Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Lennard G. Kruger Specialist in Science and Technology Policy June 1, 2012 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL32341 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Summary The Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program, also known as fire grants or the FIRE Act grant program, was established by Title XVII of the FY2001 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 106-398). Currently administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the program provides federal grants directly to local fire departments and unaffiliated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organizations to help address a variety of equipment, training, and other firefighter-related and EMS needs. A related program is the Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Firefighters (SAFER) program, which provides grants for hiring, recruiting, and retaining firefighters. The fire grant program is now in its 12th year. The Fire Act statute was reauthorized in 2004 (Title XXXVI of P.L. 108-375) and provides overall guidelines on how fire grant money should be distributed. There is no set geographical formula for the distribution of fire grants—fire departments throughout the nation apply, and award decisions are made by a peer panel based on the merits of the application and the needs of the community. However, the law does require that fire grants be distributed to a diverse mix of fire departments, with respect to type of department (paid, volunteer, or combination), geographic location, and type of community served (e.g., urban, suburban, or rural). For FY2012, P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, provided $675 million for firefighter assistance, including $337.5 million for AFG and $337.5 million for SAFER. The Administration’s FY2013 budget proposed $670 million for firefighter assistance, including $335 million for AFG and $335 million for SAFER. The House Appropriations Committee FY2013 bill (H.R. 5855) also provides $670 million for firefighter assistance ($335 million for AFG, $335 million for SAFER), while the Senate Appropriations Committee bill (S. 3216) provides $675 million ($337.5 million for AFG and $337.5 million for SAFER). On March 10, 2011, S. 550, the Fire Grants Authorization Act of 2011 was introduced into the Senate. Previously in the 111th Congress, reauthorization legislation for AFG and SAFER was passed by the House, but was not passed by the Senate. Debate over the reauthorization reflected a competition for funding between career/urban/suburban departments and volunteer/rural departments. The urgency of this debate was heightened by the proposed reduction of overall AFG funding in FY2011, and the economic downturn in many local communities increasingly hard pressed to allocate funding for their local fire departments. On June 22, 2011, H.R. 2269, the Fire Grants Reauthorization Act of 2011, was introduced into the House. H.R. 2269 is virtually identical to House legislation that was passed in the 111th Congress. Congressional Research Service Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Contents Background...................................................................................................................................... 1 Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program........................................................................................ 1 Reauthorization Act of 2004...................................................................................................... 1 Current Reauthorization ............................................................................................................ 2 House Reauthorization Bill: 111th Congress........................................................................ 3 Senate Reauthorization Bill................................................................................................. 6 Appropriations........................................................................................................................... 9 FY2011.............................................................................................................................. 10 FY2012.............................................................................................................................. 11 FY2013.............................................................................................................................. 12 Fire Station Construction Grants in the ARRA.............................................................................. 13 SAFER Grants ............................................................................................................................... 14 Program Evaluation ....................................................................................................................... 14 Distribution of Fire Grants............................................................................................................. 16 Issues in the 112th Congress........................................................................................................... 17 Tables Table 1. Major Provisions of the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Reauthorization Act of 2004......................................................................................................... 2 Table 2. Comparison of Selected Provisions in Fire Grant Reauthorization ................................... 7 Table 3. Appropriations for Firefighter Assistance, FY2001-FY2012........................................... 10 Table 4. Recent and Proposed Appropriations for Firefighter Assistance ..................................... 10 Table 5. State-by-State Distribution of AFG Grants, FY2001-FY2010......................................... 18 Table 6. State-by-State Distribution of SAFER Grants, FY2005-FY2010 .................................... 19 Table 7. Requests and Awards for AFG Funding, FY2010............................................................ 21 Contacts Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 23 Congressional Research Service Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Background Firefighting activities are traditionally the responsibility of states and local communities. As such, funding for firefighters is provided mostly by state and local governments. During the 1990s, shortfalls in state and local budgets, coupled with increased responsibilities of local fire departments, led many in the fire community to call for additional financial support from the federal government. Although federally funded training programs existed (and continue to exist) through the National Fire Academy, and although federal money was available to first responders for counterterrorism training and equipment through the Department of Justice,1 there did not exist a dedicated program, exclusively for firefighters, which provided federal money directly to local fire departments to help address a wide variety of equipment, training, and other firefighterrelated needs. Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program During the 106th Congress, many in the fire community asserted that local fire departments require and deserve greater support from the federal government. The Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program (AFG), also known as fire grants or the FIRE Act grant program, was established by Title XVII of the FY2001 Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 106398).2 Currently administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the program provides federal grants directly to local fire departments and unaffiliated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organizations to help address a variety of equipment, training, and other firefighter-related and EMS needs. Reauthorization Act of 2004 On October 28, 2004, the President signed the FY2005 Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 108-375). Title XXXVI of P.L. 108-375 is the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Reauthorization Act of 2004, which reauthorized the fire grant program through FY2009. Table 1 provides a summary of key provisions of the 2004 reauthorization. 1 For a list of federal programs providing assistance to state and local first responders, see CRS Report R40246, Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress, by Shawn Reese. 