Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview D. Andrew Austin Analyst in Economic Policy February 14, 2012 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41726 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Summary President Obama’s FY2013 budget submission was released on February 13, 2012. This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority (BA) from FY1976 through FY2011, enacted levels for FY2012 spending, and the levels consistent with the President’s proposals for FY2013 through FY2017. Spending caps and budget enforcement mechanisms established in the Budget Control Act of 2011 (P.L. 112-25; BCA) will probably strongly affect the FY2013 budget cycle. The BCA was signed into law on August 2, 2011, after months of intense negotiations over alternative plans to reduce the deficit and raise the debt limit. As the 112th Congress considers funding levels for FY2013 and beyond, past spending trends may prove useful in framing policy discussions. For example, rapid growth in national defense and other security spending in the past decade has played an important role in fiscal discussions. The sharp increases in federal spending on education, energy, and other areas funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA; P.L. 111-5) have been noted in recent budget debates. Since FY2010, however, base defense discretionary spending has been held flat and nondefense discretionary spending has been reduced significantly. The base defense budget excludes war funding (Overseas Contingency Operations). This report may provide a starting point for discussions about spending trends and federal priorities, but it does not attempt to explain spending patterns in each policy area. Other CRS products, however, can provide insights into those spending trends in specific functional areas. Functional categories (e.g., national defense, agriculture, etc.) provide a means to compare federal funding for activities within broad policy areas that often cut across several federal agencies. Subfunction categories provide a finer division of funding levels within narrower policy areas. Budget function categories are used within the budget resolution and for other purposes, such as possible program cuts and tax expenditures. Three functions, however, are omitted. These are (1) allowances, which contain items reflecting technical budget adjustments; (2) net interest, which by its nature is not discretionary spending; and (3) undistributed offsetting receipts, which are treated for federal budgetary purposes as negative budget authority. Allowances in FY2013 include unspecified cuts to comply with BCA spending caps. Spending in this report is measured and illustrated in terms of discretionary budget authority as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP). Measuring spending as a percentage of GDP in effect controls for inflation and population increases. A flat line on such graphs indicates that spending in that category is increasing at the same rate as overall economic growth. Discretionary spending is provided and controlled through appropriations acts, which fund many of the activities commonly associated with such federal government functions as running executive branch agencies, congressional offices and agencies, and international operations of the government. Essentially all spending on federal wages and salaries is discretionary. Program administration costs for entitlement programs such as Social Security, is generally funded by discretionary spending, while mandatory spending generally funds the benefits provided through those programs. Thus, the figures showing trends in discretionary budget authority presented herein do not reflect the much larger expenditures on program benefits supported by mandatory spending. For some federal agencies, such as the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Transportation, the division of expenditures into discretionary and mandatory categories can be complex. This report will not be updated. Congressional Research Service Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Contents Background on Functional Categories............................................................................................. 6 Discretionary Spending in the FY2013 Budget ............................................................................. 10 Historical Spending Trends............................................................................................................ 11 Cold War, Peace Dividend, and the Global War on Terror ...................................................... 12 The Recovery Act .................................................................................................................... 12 Negative Budget Authority...................................................................................................... 13 Figures Figure 1. Discretionary Defense and Non-Defense Spending, FY1976-FY2017.......................... 10 Figure 2. National Defense (050) Subfunctions ............................................................................ 14 Figure 3. Education, Training, Employment, and Social Services (500) Subfunctions................. 15 Figure 4. Health Care Services (Subfunction 551) and Medicare (Subfunction 571) ................... 16 Figure 5. Smaller Health Subfunctions.......................................................................................... 17 Figure 6. Income Security (600) Subfunctions.............................................................................. 18 Figure 7. Social Security (650) Subfunction.................................................................................. 19 Figure 8. Veterans Benefits and Services (700) Subfunctions ....................................................... 20 Figure 9. Energy (270) Subfunctions............................................................................................. 