Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress R. Eric Petersen Analyst in American National Government November 5, 2009 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R40897 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Summary Periodically, concerns have been raised about the number and variety of products created to document congressional activity. Other concerns focus on the process for authorizing and distributing printed government documents to Members of Congress, committees, and other officials in the House and Senate. These concerns reflect broader issues related to the manner in which government and private information is created, assembled, distributed, and preserved in light of the emergence of electronic publishing and distribution. From its establishment in 1861, the Government Printing Office (GPO) has compiled, formatted, printed, bound, and distributed documents that have recorded the activities of Congress (and the work of other governmental entities). In current practice, more than half of all government documents originate in digital form, and are distributed electronically. As a consequence of electronic production and dissemination, some congressional materials are now more readily available to wider congressional, governmental, and public audiences than when they were only produced and distributed in paper form. Some have argued that eliminating paper versions of some congressional documents, and relying instead on electronic versions, could result in further cost and resource savings and might provide environmental benefits. At the same time, however, current law regarding document production, authentication, and preservation, as well as some user demand, require a number of paper-based documents to be produced and distributed as part of the official record of congressional proceedings. As a result of requirements for both electronic and paper-based versions of congressional documents, GPO oversees an information distribution process that produces and distributes most of the congressional information for which it is responsible in both electronic and printed forms. This process provides the necessary information and appropriate formats for Congress to carry out and document its activities, but it may also result in some unwanted printed copies of congressional documents being delivered to congressional users who prefer to access those resources electronically. More broadly, the transition to electronic distribution of materials may raise questions about the capacity of current law and congressional practices to effectively oversee GPO’s management and distribution responsibilities regarding congressional information. This report, which will be updated as events warrant, provides an overview and analysis of issues related to the processing and distribution of congressional information by the Government Printing Office. Subsequent sections address several issues, including funding congressional printing, printing authorizations, current printing practices, and options for Congress. Finally, the report provides congressional printing appropriations, production, and distribution data in a number of tables. Congressional Research Service Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Contents Congressional Information Distribution Practices in Transition ...................................................1 GPO and Congressional Printing .................................................................................................3 Congressional Printing ..........................................................................................................4 Page Production ..............................................................................................................6 Printing Practices ..................................................................................................................7 Congressional Record.....................................................................................................8 Bills and Resolutions .................................................................................................... 11 Reports and Documents ................................................................................................ 13 Discussion and Analysis............................................................................................................ 14 Potential Options for Congress .................................................................................................. 16 Maintain The Status Quo..................................................................................................... 16 Conduct Studies .................................................................................................................. 17 Consider Legislation ........................................................................................................... 17 Congressional Printing: Data Tables.......................................................................................... 18 Appropriations for the Government Printing Office, Congressional Printing and Binding Account .............................................................................................................. 