2 “Firefighter assistance” is codified as §33 of the Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2229). Congressional Research Service 1 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Table 1. Major Provisions of the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Reauthorization Act of 2004 Grant recipient limits: populations over 1 million—lesser of $2.75 million or 0.5% of total appropriation populations of 500K to 1 million—$1.75 million populations under 500K—$1 million no single grant can exceed 0.5% of total funds appropriated for a single fiscal year DHS can waive the funding limits for populations up to 1 million in instances of extraordinary need; however the lesser of $2.75 million or 0.5% limit cannot be waived Nonfederal match requirements: 20% for populations over 50K 10% for populations 20K to 50K 5% for populations less than 20K No match requirement for non-fire department prevention and firefighter safety grants Authorized for five years: FY2005—$900 million FY2006—$950 million FY2007—$1 billion FY2008—$1 billion FY2009—$1 billion Expands grant eligibility to emergency medical service squads, not less than 3.5% of fire grant money for EMS, but no more than 2% for nonaffiliated EMS Provides grants for firefighter health and safety R&D Requires the USFA Administrator to convene an annual meeting of non-federal fire service experts to recommend criteria for awarding grants and administrative changes Requires fire service peer review of grant applications Requires the USFA, in conjunction with the National Fire Protection Association, to conduct a $300,000, 18-month study on the fire grant program and the need for federal assistance to state and local communities to fund firefighting and emergency response activities Source: Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Reauthorization Act of 2004, Section XXXVI of P.L. 108-375, FY2005 Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act. Current Reauthorization The most recent authorization of AFG expired on September 30, 2009; the authorization of SAFER expired September 30, 2010. Previously in the 111th Congress, reauthorization legislation for AFG and SAFER was passed by the House, but was not passed by the Senate. In the 112th Congress, the Senate reauthorization bill for AFG and SAFER has been reintroduced as S. 550. The House bill has been reintroduced as H.R. 2269. Congressional Research Service 2 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding House Reauthorization Bill: 111th Congress On July 8, 2009, the House Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Technology & Innovation, held a hearing on the reauthorization of the FIRE grant programs (both AFG and SAFER).3 Testimony was heard from FEMA and many of the major fire service organizations, including the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC), the International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF), the National Volunteer Fire Council (NVFC), and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). A major issue surrounding the fire grant reauthorization is whether the current distribution of fire grant funds should be altered. Under current law, the majority of funding goes to rural and volunteer fire departments. This is the case because individual fire departments throughout the nation apply directly for funding, and there are many more volunteer and rural fire departments than career and urban/suburban fire departments.4 In general, career departments tend to protect the more densely populated urban and suburban areas, while volunteer departments tend to protect more rural areas. Testimony presented by the International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF), representing career (paid) firefighters, argued that under current law, “the overwhelming majority of FIRE grants are awarded to fire departments that protect a relatively small percentage of the population.”5 According to IAFF, a greater proportion of funding should go to career fire departments protecting the more densely populated suburban and urban areas; the organization suggested the following changes in the fire act statute: • professional, volunteer, and combination departments should each be guaranteed at least 30% of total grant funding each year (under current statute, volunteer and combination departments must receive no less than 55% of funding; in practice career departments have received about 20% of AFG funding); • funding caps for a single grant should be raised to $10 million for communities of 1 million population or more, $5 million for communities of 500,000 or more, $2 million for communities of 100,000 or more, and $1 million for communities with populations under 100,000 (current statutory caps are $2.75 million for populations over 1 million, $1.75 million for populations over 500,000, and $1 million for populations under 500,000); and • the local match requirement for fire grants should be set at 15% for all applicants, with DHS having the authority to waive the match requirement for needy departments (the current statutory matching requirements are 20% for 3 See http://science.house.gov/publications/hearings_markups_details.aspx?NewsID=2539. According to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), there are an estimated 30,185 fire departments in the United States (2007 data). Of those, 7.5% are career departments, 5.8% are mostly career, 16.5% are mostly volunteer, and 70.1% are all volunteer. Most career firefighters (74%) are in communities that protect 25,000 or more people, while most volunteer firefighters (95%) are in departments that protect fewer than 25,000, and more than half are located in small, rural departments that protect fewer than 2,500 people. 5 Kevin O’Connor, Assistant to the General President, International Association of Fire Fighters, testimony before the House Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation, Committee on Science and Technology, July 8, 2009, p. 3, http://gop.science.house.gov/Media/hearings/ets09/july8/oconnor.pdf. 4 Congressional Research Service 3 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding populations over 50,000, 10% for populations over 20,000, and 5% for populations less than 20,000).6 On the other hand, testimony from the National Volunteer Fire Council (NFVC) stated that its main priority for reauthorization of AFG (as well as SAFER) is to extend the programs without substantial changes, and that “the programs are well-run, distributing funding in an efficient manner to the most deserving awardees.”7 NVFC argued that volunteer departments are concentrated in rural communities with smaller tax bases and higher poverty rates, that “DHS needs assessments have consistently shown that equipment training and apparatus needs are most acute in volunteer departments,”8 and that since 2001 DHS first responder grants for terrorism and disaster response have predominantly gone to urban areas. Meanwhile, other suggested reauthorization changes to the AFG statute made by the July 8 hearing witnesses included • establish DHS waiver authority for the existing local match requirement for economically challenged jurisdictions (IAFC); • establish centers of excellence in fire safety research (IAFC); • allow larger grants for regional projects (IAFC); • eliminate the cost-share requirement for fire departments in the Fire Prevention and Firefighter Safety grant program (NFPA and IAFF); • designate a minimum of 5% of funding for fire service-based emergency medical services (NFPA); • utilize funds for training and equipment to meet the latest applicable national voluntary consensus standards available at the time of application (NFPA); and • make state training agencies (e.g., state fire academies) eligible for AFG funding (NVFC). As manifested in the July 8 hearing, debate over the AFG reauthorization reflected a competition for funding primarily between career/urban/suburban departments and volunteer/rural departments. The urgency of this debate was heightened by reductions in FY2010 AFG funding and by the economic downturn in many local communities increasingly hard pressed to allocate funding for their local fire departments. On October 13, 2009, H.R. 3791, the Fire Grants Reauthorization Act of 2009, was introduced by Representative Mitchell. The legislation reflected an agreement reached among the major fire service organizations on the reauthorization language. H.R. 3791 was referred to the House Committee on Science and Technology, and approved (amended) by the Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation on October 14, 2009, and by the full committee on October 21, 2009. H.R. 3791 was reported (amended) by the committee on November 7, 2009 (H.Rept. 111-333, Part I). H.R. 3791 was amended and passed by the House on