21 Figure 10. Natural Resources and Environment (300) Subfunctions ............................................ 22 Figure 11. Commerce and Housing Credit Subfunctions .............................................................. 23 Figure 12. Transportation (400) Subfunctions............................................................................... 24 Figure 13. Community and Regional Development (450) Subfunctions....................................... 25 Figure 14. International Affairs (150) Subfunctions...................................................................... 26 Figure 15. General Science, Space, and Technology (250) Subfunctions ..................................... 27 Figure 16. Agriculture (350) Subfunctions .................................................................................... 28 Figure 17. Administration of Justice (750) Subfunctions .............................................................. 29 Figure 18. General Government (800) Subfunctions..................................................................... 30 Tables Table 1. Budget Function Categories by Superfunction .................................................................. 7 Contacts Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 30 Congressional Research Service Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview T his report presents figures showing trends in discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP by subfunction within each of 17 budget function categories, using data from President Obama’s FY2013 budget submission.1 This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority from FY1976 through FY2011, enacted levels for FY2012 spending, and the levels consistent with the President’s proposals for FY2013 through FY2017.2 Discretionary spending is provided and controlled through appropriations acts, which fund many of the activities commonly associated with such federal government functions as running executive branch agencies, congressional offices and agencies, and international operations of the government.3 Discretionary spending in this report is measured in terms of budget authority. Budget authority for an agency has been compared to having funds in a checking account. Funds are available, subject to congressional restrictions, and can be used to enter into obligations such as contracts or hiring personnel. Outlays occur when the U.S. Treasury disburses funds to honor those obligations. Measuring spending as a percentage of GDP in effect controls for inflation and population increases. A flat line on such graphs indicates that spending in that category is increasing at the same rate as overall economic growth. Discussions about the appropriate levels of spending for various policy objectives of the federal government have played an important role in congressional deliberations over funding measures for FY2011 and FY2012, and are expected to play a central role as Congress considers decisions affecting the FY2013 budget.4 As the 112th Congress considers funding levels for FY2013 and beyond, past spending trends may prove useful in framing policy discussions. Spending caps and budget enforcement mechanisms established in the Budget Control Act of 2011 (P.L. 112-25; BCA) will probably strongly affect the FY2013 budget cycle.5 The BCA was signed into law on August 2, 2011, after months of intense negotiations over alternative plans to reduce the deficit and raise the debt limit. For example, rapid growth in national defense and other security spending in the past decade has played an important role in fiscal discussions. The sharp increases in federal spending on education, energy, and other areas funded by The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA; P.L. 111-5) have also played a significant role in recent budget debates. Trends in net interest are excluded as federal interest expenditures have been automatically appropriated since 1847. Allowances, which contain items reflecting technical budget adjustments, and undistributed offsetting receipts are also excluded. Allowances in FY2013 include unspecified cuts to comply with BCA spending caps. Figures in this report are based on the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Public Budget Database accompanying the FY2013 budget release.6 Table 5.1 in the Historical Tables volume of 1 The President’s FY2013 budget was released on February 13, 2012, and is available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/ omb/budget/. 2 The start of the federal fiscal year was changed from July 1 to October 1 in 1976 to accommodate changes in the congressional budget process. The figures omit data for the transition quarter (July 1 to September 30, 1976). 3 For a broader analysis of discretionary spending, see CRS Report RL34424, Trends in Discretionary Spending, by D. Andrew Austin and Mindy R. Levit. 4 CRS Report R41771, FY2011 Appropriations in Budgetary Context, by D. Andrew Austin and Amy Belasco. 5 CRS Report R41965, The Budget Control Act of 2011, by Bill Heniff Jr., Elizabeth Rybicki, and Shannon M. Mahan. 6 Data in the OMB Public Budget Database reconcile to information presented in the Historical Tables volume of the (continued...) Congressional Research Service 5 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview the FY2013 budget reports budget authority by function and subfunction, but does not provide a breakdown by discretionary and mandatory subcomponents.7 OMB is generally regarded as the official custodian of historical federal budget data. While OMB has attempted to make these data consistent, changes in government accounting standards and agency reorganizations, among other changes, may raise difficulties in comparing data from different fiscal years. In addition, OMB data may not reflect certain zero-balance transfers among funds, which may play an important role in the funding of some federal programs. Background on Functional Categories Functional categories provide a means to compare federal funding for activities within broad policy