Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Lennard G. Kruger Specialist in Science and Technology Policy April 29, 2010 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL32341 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Summary The Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program, also known as fire grants or the FIRE Act grant program, was established by Title XVII of the FY2001 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 106-398). Currently administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the program provides federal grants directly to local fire departments and unaffiliated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organizations to help address a variety of equipment, training, and other firefighter-related and EMS needs. A related program is the Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Firefighters (SAFER) program, which provides grants for hiring, recruiting, and retaining firefighters. The fire grant program is now in its tenth year. The Fire Act statute was reauthorized in 2004 (Title XXXVI of P.L. 108-375) and provides overall guidelines on how fire grant money should be distributed. There is no set geographical formula for the distribution of fire grants—fire departments throughout the nation apply, and award decisions are made by a peer panel based on the merits of the application and the needs of the community. However, the law does require that fire grants be distributed to a diverse mix of fire departments, with respect to type of department (paid, volunteer, or combination), geographic location, and type of community served (e.g. urban, suburban, or rural). On February 17, 2009, the President signed P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. The ARRA included an additional $210 million in firefighter assistance grants for modifying, upgrading, or constructing state and local non-federal fire stations, provided that 5% be set aside for program administration and provided that no grant shall exceed $15 million. P.L. 111-83, the FY2010 Department of Homeland Security appropriations bill, provided $810 million for firefighter assistance, including $390 million for AFG and $420 million for SAFER. The Administration’s FY2011 budget proposed $305 million for AFG (a 22% decrease from the FY2010 level) and $305 million for SAFER (a 27% decrease). The total amount requested for firefighter assistance (AFG and SAFER) was $610 million, a 25% decrease from FY2010. Meanwhile, on November 18, 2009, the House passed H.R. 3791, the Fire Grants Reauthorization Act of 2009, which would reauthorize AFG and SAFER through FY2014 and modify the distribution of fire grant funds. On April 27, 2010, S. 3267, the Fire Grants Reauthorization Act of 2010, was introduced and referred to the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. On April 28, the Committee ordered S. 3267 to be reported with an amendment favorably. Debate over the AFG reauthorization has reflected a competition for funding between career/urban/suburban departments and volunteer/rural departments. The urgency of this debate could be heightened by the proposed reduction of overall AFG funding in FY2011, and the economic downturn in many local communities increasingly hard pressed to allocate funding for their local fire departments. This report will be updated as events warrant. Congressional Research Service Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Contents Background ................................................................................................................................1 Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program ....................................................................................1 First Reauthorization.............................................................................................................1 Second Reauthorization.........................................................................................................2 House Reauthorization Bill, H.R. 3791............................................................................4 Senate Reauthorization Bill, S. 3267 ...............................................................................6 Appropriations ......................................................................................................................8 FY2010...........................................................................................................................9 FY2011......................................................................................................................... 10 Fire Station Construction Grants in the ARRA........................................................................... 11 SAFER Grants .......................................................................................................................... 11 Program Evaluation .................................................................................................................. 12 Distribution of Fire Grants ........................................................................................................ 13 Issues in the 111th Congress....................................................................................................... 15 Tables Table 1. Major Provisions of the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Reauthorization Act of 2004.....................................................................................................2 Table 2. Comparison of Selected Provisions in Fire Grant Reauthorization ..................................6 Table 3. Appropriations for Firefighter Assistance, FY2001-FY2010 ...........................................9 Table 4. Recent and Proposed Appropriations for Firefighter Assistance ......................................9 Table 5. State-by-State Distribution of Fire Grants, FY2001-FY2008....................................... 15 Table 6. State-by-State Distribution of SAFER Grants, FY2005-FY2008.................................. 17 Table 7. Requests and Awards for Fire Grant Funding, FY2008 ................................................. 19 Contacts Author Contact Information ...................................................................................................... 21 Congressional Research Service Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Background Firefighting activities are traditionally the responsibility of states and local communities. As such, funding for firefighters is provided mostly by state and local governments. During the 1990s, shortfalls in state and local budgets, coupled with increased responsibilities of local fire departments, led many in the fire community to call for additional financial support from the federal government. Although federally funded training programs existed (and continue to exist) through the National Fire Academy, and although federal money was available to first responders for counterterrorism training and equipment through the Department of Justice,1 there did not exist a dedicated program, exclusively for firefighters, which provided federal money directly to local fire departments to help address a wide variety of equipment, training, and other firefighterrelated needs. Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program During the 106th Congress, many in the fire community asserted that local fire departments require and deserve greater support from the federal government. The Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program (AFG), also known as fire grants or the FIRE Act grant program, was established by Title XVII of the FY2001 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 106-398).2 Currently administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the program provides federal grants directly to local fire departments and unaffiliated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organizations to help address a variety of equipment, training, and other firefighter-related and EMS needs. First Reauthorization On October 28, 2004, the President signed the FY2005 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 108-375). Title XXXVI of P.L. 108-375 is the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Reauthorization Act of 2004, which reauthorized the fire grant program through FY2009. Table 1 provides a summary of key provisions of the first reauthorization. 1 For a list of federal programs providing assistance to state and local first responders, see CRS Report R40246, Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress, by Shawn Reese. 2 “Firefighter assistance” is codified as section 33 of the Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2229). Congressional Research Service 1 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Table 1. Major Provisions of the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Reauthorization Act of 2004 Grant recipient limits: populations over 1 million—lesser of $2.75 million or 0.5% of total appropriation populations of 500K to 1 million—$1.75 million populations under 500K—$1 million no single grant can exceed 0.5% of total funds appropriated for a single fiscal year DHS can waive the funding limits for populations up to 1 million in instances of extraordinary need; however the lesser of $2.75 million or 0.5% limit cannot be waived Nonfederal match requirements: 20% for populations over 50K 10% for populations 20K to 50K 5% for populations less than 20K No match requirement for non-fire department prevention and firefighter safety grants Authorized for five years: FY2005—$900 million FY2006—$950 million FY2007—$1 billion FY2008—$1 billion FY2009—$1 billion Expands grant eligibility to emergency medical service squads, not less than 3.5% of fire grant money for EMS, but no more than 2% for nonaffiliated EMS Provides grants for firefighter health and safety R&D Requires the USFA Administrator to convene an annual meeting of non-federal fire service experts to recommend criteria for awarding grants and administrative changes Requires fire service peer review of grant applications Requires the USFA, in conjunction with the National Fire Protection Association, to conduct a $300,000, 18-month study on the fire grant program and the need for federal assistance to state and local communities to fund firefighting and emergency response activities Source: Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Reauthorization Act of 2004, Section XXXVI of P.L. 108-375, FY2005 National Defense Authorization Act Second Reauthorization The current authorization of AFG expired on September 30, 2009; the authorization of SAFER expires September 30, 2010. On July 8, 2009, the House Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Technology & Innovation, held a hearing on the reauthorization of the FIRE grant programs (both AFG and SAFER).3 Testimony was heard from FEMA and many of the major fire service organizations including the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC), the 3 See http://science.house.gov/publications/hearings_markups_details.aspx?NewsID=2539. Congressional Research Service 2 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF), the National Volunteer Fire Council (NVFC), and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). A major issue surrounding the fire grant reauthorization is whether the current distribution of fire grant funds should be altered. Under current law, the majority of funding goes to rural and volunteer fire departments. This is the case because individual fire departments throughout the nation apply directly for funding, and there are many more volunteer and rural fire departments than career and urban/suburban fire departments.4 In general, career departments tend to protect the more densely populated urban and suburban areas, while volunteer departments tend to protect more rural areas. Testimony presented by the International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF), representing career (paid) firefighters, argued that under current law, “the overwhelming majority of FIRE grants are awarded to fire departments that protect a relatively small percentage of the population.”5 According to IAFF, a greater proportion of funding should go to career fire departments protecting the more densely populated suburban and urban areas, and suggested the following changes in the fire act statute: • professional, volunteer, and combination departments should each be guaranteed at least 30% of total grant funding each year (under current statute, volunteer and combination departments must receive no less than 55% of funding; in practice career departments have received about 20% of AFG funding); • funding caps for a single grant should be raised to $10 million for communities of 1 million population or more, $5 million for communities of 500,000 or more, $2 million for communities of 100,000 or more, and $1 million for communities with populations under 100,000 (current statutory caps are $2.75 million for populations over 1 million, $1.75 million for populations over 500,000, and $1 million for populations under 500,000); and • the local match requirement for fire grants should be set at 15% for all applicants, with DHS having the authority to waive the match requirement for needy departments (the current statutory matching requirements are 20% for populations over 50,000, 10% for populations over 20,000, and 5% for populations less than 20,000).6 On the other hand, testimony from the National Volunteer Fire Council (NFVC) stated that its main priority for reauthorization of AFG (as well as SAFER) is to extend the programs without substantial changes, and that “the programs are well-run, distributing funding in an efficient manner to the most deserving awardees.”7 NVFC argued that volunteer departments are 4 According to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), there are an estimated 30,185 fire departments in the United States (2007 data). Of those, 7.5% are career departments, 5.8% are mostly career, 16.5% are mostly volunteer, and 70.1% are all volunteer. Most career firefighters (74%) are in communities that protect 25,000 or more people, while most volunteer firefighters (95%) are in departments that protect fewer than 25,000, and more than half are located in small, rural departments that protect fewer than 2,500 people. 5 Kevin O’Connor, Assistant to the General President, International Association of Fire Fighters, testimony before the House Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation, Committee on Science and Technology, July 8, 2009, p. 3, http://democrats.science.house.gov/Media/file/Commdocs/hearings/2009/Tech/8jul/O’Connor_Testimony.pdf. 6 Ibid. 7 Jack Carriger, First Vice Chairman of the National Volunteer Fire Council, testimony before the House Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation, Committee on Science and Technology, July 8, 2009, p. 3, (continued...) Congressional Research Service 3 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding concentrated in rural communities with smaller tax bases and higher poverty rates, that “DHS needs assessments have consistently shown that equipment training and apparatus needs are most acute in volunteer departments,”8 and that since 2001 DHS first responder grants for terrorism and disaster response have predominantly gone to urban areas. Meanwhile, other suggested reauthorization changes to the AFG statute made by the July 8 hearing witnesses included: • establish DHS waiver authority for the existing local match requirement for