1,576 Worldwideb 5,720,000 2,834,000 1,285,000 424,000 1,177,000 Number Serving In-Theaterb 1,789,000 1,153,000 241,000 130,000 265,000 Number Serving Source: DCAS, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_korea_sum.xhtml. a. Inclusive dates are June 25, 1950, to July 27, 1953. Casualty dates after the end date represent service members who were wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds and those service members who were involved in an incident during the period and were later declared dead. b. Estimated figures. Congressional Research Service 11 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 9. Vietnam Conflict: Casualty Summary (as of October 23, 2012) Casualty Type Total Army Air Force Marines Navya Killed in Action 40,934 27,047 1,080 11,501 1,306 Died of Wounds 5,299 3,610 51 1,486 152 Missing in Action—Declared Dead 1,085 261 589 98 137 116 45 25 10 36 47,434 30,963 1,745 13,095 1,631 123 118 0 3 2 10,663 7,143 841 1,746 933 Total Non-Hostile Deaths 10,786 7,261 841 1,749 935 Total In-Theater Deaths 58,820 38,224 2,586 14,844 2,566 Killed in Action—No Remains 575 173 206 102 94 Missing in Action-Declared Dead—No Remains 691 201 339 74 77 Captured-Declared Dead—No Remains 52 32 7 3 10 Non-Hostile Missing—Presumed Dead—No Remains 91 86 0 3 2 332 69 30 37 196 1,741 561 582 219 379 153,303 96,802 931 51,392 4,178 8,744,000 4,368,000 1,740,000 794,000 1,842,000 Number Serving Southeast Asia 3,403,000 2,276,000 385,000 513,000 229,000 Number Serving South Vietnam 2,594,000 1,736,000 293,000 391,000 174,000 Captured—Declared Dead Total Hostile Deaths Missing—Presumed Dead Other Deaths Non-Hostile Other Deaths—No Remains Total—No Remains Wounded—Not Mortal Number Serving Worldwideb Source: DCAS, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_vietnam_sum.xhtml. Notes: Inclusive dates are November 1, 1955, to May 15, 1975. Casualty dates after the end date represent service members who were wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds and those service members who were involved in an incident during the period and were later declared dead. a. Includes Coast Guard. b. Estimated figures. Congressional Research Service 12 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 10. Persian Gulf War: Casualty Summary (Desert Shield/Desert Storm; as of October 23, 2012) Casualty Type Total Army Air Force Marines Navya Killed in Action 144 96 20 22 6 Died of Wounds 4 2 0 2 0 Missing in Action—Declared Dead 0 0 0 0 0 Captured—Declared Dead 0 0 0 0 0 148 98 20 24 6 Missing—Presumed Dead 12 0 2 8 2 Other Deaths 223 126 13 36 48 Total Non-Hostile Deaths 235 126 15 44 50 Total In-Theater Deaths 383 224 35 68 56 Total Non-Theater Deaths 1,565 608 299 171 487 Total Deaths 1,948 832 334 239 543 Killed in Action—No Remains 2 0 0 0 2 Missing in Action—No Remains 0 0 0 0 0 Captured-Declared Dead—No Remains 0 0 0 0 0 Non-Hostile Missing- Presumed Dead—No Remains 12 0 2 8 2 Total—No Remains 14 0 2 8 4 Wounded – Not Mortal 467 354 9 92 12 2,225,000 782,000 561,000 213,000 669,000 Serving In-Theater – Active Duty 584,342 271,654 70,741 90,866 151,081 Serving In-Theater – Recalled 110,208 78,512 11,666 12,660 7,370 Total Hostile Deaths Serving Worldwideb Source: DCAS, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_gulf_sum.xhtml. Notes: Inclusive dates are August 7, 1990, to September 14, 1991. Any casualty counted after the end date represents a service member who was wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds or a service member who was in a missing status during a part of the war period and later declared dead. a. Includes Coast Guard. b. Estimated figures. Tables 11 through 13 provide casualty statistics for OEF, which began on October 7, 2001, and is ongoing. Data for OEF are updated on a daily basis. Daily casualty summaries are available at DOD’s website at http://www.defense.gov/news/casualty.pdf. Table 20 provides ethnicity statistics for OEF, OIF, and OND. An Office of Management and Budget mandate, Directive No. 15, requires all federal record keeping and data presentation to use five race categories (White, Black, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander) and two ethnicity categories (Hispanic, non-Hispanic). Additional information on race and ethnicity may be found at http://factfinder2.census.gov/help/en/glossary/r/race.htm and