November 18, 2009. Adopted 6 Ibid. Jack Carriger, First Vice Chairman of the National Volunteer Fire Council, testimony before the House Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation, Committee on Science and Technology, July 8, 2009, p. 3, http://democrats.science.house.gov/Media/file/Commdocs/hearings/2009/Tech/8jul/Carriger_Testimony.pdf. 8 Ibid. 7 Congressional Research Service 4 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding amendments included directing DHS to conduct a survey of fire department compliance with firefighter safety standards; requiring DHS to give added consideration to applications from areas with high unemployment; making river rescue organizations eligible for funding; expanding AFG scope to include equipment that reduces water use; and prohibiting earmarking of funds appropriated under the act. H.R. 3791, as passed by the House, would have authorized AFG at a level of $1 billion per year through FY2014 and included the following major provisions: • Grant Money Distribution—directs that grant money should be allocated (to the extent that there are eligible applicants) as follows: 25% of AFG funding to career fire departments; 25% to volunteer fire departments; 25% to combination fire departments; 10% (minimum) for fire prevention, safety, and research grants; 2% (maximum) for volunteer non-fire service EMS and rescue; 3% (maximum) for fire service training academies; and 10% to be competitive between career, volunteer, and combination departments; • Grant Caps—sets maximum individual grant levels at $9 million for jurisdictions with populations over 2.5 million, $6 million for populations between 1 million and 2.5 million, $3 million for populations between 500,000 and 1 million, $2 million for populations between 100,000 and 500,000, and $1 million for populations under 100,000; • Matching Requirements—keeps the existing 5% matching requirement for communities of 20K or less, sets the matching requirement for all other jurisdictions at 10%, and allows an economic hardship waiver whereby in “exceptional circumstances” DHS may waive or reduce the matching requirements; • Maintenance of Expenditures—amends the existing maintenance of expenditures provision to require applicants to maintain budgets at 80% of the average over the past two years, also allows an economic hardship waiver whereby in “exceptional circumstances” DHS may waive or reduce the maintenance of expenditures requirements; • Fire Prevention, Research, and Safety Grants—increases available funding from 5% to 10% of total, raises grant maximum from $1 million to $1.5 million, eliminates the matching requirement for fire departments, and prohibits any funding to the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN); • University Fire Safety Research Centers—as part of the fire prevention, research, and safety grants, authorizes DHS to establish no more than three university fire safety research centers with funding of any one center at not more than $2 million per fiscal year; • State Fire Training Academies—allows DHS to award up to 3% of grant funding to state fire training academies, with individual grants not to exceed $1 million; • Voluntary Consensus Standards—directs that grants used for training should be limited to training that complies with applicable national voluntary consensus standards, unless a waiver has been granted; and Congressional Research Service 5 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding • Survey and Task Force on Firefighter Safety—directs DHS to conduct a nationwide survey to assess whether fire departments are in compliance with the national voluntary consensus standards for staffing, training, safe operations, personal protective equipment, and fitness; establishes a Task Force to Enhance Firefighter Safety to make recommendations to Congress on ways to increase compliance with firefighter safety standards. H.R. 3791 also reauthorized the SAFER grant program at a level of $1.196 billion per year through FY2014. The legislation would have modified the SAFER grant program by shortening the grant period to three years, establishing a 20% local matching requirement for each year, removing the existing federal funding cap per hired firefighter, making national organizations eligible for recruitment and retention funds, and allowing DHS in the case of economic hardship to waive cost share requirements, the three-year grant period, and/or maintenance of expenditure requirements. Senate Reauthorization Bill On March 10, 2011, S. 550, the Fire Grants Authorization Act of 2011, was introduced by Senator Lieberman, chairman of the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. The Senate bill, while similar to the House bill, has a higher nonfederal match requirement for communities over 50K and higher match requirements for fire prevention and safety grants. Regarding SAFER, the Senate bill has a higher match requirement for hiring grants and would continue to require applicants to retain hired firefighters for at least one year after the grant expires (unless a waiver is obtained). On May 18, 2011, the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs ordered S. 550 to be reported with two amendments (S.Rept. 112-28). One approved amendment is a requirement that the inspector general of DHS submit to Congress a report detailing whether and to what degree the grant programs are duplicative. The other adopted amendment would sunset both AFG and SAFER grant programs on October 1, 2016, requiring the programs to subsequently be reauthorized past that date in order to continue. Table 2 shows a comparison of selected provisions in S. 550 (as reported), H.R. 2269 (as introduced), and current law (15 U.S.C. 2229 and 15 U.S.C. 2229a). Congressional Research Service 6 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Table 2. Comparison of Selected Provisions in Fire Grant Reauthorization Current Law (15 U.S.C. 2229 and 15 U.S.C. 2229a) H.R. 2269 as introduced S. 550 as reported Grant money allocation volunteer and combination fire departments shall receive a proportion of the total grant funding that is not less than the proportion of the U.S. population that those departments protect 25% to career fire departments 25% to volunteer fire departments no less than 25% to career fire departments 25% to combination fire departments no less than 25% to volunteer fire departments 10% competitive between career, volunteer, and combination departments no less than 25% to combination and paid-on-call fire departments 5% (minimum) to fire prevention and safety grants 10% (minimum) to fire prevention and safety grants (includes fire safety research centers) 10% (minimum) to fire prevention and safety grants (includes fire safety research centers) 3.5% (minimum) to EMS provided by fire departments and nonaffiliated EMS organizations 2% (maximum) to volunteer non-fire service EMS 3.5% (minimum) to EMS provided by fire departments and nonaffiliated EMS organizations 2% (maximum) to nonaffiliated EMS organizations 2% (maximum) to nonaffiliated EMS organizations 3% (maximum) to State fire training academies, no more than 1 grant and $1 million per state in a fiscal year 3% (maximum) to State training academies, no more than $1 million per state academy in any fiscal year Joint or Regional applications—two or more entities may submit an application to fund a joint or regional program or initiative, including acquisition of shared equipment or vehicles Grant recipient limits populations over 1 million—lesser of $2.75 million or 0.5% of total appropriation $9 million—over 2.5m population $9 million—over 2.5m population $6 million—1m to 2.5m population $6 million—1m to 2.5m population populations of 500K to 1 million— $1.75 million $3 million—500K to 1m population $3 million—500K to 1m population $2 million—100 to 500K population $2 million—100 to 500K population populations under 500K—$1 million $1 million—under 100K population $1 million—under 100K population DHS can waive funding limits for populations up to 2.5 million in instances of extraordinary need FEMA may not award a grant exceeding 1% of all available grant funds, unless FEMA determines extraordinary need no single grant can exceed 0.5% of total funds appropriated for a single fiscal year DHS can waive the funding limits for populations up to 1 million in instances of extraordinary need; however the lesser of $2.75 million or 0.5% limit cannot be waived Nonfederal match requirements 20% for populations over 50K 10% for populations over 20K 15% for populations over 50K 10% for populations 20K to 50K 5% for populations under 20K 10% for populations 20K