economically challenged jurisdictions (IAFC); • establish centers of excellence in fire safety research (IAFC); • allow larger grants for regional projects (IAFC); • eliminate the cost-share requirement for fire departments in the Fire Prevention and Firefighter Safety grant program (NFPA and IAFF); • designate a minimum of 5% of funding for fire service-based emergency medical services (NFPA); • utilize funds for training and equipment to meet the latest applicable national voluntary consensus standards available at the time of application (NFPA); and • make state training agencies (e.g. state fire academies) eligible for AFG funding (NVFC). As manifested in the July 8 hearing, debate over the AFG reauthorization is likely to reflect a competition for funding primarily between career/urban/suburban departments and volunteer/rural departments. The urgency of this debate will likely be heightened by probable reductions in FY2010 AFG funding and by the economic downturn in many local communities increasingly hard pressed to allocate funding for their local fire departments. House Reauthorization Bill, H.R. 3791 On October 13, 2009, H.R. 3791, the Fire Grants Reauthorization Act of 2009, was introduced by Representative Mitchell. The legislation reflects an agreement reached among the major fire service organizations on the reauthorization language. H.R. 3791 was referred to the House Committee on Science and Technology, and approved (amended) by the Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation on October 14, 2009, and by the full Committee on October 21, 2009. H.R. 3791 was reported (amended) by the Committee on November 7, 2009 (H.Rept. 111-333, Part I). H.R. 3791 was amended and passed by the House on November 18, 2009. Adopted amendments included: directing DHS to conduct a survey of fire department compliance with firefighter safety standards; requiring DHS to give added consideration to applications from areas with high unemployment; making river rescue organizations eligible for funding; expanding AFG scope to include equipment that reduces water use; and prohibiting earmarking of funds appropriated under the act. (...continued) http://democrats.science.house.gov/Media/file/Commdocs/hearings/2009/Tech/8jul/Carriger_Testimony.pdf. 8 Ibid. Congressional Research Service 4 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding H.R. 3791, as passed by the House, would authorize AFG at a level of $1 billion per year through FY2014 and includes the following major provisions: • Grant Money Distribution—directs that grant money should be allocated (to the extent that there are eligible applicants) as follows: 25% of AFG funding to career fire departments, 25% to volunteer fire departments, 25% to combination fire departments, 10% (minimum) for fire prevention, safety, and research grants, 2% (maximum) for volunteer non-fire service EMS and rescue, 3% (maximum) for fire service training academies, and 10% to be competitive between career, volunteer and combination departments; • Grant Caps – sets maximum individual grant levels at $9 million for jurisdictions with populations over 2.5 million, $6 million for populations between 1 million and 2.5 million, $3 million for populations between 500,000 and 1 million, $2 million for populations between 100,000 and 500,000, and $1 million for populations under 100,000; • Matching Requirements—keeps the existing 5% matching requirement for communities of 20K or less, sets the matching requirement for all other jurisdictions at 10%, and allows an economic hardship waiver whereby in “exceptional circumstances” DHS may waive or reduce the matching requirements; • Maintenance of Expenditures – amends the existing maintenance of expenditures provision to require applicants to maintain budgets at 80% of the average over the past two years, also allows an economic hardship waiver whereby in “exceptional circumstances” DHS may waive or reduce the maintenance of expenditures requirements; • Fire Prevention, Research, and Safety Grants—increases available funding from 5% to 10% of total, raises grant maximum from $1 million to $1.5 million, eliminates the matching requirement for fire departments, and prohibits any funding to the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN); • University Fire Safety Research Centers – as part of the fire prevention, research, and safety grants, authorizes DHS to establish no more than three university fire safety research centers with funding of any one center at not more than $2 million per fiscal year; • State Fire Training Academies – allows DHS to award up to 3% of grant funding to state fire training academies, with individual grants not to exceed $1 million; • Voluntary Consensus Standards – directs that grants used for training should be limited to training that complies with applicable national voluntary consensus standards, unless a waiver has been granted; and • Survey and Task Force on Firefighter Safety – directs DHS to conduct a nationwide survey to assess whether fire departments are in compliance with the national voluntary consensus standards for staffing, training, safe operations, personal protective equipment, and fitness; establishes a Task Force to Enhance Firefighter Safety to make recommendations to Congress on ways to increase compliance with firefighter safety standards. Congressional Research Service 5 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding H.R. 3791 also reauthorizes the SAFER grant program at a level of $1.196 billion per year through FY2014. The legislation would modify the SAFER grant program by shortening the grant period to three years, establishing a 20% local matching requirement for each year, removing the existing federal funding cap per hired firefighter, making national organizations eligible for recruitment and retention funds, and allowing DHS in the case of economic hardship to waive cost share requirements, the three year grant period, and/or maintenance of expenditure requirements. Senate Reauthorization Bill, S. 3267 On April 27, 2010, S. 3267, the Fire Grants Reauthorization Act of 2010, was introduced and referred to the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. On April 28, the Committee ordered S. 3267 to be reported with an amendment favorably. The Senate bill, while similar to the House bill, has a higher nonfederal match requirement for communities over 50K and higher match requirements for fire prevention and safety grants. Regarding SAFER, the Senate bill has a higher match requirement for hiring grants and would continue to require applicants to retain hired firefighters for at least one year after the grant expires (unless a waiver is obtained). For both AFG and SAFER, certain changes to current law made by the Senate bill would sunset on October 1, 2015. Table 2 shows a comparison of selected provisions in the Senate bill, the House bill, and current law (15 U.S.C. 2229 and 15 U.S.C. 2229a). Table 2. Comparison of Selected Provisions in Fire Grant Reauthorization Current Law H.R. 3791 as passed by House S. 3267 Grant money distribution volunteer and combination fire departments shall receive a proportion of the total grant funding that is not less than the proportion of the U.S. population that those departments protect 25% to career fire departments 25% to volunteer fire departments no less than 25% to career fire departments 25% to combination fire departments no less than 25% to volunteer fire departments 10% competitive between career, volunteer, and combination departments no less than 25% to combination and paid-on-call fire departments 5% (minimum) to fire prevention and safety grants 10% (minimum) to fire prevention and safety grants (includes fire safety research centers) 10% (minimum) to fire prevention and safety grants (includes