Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions Ted Dagne Specialist in African Affairs January 29, 2010 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RS22781 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions Summary Tanzania, an important U.S. ally in Africa, is a stable and important regional actor. There has been a gradual increase in political pluralism, but Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM ), the ruling party, remains dominant in government and parliament. Tanzania’s current president, Jakaya Kikwete, who previously served for 10 years as Tanzania’s foreign minister, won 80.3% of the votes cast in the December 2005 presidential election. The next general elections are scheduled for October 2010. Tanzania continues its pattern of steady real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth and has a low and stable inflation rate. The Economist Intelligence Unit predicts real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth of 4.5% in 2009 and 5% in 2010. Congressional Research Service Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions Contents Background ................................................................................................................................1 Politics..................................................................................................................................1 President Kikwete .................................................................................................................2 Economy ..............................................................................................................................2 HIV/AIDS ............................................................................................................................3 Regional Role .......................................................................................................................3 Human Rights Conditions .....................................................................................................4 U.S. Relations .......................................................................................................................4 Tables Table 1. U.S. Assistance to Tanzania............................................................................................5 Contacts Author Contact Information ........................................................................................................5 Congressional Research Service Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions Background Tanzania, with an eastern seaboard on the Indian Ocean and a western border abutting several of East Africa’s Great Lakes, is a medium-sized poor country. Though it is socially diverse, with about 125 ethnic groups, it has enjoyed general political stability and national unity for about 40 years in a region wracked by civil wars, often with ethnic dimensions, in neighboring Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Mozambique. Tanzania is a union formed in 1964 between the mainland—a German colony and later a British protectorate formerly known as Tanganyika—and the islands of Zanzibar, Pemba, and several smaller islands. The islands, which remain semi-autonomous with their own president and parliament, are populated by peoples of mixed Arab and African descent, and almost all are Muslim. 1 Tanzania’s first president was Julius Nyerere, who led a one-party state that nationalized key industries and created ujamaa, a rural, collective village-based movement of “African socialism” and “self reliance.” Ujamaa faced increasing popular dissatisfaction, and was slowly abandoned in the 1970s and 1980s.2 In 1977, Tanzania repelled an invasion by the brutal Ugandan dictator, Idi Amin, and in 1979 intervened in Uganda to overthrow Amin. Tanzania was active in opposing racist political systems in South Africa and Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). Nyerere, who had a reputation as an honest, humble, idealistic leader, retired as president in 1985, and became an elder statesman, mediating peace processes in neighboring Burundi. He was succeeded by the president of Zanzibar, Ali Mwinyi, who oversaw political reforms and a gradual transition to a market economy, in part due to economic collapse brought on by ujamaa and centralized economic management. Politics There has been a gradual increase in political pluralism, but the CCM remains dominant in government and parliament, and is periodically accused of subverting the aspirations of opposition parties. Opposition parties have reportedly on some occasions been denied rally permits, and their party members detained, intimidated, and harassed, notably during electoral periods, according to human rights groups. In April 2005, CCM offices on Zanzibar were bombed. This event followed the discovery of the body of a missing CCM official, and the Zanzibar Election Commission (ZEC)’s ruling that the leader of the Zanzibar-based Civic United Front (CUF) party was ineligible to run for the Zanzibar presidency. In the 2000 general elections, Zanzibar political activists, notably those of the locally dominant opposition CUF, accused the CCM, and by implication the government, of administering the poll in a manner biased toward the CCM. The election was characterized by substantial violence between state security forces and opposition supporters. In its 2004 human rights report, the State Department said it had been “free and fair on the mainland, but ... seriously marred by irregularities and politically motivated violence on Zanzibar.” 