to 50K Congressional Research Service 7 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Current Law (15 U.S.C. 2229 and 15 U.S.C. 2229a) H.R. 2269 as introduced 5% for populations less than 20K No match requirement for non-fire department prevention and firefighter safety grants S. 550 as reported 5% for populations under 20K No match requirement for all fire prevention and firefighter safety grants 5% match required for fire prevention and safety grants Maintenance of expenditures requires applicants to maintain expenditures at the same level as the average over the preceding two fiscal years requires applicants to maintain expenditures at or above 80% of the average over the preceding two fiscal years requires applicants to maintain expenditures at or above 80% of the average over the preceding two fiscal years Economic hardship waivers no economic hardship waivers available waivers available for nonfederal matching and maintenance of expenditures requirements, DHS will develop economic hardship waiver criteria in consultation with experts and interests representing the fire service and State and local governments waivers available for nonfederal matching and maintenance of expenditures requirements, FEMA will develop economic hardship waiver guidelines considering unemployment rates, percentages of individuals eligible to receive food stamps, and other factors as appropriate. Authorizations FY2005—$900 million FY2012—$1 billion FY2012—$950 million FY2006—$950 million FY2013—$1 billion FY2007—$1 billion FY2014—$1 billion FY2008—$1 billion FY2015—$1 billion FY2009—$1 billion FY2016—$1 billion for each of FY2013 – FY2016, an amount equal to the amount authorized the previous fiscal year, increased by the percentage by which the Consumer Price Index for the previous fiscal year exceeds the preceding year. sunset: authority to award grants shall expire on October 1, 2016 SAFER grant period is 4 years, grantees are required to retain for at least 1 year beyond the termination of their grants those firefighter positions hired under the grant shortens the grant period to 3 years, grant recipients are required to retain for at least the entire 3 years of the grant period those firefighter positions hired under the grant shortens the grant period to 3 years, grantees are required to retain for at least 1 year beyond the termination of their grants those firefighter positions hired under the grant year 1—10% local match year 2—20% local match year 3—50% local match year 4—70% local match establishes a 20% local matching requirement for each year establishes a 25% local matching requirement for each year total funding over 4 years for hiring a firefighter may not exceed $100K, adjusted annually for inflation removes the existing federal funding cap per hired firefighter the amount of funding provided for hiring a firefighter in any fiscal year may not exceed 75% of the usual annual cost of a first-year firefighter in that department state, local, and Indian tribal governments eligible for recruitment and retention funds additionally makes national organizations eligible for recruitment and retention funds additionally makes national organizations eligible for recruitment and retention funds Congressional Research Service 8 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Current Law (15 U.S.C. 2229 and 15 U.S.C. 2229a) H.R. 2269 as introduced S. 550 as reported allows DHS in the case of economic hardship to waive cost share requirements, the required retention period, the prohibition on supplanting local funds, and/or maintenance of expenditure requirements allows DHS in the case of economic hardship to waive cost share requirements, the required retention period, the prohibition on supplanting local funds, and/or maintenance of expenditure requirements authorized for 7 years starting at $1 billion in FY2004, ending at $1.194 billion in FY2010 reauthorizes the SAFER grant program FY2012 through FY2016 at a level of $1.194 billion per year reauthorizes the SAFER grant program FY2012 through FY2016 at a level of $950 million per year, with each year adjusted for inflation authority to make grants shall lapse 10 years from November 24, 2003 authority to make grants shall lapse 10 years after date of enactment authority to award grants shall expire on October 1, 2016 Source: Compiled by CRS. Appropriations From FY2001 through FY2003, the Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program (as part of USFA/FEMA) received its primary appropriation through the VA-HUD-Independent Agencies Appropriation Act. In FY2004, the Assistance to Firefighters Program began to receive its annual appropriation through the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Homeland Security. Within the DHS/FEMA budget, the firefighter assistance account (which includes both AFG and SAFER) is located within State and Local Programs (SLP) as part of the First Responder Assistance Programs (FRAP). The fire grant program is in its 12th year. Table 3 shows the appropriations history for firefighter assistance, including AFG, SAFER, and the Fire Station Construction Grants (SCG) provided in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Table 4 shows recent and proposed appropriated funding for the AFG and SAFER grant programs. Congressional Research Service 9 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Table 3. Appropriations for Firefighter Assistance, FY2001-FY2012 AFG SAFER SCGa Total FY2001 $100 million $100 million FY2002 $360 million $360 million FY2003 $745 million $745 million FY2004 $746 million $746 million FY2005 $650 million $65 million $715 million FY2006 $539 million $109 million $648 million FY2007 $547 million $115 million $662 million FY2008 $560 million $190 million $750 million FY2009 $565 million $210 million FY2010 $390 million $420 million $810 million FY2011 $405 million $405 million $810 million FY2012 $337.5 million $337.5 million $675 million Total $5.944 billion $1.851 billion a. $210 million $210 million $985 million $8.005 billion Assistance to Firefighters Fire Station Construction Grants (SCG) grants were funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (P.L. 111-5). Table 4. Recent and Proposed Appropriations for Firefighter Assistance (millions of dollars) FY2011 (Admin. request) FY2011 (P.L. 112-10) FY2012 (Admin. request) FY2012 (P.L. 112-74) FY2013 (Admin. request) FY2013 (H.R. 5855) FY2013 (S. 3216) FIRE Grants (AFG) 305 405 250 337.5 335 335 337.5 SAFER Grants 305 405 420 337.5 335 335 337.5 Total 610 810 670 675 670 670 675 FY2011 The Administration’s FY2011 budget proposed $305 million for AFG (a 22% decrease from the FY2010 level) and $305 million for SAFER (a 27% decrease). The total amount requested for firefighter assistance (AFG and SAFER) was $610 million, a 25% decrease from FY2010. The Congressional Research Service 10 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding FY2011 budget proposal stated that the firefighter assistance grant process “will give priority to applications that enhance capabilities for terrorism response and other major incidents.”9 On June 24, 2010, the House Subcommittee on Homeland Security Appropriations approved $840 million for firefighter assistance, including $420 million for AFG and $420 million for SAFER. On July 19, 2010, the Senate Appropriations Committee approved $810 million for firefighter assistance (including $390 million for AFG and $420 million for SAFER), the same level as FY2010 and 33% more than the Administration proposal. In the bill report (S.Rept. 111-222), the committee directed DHS to continue funding applications according to local priorities and priorities established by the United States Fire Administration, and to continue direct funding to fire departments and the peer review process. The committee also directed FEMA to submit the U.S. Fire Service Needs Assessment, and to brief the committee regarding the implementation of the recommendations of the recent GAO report (GAO-10-64) on additional actions which would improve the grants process. H.R. 1, the Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011, as introduced on February 11, 2011, would have provided $300 million to AFG and zero funding for SAFER. However, on February 16, 2011, H.Amdt. 38 (offered by Representative Pascrell and agreed to by the House by a vote of 318-113) restored AFG to $390 million and SAFER to $420 million (the FY2010 levels). H.R. 1 was passed by the House on February 18, 2011. S.Amdt. 149 to H.R. 1—which was rejected by the full Senate on March 9, 2011—would have funded AFG at $405 million and SAFER at $405 million. Subsequently, the full-year