areas that often cut across several federal agencies.8 Because various federal agencies may have closely related or overlapping responsibilities, and because some agencies have responsibilities in diverse policy areas, budget data divided along functional categories can provide a useful view of federal activities in support of specific national purposes. Superfunction categories, which provide a higher level division of federal activities, are • National defense, • Human resources, • Physical resources, • Other functions, • Net interest, • Allowances, and • Undistributed offsetting receipts. Superfunction categories for national defense, net interest, allowances, and undistributed offsetting receipts coincide with function categories. Budget function categories, grouped by superfunctions, are shown in Table 1. Subfunction categories provide a finer division of funding levels within narrower policy areas. Subsequent figures follow the ordering of functions in Table 1. (...continued) FY2012 budget. The Public Budget Database itself is available here: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/ Supplemental. For a further description and important caveats, see the Public Budget Database User Guide, available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2012/assets/db_guide.pdf. 7 Table 5.1 of the OMB Historical Tables is available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/ fy2012/assets/hist05z1.xls. 8 For further background on functional categories, see CRS Report 98-280, Functional Categories of the Federal Budget, by Bill Heniff Jr. Congressional Research Service 6 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Table 1. Budget Function Categories by Superfunction Superfunction Code Function / Subfunction National Defense 50 National defense 51 Dept. of Defense-Military 53 Atomic energy defense activities 54 Defense-related activities Human Resources 500 Education, training, employment, and social services 501 Elementary, secondary, and vocational educ. 502 Higher education 503 Research and general education aids 504 Training and employment 505 Other labor services 506 Social services 550 Health 551 Health care services 552 Health research and training 554 Consumer and occupational health and safety 570 Medicare 571 Medicare 600 Income security 601 Gen. retirement & disability insurance (exc. Soc. Sec.) 602 Federal employee retirement and disability 603 Unemployment compensation 604 Housing assistance 605 Food and nutrition assistance 609 Other income security 650 651 700 Social security Social security Veterans benefits and services 701 Income security for veterans 702 Veterans education, training, & rehabilitation 703 Hospital and medical care for veterans 704 Veterans housing 705 Other veterans benefits and services Physical Resources 270 Congressional Research Service Energy 7 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Superfunction Code Function / Subfunction 271 Energy supply 272 Energy conservation 274 Emergency energy preparedness 276 Energy information, policy, and regulation 300 Natural resources and environment 301 Water resources 302 Conservation and land mgmt. 303 Recreational resources 304 Pollution control and abatement 306 Other natural resources 370 Commerce and housing credit 371 Mortgage credit 372 Postal service 373 Deposit insurance 376 Other advancement of commerce 400 Transportation 401 Ground transportation 402 Air transportation 403 Water transportation 407 Other transportation 450 Community and regional development 451 Community dev. 452 Area and regional dev. 453 Disaster relief and insurance Other Functions 150 151 Intl. dev. and humanitarian assistance 152 Intl. security assistance 153 Conduct of foreign affairs 154 Foreign information & exchange activities 155 Intl. financial programs 250 General science, space, and technology 251 General science and basic research 252 Space flight, research & supporting activities 350 Congressional Research Service International affairs Agriculture 351 Farm income stabilization 352 Agricultural research and services 8 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Superfunction Code 750 Function / Subfunction Administration of justice 751 Federal law enforcement activities 752 Federal litigative and judicial activities 753 Federal correctional activities 754 Criminal justice assistance 800 General government 801 Legislative functions 802 Executive direction and mgmt. 803 Central fiscal operations 804 General property and records mgmt. 805 Central personnel mgmt. 806 General purpose fiscal assistance 808 Other general government 809 Deductions for offsetting receipts Net Interest 900 Net interest 901 Interest on Treasury debt securities (gross) 902 Interest received by on-budget trust funds 903 Interest received by off-budget trust funds 908 Other interest 909 Other Investment and income Allowances 920 Allowances 921 Adjustment for BCA Cap on Security Spending 924 Adjustment for BCA Cap on Non-Security Spending 926 Offset to Medicare SGR Costs 929 Plug for Outyear War Costs 950 Undistributed offsetting receipts Undistributed Offsetting Receipts 951 Employer share, employee retirement (on-budget) 952 Employer share, employee retirement (off-budget) 953 Rents & royalties on the Outer Continental Shelf 954 Sale of major assets 959 Other undistributed offsetting receipts Source: CRS, based on OMB data. Note: Allowances subfunctions may change from year to year. Congressional Research Service 9 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Discretionary Spending in the FY2013 Budget Budget debates in recent years have reflected the dual challenge of a weak economy with persistently high unemployment and output well below its potential level, and longer term challenges of financing the baby boom generation’s retirement. Discretionary spending in the first decade of the 21st century rose rapidly, but since FY2010, base defense discretionary spending has been held flat and non-defense discretionary spending has been reduced