1 2 Europa Regional Surveys of the World. Africa South of the Sahara, 2008. Europa Regional Surveys of the World. Africa South of the Sahara, 2008. Congressional Research Service 1 Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions In October 2005, Zanzibar held its presidential Tanzania at a Glance election. Amani Abeid Karume was elected Geography: East African coastal country; President with 53.2% of the votes cast, while Nearly one and a half times the size of Texas. Population: 41 million (2009 est.) opposition candidate Seif Hamad received Population growth rate: 2.04% (2009 est.) 46.1%. In the legislative elections, the ruling GDP (purchasing power parity): $ 54.6 billion (2008) CCM took 31 seats, while the CUF won 18 GDP per capita (PPP): $ 1,300 (2008) seats in the House of Representatives. Major Exports: Gold, coffee, cashews, tourism, Observers reported about election-related manufactured products, cotton, cloves Languages: Swahili (official); English (official, used in violence and claims of electoral fraud.3 The business, administration, higher education); Arabic Commonwealth recommended an investigation (Zanzibar); about 123 other local languages, many into the election-related violence. The Zanzibar Bantu-based Electoral Commission (ZEC) stated that the Religions: Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs elections were free and fair. In December 2005, 35%; Zanzibar /islands over 99% Muslim Literacy: Male, 77.5%; Female, 66.2% (2003) Under-5 presidential and legislative elections took place Mortality: 165 deaths/1,000 live births on Mainland Tanzania. CCM candidate Jakaya HIV/AIDS adult infection rate: 6.2% (2007) Mrisho Kikwete won 80.3% of the votes cast in Life Expectancy, years at birth: the presidential elections, while the CUF Male, 50.5 Female, 53.5 (2009 est.) candidate, Ibrahim Lipumba, won 11.7% of the Sources: CIA World Factbook 2009. votes cast. The ruling CCM won 207 seats, while the CUF took 18 seats in the National Assembly. The next general elections are scheduled for October 2010. President Kikwete Tanzania’s current president, Jakaya Kikwete, previously served for 10 years as Tanzania’s foreign minister. He is pursuing an agenda of political continuity that builds on the achievements of Mwinyi and Benjamin Mkapa but also seeks to generate greater economic growth and reform. He has also voiced a desire to resolve political conflicts that have long affected Zanzibar internally and in its relations with the mainland. In May 2009, President Kikwete met President Obama in Washington, DC. Economy The Mkapa administration pursued a number of key economic reforms and was generally seen positively by bilateral and multilateral donors, which have provided substantial financial and technical support to Tanzania. Some of these reforms included privatizations of state firms, ongoing improvements to Tanzania’s weak infrastructure system, the creation of growing cell phone networks and increased Internet access, and an increasingly robust and investor-friendly private sector, particularly in the tourism, retail, gold and gems mining, transport, communication and agriculture sectors. Tanzania reached its completion point under the Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative in 2001, and has received partial debt stock reductions under the initiative. Several donors have recently provided bilateral debt relief to Tanzania. Tanzania continues its pattern of steady real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth and its low and stable inflation rate. The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) predicts that inflation will fall 3 The Norwegian Center for Human Rights (NORDEM). The United Republic of Tanzania: Presidential and Parliamentary Elections December 2005. Congressional Research Service 2 Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions from an average of 12% in 2009 to 9% in 2010, and 7.5% in 2011. The EIU forecasts GDP growth at 6% in 2010 and 7% in 2011.4 Despite its real GDP growth, Tanzania’s economy largely fails to address the needs of ordinary Tanzanians (i.e., healthcare, education, employment, and poverty reduction). In recognition of this failure, the MKUKUTA (National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty) has been developed with the goal of raising economic growth and the reduction of poverty. 5 The price of gold—Tanzania’s main export—remains high due to the global market and the weakness of the U.S. dollar. HIV/AIDS Tanzania faces a severe AIDS epidemic. Its HIV/AIDS infection rate, at about 8.8% (2003) is lower than that in southern Africa, but higher than those of its East African neighbors. Tanzania is estimated to have the 12th-highest national infection rate globally, with between 1.6 and 2 million HIV-positive persons, with work force-aged and urban populations most hard-hit, mostly on the mainland. Zanzibar and the other islands have an estimated infection rate of about 0.6%. In April 2005, however, the National AIDS Commission (TACAIDS) chair announced TACAIDS/U.S. Agency for International Development-funded survey data showing a decrease to 7% in infection rates for Tanzania—though some estimates remain far higher. In 2000, Tanzania declared AIDS to be a national disaster and later established TACAIDS and a separate Zanzibar AIDS Commission (ZAC). These entities design and administer national anti-AIDS efforts, including programs implemented through local government HIV/AIDS committees. In August 2004, at the signing of an $87.9 million grant by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, President Mkapa announced that his government would begin providing free anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) to AIDS patients. In June 2005, the government announced a very ambitious goal of providing 100,000 patients with ARVs by late 2006, and of reaching 400,000 patients within the next five years. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, UNAIDS, provides technical, policy, public education, and financial assistance to TACAIDS and ZAC. Tanzania also receives AIDS assistance from a variety of private AIDS foundations, and from the United States. It is a “focus country” under the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.6 Regional Role Tanzania is a member, with Kenya and Uganda, of the East African Community (EAC), established by a 1999 treaty, which revived an earlier EAC, defunct since 1977. The EAC Treaty provides for the creation of a range of regional development, economic policy cooperation, trade, and political coordination initiatives and entities. EAC members signed a customs union agreement in March 2004, which began to be implemented in January 2005. Tanzania, a Southern African Development Community (SADC) member, is also cooperating with its southern neighbors in regional economic development projects, notably in transport. Tanzania has also helped to facilitate an end to the conflict in neighboring Burundi. 4 5 6 The Economist Intelligence Unit. Tanzania, January 2010. The Economist Intelligence Unit. Tanzania, December 2007 The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. 2007 Country Profile: Tanzania. Congressional Research Service 3 Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions Human Rights Conditions7 Although the Tanzanian government is not reported to be responsible for any politically motivated killings or disappearances in the past year, there have been several instances of unlawful killings by policemen and prison guards. Police and prison wardens are also accused of torturing and threatening suspected criminals. The police force lacks funding and is plagued by corruption and the excessive use of force. According to the State Department 2008 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, “there were a number of continuing human rights problems. Police and prison guards used excessive force against inmates or suspects, at times resulting in death, and police impunity was a problem; there were continued reports of killings of elderly individuals accused of being witches; prison conditions were harsh and life-threatening; there was widespread police corruption and violation of legal procedures; the judiciary suffered from corruption and inefficiency, especially in the lower courts; freedom of speech and press were partly limited; governmental corruption remained pervasive; authorities restricted the movement of refugees; societal violence against women persisted; and trafficking in persons and child labor were problems.”8 Although freedom of religion is a constitutional right, Muslims in Tanzania report being discriminated against in government hiring, education, and law enforcement. U.S. Relations U.S.-Tanzanian relations are cordial and friendly. The Obama Administration’s bilateral policy priorities, according to its FY2010 Congressional Budget Justification, include “strengthening Tanzania’s democratic institutions and security forces, as well as local and national systems and institutional capacity in health, including HIV/AIDS and malaria, and education.”9 U.S. concerns about terrorism in Tanzania stems from the 1998 bombing of the U.S. embassy in Dar es Salaam, the capital, by al-Qaeda and from the alleged growth of radical Islamic views within Tanzania’s large Muslim population. In addition, several Tanzanians are known to have joined al-Qaeda. The United States provides anti-terrorism and financial and immigration fraud capacity-building assistance, and the U.S. Embassy maintains an emphasis on the protection of U.S. citizens in Tanzania. A Peace Corps contingent carries out projects in education, natural resource management, and health, with an emphasis on combating AIDS. Tanzania is eligible for trade benefits under the African Growth and Opportunity Act, including textile and apparel benefits, and is a Millennium Challenge Account threshold country, making it eligible to apply for MCA assistance. In September 2007, Tanzania signed a $698 million compact agreement aimed at poverty reduction, access to clean water, transparency, and anti-corruption efforts. U.S. assistance to Tanzania has increased over the past several years. In FY2008, bilateral assistance totaled an estimated $370.2 million and $368 million in FY2009. The Obama Administration has requested $393 million for FY2010. Tanzania is one of the 15 focus countries of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). In December 2009, the National Institute for Medical Research was opened in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. The Institute will house three major medical institutions. The United States provided $9.5 million, through PEPFAR, and laboratory equipment. 7 8 9 The State Department. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2006. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2008/af/119028.htm Congressional Budget Justification, 2010. Congressional Research Service 4 Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions Table 1. U.S. Assistance to Tanzania ($in thousands) Total Development Assistance FY2008 Actual FY2009 Estimate 370,246 368,189 21,439 26,890 FY2009 Supplemental FY2009 Total 368, 189 26,890 Economic Support Fund FY2010 Request 393,811 29,940 200 Global Health and Child SurvivalState 281,000 279,921 279,921 279,921 Global Health and Child SurvivalUSAID 52,796 61,078 61,078 400 300 300 300 450 International Military Education and Training Int. Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Nonproliferation, Antiterrorism, Demining and Related Programs 149 Peacekeeping Operations Public Law 480 (Food Aid) 14,562 Source: Congressional Budget Justification, FY2010 Author Contact Information Ted Dagne Specialist in African Affairs tdagne@crs.loc.gov, 7-7646 Congressional Research Service 5