continuing appropriation bill for FY2011, which was signed into law on April 15, 2011 (Department of Defense and Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011, P.L. 11210), funded AFG at $405 million and SAFER at $405 million for FY2011. P.L. 112-10 also contained language that removes FY2011 SAFER cost-share requirements and allows SAFER grants to be used to rehire laid-off firefighters and fill positions eliminated through attrition. However, P.L. 112-10 did not remove the requirement that SAFER grants fund a firefighter position for four years, with the fifth year funded wholly by the grant recipient. The law also did not waive the cap of $100K per firefighter hired by a SAFER grant. FY2012 The Administration’s FY2012 budget proposed $670 million for firefighter assistance, including $250 million for AFG and $420 million for SAFER. According to the budget proposal, the request would fund 2,200 firefighter positions and approximately 5,000 AFG grants. The FY2012 budget proposal stated that the firefighter assistance grant process “will give priority to applications that enhance capabilities for terrorism response and other major incidents.”10 The Department of Homeland Security Appropriations, 2012, bill (H.R. 2017) was reported by the House Appropriations Committee on May 26, 2011. The House Committee bill would have provided $350 million for firefighter assistance, including $200 million for AFG and $150 million for SAFER. The House Appropriations bill report (H.Rept. 112-91) directed FEMA to continue 9 Office of Management and Budget, Appendix: Budget of the United States Government, FY2011, p. 557. Office of Management and Budget, Appendix: Budget of the United States Government, FY2012, p. 538. 10 Congressional Research Service 11 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding granting funds directly to local fire departments and to include the United States Fire Administration during the grant decision process. FEMA was also directed to maintain an allhazards focus and was prohibited from limiting beyond current law the list of eligible activities, including those related to wellness. During the House floor consideration of H.R. 2017, two firefighter assistance amendments were adopted. The first amendment (offered by Mr. LaTourette and Mr. Pascrell, and agreed to by a recorded vote of 333-87) raised FY2012 funding levels to $335 million for AFG and $335 million for SAFER. The total level for firefighter assistance ($670 million) is equal to the level requested by the Administration. The second amendment (offered by Mr. Price of North Carolina and agreed to by a recorded vote of 264-157) prohibited enforcement of various SAFER requirements for grantees. These waivers would allow FY2012 SAFER grants to be used to rehire laid-off firefighters and fill positions eliminated through attrition, remove cost-share requirements, allow grants to extend longer than the current five year duration, and permit the amount of funding per position at levels exceeding the current limit of $100,000. The Department of Homeland Security Appropriations, 2012, bill (H.R. 2017) was passed by the House on June 2, 2011. On September 7, 2011, the Senate Appropriations Committee approved $750 million for firefighter assistance in FY2012 (S.Rept. 112-74), which is a 12% increase over the House-passed level. The total included $375 million for AFG and $375 million for SAFER. As does the House bill, the Senate bill also waived or prohibited SAFER requirements in FY2012. P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, FY2012, provided $675 million for firefighter assistance, including $337.5 million for AFG and $337.5 million for SAFER. The conference report directed FEMA to continue funding applications according to local priorities and those established by the USFA, to maintain an all hazards focus, and to continue the current grant application and review process as specified in the House report. FY2013 The Administration’s FY2013 budget proposed $670 million for firefighter assistance, including $335 million for AFG and $335 million for SAFER. This is a decrease of $5 million from the FY2012 level. The Firefighter Assistance Grants would be categorized under First Responder Assistance Programs (FRAP), one of three activities under FEMA’s State and Local Programs (SLP) appropriation. Historically, DHS has requested that a percentage of AFG funding (up to 5%) be set aside for management and administration of the grant program. Starting in FY2013, grant administration (for AFG and SAFER) would be shifted to the SLP Management and Administration office. According to DHS, this will make an additional $28.8 million of the Firefighter Assistance appropriation available for grants. On May 16, 2012, The House Appropriations Committee approved its version of the FY2013 Department of Homeland Security appropriations bill (H.R. 5855). While the Committee mark is identical to the Administration requested level—$335 million for AFG and $335 million for SAFER—the Committee denied the Administration’s request to shift AFG and SAFER into the Congressional Research Service 12 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding State and Local Programs account. Unlike the Administration request, H.R. 5855 would designate up to 4.7% of the amount appropriated to firefighter assistance for program administration. The Committee report (H.Rept. 112-492) directed FEMA to continue granting funds directly to local fire departments and to include the United States Fire Administration during the grant decision process. FEMA was also directed to maintain an all-hazards focus and was prohibited from limiting beyond current law the list of eligible activities, including those related to wellness. The Committee continued the requirement for peer review and directed FEMA to provide official notifications to rejected applicants who do not meet the criteria for peer review. On May 22, 2012, the Senate Appropriations Committee approved $675 million for firefighter assistance for FY2013 (S. 3216). This level includes $337.5 million for AFG and $337.5 million for SAFER. The Senate level is identical to the FY2012 level. Like the House, the Committee denied the Administration’s request to shift AFG and SAFER into the State and Local Programs account. However, the Committee has included program and administration costs separately under the FEMA “Salaries and Expenses” account. The Committee report (S.Rept. 112-169) noted that under this scenario, the entire appropriation of $675 million would be used for grants, while administrative costs ($33.75 million) would be funded by the Salaries and Expenses account. The Committee report also directed DHS to continue the practice of funding applications according to local priorities and those established by the USFA, and to continue direct funding to fire departments and the peer review process. Fire Station Construction Grants in the ARRA Since its inception, the traditional fire grant program has provided money specifically for health and safety related modifications of fire stations, but has not funded major upgrades, renovations, or construction. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 (P.L. 111-5) provided an additional $210 million in firefighter assistance grants for modifying, upgrading, or constructing state and local non-federal fire stations, provided that 5% be set aside for program administration, and provided that no grant shall exceed $15 million. The conference report (H.Rept. 111-16) cited DHS estimates that this spending would create 2,000 jobs. The ARRA also included a provision (§603) that waived the matching requirement for SAFER grants funded by appropriations in FY2009 and FY2010. The application period for ARRA Assistance to Firefighters Fire Station Construction Grants (SCG) opened on June 11 and closed on July 10, 2009. There is no cost share requirement for SCG grants. Eligible applicants are non-federal fire departments that provide fire protection services to local communities. Ineligible applicants include federal fire departments, EMS or rescue organizations, airport fire departments, for-profit fire departments, fire training centers, emergency communications centers, auxiliaries and fire service organizations or associations, and search and rescue teams or similar organizations without fire suppression responsibilities. DHS/FEMA received 6,025 SCG applications for $9.9 billion in federal funds.11 As of October 1, 2010, 119 SCG grants were awarded, totaling $207.461 million to fire departments within the United States. A complete list of SCG awards is available at http://www.firegrantsupport.com/ content/html/scg/Awards09.aspx/. 