18 Congressional Printing: Page Volume ................................................................................. 20 Congressional Record, Daily Edition: Publication and Congressional Distribution Data................................................................................................................................. 22 Legislative Measures........................................................................................................... 23 Congressional Documents and Reports................................................................................ 24 Figures Figure 1. Government Printing Office, Congressional Printing and Binding Account Appropriations, FY1987-FY2009.............................................................................................4 Figure 2. Congressional Record, Daily Edition: Copies Produced FY1985-FY2009 ....................8 Figure 3. Distribution of the Congressional Record, Daily Edition ............................................ 10 Figure 4. Congressional Record, Daily Edition: Distribution of Congressional Printing and Binding Copies, FY1987-FY2009.................................................................................... 11 Figure 5. Stages at which Legislative Measures Might be Printed by GPO................................. 13 Tables Table 1. Congressional Printing Products: Authorized Copies .....................................................4 Table 2. Congressional Printing and Binding Page Volume, Percentage Change in Selected Categories, FY1985-FY2009......................................................................................7 Table 3. Congressional Record, Daily Edition: Percentage Change in Copies Produced, FY1985-FY2009......................................................................................................................9 Table 4. Congressional Record, Daily Edition: Change in Copies and Distribution of Congressional Printing and Binding Copies, FY1987-FY2009 ............................................... 11 Congressional Research Service Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Table 5. Estimated Prepress and Printing Costs per Page of Selected Congressional Publications, FY2009............................................................................................................. 15 Table 6. Government Printing Office, Congressional Printing and Binding Account Appropriations, FY1985-FY2009........................................................................................... 18 Table 7. Congressional Printing and Binding, Page Volume of Selected Categories, FY1985-FY2010.................................................................................................................... 20 Table 8. Congressional Record, Daily Edition: Copies Produced and Distribution, FY1985-FY2009.................................................................................................................... 22 Table 9. Authorized Distribution of Legislative Measures ......................................................... 23 Table 10. GPO Distribution of Legislative Measures, FY2009................................................... 24 Table 11. Authorized “Usual Number” of House and Senate Documents and Reports............... 24 Table 12. Authorized Recipients and Copies of Reports on Private Bills, and Concurrent or Simple Resolutions ............................................................................................................ 25 Table 13. GPO Distribution of Congressional Documents and Reports, FY2009........................ 25 Table 14. Authorized Distribution of the Congressional Record ................................................ 27 Contacts Author Contact Information ...................................................................................................... 33 Acknowledgments .................................................................................................................... 33 Congressional Research Service Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Congressional Information Distribution Practices in Transition Periodically, concerns have been raised about the number and variety of products created to document congressional activity. Other concerns focus on the process for authorizing and distributing printed government documents to Members of Congress, congressional committees, and other officials in the House and Senate.1 Concerns regarding congressional activities are typically considered in the context of the congressional environment. In the field of information management, however, they reflect broader issues related to the manner in which government and private information is created, assembled, distributed, and preserved. 