fire safety research centers) 3.5% (minimum) to EMS provided by fire departments and nonaffiliated EMS organizations 2% (maximum) to volunteer non-fire service EMS 3.5% (minimum) to EMS provided by fire departments and nonaffiliated EMS organizations 2% (maximum) to nonaffiliated EMS organizations 2% (maximum) to nonaffiliated EMS organizations 3% (maximum) to State fire training academies, no more than 1 grant and $1 million per state in a fiscal year 3% (maximum) to State training academies, no more than $1 million per state academy in any fiscal year Joint or Regional applications—two or more entities may submit an application to fund a joint or regional program or initiative, including acquisition of shared equipment or vehicles Congressional Research Service 6 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Current Law H.R. 3791 as passed by House S. 3267 Grant recipient limits populations over 1 million—lesser of $2.75 million or 0.5% of total appropriation $9 million—over 2.5m population $9 million—over 2.5m population $6 million—1m to 2.5m population $6 million—1m to 2.5m population populations of 500K to 1 million— $1.75 million $3 million—500K to 1m population $3 million—500K to 1m population $2 million—100 to 500K population $2 million—100 to 500K population populations under 500K—$1 million $1 million—under 100K population $1 million—under 100K population DHS can waive funding limits for populations up to 2.5 million in instances of extraordinary need FEMA may not award a grant exceeding 1% of all available grant funds, unless FEMA determines extraordinary need no single grant can exceed 0.5% of total funds appropriated for a single fiscal year DHS can waive the funding limits for populations up to 1 million in instances of extraordinary need; however the lesser of $2.75 million or 0.5% limit cannot be waived Nonfederal match requirements 20% for populations over 50K 10% for populations over 20K 15% for populations over 50K 10% for populations 20K to 50K 5% for populations under 20K 10% for populations 20K to 50K 5% for populations less than 20K No match requirement for non-fire department prevention and firefighter safety grants 5% for populations under 20K No match requirement for all fire prevention and firefighter safety grants 5% match required for fire prevention and safety grants Maintenance of expenditures requires applicants to maintain expenditures at the same level as the average over the preceding two fiscal years requires applicants to maintain expenditures at or above 80% of the average over the preceding two fiscal years requires applicants to maintain expenditures at or above 80% of the average over the preceding two fiscal years Economic hardship waivers no economic hardship waivers available waivers available for nonfederal matching and maintenance of expenditures requirements, DHS will develop economic hardship waiver criteria in consultation with experts and interests representing the fire service and State and local governments waivers available for nonfederal matching and maintenance of expenditures requirements, FEMA will develop economic hardship waiver guidelines considering unemployment rates, percentages of individuals eligible to receive food stamps, and other factors as appropriate. Authorization FY2005—$900 million FY2010—$1 billion FY2011—$950 million FY2006—$950 million FY2011—$1 billion FY2007—$1 billion FY2012—$1 billion FY2008—$1 billion FY2013—$1 billion FY2009—$1 billion FY2014—$1 billion for each of FY2012 – FY2015, an amount equal to the amount authorized the previous fiscal year, increased by the percentage by which the Consumer Price Index for the previous fiscal year exceeds the preceding year. Congressional Research Service 7 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Current Law H.R. 3791 as passed by House S. 3267 SAFER grant period is 4 years, grantees are required to retain for at least 1 year beyond the termination of their grants those firefighters hired under the grant shortens the grant period to three years, grant recipients are required to retain for at least the entire 3 years of the grant period those firefighters hired under the grant shortens the grant period to three years, grantees are required to retain for at least 1 year beyond the termination of their grants those firefighters hired under the grant year 1—10% local match year 2—20% local match year 3—50% local match year 4—70% local match establishes a 20% local matching requirement for each year establishes a 25% local matching requirement for each year total funding over 4 years for hiring a firefighter may not exceed $100K, adjusted annually for inflation removes the existing federal funding cap per hired firefighter the amount of funding provided for hiring a firefighter in any fiscal year may not exceed 75% of the usual annual cost of a first-year firefighter in that department state, local, and Indian tribal governments eligible for recruitment and retention funds additionally makes national organizations eligible for recruitment and retention funds additionally makes national organizations eligible for recruitment and retention funds allows DHS in the case of economic hardship to waive cost share requirements, the required retention period, the prohibition on supplanting local funds, and/or maintenance of expenditure requirements allows DHS in the case of economic hardship to waive cost share requirements, the required retention period, the prohibition on supplanting local funds, and/or maintenance of expenditure requirements reauthorizes the SAFER grant program FY2010 through FY2014 at a level of $1.196 billion per year reauthorizes the SAFER grant program FY2011 through FY2015 at a level of $950 million per year, with each year adjusted for inflation authorized for 7 years starting at $1 billion in FY2004, ending at $1.194 billion in FY2010 Source: Compiled by CRS. Appropriations From FY2001 through FY2003, the Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program (as part of USFA/FEMA) received its primary appropriation through the VA-HUD-Independent Agencies Appropriation Act. In FY2004, the Assistance to Firefighters Program began to receive its annual appropriation through the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Homeland Security. Within the DHS/FEMA budget, the firefighter assistance account (which includes both AFG and SAFER) is located within State and Local Programs as part of the State and Regional Preparedness Program. The fire grant program is in its tenth year. Table 3 shows the appropriations history for firefighter assistance, including AFG, SAFER, and the Fire Station Construction Grants (SCG) provided in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Over $5.2 billion has been appropriated to the AFG program since FY2001, its initial year. Table 4 shows recent and proposed appropriated funding for the AFG and SAFER grant programs. Congressional Research Service 8 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Table 3. Appropriations for Firefighter Assistance, FY2001-FY2010 AFG SAFER SCGa Total FY2001 $100 million $100 million FY2002 $360 million $360 million FY2003 $745 million $745 million FY2004 $746 million $746 million FY2005 $650 million $65 million $715 million FY2006 $539 million $109 million $648 million FY2007 $547 million $115 million $662 million FY2008 $560 million $190 million $750 million FY2009 $565 million $210 million FY2010 $390 million $420 million Total $5.202 billion $1.109 billion a. $210 million $985 million $810 million $210 million $6.521 billion Assistance to Firefighters Fire Station Construction Grants (SCG) grants were funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (P.L. 111-5). Table 4. Recent and Proposed Appropriations for Firefighter Assistance (millions of dollars) FY2009 (Admin. request) FIRE Grants (AFG) SAFER Grants Total FY2009 (P.L. 110329) FY2010 (Admin. request) FY2010 (P.L. 11183) FY2011 (Admin. request) 300 565 170 390 305 0 210 420 420 305 300 775 590 810 610 FY2010 For FY2010, the Obama Administration proposed $170 million for AFG, a 70% decrease from the FY2009 level, and $420 million for SAFER, double the amount appropriated in FY2009. The total amount requested for firefighter assistance (AFG and SAFER) was $590 million, a 24% decrease from FY2009. The FY2010 budget proposal stated that the firefighter assistance grant process “will give priority to applications that enhance capabilities for terrorism response and other major incidents.”9 The House FY2010 Department of Homeland Security appropriations bill (H.R. 2892; H.Rept. 111-157) provided $800 million for firefighter assistance, including $380 million for AFG and $420 million for SAFER. Although the SAFER level matched the Administration’s request, the AFG level was more than twice what the Administration proposed. According to the Committee Report, the Administration’s request of $170 million for AFG “is woefully inadequate given the 9 Office of Management and Budget, Appendix: Budget of the United States Government, FY2010, p. 547. Congressional Research Service 9 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding vast needs of fire departments across the nation for equipment.” The Committee directed FEMA to continue granting funds to local fire departments, include the United States Fire Administration in the grant decision process, and maintain an all-hazard focus while prohibiting the limiting of eligible activities including wellness. The House passed H.R. 2892 on June 24, 2009. During floor consideration of H.R. 2892, the House approved a manager’s amendment that added $10 million to the AFG account. Therefore, the House-passed total for AFG was $390 million. The Senate FY2010 Department of Homeland Security appropriations bill (S. 1298; S.Rept. 11131) provided $800 million for firefighter assistance, including $380 million for AFG and $420 million for SAFER. The Appropriations Committee directed DHS to continue funding applications according to local priorities and priorities established by the United States Fire Administration, and to continue direct funding to fire departments and the peer review process. The Senate passed H.R. 2892 on July 9, 2009. During floor consideration, the Senate adopted an amendment (S.Amdt. 1458) that added $10 million to the AFG account. Therefore, the Senatepassed total for AFG was also $390 million. The Conference Report for the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2010 (H.Rept. 111-298) was passed by the House on October 15. H.Rept. 111-298 provided $390 million for AFG and $420 million for SAFER, identical to the levels in both the House and Senate-passed H.R. 2892. The Conferees directed FEMA to continue the present practice of funding applications according to local priorities and those established by the USFA, to maintain an all-hazards focus, to grant funds for eligible activities in accordance with the authorizing statute, and to continue the current grant application and review process as specified in the House report. The Conference Report was passed by the House on October 15, by the Senate on October 20, and signed into law, P.L. 111-83, on October 28, 2009. Meanwhile, on December 16, 2009, the House considered legislation intended to create jobs and passed the Senate amendment to H.R. 2847, which would provide $500 million in additional FY2010 funding for SAFER. H.R. 2847 directs that any unused funds may be transferred to AFG after notification to the House and Senate appropriations committees. FY2011 The Administration’s FY2011 budget proposed $305 million for AFG (a 22% decrease from the FY2010 level) and $305 million for SAFER (a 27% decrease). The total amount requested for firefighter assistance (AFG and SAFER) was $610 million, a 25% decrease from FY2010. The FY2011 budget proposal stated that the firefighter assistance grant process “will give priority to applications that enhance capabilities for terrorism response and other major incidents.”10 10 Office of Management and Budget, Appendix: Budget of the United States Government, FY2011, p. 557. Congressional Research Service 10 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Fire Station Construction Grants in the ARRA Since its inception, the traditional fire grant program has provided money specifically for health and safety related modifications of fire stations, but has not funded major upgrades, renovations, or construction. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 (P.L. 111-5) provided an additional $210 million in firefighter assistance grants for modifying, upgrading, or constructing state and local non-federal fire stations, provided that 5% be set aside for program administration and provided that no grant shall exceed $15 million. The Conference Report (H.Rept. 111-16) cited DHS estimates that this spending would create 2,000 jobs. The ARRA also included a provision (section 603) that waived the matching requirement for SAFER grants funded by appropriations in FY2009 and FY2010. The application period for ARRA Assistance to Firefighters Fire Station Construction Grants (SCG) opened on June 11 and closed on July 10, 2009. There is no cost share requirement for SCG grants. Eligible applicants are non-federal fire departments that provide fire protection services to local communities. Ineligible applicants include federal fire departments, EMS or rescue organizations, airport fire departments, for-profit fire departments, fire training centers, emergency communications centers, auxiliaries and fire service organizations or associations, and search and rescue teams or similar organizations without fire suppression responsibilities. DHS/FEMA received 6,025 SCG applications for $9.9 billion in federal funds.11 On October 2, 2009, FEMA announced Round 1 of the FY2009 SCG awards, issuing 96 grants totaling $165 million to fire departments within the United States. A complete list of Round 1 SCG awards is available at http://www.firegrantsupport.com/content/html/scg/Awards09.aspx/. SAFER Grants In response to concerns over the adequacy of firefighter staffing, the 108th Congress enacted the Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER) Act as Section 1057 of the FY2004 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 108-136; signed into law November 24, 2003). The SAFER grant program is codified as Section 34 of the Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act of 1974 (15 U.S.C. 2229a). The SAFER Act authorizes grants to career, volunteer, and combination fire departments for the purpose of increasing the number of firefighters to help communities meet industry minimum standards and attain 24-hour staffing to provide adequate protection from fire and fire-related hazards. Also authorized are grants to volunteer fire departments for activities related to the recruitment and retention of volunteers. P.L. 108-136 authorizes over one billion dollars per year through FY2010 for SAFER. Two types of grants are authorized by the SAFER Act: hiring grants and recruitment and retention grants. Hiring grants cover a four-year term and are cost shared with the local jurisdiction. According to the statute, the federal share shall not exceed 90% in the first year of the grant, 80% in the second year, 50% in the third year, and 30% in the fourth year. The grantee must commit to retaining the firefighter or firefighters hired with the SAFER grant for at least one additional year after the federal money expires. Total federal funding for hiring a firefighter over the four-year 11 Fiscal Year 2011 Congressional Justification, Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, State and Local Programs, p. SLP-11. Congressional Research Service 11 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding grant period may not exceed $100,000, although that total may be adjusted for inflation. While the majority of hiring grants will be awarded to career and combination fire departments, the SAFER Act specifies that 10% of the total SAFER appropriation be awarded to volunteer or majority-volunteer departments for the hiring of personnel. Additionally, at least 10% of the total SAFER appropriation is set aside for recruitment and retention grants, which are available to volunteer and combination fire departments for activities related to the recruitment and retention of volunteer firefighters. Also eligible for recruitment and retention grants are local and statewide organizations that represent the interests of volunteer firefighters. No local cost sharing is required for recruitment and retention grants. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5) included a provision (section 603) that waives the matching requirement for SAFER grants in FY2009 and FY2010. Additionally, the FY2009 Supplemental Appropriations Act (P.L. 111-32) included a provision (section 605) giving the Secretary of Homeland Security authority to waive certain limitations and restrictions in the SAFER statute. For grants awarded in FY2009 and FY2010, waivers will permit grantees to use SAFER funds to rehire laid-off firefighters and fill positions eliminated through attrition, will allow grants to extend longer than the current five year duration, and will permit the amount of funding per position at levels exceeding the current limit of $100,000. For more information on the SAFER program, see CRS Report RL33375, Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program, by Lennard G. Kruger. Program Evaluation On May 13, 2003, the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) released the first independent evaluation of the Assistance to Firefighters Program. Conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Leadership Development Academy Executive Potential Program, the survey study presented a number of recommendations and concluded overall that the program was “highly effective in improving the readiness and capabilities of firefighters across the nation.”12 Another evaluation of the fire grant program was released by the DHS Office of Inspector General in September 2003. The report concluded that the program “succeeded in achieving a balanced distribution of funding through a competitive grant process,”13 and made a number of specific recommendations for improving the program. At the request of DHS, the National Academy of Public Administration conducted a study to help identify potential new strategic directions for the Assistance to Firefighters Grant program and to provide advice on how to effectively plan, manage, and measure program accomplishments. Released in April 2007, the report recommended consideration of new strategic directions related to national preparedness, prevention vs. response, social equity, regional cooperation, and emergency medical response. According to the report, the “challenge for the AFG program will be to support a gradual shift in direction without losing major strengths of its current management 12 For full report see http://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/affgp-fy01-usda-report.pdf. 13 Department of Homeland Security, Office of Inspections, Evaluations, and Special Reviews, “A Review of the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program,” OIG-ISP-01-03, September 2003, p. 3. Available at http://www.dhs.gov/ xoig/assets/mgmtrpts/OIG_Review_Fire_Assist.pdf. Congressional Research Service 12 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding approach—including industry driven priority setting and its well-respected peer review process.”14 The Administration’s FY2008 budget proposal was accompanied by program evaluations called the Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART). For assessment year 2007, PART gave the fire grant program a rating of “Effective,” (an improvement from the previous rating of “Results Not Demonstrated”). The PART directed DHS to embark on an improvement plan encompassing three elements: establishing a continuing strategic planning process, improving program transparency, and increasing outreach. 15 The Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-161), in the accompanying Joint Explanatory Statement, directed the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to review the application and award process for fire and SAFER grants. Additionally, FEMA was directed to peer review grant applications that best address the program’s priorities and criteria as established by FEMA and the fire service. Those criteria necessary for peer-review must be included in the grant application package. Applicants whose grant applications are not reviewed must receive an official notification detailing why the application did not meet the criteria for review. Applications must be rank-ordered, and funded following the rank order. Distribution of Fire Grants The FIRE Act statute prescribes 14 different purposes for which fire grant money may be used (see 15 U.S.C. 2229(b)(3)). These are: hiring firefighters; training firefighters; creating rapid intervention teams; certifying fire inspectors; establishing wellness and fitness programs; funding emergency medical services; acquiring firefighting vehicles; acquiring firefighting equipment; acquiring personal protective equipment; modifying fire stations for health and safety; enforcing fire codes; funding fire prevention programs; educating the public about arson prevention and detection; and providing incentives for the recruitment and retention of volunteer firefighters. The DHS has the discretion to decide which of those purposes will be funded for a given grant year. Since the program commenced in FY2001, the majority of fire grant funding has been used by fire departments to purchase firefighting equipment, personal protective equipment, and firefighting vehicles. Eligible applicants are limited primarily to fire departments (defined as an agency or organization that has a formally recognized arrangement with a state, local, or tribal authority to provide fire suppression, fire prevention and rescue services to a population within a fixed geographical area). Emergency Medical Services (EMS) activities are eligible for fire grants, including a limited number (no more than 2% of funds allocated) to EMS organizations not affiliated with hospitals. Additionally, a separate competition is held for fire prevention and firefighter safety research and development grants, which are available to national, state, local, or community fire prevention or safety organizations (including, but not limited to, fire departments). For official program 14 National Academy of Public Administration, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program: Assessing Performance, April 2007, p. xvii. Available at http://www.napawash.org/pc_management_studies/ Fire_Grants_Report_April2007.pdf. 15 Office of Management and Budget, ExpectMore.gov, Detailed Information on the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Grants and Training Office Assistance to Firefighters Grants Assessment, Assessment Year 2007, available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/expectmore/detail/10001071.2007.html. Congressional Research Service 13 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding guidelines, frequently-asked-questions, the latest awards announcements, and other information, see the Assistance to Firefighters Grant program web page at http://www.firegrantsupport.com/. The FIRE Act statute