http://factfinder2.census.gov/help/en/glossary/e/ethnic_groups.htm. Congressional Research Service 13 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 11. Operation Enduring Freedom Casualty Summary by Casualty Category (as of October 22, 2012) Casualty Type Total Army Navy Marines Air Force Killed in Action 1,275 921 75 233 46 413 276 4 129 4 2 0 0 0 2 1,690 1,197 79 362 52 Accident 268 172 22 48 26 Illness/Injury 50 32 10 5 3 Homicide 10 8 0 2 0 Self-Inflicted 92 68 5 14 5 Undetermined 12 8 2 1 1 Pendingb 9 3 2 4 0 441 291 41 74 35 Total Deaths 2,131 1,488 120 436 87 Total Wounded In Action 17,834 12,447 346 4,641 400 Died of Woundsa Died of Terrorist Activities Total Hostile Deaths Total Non-Hostile Deaths Source: DCAS, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_oef_type.xhtml. a. Includes died of wounds where wounding occurred in theater and death occurred elsewhere. b. Pending means final category to be determined at a later date. Congressional Research Service 14 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 12. Operation Enduring Freedom, Military Deaths (as of October 22, 2012) Casualty Type Hostile Pending Non-hostile Total Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force 1,690 1,197 79 362 52 4 3 0 1 0 437 288 41 73 35 2,131 1,488 120 436 87 42 29 4 2 7 Gender Female Male 2,089 1,459 116 434 80 Total 2,131 1,488 120 436 87 E1-E4 1,045 708 34 280 23 E5-E9 831 600 72 122 37 Officer/Enlisted Officer 255 180 14 34 27 Total 2,131 1,488 120 436 87 Age <22 478 310 15 148 5 22-24 494 328 16 133 17 25-30 645 467 38 117 23 31-35 236 166 29 21 20 Age >35 Total 278 217 22 17 22 2,131 1,488 120 436 87 1,837 1,226 115 414 82 92 62 5 22 3 Component Active Reserve National Guard Total 202 200 0 0 2 2,131 1,488 120 436 87 Race American Indian/Alaska Native 27 14 7 5 1 Asian 58 44 6 8 0 Black or African American 167 125 12 25 5 6 4 0 2 0 1,818 1,268 88 391 71 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander White Multiple races 26 16 6 1 3 Unknown 29 17 1 4 7 2,131 1,488 120 436 87 Total Source: DCAS, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_oef_deaths.xhtml. Note: Ethnicity, previously included with race data, may be found in Table 20. Congressional Research Service 15 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 13. Operation Enduring Freedom, Military Wounded in Action (as of October 22, 2012) Casualty Type Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force Hostile 17,834 12,447 346 4,641 400 Total 17,834 12,447 346 4,641 400 312 259 4 26 23 17,471 12,160 327 4,608 376 51 28 15 7 1 17,834 12,447 346 4,641 400 10,791 7,082 198 3,396 115 Gender Female Male Not Specified Total Officer/Enlisted E1-E4 E5-E9 5,897 4,455 130 1,067 245 Officer 1,146 910 18 178 40 Total 17,834 12,447 346 4,641 400 4,510 2,754 58 1,675 23 Age Age <22 22-24 5,124 3,417 95 1,534 78 25-30 5,135 3,780 103 1,093 159 31-35 1,599 1,268 39 226 66 >35 1,355 1,142 36 105 72 111 86 15 8 2 17,834 12,447 346 4,641 400 15,500 10,451 327 4,376 346 758 456 19 265 18 National Guard 1,576 1,540 0 0 36 Total 17,834 12,447 346 4,641 400 American Indian or Alaska Native 169 102 20 43 4 Asian 344 266 17 56 5 1,191 962 28 174 27 Unknown Total Component Active Reserve Race Black or African American Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander White Multiple Races 71 24 7 37 3 14,498 10,754 209 3,191 344 174 117 16 37 4 Unknown 1,387 222 49 1,103 13 Total 17,834 12,447 346 4,641 400 Source: DCAS, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_oef_wounded.xhtml. Ethnicity, previously included with race data, may be found in Table 20. Note: Casualty areas include in/around Afghanistan, Republic of the Philippines, Southwest Asia, and other locations. Congressional Research Service 16 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Tables 14 through 17 provide casualty statistics for OIF, which began on March 19, 2003. Major combat operations ended on August 31, 2010. These statistics are revised on a monthly basis as records are processed through the U.S. military system. Table 20 provides ethnicity statistics for OEF, OIF, and OND. Table 14. Operation Iraqi Freedom, Casualty Summary by Casualty Category (as of 0ctober 22, 2012) Casualty Type Total Army Navya Marines Air Force Killed in Action 2,673 1,918 62 664 29 798 610 1 187 0 Died While Missing In Action 3 3 0 0 0 Died While Captured 4 4 0 0 0 Died While Detained 1 0 1 0 0 3,479 