2 A number of issues arise due to significant transformations in the areas of printing, publishing, and information management. Those changes have been initiated as a consequence of the emergence in the past three decades of electronic publishing and distribution, which has expanded the means of information creation and delivery beyond mechanical compilation and production of documents that only exist on paper. Since its establishment in 1861,3 and until the emergence and integration of digital dissemination, the Government Printing Office (GPO) has compiled, formatted, printed, bound, and distributed documents that recorded the activities of Congress (and the work of other governmental entities) through a series of labor- and resource-intensive steps. Over time, the agency has integrated new technologies into its production processes as they became available, or were mandated. The enactment of P.L. 103-40, the Government Printing Office Electronic Information Access Enhancement Act of 19934, required the production of electronic versions of the Congressional Record and the Federal Register, and provided authority for production and distribution of other government documents electronically. The act requires GPO to the “extent practicable, [to] accommodate any request by the head of a department or agency to include … information that is under the control of the department or agency involved” in its electronic directory and systems of online access. Arguably, that language does not bind Congress to make its materials available, 1 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2010, Fiscal Year 2010 Legislative Branch Appropriations Requests, 111th Cong., 1st sess., April 22, 2009 (Washington: GPO, 2009), pp. 161, 164-165; “Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2008,” House Debate, Congressional Record, daily edition, June 22, 2007, pp. H6982-H6994; Representative Jeff Flake, “Tired of Throwing Away Congressional Records?” dear colleague letter, June 21, 2007; and Representative Michael T. McCaul, “Cut Government Waste and Support Capitol Police,” dear colleague letter, June 7, 2006. 2 David Cuillier and Suzanne J. Piotrowski, “Internet Information-Seeking And Its Relation To Support For Access To Government Records,” Government Information Quarterly, vol. 26, no. 3 (2009), pp. 441-449; Kenneth Thibodeau, “The Electronic Records Archive Program at the National Archives and Records Administration,” First Monday, vol. 12, no. 7 (July 2, 2007), at http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1922/1804; and James A. Jacobs, James R. Jacobs, and Shinjoung Yeo, “Government Information in the Digital Age: The Once and Future Federal Depository Library Program,” Journal of Academic Librarianship, vol. 31, no. 3 (May 2005), pp. 198208. 3 Prior to 1861, and during a period of transition following the creation of GPO, publication and distribution of congressional information was handled by private printers and editors. For further discussion, see Elizabeth Gregory McPherson, “The History of Reporting the Debates and Proceedings of Congress” (Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina, 1940). 4 P.L. 103-40, Government Printing Office Electronic Information Access Enhancement Act of 1993, 107 Stat. 112, 44 U.S.C. 4101. Congressional Research Service 1 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress since it is not a department or agency. Nevertheless, Congress has made some of its materials available in electronic form through GPO since P.L. 103-40 was enacted. GPO began producing electronic versions of the daily edition of the Congressional Record and the Federal Register in 1994. Soon after, GPO began providing access to electronic versions of congressional documents authorized for distribution by Congress through its GPO Access website.5 The agency began distributing new documents through its Federal Digital System (FDsys), and migrating collections from GPO Access in the spring of 2009.6 In current practice, according to Robert C. Tapella, the Public Printer of the United States, who heads GPO, “less than half of all Government documents are printed first and then distributed. They are born digital, and they are made available to the public through Web access and other sources.”7 As a consequence of electronic production and dissemination, some congressional materials are more readily available to wider congressional, governmental, and public audiences than when they were produced and distributed only in paper form. 8 Further, changes in the production process from the creation of content through delivery to a user, in print or electronic form, have reduced the resources necessary to produce congressional information.9 In light of these changes, some have argued that eliminating paper versions of some congressional documents, and relying instead on electronic versions, could result in further cost and resource savings, and might provide environmental benefits.10 At the same time, however, current law regarding document production, authentication, and preservation, as well as some user demand, require a number of paper-based documents to be produced and distributed as part of the official record of congressional proceedings. As a result of requirements for both electronic and paper-based versions of congressional documents, GPO oversees an information distribution process that produces and distributes most of the congressional information for which it is responsible11 in both electronic and printed forms. 