provides overall guidelines on how fire grant money will be distributed and administered. The law directs that volunteer and combination departments receive a proportion of the total grant funding that is not less than the proportion of the U.S. population that those departments protect (34% for combination, 21% for all-volunteer). The Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Reauthorization Act of 2004 (Title XXXVI of P.L. 108-375) raised award caps and lowered nonfederal matching requirements (based on recipient community population), extended eligibility to nonaffiliated emergency medical services (i.e. ambulance services not affiliated with fire departments), and expanded the scope of grants to include firefighter safety R&D. There is no set geographical formula for the distribution of fire grants—fire departments throughout the nation apply, and award decisions are made by a peer panel based on the merits of the application and the needs of the community. However, the law does require that fire grants should be distributed to a diverse mix of fire departments, with respect to type of department (paid, volunteer, or combination), geographic location, and type of community served (e.g. urban, suburban, or rural).16 The Fire Act’s implementing regulation provides that: In a few cases, to fulfill our obligations under the law to make grants to a variety of departments, we may also make funding decisions using rank order as the preliminary basis, and then analyze the type of fire department (paid, volunteer, or combination fire departments), the size and character of the community it serves (urban, suburban, or rural), and/or the geographic location of the fire department. In these instances where we are making decisions based on geographic location, we will use States as the basic geographic unit.17 According to the FY2009 Program Guidance for the Assistance to Firefighters Program, career (paid) departments will compete against other career departments for up to 45% of the available funding, while volunteer and combination departments will compete for at least 55% of the available funding. 18 However, given that less than 10% of fire grant applications are historically received from career departments, funding levels are likely not to reach the 45% ceiling for career departments. Additionally, each fire department that applies is classified as either urban, suburban, or rural. In FY2006, 4.3% of the total number of fire grant awards went to urban areas, 17.8% to suburban areas, and 77.7% to rural areas. Of the total amount of federal funding awarded, 7.7% went to urban areas, 18.2% to suburban areas, and 73.9% to rural areas.19 Finally, in an effort to maximize the diversity of awardees, the geographic location of an applicant (using states as the basic geographic unit) is used as a deciding factor in cases where applicants have similar qualifications. Table 5 shows a state-by-state breakdown of fire grant funding for FY2001 through FY2008, while Table 6 shows a state-by-state breakdown of SAFER grant 16 15 U.S.C. 2229(b)(9). 44 CFR Part 152.6(c). 18 For the FY2008 round of awards, no less than 34% of AFG funds must be awarded to combination departments, and no less than 21% of AFG funds must be awarded to all-volunteer departments. See Department of Homeland Security, Fiscal Year 2009 Assistance to Firefighters Grants: Guidance and Application Kit, April 2009, p. 25. 19 Department of Homeland Security, Grant Programs Directorate, Grant Development and Administration Division, Report on Fiscal Year 2006 Assistance to Firefighters Grants, p. 11. 17 Congressional Research Service 14 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding funding for FY2005 through FY2008. Table 7 provides an in-depth look at the FY2008 fire grants, showing, for each state, the number of fire departments in each state,20 the number of fire grant applications, the total amount requested, the total amount awarded, and the amount of funds awarded as a percentage of funds requested. As Table 7 shows, the entire pool of fire department applicants received about 15% of the funds they requested in FY2008. This is down from 16% in FY2007, 21% in FY2006, 22% in FY2005, 28% in FY2004, and 34% in FY2003. This reflects the fact that the number of applications and federal funds requested have trended upward over these years, while appropriations for the fire grant program have declined over the same period. Issues in the 111th Congress The Administration’s FY2011 budget proposal, if approved, would constitute the lowest funding level for AFG since FY2001, the initial year of the program. During the second session of the 111th Congress, the proposed FY2011 budget decrease will likely received heightened scrutiny from the fire community, given the national economic downturn and local budgetary cutbacks that many fire departments are now facing. Meanwhile, on November 18, 2009, the House passed H.R. 3791, the Fire Grants Reauthorization Act of 2009, which would reauthorize AFG and SAFER through FY2014 and modify the distribution of fire grant funds. On April 27, 2010, S. 3267, the Fire Grants Reauthorization Act of 2010, was introduced and referred to the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, which ordered S. 3267 to be reported with an amendment favorably on April 28. Debate over the AFG reauthorization has reflected a competition for funding between career/urban/suburban departments and volunteer/rural departments. The urgency of this debate could be heightened by the proposed reduction of overall AFG funding in FY2011, and the economic downturn in many local communities increasingly hard pressed to allocate funding for their local fire departments. Table 5. State-by-State Distribution of Fire Grants, FY2001-FY2008 (millions of dollars) FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 Total AL 3.085 12.503 23.329 25.097 20.836 22.027 19.903 23.332 150.112 AK 1.303 2.641 5.242 2.522 3.111 0.754 2.454 0.990 19.017 AZ 1.37 3.6 7.490 9.808 7.905 4.041 4.932 5.440 44.586 AR 1.337 4.635 10.675 13.680 10.402 7.699 7.799 7.107 63.334 CA 5.905 18.978 30.060 29.793 25.631 17.856 18.730 26.198 173.151 CO 1.003 3.968 6.168 5.585 6.073 3.213 4.742 2.490 33.242 CT 1.828 4.675 10.841 9.991 7.287 5.479 6.630 6.925 53.656 20 The fire grant program sets a limit of up to three applications per fire department per year (a vehicle application, an application for operations and safety, and a regional application). Thus, the number of fire departments in a state plays a major factor in the number of fire grant applications submitted and the amount of total funding awarded within a given state. For example, because Pennsylvania has—by far—the largest number of fire departments, it is not surprising that it leads the nation in the number of fire grants applications and the amount of funding awarded. Congressional Research Service 15 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 Total DE 0.132 0.372 1.096 1.755 1.161 1.107 0.518 0.231 6.372 DC 0 0.22 0 0 0.453 0 0.376 1.171 2.22 FL 2.865 10.16 16.344 15.969 17.922 6.787 8.288 6. 