2,535 64 851 29 Accident 566 413 19 121 13 Illness 92 72 9 6 5 Homicide 36 23 4 7 2 Self-Inflicted 223 180 4 37 2 Undetermined 11 9 2 0 0 Pendingc 2 1 1 0 0 930 698 39 171 22 Total Deaths 4,409 3,233 103 1,022 51 Total Wounded in Action (WIA) 31,925 22,218 636 8,625 447 Died of Woundsb Total Hostile Deaths Total Non-Hostile Deaths Source: DCAS, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_oif_type.xhtml. Notes: Any casualty counted after the end date represents a service member who was wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds or a service member who was in a missing status during a part of the war period and later declared dead. a. Navy totals include Coast Guard. b. Includes those who died of wounds where wounding occurred in theater and death occurred elsewhere. c. Pending means final category to be determined at a later date. Congressional Research Service 17 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 15. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Military Deaths (as of October 22, 2012) Casualty Type Totals Army Navya Marines Air Force Hostile 3,479 2,535 64 851 29 Pending 1 1 0 0 0 929 697 39 171 22 4,409 3,233 103 1,022 51 110 89 10 8 3 Male 4,299 3,144 93 1,014 48 Total 4,409 3,233 103 1,022 51 E1-E4 2,540 1,710 43 774 13 E5-E9 1,442 1,194 49 173 26 Officer 427 329 11 75 12 Total 4,409 3,233 103 1,022 51 Age <22 1,283 789 15 473 6 22-24 1,073 790 17 257 9 25-30 1,125 875 31 203 16 31-35 426 353 16 49 8 >35 502 426 24 40 12 4,409 3,233 103 1,022 51 3,498 2,492 79 883 44 Reserve 414 246 24 139 5 National Guard 497 495 0 0 2 4,409 3,233 103 1,022 51 American Indian or Alaska Native 43 27 1 15 0 Asian 77 63 5 9 0 Black or African American 439 372 12 48 7 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 17 10 1 6 0 3,638 2,626 82 891 39 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 62 46 0 16 0 Unknown 133 89 2 37 5 4,409 3,233 103 1,022 51 Non-Hostile Total Gender Female Officer/Enlisted Age Total Component Active Total Race/Ethnicity White Total Source: DCAS, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_oif_all.xhtml. Notes Ethnicity, previously included with race data, may be found in Table 20. a. Navy totals include one Coast Guard death. Congressional Research Service 18 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 16. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Wounded In Action (as of October 22, 2012) Casualty Type Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force Hostile 31,925 22,217 636 8,625 447 Total 31,925 22,217 636 8,625 447 623 546 5 41 31 31,151 21,640 522 8,573 416 151 31 109 11 31,925 22,217 636 8,625 447 E1-E4 19,673 12,502 359 6,639 173 E5-E9 10,374 8,323 241 1,575 235 Officer 1,878 1,392 36 411 39 Total 31,925 22,217 636 8,625 447 Age <22 8,888 5,260 131 3,432 65 22-24 7,990 5,760 152 1,974 104 25-30 7,536 5,923 138 1,345 130 31-35 3,056 2,556 75 372 53 >35 2,861 2,443 90 234 94 Unknown 1,594 275 50 1,268 1 Total 31,925 22,217 636 8,625 447 Active 24,911 16,437 533 7,572 369 Reserve 2,839 1,663 103 1,053 20 National Guard 4,175 4,117 0 0 58 Total 31,925 22,217 636 8,625 447 American Indian or Alaska Native 344 220 25 95 4 Asian 527 413 19 90 5 2,727 2,348 44 306 29 57 32 2 21 2 25,878 18,037 474 7,000 367 322 242 16 57 7 Unknown 2,070 925 56 1,056 33 Total 31,925 22,217 636 8,625 447 Gender Female Male Not Specified Total 0 Officer/Enlisted Age Component Race Black or African American Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander White Multiple races Source: DCAS, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_oif_woundall.xhtml. Note: Ethnicity, previously included in this table, may be found in Table 20. Congressional Research Service 19 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Combat operations in Iraq ended August 31, 2010. Use of the term, Operation New Dawn, began on September 1, 2010, with the transition from combat to stability operations. Table 20 provides ethnicity statistics for OEF, OIF, and OND. Table 17. Operation New Dawn, Casualty Summary by Casualty Category (as of October 22, 2012) Casualty Category Total Army Navya Marines Air Force Killed in Action 22 22 0 0 0 Died of Woundsb 16 16 0 0 0 Total Hostile Deaths 38 38 0 0 0 Accident 5 3 0 0 2 Illness/Injury 7 5 1 0 1 Homicide 3 3 0 0 0 Self-Inflicted 12 10 1 0 1 Undetermined 1 1 0 0 0 Total Non-Hostile Deaths 28 22 2 0 4 Total Deaths 