significantly.9 Figure 1. Discretionary Defense and Non-Defense Spending, FY1976-FY2017 Budget authority as a percentage of GDP Source: CRS analysis of OMB data. Notes: Defense is defined as funding for the National Defense (050) budget function; non-defense is the remainder. FY1976-FY2011 are historical data; FY2012 is estimated; FY2013-FY2017 reflect the President’s FY2013 budget proposals. This figure assumes unspecified cuts to meet BCA caps are borne by non-defense programs. See text for other important caveats. In the decade FY2000-FY2009, both defense and non-defense spending (new budget authority; BA) rose rapidly, as shown in Figure 1. In the wake of the attacks of September 11, 2001, defense spending rose sharply after the start of the Afghan war in late 2001 and the Iraq war in 2003.10 Spending on non-defense security spending also rose as the federal government overhauled airport security procedures, and then established the Department of Homeland 9 The base defense budget excludes war funding (Overseas Contingency Operations). The Afghan and Iraq wars, along with other related activities, are often called the Global War on Terror (GWOT). 10 Congressional Research Service 10 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Security. Non-security spending also rose to fund new initiatives in education and in other areas.11 In 2007, a severe credit crunch affected global financial markets, which led to a fully fledged financial crisis in 2008 and a severe economic recession. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA; P.L. 111-5), designed to stimulate the economy and prevent further slowing of economic activity, sharply increased federal spending on education, energy, and support for state and local governments. ARRA also included broad tax cuts through a Making Work Pay credit and other provisions. The decline in federal revenues and the increase in spending caused the deficit to treble from $459 billion in FY2008 to $1.4 trillion in FY2009. The BCA, unless modified by Congress, will frame budget discussions in FY2013. Spending limitations on discretionary spending are slated to make sharp reductions in defense and nondefense spending in FY2013 and FY2014. In later years, BCA caps would allow for modest growth in nominal (i.e., not adjusted for inflation) terms. President Obama, in his FY2012 budget, had proposed extending a three-year freeze in non-security discretionary spending included in his FY2011 budget submission to five years.12 Discretionary spending, as noted above, is provided and controlled through appropriations acts, which fund many of the activities commonly associated with such federal government functions as running executive branch agencies, congressional offices and agencies, and international operations of the government. Discretionary spending generally funds program administration costs for entitlement programs such as Social Security, while mandatory spending generally funds Social Security benefits. Thus, the figures showing trends in discretionary budget authority presented below do not reflect the much larger expenditures on program benefits supported by mandatory spending. For some departments, such as Veterans Affairs and Transportation, the division of expenditures into discretionary and mandatory categories can be complex. Trends in funding of health subfunctions are shown in two separate figures. Larger programs (health care services/subfunction 551 and Medicare/function 570/subfunction 571) are shown in Figure 4, and smaller programs (health research and training/subfunction 552 and consumer and occupational health and safety/subfunction 554) are shown in Figure 5. Veterans’ health programs, which fall under the veterans benefits and services function, are also shown in Figure 5 to make comparisons among those programs easier. Historical Spending Trends Federal spending trends in functional areas are affected by changing assessments of national priorities, evolving international challenges, economic conditions, as well as changing social characteristics and demographics of the U.S. population. 11 The Obama Administration defined security spending in its FY2012 budget as funding for Department of DefenseMilitary (subfunction 051); the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration; International Affairs (function 150, which includes State Department and related agencies); the Department of Homeland Security; and the Department of Veterans Affairs. The BCA defined security similarly, except that it included all military activities within the Department of Defense excluding war funding (i.e., defined by department rather than by subfunction), and also included the Intelligence Community Management Account. 12 For details, see CRS Report R41174, Impact on the Federal Budget of Freezing Non-Security Discretionary Spending, by Mindy R. Levit. Congressional Research Service 11 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Some of the trends and events that have had dramatic effects on federal spending are outlined below. Other CRS products provide background on more specific policy areas. Cold War, Peace Dividend, and the Global War on Terror Trends in Figure 2 reflect shifting national security challenges as well as evolving policy decisions regarding the balance between domestic and defense priorities. Relations between the United States and its allies on one hand, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and its allies on the other was the dominant security concern in the half century following the Second World War. In the early 1970s, U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War wound down, while the United States and the USSR moved towards detente, permitting a thaw in cold war relations between the two superpowers and a reduction in defense spending relative to the size of the economy.13 Following intervention by the USSR in Afghanistan in 1979, military spending increased sharply.14 Defense spending continued to increase until 1986, as concern shifted to domestic priorities and the need to reduce large budget deficits. The collapse in 1989 of most of the Warsaw Pact governments in central and eastern Europe and the 1990-1991 disintegration of the Soviet Union was followed by a reduction in federal defense spending, allowing a “peace dividend” that relaxed fiscal pressures. 