5 http://www.gpoaccess.gov/. Information about the migration of materials from GPO Access to FDsys is available at http://www.gpo.gov/projects/ fdsysinfo.htm. 7 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2009, Government Printing Office Budget, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., March 6, 2008 (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 272. A comparable breakdown of the origins of congressional documents is not available. 8 Barbara J. Costello, “Moving In The Right Direction: Developments In The Online Availability Of Full-Text Congressional Committee Hearing Transcripts,” Government Information Quarterly, vol. 25, no. 1 (January 2008), pp. 104-117. 9 Some of the changes include transition from mechanical to electronic means to create, compose, and prepare congressional documents; the use of recycled paper in printing; and reduced demand for paper-based printed products. 10 Some of the technological transformations GPO has adopted have also incorporated changes that may provide environmental benefits. Since at least 2000, GPO and its contractors have used paper that meets federal recycled paper requirements, and all GPO printing inks have been vegetable oil based instead of petroleum based. Recently, the Speaker of the House, Representative Nancy Pelosi, announced that the daily edition of the Congressional Record is now printed on 100% recycled paper. See U.S. Government Printing Office, Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2000, Washington, DC, 2001, p. 2, http://www.gpo.gov/pdfs/congressional/archives/2000gpoannualreport.pdf; and U.S. Congress, House, Speaker of the House, “Pelosi: Congressional Record Now Printed on 100 Percent Recycled Paper,” press release, October 2, 2009, http://speaker.house.gov/newsroom/pressreleases?id=1386. 11 The congressional materials GPO produces include legislation, committee documents, handbooks, manuals, and the Congressional Record. GPO is not responsible for distributing all congressional information. Some examples of items for which GPO has no responsibility include various disclosure documents required by the House or Senate, and the correspondence, media releases, and records of individual Members. 6 Congressional Research Service 2 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress This process provides the necessary information and appropriate formats for Congress to carry out and document its activities, but it may also result in some unwanted printed copies of congressional documents being delivered to congressional users who prefer to access those resources electronically. More broadly, the transition to electronic distribution of materials may raise questions about the capacity of congressional authorities to effectively oversee GPO’s management and distribution responsibilities regarding congressional information under current law and congressional practices. This report provides an overview and analysis of issues related to the processing and distribution of congressional information by the Government Printing Office (GPO). Subsequent sections address several issues, including funding congressional printing, printing authorizations, current printing practices, and options for Congress. Finally, the report provides congressional printing appropriations, production, and distribution data in a number of tables. GPO and Congressional Printing GPO is a legislative branch agency that serves all three branches of the federal government as a centralized resource for gathering, cataloging, producing, providing, authenticating, and preserving published information. The agency’s activities are funded through three sources. These include appropriations, a revolving fund through which executive and judicial branch agencies pay GPO for information management and distribution services, and sales of products to nongovernmental entities and the general public. GPO’s appropriation is included in the annual legislative branch appropriations bill. The bill funds three GPO accounts: congressional printing and binding (CPB); salaries and expenses of the Superintendent of Documents (S&E); and, on occasion, a small part of the revolving fund. Congress allocates a substantial proportion of the funds appropriated to GPO to the CPB account, which funds the production and dissemination of congressional documents. Since 1988, appropriations for CPB have comprised an average of 73.08% of funds provided to GPO by Congress. Activities funded in the revolving fund and S&E accounts do not directly support congressional publishing activity.12 Figure 1 provides the levels of funding of the CPB account since 1985, based on nominal and constant (2009) dollars. The data show that CPB spending has declined from $160.59 million in 1985 (2009 dollars) to $96.83 million in 2009. Part of the decline in appropriations reflects savings resulting from reduced staffing13 due to the implementation by GPO of less laborintensive printing technologies, increased electronic distribution, and somewhat reduced demands for some types of congressional products. Table 6, in the data tables below, provides GPO CPB account appropriations data in nominal and constant (2009) dollars and the percentage of appropriations allocated to CPB since 1985. 