66 60 2 0 4 Total—Wounded In Action (WIA) 295 293 0 0 2 Source: DCAS, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_ond_type.xhtml. a. Navy totals include Coast Guard. b. Includes died of wounds where wounding occurred in theater and death occurred elsewhere. Any casualty counted after the end date represents a service member who was wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds, or a service member who was in a missing status during a part of the war period and later declared dead. Congressional Research Service 20 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 18. Operation New Dawn: Military Deaths (as of October 22, 2012) Casualty Type Hostile Totals 38 Army 38 Navya 0 Marines 0 Air Force 0 Non-Hostile 28 22 2 0 4 Total 66 60 2 0 4 Female 0 0 0 0 0 Male 66 60 2 0 4 Total 66 60 2 0 4 E1-E4 38 33 1 0 4 E5-E9 20 20 0 0 0 Gender Officer/Enlisted Officer 8 7 1 0 0 Total 66 60 2 0 4 Age <22 11 10 0 0 1 22-24 15 14 0 0 1 25-30 25 22 1 0 2 31-35 5 5 0 0 0 Age >35 10 9 1 0 0 Total 66 60 2 0 4 Active 54 49 1 0 4 Reserve 6 5 1 0 0 Component National Guard 6 6 0 0 0 Total 66 60 2 0 4 Asian 1 1 0 0 0 Black or African American 5 5 0 0 0 Race/Ethnicity Native Hawaiian or Pacific 1 1 0 0 0 White 58 52 2 0 4 Multiple races 1 1 0 0 0 Total 66 60 2 0 4 Source: DCAS, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_ond_deaths.xhtml Notes: Ethnicity, previously included in this table, may be found in Table 20. a. Navy totals include Coast Guard. Congressional Research Service 21 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 19. Operation New Dawn: Military Wounded in Action (as of October 22, 2012) Casualty Type Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force Hostile 295 293 0 0 2 Total 295 293 0 0 2 Female 12 11 0 0 1 Male 282 281 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 295 293 0 0 2 E1-E4 177 177 0 0 0 E5-E9 99 97 0 0 2 Officer 19 19 0 0 0 Total 295 293 0 0 2 62 62 0 0 0 Gender Not specified Total Officer/Enlisted Age <22 22-24 67 67 0 0 0 25-30 103 102 0 0 1 31-35 28 28 0 0 0 >35 34 33 0 0 1 Unknown 1 1 0 0 0 295 293 0 0 2 218 217 0 0 1 Total Component Active Reserve 16 16 0 0 0 National Guard 61 60 0 0 1 295 293 0 0 2 Asian 7 7 0 0 0 Black or African American 39 39 0 0 0 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1 1 0 0 0 Total Race White 241 239 0 0 2 Multiple races 4 4 0 0 0 Unknown 3 3 0 0 0 295 293 0 0 2 Total Source: DCAS, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_ond_wound.xhtml. Note: Ethnicity, previously included in this table, may be found in Table 20. Congressional Research Service 22 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 20. Deaths by Operation, Race, and Hispanic Indicator (as of September 4, 2012) Race Hispanic Non-Hispanic Total Hispanic Non-Hispanic Total American Indian/Native American 2 24 26 Asian 1 55 56 Black or African American 5 158 163 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander 0 6 6 148 1,650 1,798 Multiple Races 3 23 26 Unknown 19 9 28 178 1,925 2,103 American Indian/Native American 1 42 43 Asian 0 77 77 Black or African American 10 429 439 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander 0 17 17 342 3,296 3,638 4 58 62 Unknown 109 24 133 Total 466 3,943 4,409 American Indian/Native American 0 0 0 Asian 0 1 1 Black or African American 0 5 5 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander 0 1 1 White 9 49 58 Multiple Races 1 0 1 Unknown 0 0 0 10 56 66 Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) Race White Total Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) White Multiple Races Operation New Dawn (OND) Total Source: Defense Casualty Analysis System, received by request September 4, 2012. Congressional Research Service 23 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics CRS has received numerous requests for the number of Coast Guard casualties separate from those reported by DCAS. Although the U.S. Coast Guard is an armed service, it was part of the Department of Transportation until 2003 when it was incorporated into the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Coast Guard casualty figures presented below are provided by the Office of the Coast Guard Historian. Table 21. U.S. Coast Guard Service Casualties War Number Served Deaths in Action Wounded Total Casualties War of 1812 100 (?) Unknown Unknown Unknown Mexican War 71 officers Unknown Unknown