11 Detailed SCG application statistics are available at http://www.firegrantsupport.com/docs/2009AFSCGAppStats.pdf. Congressional Research Service 13 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding On February 15, 2011, the Firefighting Investment, Renewal, and Employment Act or FIRE Act (H.R. 716) was introduced to authorize $210 million for each of fiscal years 2012 through 2016 for competitive grants for modifying, upgrading, or constructing nonfederal fire stations. SAFER Grants In response to concerns over the adequacy of firefighter staffing, the 108th Congress enacted the Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER) Act as Section 1057 of the FY2004 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 108-136; signed into law November 24, 2003). The SAFER grant program is codified as Section 34 of the Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act of 1974 (15 U.S.C. 2229a). The SAFER Act authorizes grants to career, volunteer, and combination fire departments for the purpose of increasing the number of firefighters to help communities meet industry minimum standards and attain 24-hour staffing to provide adequate protection from fire and fire-related hazards. Also authorized are grants to volunteer fire departments for activities related to the recruitment and retention of volunteers. P.L. 108-136 authorizes over $1 billion per year through FY2010 for SAFER. Two types of grants are authorized by the SAFER Act: hiring grants and recruitment and retention grants. Hiring grants cover a four-year term and are cost shared with the local jurisdiction. According to the statute, the federal share shall not exceed 90% in the first year of the grant, 80% in the second year, 50% in the third year, and 30% in the fourth year. The grantee must commit to retaining the firefighter or firefighters hired with the SAFER grant for at least one additional year after the federal money expires. Total federal funding for hiring a firefighter over the four-year grant period may not exceed $100,000, although that total may be adjusted for inflation. While the majority of hiring grants will be awarded to career and combination fire departments, the SAFER Act specifies that 10% of the total SAFER appropriation be awarded to volunteer or majority-volunteer departments for the hiring of personnel. Additionally, at least 10% of the total SAFER appropriation is set aside for recruitment and retention grants, which are available to volunteer and combination fire departments for activities related to the recruitment and retention of volunteer firefighters. Also eligible for recruitment and retention grants are local and statewide organizations that represent the interests of volunteer firefighters. No local cost sharing is required for recruitment and retention grants. For more information on the SAFER program, see CRS Report RL33375, Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program, by Lennard G. Kruger. Program Evaluation On May 13, 2003, the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) released the first independent evaluation of the Assistance to Firefighters Program. Conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Leadership Development Academy Executive Potential Program, the survey study presented a number of recommendations and concluded overall that the program was “highly effective in improving the readiness and capabilities of firefighters across the nation.”12 Another evaluation of 12 For full report see http://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/affgp-fy01-usda-report.pdf. Congressional Research Service 14 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding the fire grant program was released by the DHS Office of Inspector General in September 2003. The report concluded that the program “succeeded in achieving a balanced distribution of funding through a competitive grant process,”13 and made a number of specific recommendations for improving the program. At the request of DHS, the National Academy of Public Administration conducted a study to help identify potential new strategic directions for the Assistance to Firefighters Grant program and to provide advice on how to effectively plan, manage, and measure program accomplishments. Released in April 2007, the report recommended consideration of new strategic directions related to national preparedness, prevention vs. response, social equity, regional cooperation, and emergency medical response. According to the report, the “challenge for the AFG program will be to support a gradual shift in direction without losing major strengths of its current management approach—including industry driven priority setting and its well-respected peer review process.”14 The Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-161), in the accompanying Joint Explanatory Statement, directed the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to review the application and award process for fire and SAFER grants. Additionally, FEMA was directed to peer review grant applications that best address the program’s priorities and criteria as established by FEMA and the fire service. Those criteria necessary for peer-review must be included in the grant application package. Applicants whose grant applications are not reviewed must receive an official notification detailing why the application did not meet the criteria for review. Applications must be rank-ordered, and funded following the rank order. In October 2009, GAO sent a report to Congress finding that FEMA has met most statutory requirements for awarding fire grants.15 GAO recommended that FEMA establish a procedure to track EMS awards, ensure that grant priorities are better aligned with application questions and scoring values, and provide specific feedback to rejected applicants. In June 2011, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) released its Third Needs Assessment of the U.S. Fire Service, which seeks to identify gaps and needs in the fire service, and measures the impact that fire grants have had on filling those gaps and needs. According to the study: Needs have declined to a considerable degree in a number of areas, particularly personal protective and firefighting equipment, two types of resource that received the largest shares of funding from the Assistance to Firefighters grants (AFG). Declines in needs have been more modest in some other important areas, such as training, which have received much smaller shares of AFG grant funds.16 13 Department of Homeland Security, Office of Inspections, Evaluations, and Special Reviews, “A Review of the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program,” OIG-ISP-01-03, September 2003, p. 3. Available at http://www.dhs.gov/ xoig/assets/mgmtrpts/OIG_Review_Fire_Assist.pdf. 14 National Academy of Public Administration, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program: Assessing Performance, April 2007, p. xvii. Available at http://www.napawash.org/pc_management_studies/ Fire_Grants_Report_April2007.pdf. 15 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Fire Grants: FEMA Has Met Most Requirements for Awarding Fire Grants, but Additional Actions Would Improve Its Grant Process, GAO-10-64, October 2009, http://www.gao.gov/ new.items/d1064.pdf. 16 National Fire Protection Association, Third Needs Assessment of the U.S. Fire Service, June 2011, abstract. Available (continued...) Congressional Research Service 15 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Distribution of Fire Grants The FIRE Act statute prescribes 14 different purposes for which fire grant money may be used (see 15 U.S.C. 2229(b)(3)). These are hiring firefighters; training firefighters; creating rapid intervention teams; certifying fire inspectors; establishing wellness and fitness programs; funding emergency medical services; acquiring firefighting vehicles; acquiring firefighting equipment; acquiring personal protective equipment; modifying fire stations for health and safety; enforcing fire codes; funding fire prevention programs; educating the public about arson prevention and detection; and providing incentives for the recruitment and retention of volunteer firefighters. The DHS has the discretion to decide which of those purposes will be funded for a given grant year. Since the program commenced in FY2001, the majority of fire grant funding has been used by fire departments to purchase firefighting equipment, personal protective equipment, and firefighting vehicles. Eligible applicants are limited primarily to fire departments (defined as an agency or organization that has a