15 The attacks on the World Trade Center towers in New York City and on the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, were followed by sharp increases in homeland security spending. Defense spending also increased dramatically with the start of the Afghanistan war in October 2001 and the Iraq war in March 2003.16 While U.S. commitments in Iraq appear to be winding down, the demands of returning troops on Department of Veterans Affairs facilities have grown dramatically. The Recovery Act After the financial crisis of 2007-2008 plunged the United States in the deepest economic recession in decades, Congress passed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA; P.L. 111-5), often known as the Recovery Act. ARRA includes support for state and local governments in the form of increased infrastructure, Medicaid, school funding, funding for health care IT, extended unemployment benefits, as well as tax cuts and rebates among other provisions.17 According to initial CBO estimates, ARRA provisions were expected to total $787.2 13 For a history of deficit finance and American wars, see Robert D. Hormats, The Price of Liberty, (New York: Times Books, 2007). Also see CRS Report RL31176, Financing Issues and Economic Effects of American Wars, by Marc Labonte and Mindy R. Levit. 14 For one view of budgetary politics in the early 1980s, see David Stockman, The Triumph of Politics, (New York: Harper & Row, 1986). 15 The Warsaw Treaty Organization, established in 1955, included Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union. 16 CRS Report RL33110, The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11, by Amy Belasco. 17 For more information on the provisions of ARRA, see CRS Report R40537, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5): Summary and Legislative History, by Clinton T. Brass et al. Congressional Research Service 12 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview billion in increased spending and reduced taxes over the FY2009-FY2019 period or just over 5% of GDP in 2008, while a more recent CBO estimate put the total at $814 billion.18 The effects of Recovery Act spending can be seen in Figure 3, where pronounced increases in education, training, employment, and social services subfunctions can be seen for FY2009. Smaller increases can be seen in Figure 9, which shows energy subfunctions, and in Figure 10, which shows natural resources and environment subfunctions. Negative Budget Authority Within the federal budget concepts, certain inflows such as offsetting receipts, offsetting collections, some user fees, and “profits” from federal loan programs, are treated as negative budget authority.19 The federal government uses a modified form of accrual accounting for loan and loan guarantee programs since passage of the Federal Credit Reform Act (FCRA) as well as for certain federal retirement programs.20 OMB calculates net subsidy rates according to FCRA rules for loan and loan guarantee programs. In some cases, FCRA calculations yield negative net subsidy levels, implying that the federal government appears to make a profit on those loans. FCRA subsidy calculations, however, omit risk adjustments.21 The true economic cost of federal credit guarantees can be substantially underestimated when risk adjustments are omitted.22 CBO and OMB include risk adjustments in estimates of the costs associated with the TARP as mandated by the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA; P.L. 110-343).23 For example, some Federal Housing Administration mortgage programs have been estimated to yield negative net subsidies, as shown in Figure 11. 18 For initial estimates, see U.S. Congressional Budget Office, Cost Estimate For the Conference Agreement For H.R. 1, February 13, 2009, available at http://cbo.gov/ftpdocs/99xx/doc9989/hr1conference.pdf. For a later assessment, see CBO, Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update, August 2010, Box 1-2, available at http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/ 117xx/doc11705/08-18-Update.pdf. 19 See OMB, FY2013 Budget, Analytic Perspectives, ch. 12, “Budget Concepts.” In particular, pp. 122-129 cover these topics. 20 CRS Report RL30346, Federal Credit Reform: Implementation of the Changed Budgetary Treatment of Direct Loans and Loan Guarantees, by James M. Bickley. 21 While the FCRA calculations include estimates of default costs, they do not discount more volatile income flows, as a private firm would. 22 U.S. Congressional Budget Office, Estimating the Value of Subsidies for Federal Loans and Loan Guarantees, August 2004, available at http://cbo.gov/doc.cfm?index=5751. 23 U.S. Congressional Budget Office, The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2009 to 2019, January 7, 2009, pp. 25-26, available at http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/99xx/doc9957/01-07-Outlook.pdf; Testimony of Elizabeth Warren, Chair of the Congressional Oversight Panel, in Congress, Senate Banking Committee, Pulling Back the TARP: Oversight of the Financial Rescue Program, hearings, 111th Congress, 1st sess., February 5, 2009, available at http://banking.senate.gov/public/_files/Warrentestimonyfinal2509.pdf. Congressional Research Service 13 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 2. National Defense (050) Subfunctions Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from the FY2013 budget submission. Notes: FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Congressional Research Service 14 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 3. Education,Training, Employment, and Social Services (500) Subfunctions Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from the FY2013 budget submission. Notes: FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Congressional Research Service 15 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 4. Health Care Services (Subfunction 551) and Medicare (Subfunction 571) Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from the FY2013 budget submission. Notes: FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Discretionary BA for Medicare funds program administration, and does not generally fund program benefits. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Congressional Research Service 16 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 5. Smaller Health Subfunctions Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from the FY2013 budget submission. Notes: Hospital and medical care for veterans (703) presented here for comparison, and also appears in Figure 8. FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Congressional Research Service 17 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 6. Income Security (600) Subfunctions Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from the FY2013 budget submission. Notes: Discretionary funding for income security programs supports program administration; most income security benefits are generally funded by mandatory spending, which is not shown here. FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Congressional Research Service 18 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 7. Social Security (650) Subfunction Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from the FY2013 budget submission. Notes: Discretionary funding for Social Security supports program administration; Social Security benefits are generally funded by mandatory spending, which is not shown here. FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Congressional Research Service 19 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 8.Veterans Benefits and Services (700) Subfunctions Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from the FY2013 budget submission. Notes: FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Note that mandatory Veterans Affairs expenditures are not reflected here. Congressional Research Service 20 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 9. Energy (270) Subfunctions Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from the FY2013 budget submission. Notes: FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Congressional Research Service 21 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 10. Natural Resources and Environment (300) Subfunctions Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from the FY2013 budget submission. Notes: FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Congressional Research Service 22 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 11. Commerce and Housing Credit Subfunctions Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 0.14 0.12 Mortgage credit Postal service Deposit insurance Other advancement of commerce Budget Authority as % of GDP 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.00 −0.02 −0.04 −0.06 76 978 980 982 984 986 988 990 992 994 996 998 000 002 004 006 008 010 012 014 016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 19 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from FY2012 Budget submission. Notes: FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Congressional Research Service 23 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 12. Transportation (400) Subfunctions Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from FY2012 Budget submission. Notes: FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Congressional Research Service 24 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 13. Community and Regional Development (450) Subfunctions Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 0.65 Community dev. 0.60 Area and regional dev. 0.55 Disaster relief and insurance Budget Authority as % of GDP 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 −0.05 −0.10 76 978 980 982 984 986 988 990 992 994 996 998 000 002 004 006 008 010 012 014 016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 19 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from FY2012 Budget submission. Notes: FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Congressional Research Service 25 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 14. International Affairs (150) Subfunctions Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from the FY2013 budget submission. Notes: FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Congressional Research Service 26 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 15. General Science, Space, and Technology (250) Subfunctions Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from the FY2013 budget submission. Notes: FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Congressional Research Service 27 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 16. Agriculture (350) Subfunctions Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from the FY2013 budget submission. Notes: FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Congressional Research Service 28 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 17. Administration of Justice (750) Subfunctions Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from the FY2013 budget submission. Notes: FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Congressional Research Service 29 Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview Figure 18. General Government (800) Subfunctions Discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP, FY1976-FY2017 Source: CRS, based on OMB data from the FY2013 budget submission. Notes: FY2013-FY2017 levels reflect Administration proposals and projections. See OMB budget documents for further caveats. Author Contact Information D. Andrew Austin Analyst in Economic Policy aaustin@crs.loc.gov, 7-6552 Congressional Research Service 30