738 85.073 GA 2.375 6.079 13.791 11.857 10.168 8.887 9.068 7.959 70.184 HI 0 1.182 0.947 0.864 1.205 0.264 0.436 0.772 5.67 ID 0.916 2.744 6.001 4.828 4.684 2.712 4.297 2.687 28.869 IL 2.417 13.398 28.810 27.238 25.433 21.120 21.923 21.325 161.664 IN 2.703 8.739 20.456 18.646 15.779 14.447 13.831 13.092 107.693 IA 1.301 7.284 16.087 16.430 13.119 10.064 9.298 9.877 83.46 KS 1.153 5.118 10.850 10.211 7.165 4.984 5.502 3.928 48.911 KY 2.215 7.896 19.832 16.150 14.215 13.308 13.081 17.153 103.85 LA 3.344 10.084 12.248 11.101 11.630 6.935 5.473 7.033 67.848 ME 1.296 4.319 10.323 10.031 6.124 6.702 5.486 4.904 49.185 MD 0.739 4.08 8.153 10.227 8.771 10.368 7.712 5.525 55.575 MA 2.301 8.386 15.715 13.958 13.529 8.957 11.644 9.532 84.022 MI 2.815 8.948 17.247 20.005 15.088 15.798 15.399 15.482 110.782 MN 2.133 8.149 17.510 18.609 14.894 14.718 16.600 13.082 105.695 MS 1.763 6.755 15.679 11.329 9.856 7.885 8.052 7.761 69.08 MO 3.079 10.291 19.573 17.757 14.246 13.202 10.611 11.589 100.348 MT 1.164 3.726 8.361 7.271 6.656 5.839 7.330 4.670 45.017 NE 1.034 2.392 7.820 6.577 5.116 4.399 4.443 4.324 36.105 NV 0.282 1.446 3.312 1.405 1.946 0.857 1.530 0.687 11.465 NH 0.594 1.887 4.584 5.694 4.563 3.307 3.219 2.723 26.571 NJ 2.596 6.339 19.982 16.488 14.691 12.386 13.266 13.201 98.949 NM 1.455 3.463 5.048 3.653 2.259 1.461 1.367 1.101 19.807 NY 3.978 14.728 34.320 35.030 36.009 33.804 22.664 30.204 210.737 NC 1.949 10.239 22.864 22.360 19.315 18.309 20.031 18.460 133.527 ND 0.546 2.613 5.105 3.391 2.673 2.459 3.100 3.297 23.184 OH 2.731 13.742 26.997 29.107 27.344 25.380 26.433 26.938 178.672 OK 1.864 4.939 10.540 10.393 8.757 10.852 7.220 6.875 61.44 OR 1.596 4.892 9.896 10.122 10.014 9.288 5.943 8.438 60.189 PA 2.89 16.97 45.179 47.898 39.233 41.259 43.610 41.041 278.08 RI 0.407 1.507 2.327 1.917 2.129 2.025 0.855 1.395 12.562 SC 1.554 5.257 11.832 14.150 10.544 8.028 10.470 11.040 72.875 SD 0.904 3.142 5.602 4.693 3.570 2.989 2.474 2.069 25.443 TN 2.46 11.509 19.306 18.686 15.047 11.209 12.955 16.074 107.246 TX 3.697 15.644 29.264 30.118 23.480 18.035 17.691 20.458 158.387 Congressional Research Service 16 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 Total UT 0.9 2.754 4.628 3.880 2.188 2.213 3.378 0.934 20.875 VT 0.451 1.971 5.163 4.747 2.071 1.456 1.820 1.046 18.725 VA 2.066 8.79 15.816 16.668 14.357 8.317 10.403 8.370 84.787 WA 1.535 7.544 18.808 19.565 15.763 16.150 12.951 13.050 105.366 WV 1.067 3.966 9.942 9.133 10.143 5.838 7.164 7.238 54.491 WI 2.077 7.518 18.234 19.668 17.685 13.994 19.439 15.216 113.831 WY 1.09 1.612 3.507 1.811 2.032 1.197 1.645 1.023 13.917 PR 0.657 0.382 1.643 1.140 1.104 0.528 0.019 0.074 5.547 MP 0.145 0.225 0 0 0.220 0.172 0 0 0.762 GU 0 0.016 0 0 0 0.287 0 0 0.303 AS 0.164 0 0 0.284 0 0 0 0 0.448 VI 0.741 0 0.544 0 0 0 0 0.233 1.518 Tot 91.972 334.417 695.121 679.305 585.619 491.375 494.221 492.527 3864.56 Source: Department of Homeland Security. FY2008 awards data current as of November 30, 2009. Table 6. State-by-State Distribution of SAFER Grants, FY2005-FY2008 (millions of dollars) FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 Total Alabama 1.611 6.215 4.236 7.314 19.376 Alaska 1.051 0.205 0.418 1.438 3.112 Arizona 1.560 3.559 4.428 6.613 Arkansas 0.394 1.820 0.377 3.834 6.425 California 5.221 5.212 4.259 4 .212 18.904 Colorado 1.584 3.479 1.730 2.02 8.813 Connecticut 0.130 0.191 0.856 3.92 5.097 Delaware 0 0.135 0 0.398 0.533 District of Columbia 0 0 0 0 0 Florida 6.576 9.329 6.217 18.486 40.608 Georgia 5.354 2.085 2.842 17.438 27.719 Hawaii 0 0 0 1.626 1.626 Idaho 0.063 0.621 0.626 0.774 2.084 Illinois 1.340 4.463 9.933 5.85 21.586 Indiana 0 0.099 2.687 6.528 9.314 Iowa 0.169 0.144 0.980 1.288 2.581 Kansas 0.667 0.045 1.029 1.872 3.613 Congressional Research Service 16.16 17 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 Total Kentucky 0.152 2.890 0.429 2.466 5.937 Louisiana 3.430 3.078 4.728 8.62 19.856 Maine 0.081 0 0.316 0.951 1.348 Maryland 0.096 1.862 1.526 3.171 6.655 Massachusetts 1.300 2.079 4.372 2.690 10.441 Michigan 1.759 0.592 0 0.823 3.174 Minnesota 0.300 1.089 0.375 3.246 5.01 Mississippi 0.756 0.594 0.115 1.608 3.073 Missouri 1.467 3.547 4.551 2.381 11.946 Montana 0.034 0.255 2.635 2.955 5.879 Nebraska 0 0.873 0.632 1.951 3.456 Nevada 1.500 1.714 0.632 0.086 3.932 New Hampshire 0.400 1.035 1.528 0.225 3.188 New Jersey 6.374 3.971 2.953 4.389 17.687 New Mexico 0 3.123 1.309 0.108 4.54 New York 1.540 2.991 2.845 4.412 11.788 North Carolina 2.155 5.533 5.371 18.183 31.242 North Dakota 0 0.609 0 1.518 2.127 Ohio 1.319 1.881 2.255 3.737 9.192 Oklahoma 0.147 0.699 0.531 2.782 4.159 Oregon 1.710 2.141 2.649 2.071 8.571 Pennsylvania 1.244 1.475 2.633 3.515 8.867 Rhode Island 0.400 0 0.105 0 0.505 South Carolina 0.456 0.863 3.218 8.158 12.695 South Dakota 0.063 0.311 0.211 0.552 1.137 Tennessee 2.700 2.719 3.683 1.856 10.958 Texas 0.951 10.961 8.779 Utah 0.900 3.312 2.098 5.162 Vermont 0 0.621 0.632 0 1.253 Virginia 2.091 3.554 0.782 1.849 8.276 Washington 2.298 2.897 7.340 9.476 22.011 West Virginia 0 0.187 0.681 0.16 1.028 Wisconsin 0 0.072 1.223 4.502 5.797 Wyoming 0 0 0.316 2.329 2.645 Puerto Rico 0 0 0 0 0 Northern Mariana Islands 0 0 0 0 0 Marshall Islands 0 0 0 0 0 Congressional Research Service 19.06 39.751 11.472 18 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 Total Guam 0 0 0 0 0 American Samoa 0 0 0 0 0 Virgin Islands 0 0 0 0 0 Republic of Palua 0 0 0 0 0 Total 61.356 105.142 113.665 208.618 488.781 Source: Department of Homeland Security. FY2008 awards data current as of October 16, 2009. Table 7. Requests and Awards for Fire Grant Funding, FY2008 State Alabama Number of fire/EMS departments Number of applications Federal funds requested ($millions) Federal funds awarded ($millions) Funds awarded as a % of funds requested 966 779 98.572 23.332 23.7% Alaska 75 56 11.639 0.990 8.5% Arizona 283 178 37.546 5.440 14.9% Arkansas 826 420 57.787 7.107 12.3% California 823 534 107.544 26.198 24.4% Colorado 375 166 23.557 2.490 10.6% Connecticut 401 253 48.993 6.925 14.1% Delaware 77 34 6.658 0.231 3.5% District of Columbia 18 1 1.171 1.171 Florida 755 289 61.767 6. 738 10.9% Georgia 799 395 65.445 7.959 12.2% Hawaii 20 3 0.790 0.772 97.7% Idaho 212 116 17.866 2.687 15.0% Illinois 1090 885 139.872 21.325 15.2% Indiana 670 507 79.752 13.092 16.4% Iowa 864 560 66.413 9.877 14.9% Kansas 680 276 36.251 3.928 10.8% Kentucky 796 630 93.814 17.153 18.3% Louisiana 557 262 43.389 7.033 16.2% Maine 431 307 42.884 4.904 11.4% Maryland 418 205 39.909 5.525 13.8% Massachusetts 408 349 70.441 9.532 13.5% Michigan 865 776 110.679 15.482 14.0% Minnesota 770 521 66.066 13.082 19.8% Congressional Research Service 100% 19 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding State Number of fire/EMS departments Number of applications Federal funds requested ($millions) Federal funds awarded ($millions) Funds awarded as a % of funds requested Mississippi 756 435 58.775 7.761 13.2% Missouri 865 520 67.270 11.589 17.2% Montana 283 193 25.466 4.670 18.3% Nebraska 486 180 25.167 4.324 17.2% Nevada 161 32 6.619 0.687 10.4% New Hampshire 256 145 22.804 2.723 11.9% New Jersey 1044 618 95.824 13.201 13.8% New Mexico 341 91 16.717 1.101 6.6% New York 1894 1315 186.879 30.204 16.2% North Carolina 1411 728 111.791 18.460 16.5% North Dakota 322 153 21.491 3.297 15.3% 1338 1062 171.359 26.938 15.7% Oklahoma 772 397 52.973 6.875 13.0% Oregon 360 231 37.603 8.438 22.4% Pennsylvania 2635 2255 342.725 41.041 12.0% Rhode Island 101 74 12.840 1.395 10.9% South Carolina 592 419 59.058 11.040 18.7% South Dakota 345 179 23.363 2.069 8.8% Tennessee 649 660 92.595 16.074 17.3% Texas 1883 775 132.007 20.458 15.5% Utah 221 120 17.539 0.934 5.3% Vermont 255 104 13.314 1.046 7.8% Virginia 822 327 57.327 8.370 14.6% Washington 543 357 67.575 13.050 19.3% West Virginia 476 365 55.026 7.238 13.1% Wisconsin 901 713 98.293 15.216 15.5% Wyoming 135 51 7.779 1.023 13.1% 7 8 1.354 0.074 5.5% Northern Marianas Not available 2 0.497 0 0% Virgin Islands Not available 2 0.437 0.233 Guam Not available 2 1.145 0 Total 30,185 21,015 3212.427 Ohio Puerto Rico 492.527 53.3% 0% 15.3% Sources: Department of Homeland Security (FY2008 application and awards data as of November 30, 2009) and firehouse.com (number of firehouse/EMS departments, updated June 2009). Congressional Research Service 20 Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Author Contact Information Lennard G. Kruger Specialist in Science and Technology Policy lkruger@crs.loc.gov, 7-7070 Congressional Research Service 21