12 On several occasions, GPO has made up temporary shortfalls in CPB funding with resources from the revolving fund. Congressional shortfalls are typically remedied in subsequent appropriations. Some equipment and technology upgrades for which funds are appropriated to the S&E account, such as GPO’s Federal Digital System (FDsys), may affect the distribution of congressional materials. 13 Staffing levels at GPO fell 44.11%, from 5,391 in 1985 to 2,116 in 2008. See CRS Report R40056, Legislative Branch Staffing, 1954-2007, by R. Eric Petersen. Congressional Research Service 3 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Figure 1. Government Printing Office, Congressional Printing and Binding Account Appropriations, FY1987-FY2009 Nominal and Constant (2009) Dollars, Thousands of Dollars $160,000 $140,000 $120,000 $100,000 $80,000 $60,000 $40,000 $20,000 $0 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Appropriation, Nominal $ Constant, 2009 $ Source: Actual appropriations reported by GPO in annual appropriations requests, in Summary of Appropriations Estimates tables, various years, and CRS calculations. Notes: Data incorporate GPO reported sequestrations, restrictions, reductions, rescissions, and transfers from the GPO revolving fund as noted in Table 6, in the data table section below. These data may not incorporate supplemental appropriations. Congressional Printing In each Congress, thousands of products are created to document the activities of the House and Senate. The publication of congressional documents is carried out pursuant to statute, or by resolution of the House or Senate, acting separately or jointly. The number and distribution of paper-based congressional documents may be set in statute, by the House or Senate, acting separately or jointly, or by the Joint Committee on Printing (JCP). Table 1 summarizes the authority and authorized distribution for a number of printed products used by Congress. Current law provides that GPO “shall accommodate any request” from a government entity to distribute electronically any information under control of that entity.14 Table 1. Congressional Printing Products: Authorized Copies Product Copies Authorized Authority Bills and Joint Resolutions 625 44 U.S.C. 706 Congressional Directory Determined by JCP 44 U.S.C. 721 Congressional Record Daily Edition, approx. 23,300 Bound, approx. 2,400 Semimonthly edition, no longer produced 44 U.S.C. 906 Journals of the House and Senate 820 44 U.S.C. 713 Slip Laws Determined by JCP 44 U.S.C. 709 Statutes at Large Determined by JCP 44 U.S.C. 728 Simple and Concurrent Resolutions 260 44 U.S.C. 706 Private Bill, Senate 295 44 U.S.C. 706 14 44 U.S.C. 4101. Congressional Research Service 4 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Product Copies Authorized Authority Private Bill, House 260 44 U.S.C. 706 Manuals of the House and Senate Determined by each chamber 44 U.S.C. 720 Documents and Reports “The Usual Number,” 1,682 44 U.S.C. 701 Source: Title 44, U.S. Code. The publication and distribution of some categories of documents that may not be published on a regular basis is also authorized in statute. For example, at the conclusion of a Congress in which a sitting Member of the House or a former Member who served as Speaker dies, GPO, subject to the direction of JCP, compiles, prepares, and prints, with illustrations, a tribute book. 15 Additional copies are distributed to Members of Congress.16 Also, the House or Senate, acting separately or jointly, may authorize the publication of other documents. Some examples include • unanimous consent agreements in the Senate that tributes to retiring Senators appearing in the Congressional Record be printed as Senate documents;17 • H.Con.Res. 128, 110th Congress, authorizing the printing of a commemorative document in memory of the late President, Gerald R. Ford;18 • a Senate order authorizing the printing of tributes to the late Senator Craig Thomas;19 • H.Con.Res. 345, 108th Congress, authorizing the printing of the transcripts of the proceedings of “The Changing Nature of the House Speakership: The Cannon Centenary Conference,” held on November 12, 2003;20 and • H.Con.Res. 43 and H.Con.Res. 66, 107th Congress, authorizing revised and updated versions of the House documents entitled Black Americans in Congress, 1870-1989, and Women in Congress, 1917-1990, respectively.21 15 44 U.S.C. 723. The tribute book contains the legislative proceedings of Congress and the exercises at the general memorial services held in the House in tribute to the deceased Member or former Speaker, together with all relevant memorial addresses and eulogies published in the Congressional Record during the same session of Congress, and any other matter JCP considers relevant. 16 The statute also authorizes the production of 50 copies, bound in full morocco, with gilt edges, and suitably lettered as may be requested, to be delivered to the family of the deceased. According to GPO, this is no longer done. Email communication with GPO staff, October 23, 2009. 17 Senator Patty Murray, “Tributes to Senator Coleman,” Remarks in the Senate, Congressional Record, daily edition, July 9, 2009, p. S7332; Senator Mary Landrieu, “Order for Printing of Senate Document,” Remarks in the Senate, Congressional Record, daily edition, September 27, 2008, p. S10022; and Senator Mitch McConnell, “Order for Printing Tributes to Retiring Senators,” Remarks in the Senate, Congressional Record, daily edition, November 18, 2004, p. S11513. 