Unknown Civil War 219 officers 1 Unknown Unknown Spanish-American War 660 1 0 1 World War I 8,835 111a Unknown Unknown World War II 241,093 574b Unknown 1,917 Korean War 8,500c 0 0 0 Vietnam War 8,000 7 60 67 Mayaguez Incident 8d 0 0 0 Grenada: Operation Urgent Fury 162 0 0 0 Panama: Operation Just Cause 9e 0 0 0 Operation Desert Shield/Storm 400 0 0 0 Kosovo 100 0 0 0 Operation Iraqi Freedom 1,250f 1 1 2 Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, United States Coast Guard. Coast Guard History, Frequently Asked Questions, at http://www.uscg.mil/history/faqs/wars.asp. a. Includes 81 Coast Guard deaths from other causes, i.e., crashes, accidents, disease or drowning. b. There were an additional 1,343 Coast Guard deaths from other causes, such as crashes, accidents, disease or drowning. c. Equals the approximate number of Coast Guardsmen who were eligible for the Korean Service Medal. d. Crewmen on board HC-130B CG 1339 and one Coast Guard office participating in the U.S. Coast Guard-U.S. Navy Exchange Programs on board USS Harold E. Holt (FF-1074). e. There were six personnel from Group Miami Law Enforcement Detachment (LEDET) who were stationed aboard the USS Vreeland FF-1068, which was conducting operations when the ship was diverted for Operation Just Cause. Three other ships were assigned permanently to Panama and were also involved in the conflict. No casualties were incurred. f. As of June 2004. Congressional Research Service 24 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Resources Sources of Statistics The Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) provides detailed historical tables as well as annual statistics on active duty military deaths at http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/ main.xhtml. The Office of the Historian, U.S. Coast Guard, provides a historical table listing the number of U.S. Coast Guardsmen who served and the number of casualties incurred in conflicts from the War of 1812 to Operation Iraqi Freedom to June, 2004 at http://www.uscg.mil/history/faqs/ wars.asp. Sources of Published Lists of Names of War Dead The Congressional Research Service receives requests for lists of war dead. Names of the fallen are often engraved on memorials, mentioned in tributes, or used for other ceremonial purposes. The names of U.S. military personnel killed in major wars and other combat actions are provided at the following sources in addition to DCAS: World War I The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has a list of World War I Records listed at http://www.archives.gov/research/military/ww1/. Among the files listed are selected World War I records online, World War I dead buried in American Battle Monument Commission Cemeteries, missing-in-action, or buried or lost at sea. World War II NARA has also developed a finding aid for their holdings relating to World War II. The finding aid may be accessed at http://www.archives.gov/research/military/ww2/finding-aids.html#service. Korean War NARA has made state-level casualty lists from the Korean War available at http://www.archives.gov/research/military/korean-war/casualty-lists/state-level-alpha.html. Vietnam War NARA has published statistics derived from its Southeast Asia Combat Area Casualties Current File. This includes tables on Vietnam casualty data by branch of service, race, religion, state, and other categories at http://www.archives.gov/research/military/vietnam-war/casualtystatistics.html. Congressional Research Service 25 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Persian Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm/Desert Shield) NARA has made state-level casualty lists from the Persian Gulf War available at http://aad.archives.gov/aad/display-partial-records.jsp?f=4773&mtch=385&q= persian+gulf+war&cat=GP21&dt=2514&tf=F&bc=sl. Global War on Terror Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) DCAS lists the names of individuals killed in OEF at https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/ report_oef_namesalp.xhtml. The National Archives also publishes names of OEF casualties at http://aad.archives.gov/aad/display-partial-records.jsp?s=4772&dt=2514&tf=F&bc= %2Csl%2Cfd&q=Operation+Enduring+Freedom&btnSearch=Search&as_alq=&as_anq=& as_epq=&as_woq=. Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) DCAS lists the names of individuals killed in OIF at https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/ report_oif_namesalp.xhtml. The National Archives also publishes names of OIF casualties at http://aad.archives.gov/aad/display-partial-records.jsp?s=4772&dt=2514&tf=F&bc= %2Csl%2Cfd&q=Operation+Iraqi+Freedom&btnSearch=Search&as_alq=&as_anq=&as_epq=& as_woq=. Operation New Dawn (OND) DCAS lists the names of individuals killed in OND between September 1, 2010 and the present day at https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_ond_namesalp.xhtml. Defense Prisoner of War and Missing Personnel Office (DPMO) DPMO’s mission is to “Keep the Promise,” to locate the remains and repatriate or determine the whereabouts of missing Americans. Currently, 83,000 are missing from World War II, the Korean War, the Cold War, Vietnam, and the Gulf War. The names of the recently accounted-for are listed at http://www.dtic.mil/dpmo/accounted_for/. Wars Prior to World War I Lists of casualties that are not available from a central source may in some cases be available at the state level from each state’s or commonwealth’s adjutant general’s office or from military history detachments, military museums, or state libraries. Each adjutant general is the military commander of the state’s National Guard. The following is a list of offices of adjutants general along with contact information for history detachments, museums, or state libraries that may have records of casualties or service. The Adjutants General Association of the United States can be accessed at http://www.ngaus.org/content.asp?bid=142. Alabama Major General Perry G. Smith, P.O. Box 3711, Montgomery, AL 36109, 334-271-7200 Congressional Research Service 26 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Alaska Major General Thomas H. Katkus, P.O. Box 5800, Fort Richardson, AK 99505-5800, (907) 4286007 Alaska Army National Guard Historical Holdings, PO Box 5800, Fort Richardson, AK 995055800 Arizona Major General Hugo Salazar, Emergency and Military Affairs Department, 5636 East McDowell Road, Phoenix, AZ 85008-3495, (602) 267-2710 Arizona Military Museum, Papago Park Military Reservation, 5636 E. McDowell Rd., Phoenix, AZ 85008-3495, (602) 267-2676 Arkansas Major General William D. Wofford, Camp J.T. Robinson, North Little Rock, AR 72199-9600, (501) 212-5001 Historical records: (501) 212-5215 Arkansas National Guard Museum, Camp Robinson, North Little Rock, AR 72199-9600 California Major General David S. Baldwin, 9800 Goethe Road, Sacramento, CA 95826, (916) 854-3500 California State Military Museum, 1119th 2nd St., Sacramento, CA 95814 (916) 854-1900 Colorado Major General H. Michael Edwards, 6848 South Revere Parkway, Centennial, CO 80112-6709, (720) 250-1500 Connecticut Major General Thaddeus J. Martin, National Guard Armory, 360 Broad Street, Hartford, CT 06105-3706, (860) 524-4953 Military historical records: Donna Motuzick; (860) 548-3239 Request National Guard Military Records at http://www.ct.gov/mil/cwp/view.asp?a= 1342&q=429406 State Library of Connecticut: Research Guide to Manuscript Military Resources at the Connecticut State Library at http://www.cslib.org/miltrec.htm Delaware Major General Francis D. Vavala, USA, National Guard, First Regiment Road, Wilmington, DE 19808-2191, (302) 326-7001 Congressional Research Service 27 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics District of Columbia Major General Errol R. Schwartz, District of Columbia National Guard, 2001 East Capitol Street, SE, Washington, DC 20003, (202) 685-9798 Florida Major General Emmett Titshaw, Jr., P.O. Box 1008, Saint Augustine, FL 32085-1008, (904) 8230100 Camp Blanding Museum, 5629 SR 16 W, Bldg. 3040, Starke, FL 32091 Georgia Major General James B. Butterworth, Georgia Department of Defense, P.O. Box 1970, Marietta, GA 30061, (678) 569-6001 Georgia National Guard Museum,1000 Halsey Ave., Bldg. #2, Clay National Guard Center, Marietta, GA 30060 Guam Major General (Ret.) Benny M. Paulino, 430 Army Drive, Building 300, Room 113, Barrigada, GU 96913-4421, (671) 735-0400 Hawaii Major General Darryll D. M. Wong, 3949 Diamond Head Road, Honolulu, HI 96816-4495 (808) 733-4246 Idaho Major General Gary Sayler, Gowen Field, 4040 West Guard Street, Boise, ID 83705-5004 (208) 422-5242 Idaho Military History Museum, 4040 West Guard St., Boise, ID 83705 (208)-272-4841 Illinois Major General Dennis L. Celletti (Acting), Military Affairs Department, 1301 