formally recognized arrangement with a state, local, or tribal authority to provide fire suppression, fire prevention, and rescue services to a population within a fixed geographical area). Emergency Medical Services (EMS) activities are eligible for fire grants, including a limited number (no more than 2% of funds allocated) to EMS organizations not affiliated with hospitals. Additionally, a separate competition is held for fire prevention and firefighter safety research and development grants, which are available to national, state, local, or community fire prevention or safety organizations (including, but not limited to, fire departments). For official program guidelines, frequently-asked-questions, the latest awards announcements, and other information, see the Assistance to Firefighters Grant program web page at http://www.firegrantsupport.com/. The FIRE Act statute provides overall guidelines on how fire grant money will be distributed and administered. The law directs that volunteer and combination departments receive a proportion of the total grant funding that is not less than the proportion of the U.S. population that those departments protect (34% for combination, 21% for all-volunteer). The Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Reauthorization Act of 2004 (Title XXXVI of P.L. 108-375) raised award caps and lowered nonfederal matching requirements (based on recipient community population), extended eligibility to nonaffiliated emergency medical services (i.e., ambulance services not affiliated with fire departments), and expanded the scope of grants to include firefighter safety R&D. There is no set geographical formula for the distribution of fire grants—fire departments throughout the nation apply, and award decisions are made by a peer panel based on the merits of the application and the needs of the community. However, the law does require that fire grants should be distributed to a diverse mix of fire departments, with respect to type of department (paid, volunteer, or combination), geographic location, and type of community served (e.g., urban, suburban, or rural).17 The Fire Act’s implementing regulation provides that (...continued) at http://www.nfpa.org/assets/files//2011NeedsAssessment.pdf. 17 15 U.S.C. 2229(b)(9). Congressional Research Service 16 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding In a few cases, to fulfill our obligations under the law to make grants to a variety of departments, we may also make funding decisions using rank order as the preliminary basis, and then analyze the type of fire department (paid, volunteer, or combination fire departments), the size and character of the community it serves (urban, suburban, or rural), and/or the geographic location of the fire department. In these instances where we are making decisions based on geographic location, we will use States as the basic geographic unit.18 According to the FY2011 Program Guidance for the Assistance to Firefighters Program, career (paid) departments will compete against other career departments for up to 47% of the available funding, while volunteer and combination departments will compete for at least 53% of the available funding.19 However, given that less than 10% of fire grant applications are historically received from career departments, funding levels are likely not to reach the 47% ceiling for career departments. Additionally, each fire department that applies is classified as either urban, suburban, or rural. In FY2006, 4.3% of the total number of fire grant awards went to urban areas, 17.8% to suburban areas, and 77.7% to rural areas. Of the total amount of federal funding awarded, 7.7% went to urban areas, 18.2% to suburban areas, and 73.9% to rural areas.20 Finally, in an effort to maximize the diversity of awardees, the geographic location of an applicant (using states as the basic geographic unit) is used as a deciding factor in cases where applicants have similar qualifications. Table 5 shows a state-by-state breakdown of fire grant funding for FY2001 through FY2010, while Table 6 shows a state-by-state breakdown of SAFER grant funding for FY2005 through FY2010. Table 7 provides an in-depth look at the FY2010 fire grants, showing, for each state, the number of fire grant applications, the total amount requested, the total amount awarded, and the amount of funds awarded as a percentage of funds requested. As Table 7 shows, the entire pool of fire department applicants received about 13% of the funds they requested in FY2010. This compares to 16% in FY2009, 15% in FY2008, 16% in FY2007, 21% in FY2006, 22% in FY2005, 28% in FY2004, and 34% in FY2003. The downward trend reflects the fact that the number of applications and federal funds requested have trended upward over the years, while appropriations for the fire grant program have typically declined over the same period. Issues in the 112th Congress Because the 111th Congress did not enact the Fire Grants Reauthorization Act, the 112th Congress may revisit the issue, and may consider whether and how to modify the reauthorization bills. On March 10, 2011, S. 550, the Fire Grants Authorization Act of 2011, was introduced; on May 18, 2011, S. 550 was ordered to be reported by the committee. On June 22, 2011, a House version of the Fire Grants Reauthorization Act of 2011 (H.R. 2269) was introduced. Debate over the AFG reauthorization has reflected a competition for funding between career/urban/suburban departments and volunteer/rural departments. The urgency of this debate could be heightened by 18 44 CFR Part 152.6(c). For the FY2011 round of awards, no less than 33.5% of AFG funds must be awarded to combination departments, and no less than 19.5% of AFG funds must be awarded to all-volunteer departments. See Department of Homeland Security, Assistance to Firefighters Grants, Guidance and Application Kit, Section I, August 2011, p. 41. 20 Department of Homeland Security, Grant Programs Directorate, Grant Development and Administration Division, Report on Fiscal Year 2006 Assistance to Firefighters Grants, p. 11. 19 Congressional Research Service 17 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding possible reductions of overall AFG funding and the economic downturn in many local communities increasingly hard pressed to allocate funding for their local fire departments. Meanwhile, the second session of the 112th Congress is considering the Administration’s FY2013 request for AFG and SAFER. As is the case with many federal programs, concerns in the 112th Congress over the federal budget deficit could impact budget levels for AFG and SAFER. At the same time, firefighter assistance budgets will likely receive heightened scrutiny from the fire community, given the national economic downturn and local budgetary cutbacks that many fire departments are now facing. Table 5. State-by-State Distribution of AFG Grants, FY2001-FY2010 (millions of dollars) FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 Total AL 3.085 12.503 23.329 25.097 20.836 22.027 19.903 23.332 19.966 14.591 184.669 AK 1.303 2.641 5.242 2.522 3.111 0.754 2.454 0.990 0.935 0.568 20.52 AZ 1.37 3.6 7.490 9.808 7.905 4.041 4.932 5.440 4.716 2.873 52.175 AR 1.337 4.635 10.675 13.680 10.402 7.699 7.799 7.107 8.174 5.111 76.619 CA 5.905 18.978 30.060 29.793 25.631 17.856 18.730 26.198 23.644 21.764 218.655 CO 1.003 3.968 6.168 5.585 6.073 3.213 4.742 2.490 6.11 3.369 42.721 CT 1.828 4.675 10.841 9.991 7.287 5.479 6.630 6.925 5.231 3.166 62.053 DE 0.132 0.372 1.096 1.755 1.161 1.107 0.518 0.231 1.251 0.282 7.905 DC 0 0.22 0 0 0.453 0 0.376 1.171 0 0.368 2.588 FL 2.865 10.16 16.344 15.969 17.922 6.787 8.288 6. 