N. MacArthur Boulevard, Springfield, IL 62702-2399, (217) 761-3500 Illinois State Military Museum, Department of Military Affairs, 1301 MacArthur Blvd., Springfield, IL 62702-2399, (217) 761-3910 Indiana Major General R. Martin Umbarger, Joint Forces Headquarters-Indiana, 2002 South Holt Road, Indianapolis, IN 46241-4839, (317) 247-3559 Congressional Research Service 28 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Camp Atterbury Veterans’ Memorial Museum, PO Box 5000, Building 427, Edinburgh, IN 46124 (812) 526-1499 Iowa Brigadier General Timothy E. Orr, 700 NW Beaver Drive, Johnston, IA 50131-1824, (515) 2524211 Iowa Gold Star Museum, 7105 NW 70th Ave., Johnston, IA50131-1824, (515) 252-4531 http://www.iowanationalguard.com/Museum/Museum.htm Kansas Major General Lee Tafanelli, 2800 SW Topeka Boulevard, Topeka, KS 66611-1287, (785) 2741001 Museum of the Kansas National Guard, 6700 SW Topeka Blvd., Bldg. 301,Topeka, KS 666190285, (785) 862-1020 Kentucky Major General Edward W. Tonini, Boone National Guard Center, 100 Minuteman Parkway, Frankfort, KY 40601, (502) 607-1558 Kentucky Military History Museum, 100 West Broadway, Frankfort, KY 40601, (502) 564-1792 Louisiana Brigadier General Glenn H. Curtis, Camp Beauregard, Building 304 F Street, Pineville, LA 71360, (318) 641-3858 Jackson Barracks Military Museum, 6400 St. Claude Ave., Jackson Barracks, New Orleans, LA 70146 Maine Brigadier General James B. Campbell, Camp Keyes, Augusta, ME 04333-0033, (207) 626-4271 Maine Military Historical Society, 194 Winthrop St., Augusta, ME 04330, (207) 626-4468 Maryland Brigadier General James A. Adkins, 5th Regiment Armory, 29th Division Street, Baltimore, MD 21201-2288, 410-576-6097 Massachusetts Major General L. Scott Rice, Headquarters, Massachusetts National Guard, 50 Maple Street, Milford, MA 01757, (508) 233-6552 Congressional Research Service 29 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Massachusetts National Guard Museum and Archives, 44 Salisbury Street, Worcester, MA 016093157, (508) 797-0334 Michigan Major General Gregory J. Vadnais, 2500 South Washington DR, Lansing, MI 48913-5101, (517) 483-5507 Minnesota Major General Richard Nash, 20 West 12th Street, St. Paul, MN 55155-2004, (651) 268-8924 Mississippi Major General Augustus Collins, Jr., P.O. Box 5027, Jackson, MS 39296-5027, (601) 313-6232 Mississippi Armed Forces Museum, Bldg. 850, Camp Shelby, MS 39407, (601) 558-2757 Missouri Major General Stephen L. Danner, 2302 Militia Drive, Jefferson City, MO 65101-1203, (573) 638-9710 Missouri National Guard Museum, 2302 Militia Dr., Jefferson City, MO 65101, (573) 638-9603 Montana Brigadier General Matthew T. Quinn, 1956 Mt. Majo Street, P.O. Box 4789, Fort Harrison, MT 59636-4789, (406) 324-3010 Montana Military Museum, PO Box 125, Fort Harrison, MT 59636-0125, (406) 324-3550 Nebraska Major General General Judd H. Lyons, 1300 Military Road, Lincoln, NE 68508-1090, (402) 3097210 Nevada Brigadier General William R. Burks, Nevada National Guard JFHQ, 2460 Fairview Drive, Carson City, NV 89701-5502, (775) 887-7302 New Hampshire Major General William N. Reddel III, 1 Minuteman Way, Concord, NH 03301-5652, (603) 2251200 Congressional Research Service 30 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics New Jersey Brigadier General Michael L. Cunniff, New Jersey Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, 101 Eggert Crossing Road, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648-2805, (609) 530-6956 National Guard Militia Museum of New Jersey, PO Box 277, Sea Girt, NJ 08750, (732) 974-5966 New Mexico Brigadier General Jay Bledsoe, 47 Bataan Boulevard, Santa Fe, NM 87508, (505) 474-1210 New York Major General Patrick A. Murphy, 330 Old Niskayuna Road, Latham, NY 12110-2224, (518) 786-4502 New York State Military Museum and Research Center, 61 Lake Ave., Saratoga Springs, NY 12866, (518) 581-5100 North Carolina Major General Gregory Lusk, 4105 Reedy Creek Road, Raleigh, NC 27607-6410, (919) 6646101 North Dakota Major General David A. Sprynczynatyk, P.O. Box 5511, Bismarck, ND 58506-5511, (701) 3332000 Ohio Major General Deborah Ashenhurst, 2825 West Dublin Granville Road, Columbus, OH 432352789, (614) 336-7070 Oklahoma Major General Myles L. Deering, 3501 Military Circle, Oklahoma City, OK 73111-4398, (405) 228-5201 45th Infantry Division Museum, 2145 NE 36th St., Oklahoma City, OK 73111, (405) 424-5313 Oregon Major General Raymond Fred Rees, PO Box 14350, Salem, OR 97309-5047, (503) 584-3991 Oregon Military Museum, 15300 SE Industrial Way, Clackamas, OR 97015, (503) 557-5359 Pennsylvania Major General Wesley Craig (Ret.), Building S-O-47, Fisher Avenue, Fort Indiantown Gap, Annville, PA 17003-5002, (717) 861-8500 Congressional Research Service 31 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Pennsylvania National Guard Museum, Fort Indiantown Gap, Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, Bldg. T-8-57, Annville, PA 17003-5002, (717) 861-2402 Puerto Rico Major General Antonio J. Vicens-Gonzalez, P.O. Box 9023786, San Juan, PR 00904-3786, (787) 289-1631 Rhode Island Major General Kevin R. McBride, Headquarters, Rhode Island National Guard, Command Readiness Center, 645 New London Avenue, Cranston, RI 02920-3097, (401) 275-4102 South Carolina Major General Bob Livingston, One National Guard Road, Columbia, SC 29201-4766, (803) 806-4217 South Carolina Military Museum, 1 National Guard Rd., Columbia, SC 29201-4752, (803) 806-4440 South Dakota Major General Timothy A. Reisch, 2823 West Main, Rapid City, SD 57702-8170, (605) 737-6702 Tennessee Major General Terry M. (“Max”) Haston, Houston Barracks, 3041 Sidco Drive, Nashville, TN 37204-1502, (615) 313-3001 Texas Major General John F. Nichols, P.O. Box 5218, Austin, TX 78763-5218, (512) 782-5006 Texas Military Forces Museum, Camp Mabry, 2200 West 35th St., Austin, TX 78703 (512) 782-5659 U.S. Virgin Islands Major General Renaldo Rivera, 4031 La Grande Princesse, Lot #1B, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI 00820-4353, (340) 773-7710 Utah Major General Brian L. Tarbet, 12953 S. Minuteman Drive, Draper, UT 84020-1776, (801) 4324402 Vermont Major General Michael D. Dubie, 789 Vermont National Guard Road, Colchester, VT 054463099, (802) 338-3124 Congressional Research Service 32 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Vermont Militia Museum, Inc., 789 Vermont National Guard Rd., Colchester, VT 05446-3099 (802) 338-3360 Virginia Major General Daniel E. Long, Jr., Department of Military Affairs, 5901 Beulah Road, Sandston, VA 23150, (804) 236-7880 Virginia Army National Guard Historical Collection, Fort Pickett, Bldg. 1315, Blackstone, VA 23824, (434) 298-5321 Washington Major General Timothy J. Lowenberg, Camp Murray, Building 1, Tacoma, WA 98430-5000, (253) 512-8201 Washington National Guard Museum, Bldg. 2, The Arsenal, Camp Murray, WA 98430 (253) 512-7834 West Virginia Major General James Hoyer, 1703 Coonskin Drive, Charleston, WV 25311-1085, (304) 561-6316 Wisconsin Brigadier General Donald Dunbar, P.O. Box 8111, Madison, WI 53704, (608) 242-3001 Wisconsin Veterans Museum, 30 W. Mifflin Street, Madison, WI 53703, (608) 267-1790 Wyoming Colonel Luke Reiner, 5500 Bishop Boulevard, Cheyenne, WY 82009-3320, (307) 772-5234 Wyoming Veterans’ Memorial Museum, 3740 Jourgensen Ave., Casper, WY 82604, (307) 4721857; Military Records Office, (307) 772-5239 Wyoming National Guard Museum, 624 East Pershing Blvd., Cheyenne, WY 82001, (307) 632-7566 Additional Websites DOD issues a daily news release of casualty numbers at http://www.defense.gov/news/casualty.pdf. DOD also issues daily news includes military personnel fatalities by name at http://www.defense.gov/releases/. The news releases archive, which has a link at the bottom of the page, is available from October, 1994. Congressional Research Service 33 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics CRS Reports CRS Report R41084, Afghanistan Casualties: Military Forces and Civilians, by Susan G. Chesser. CRS Report R40824, Iraq Casualties: U.S. Military Forces and Iraqi Civilians, Police, and Security Forces, by Hannah Fischer. CRS Report RS21396, Iraq: Map Sources, by Hannah Fischer. CRS Report RS22452, U.S. Military Casualty Statistics: Operation New Dawn, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom, by Hannah Fischer. CRS Report R42738, Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2012, by Richard F. Grimmett. CRS Report RS21405, U.S. Periods of War and Dates of Current Conflicts, by Barbara Salazar Torreon. Author Contact Information Anne Leland Information Research Specialist aleland@crs.loc.gov, 7-4704 Acknowledgments Barbara Salazar Torreon, information research specialist, and Ann Eschete, reference assistant, contributed to this report. Congressional Research Service 34