738 12.581 12.557 110.211 GA 2.375 6.079 13.791 11.857 10.168 8.887 9.068 7.959 8.981 6.192 85.357 HI 0 1.182 0.947 0.864 1.205 0.264 0.436 0.772 0.609 0.261 6.54 ID 0.916 2.744 6.001 4.828 4.684 2.712 4.297 2.687 2.883 2.361 34.113 IL 2.417 13.398 28.810 27.238 25.433 21.120 21.923 21.325 25.24 14.809 201.713 IN 2.703 8.739 20.456 18.646 15.779 14.447 13.831 13.092 15.179 10.759 133.631 IA 1.301 7.284 16.087 16.430 13.119 10.064 9.298 9.877 9.695 5.818 98.973 KS 1.153 5.118 10.850 10.211 7.165 4.984 5.502 3.928 6.682 3.055 58.648 KY 2.215 7.896 19.832 16.150 14.215 13.308 13.081 17.153 13.108 8.081 125.039 LA 3.344 10.084 12.248 11.101 11.630 6.935 5.473 7.033 8.073 4.414 80.335 ME 1.296 4.319 10.323 10.031 6.124 6.702 5.486 4.904 3.462 1.348 53.995 MD 0.739 4.08 8.153 10.227 8.771 10.368 7.712 5.525 5.221 4.545 65.341 MA 2.301 8.386 15.715 13.958 13.529 8.957 11.644 9.532 11.957 8.083 104.062 MI 2.815 8.948 17.247 20.005 15.088 15.798 15.399 15.482 18.045 9.502 138.329 MN 2.133 8.149 17.510 18.609 14.894 14.718 16.600 13.082 17.253 18.923 141.871 MS 1.763 6.755 15.679 11.329 9.856 7.885 8.052 7.761 8.436 5.66 83.176 MO 3.079 10.291 19.573 17.757 14.246 13.202 10.611 11.589 12.973 9.21 122.531 MT 1.164 3.726 8.361 7.271 6.656 5.839 7.330 4.670 5.179 3.204 53.4 NE 1.034 2.392 7.820 6.577 5.116 4.399 4.443 4.324 4.341 0.441 40.887 Congressional Research Service 18 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 Total NV 0.282 1.446 3.312 1.405 1.946 0.857 1.530 0.687 0.855 1.437 13.757 NH 0.594 1.887 4.584 5.694 4.563 3.307 3.219 2.723 2.834 1.496 30.901 NJ 2.596 6.339 19.982 16.488 14.691 12.386 13.266 13.201 15.502 9.687 124.138 NM 1.455 3.463 5.048 3.653 2.259 1.461 1.367 1.101 1.605 1.632 23.044 NY 3.978 14.728 34.320 35.030 36.009 33.804 22.664 30.204 23.235 13.367 247.339 NC 1.949 10.239 22.864 22.360 19.315 18.309 20.031 18.460 20.881 13.137 167.545 ND 0.546 2.613 5.105 3.391 2.673 2.459 3.100 3.297 2.527 1.594 27.305 OH 2.731 13.742 26.997 29.107 27.344 25.380 26.433 26.938 33.164 20.386 232.222 OK 1.864 4.939 10.540 10.393 8.757 10.852 7.220 6.875 7.239 3.527 72.206 OR 1.596 4.892 9.896 10.122 10.014 9.288 5.943 8.438 5.986 6.332 72.507 PA 2.89 16.97 45.179 47.898 39.233 41.259 43.610 41.041 37.231 19.677 334.988 RI 0.407 1.507 2.327 1.917 2.129 2.025 0.855 1.395 2.46 1.533 16.555 SC 1.554 5.257 11.832 14.150 10.544 8.028 10.470 11.040 11.227 8.684 92.786 SD 0.904 3.142 5.602 4.693 3.570 2.989 2.474 2.069 2.527 0.753 28.723 TN 2.46 11.509 19.306 18.686 15.047 11.209 12.955 16.074 13.311 11.259 131.816 TX 3.697 15.644 29.264 30.118 23.480 18.035 17.691 20.458 19.469 9.941 187.797 UT 0.9 2.754 4.628 3.880 2.188 2.213 3.378 0.934 2.295 2.985 26.155 VT 0.451 1.971 5.163 4.747 2.071 1.456 1.820 1.046 1.974 0.689 21.388 VA 2.066 8.79 15.816 16.668 14.357 8.317 10.403 8.370 6.405 5.991 97.183 WA 1.535 7.544 18.808 19.565 15.763 16.150 12.951 13.050 10.064 7.961 123.391 WV 1.067 3.966 9.942 9.133 10.143 5.838 7.164 7.238 5.331 5.074 64.896 WI 2.077 7.518 18.234 19.668 17.685 13.994 19.439 15.216 15.17 9.569 138.57 WY 1.09 1.612 3.507 1.811 2.032 1.197 1.645 1.023 1.427 0.086 15.43 PR 0.657 0.382 1.643 1.140 1.104 0.528 0.019 0.074 1.154 0 6.701 MP 0.145 0.225 0 0 0.220 0.172 0 0 0 0 0.762 GU 0 0.016 0 0 0 0.287 0 0 0 0 0.303 AS 0.164 0 0 0.284 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.448 VI 0.741 0 0.544 0 0 0 0 0.233 0 0 1.518 91.97 334.41 695.12 679.30 585.61 491.37 494.22 492.52 503.25 337.84 4706 Source: Department of Homeland Security. Table 6. State-by-State Distribution of SAFER Grants, FY2005-FY2010 (millions of dollars) FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 FY2009 FY2010 Total Alabama 1.611 6.215 4.236 7.314 4.288 8.531 32.195 Alaska 1.051 0.205 0.418 1.438 0.328 6.072 9.512 Arizona 1.560 3.559 4.428 6.613 6.768 10.357 33.285 Congressional Research Service 19 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 FY2009 FY2010 Total Arkansas 0.394 1.820 0.377 3.834 0.976 2.206 9.607 California 5.221 5.212 4.259 4 .212 31.501 63.13 113.535 Colorado 1.584 3.479 1.730 2.02 0.955 3.384 13.152 Connecticut 0.130 0.191 0.856 3.92 2.214 3.496 10.807 Delaware 0 0.135 0 0.398 0 1.723 2.256 District of Columbia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Florida 6.576 9.329 6.217 17.185 24.105 17.721 81.133 Georgia 5.354 2.085 2.842 17.438 4.844 10.384 42.947 0 0 0 1.626 0 0.1 1.726 Idaho 0.063 0.621 0.626 0.774 1.336 2.897 6.317 Illinois 1.340 4.463 9.933 5.85 2.496 10.848 34.93 0 0.099 2.687 4.577 8.295 9.931 25.589 Iowa 0.169 0.144 0.980 1.288 1.045 0.081 3.707 Kansas 0.667 0.045 1.029 1.872 2.806 2.285 8.704 Kentucky 0.152 2.890 0.429 2.466 0.338 0.893 7.168 Louisiana 3.430 3.078 4.728 8.62 10.515 0.182 30.553 Maine 0.081 0 0.316 0.951 0.739 1.047 3.134 Maryland 0.096 1.862 1.526 3.171 4.429 2.145 13.229 Massachusetts 1.300 2.079 4.372 2.690 18.385 34.422 63.248 Michigan 1.759 0.592 0 0.628 13.286 22.493 38.758 Minnesota 0.300 1.089 0.375 3.246 1.256 0.789 7.055 Mississippi 0.756 0.594 0.115 1.608 0 1.209 4.282 Missouri 1.467 3.547 4.551 2.381 1.474 5.618 19.038 Montana 0.034 0.255 2.635 2.955 0.458 0.973 7.31 0 0.873 0.632 1.951 0.802 0.493 4.751 Nevada 1.500 1.714 0.632 0.086 0.577 2.459 6.968 New Hampshire 0.400 1.035 1.528 0.225 0 0.353 3.541 New Jersey 6.374 3.971 2.953 4.389 0.556 56.648 74.891 0 3.123 1.309 0.108 0.499 1.854 6.893 New York 1.540 2.991 2.845 4.412 8.227 18.239 38.254 North Carolina 2.155 5.533 5.371 18.183 2.256 6.375 39.873 0 0.609 0 1.518 1.517 2.139 5.783 Ohio 1.319 1.881 2.255 3.737 29.606 21.04 59.838 Oklahoma 0.147 0.699 0.531 2.782 0 9.127 13.286 Oregon 1.710 2.141 2.649 2.071 0.677 6.166 15.414 Pennsylvania 1.244 1.475 2.633 3.515 1.176 7.926 17.969 Rhode Island 0.400 0 0.105 0 1.561 4.249 6.315 Hawaii Indiana Nebraska New Mexico North Dakota Congressional Research Service 20 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 FY2009 FY2010 Total South Carolina 0.456 0.863 3.218 8.158 2.41 2.064 17.169 South Dakota 0.063 0.311 0.211 0.552 0 0.648 1.785 Tennessee 2.700 2.719 3.683 1.856 1.148 7.374 19.48 Texas 0.951 10.961 8.779 19.06 3.158 12.65 55.559 Utah 0.900 3.312 2.098 3.955 1.824 4.583 16.672 0 0.621 0.632 0 0.119 0 1.372 Virginia 2.091 3.554 0.782 1.849 4.891 8.995 22.162 Washington 2.298 2.897 7.340 9.476 2.847 13.779 38.637 West Virginia 0 0.187 0.681 0.16 0.287 0.398 1.713 Wisconsin 0 0.072 1.223 4.502 0 0.12 5.917 Wyoming 0 0 0.316 2.329 0.263 0.997 3.905 Puerto Rico 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Northern Mariana Islands 0 0 0 0 0 1.404 1.404 Marshall Islands 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guam 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 American Samoa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Virgin Islands 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Republic of Palau 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 61.356 105.142 113.665 203.964 207.258 413.017 1104.402 Vermont Total Source: Department of Homeland Security. Table 7. Requests and Awards for AFG Funding, FY2010 State Alabama Number of applications Federal funds requested ($millions) Federal funds awarded ($millions) Funds awarded as a % of funds requested 674 96.316 14.591 15.15% Alaska 45 9.954 0.568 5.71% Arizona 126 27.556 2.873 10.43% Arkansas 300 44.642 5.111 11.45% California 455 105.692 21.764 20.59% Colorado 162 30.098 3.369 11.19% Connecticut 201 37.739 3.166 8.39% 21 3.569 0.282 7.90% 2 0.447 0.368 82.33% Florida 253 55.369 12.557 22.68% Georgia 298 49.05 6.192 12.62% Delaware District of Columbia Congressional Research Service 21 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding State Number of applications Federal funds requested ($millions) Federal funds awarded ($millions) Funds awarded as a % of funds requested Hawaii 2 0.534 0.261 48.88% Idaho 94 14.085 2.361 16.76% Illinois 679 116.024 14.809 12.76% Indiana 386 58.256 10.759 18.47% Iowa 369 45.45 5.818 12.80% Kansas 203 27.591 3.055 11.07% Kentucky 451 72.725 8.081 11.11% Louisiana 197 33.435 4.414 13.20% Maine 192 24.753 1.348 5.45% Maryland 162 28.625 4.545 15.88% Massachusetts 301 57.184 8.083 14.14% Michigan 551 84.256 9.502 11.28% Minnesota 419 69.131 18.923 27.37% Mississippi 335 44.81 5.66 12.63% Missouri 428 53.502 9.21 17.21% Montana 141 21.442 3.204 14.94% Nebraska 133 17.792 0.441 2.48% 25 5.142 1.437 27.95% New Hampshire 110 16.886 1.496 8.86% New Jersey 484 87.821 9.687 11.03% New Mexico 63 11.924 1.632 13.69% Nevada New York 975 136.33 13.367 9.80% North Carolina 645 102.416 13.137 12.83% North Dakota 91 13.401 1.594 11.89% Ohio 950 156.989 20.168 12.85% Oklahoma 241 31.97 3.527 11.03% Oregon 171 30.766 6.332 20.58% Pennsylvania 1641 229.005 19.623 8.57% Rhode Island 57 14.264 1.533 10.75% South Carolina 378 50.393 8.684 17.23% South Dakota 117 16.182 0.753 4.65% Tennessee 517 78.254 11.259 14.39% Texas 593 94.696 9.941 10.50% Utah 93 16.076 2.985 18.57% Vermont 84 11.737 0.689 5.87% 237 43.841 5.991 13.67% Virginia Congressional Research Service 22 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding State Number of applications Federal funds requested ($millions) Federal funds awarded ($millions) Funds awarded as a % of funds requested Washington 275 46.474 7.961 17.13% West Virginia 273 44.61 5.074 11.37% Wisconsin 584 80.314 9.569 11.91% Wyoming 35 3.623 0.086 2.37% Puerto Rico 8 1.499 0 0.00% Northern Marianas 1 0.56 0 0.00% Virgin Islands 2 0.355 0 0.00% Guam 1 0.224 0 0.00% 338 13.23% Total 16,231 2555 Source: Department of Homeland Security. Author Contact Information Lennard G. Kruger Specialist in Science and Technology Policy lkruger@crs.loc.gov, 7-7070 Congressional Research Service 23