18 See U.S. House, Memorial Services in the Congress of the United States and Tributes in Eulogy of Gerald R. Ford Late a President of the United States, 110th Cong., 1st sess., H. Doc. 110-61 (Washington: GPO, 2007). 19 See “Order for Printing and Submission of Tributes to Senator Craig Thomas,” Congressional Record, daily edition, June 14, 2007, p. S7776. 20 See U.S. House, The Cannon Centenary Conference: The Changing Nature of the Speakership, 108th Cong., 2nd sess., H. Doc. 108-204 (Washington: GPO, 2004). 21 See U.S. Congress, House, Women in Congress, 1917-2006, 108th Cong., 2nd sess., H. Doc. 108-223 (Washington: (continued...) Congressional Research Service 5 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Page Production In its annual budget requests, GPO reports the volume of its work in terms of the number of pages produced, and the number of copies produced for each product. GPO expresses the overall production of congressional documents in the number of pages produced for several categories of documents. Generally, page production is a function of congressional activity; more activity, which may result in an increase in the number or length of days in session, the number of measures introduced, or the number of hearings held, typically means greater demand for printing services and increases the volume of pages produced. As noted in congressional testimony, the number of pages necessary to meet demand varies by Congress and session, according to workload and activity on the floor. For example, the page volume for the Congressional Record and bills, resolutions, and amendments may be higher as more measures are introduced during the first session of a Congress than in the second session. 22 GPO’s page production categories include the following:23 • Congressional Record, daily edition. A substantially verbatim account capturing the proceedings of the House and Senate; • Miscellaneous Publications. Includes the Congressional Directory, House and Senate Journals, memorial addresses, nominations, serial sets, and unnumbered publications; • Document Envelopes & Franks. Franked envelopes and perforated sheets with Members’ signatures for the mailing of documents; • Calendars. House and Senate business and committee calendars; • Bills, Resolutions & Amendments. Printing of legislative measures, including prints as introduced, reported, and adopted or passed; • Committee Reports. Documents of congressional committees on pending legislation that carry a congressional document number; • Documents. House and Senate documents that carry a congressional number. Examples may include annual reports, engineers’ reports made by government agencies, or estimates of appropriations; • Hearings. All published hearings held before committees; and • Committee Prints. Documents on pending legislation printed for the internal use of committees. (...continued) GPO, 2006); and U.S. Congress, House, Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007, 108th Cong., 2nd sess., H. Doc. 108224 (Washington: GPO, 2008). Some of the content of the publications is also available electronically at http://womenincongress.house.gov/ or http://baic.house.gov/. 22 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2010, Fiscal Year 2010 Legislative Branch Appropriations Requests, 111th Cong., 1st sess., April 22, 2009 (Washington: GPO, 2009), p. 161. 23 The categories are based on GPO’s CPB Base Budget Review for FY 2010, in U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2010, Fiscal Year 2010 Legislative Branch Appropriations Requests, part 1, 111th Cong., 1st sess., April 22, 2009 (Washington: GPO, 2009), pp. 922-923. Congressional Research Service 6 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Table 2 provides summary data reflecting the change in page volume levels since 1985. No particular pattern appears to apply to all categories. Between 2006 and 2009, five of nine categories increased in volume. Over the period between 1985 and 2009, six of nine categories decreased in overall volume. Three categories, including daily record, calendars, and hearings, decreased in both periods while two categories, bills, resolutions, and amendments, and committee reports increased. At the same time, all categories showed at least one significant increase or decrease in volume over two separate periods between 1985 and 2009. Table 7, in the data table section below, provides GPO page data for a number of categories of congressional printing listed in the agency’s annual appropriations requests. Table 2. Congressional Printing and Binding Page Volume, Percentage Change in Selected Categories, FY1985-FY2009 Columns Report Percentage Change For Each Period Listed 19851990 19911995 19962000 20012005 20062009 19852009 Daily Record 19.35% -14.38% -25.64% 18.75% -8.26% -3.23% Miscellaneous Publications -26.09 73.59 35.00 -71.74 7.49 -52.17 Document Envelopes & Franks -5.31 -31.47 -33.33 -50.00 10.48 -76.33 Calendars 3.13 0.41 -6.06 -41.38 -28.99 -31.88 Bills, Resolutions & Amendments 15.79 -28.08 -31.62 31.43 30.28 57.16 Committee Reports 13.16 -25.05 -26.32 0.00 27.58 10.79 Documents -6.06 -28.63 56.25 10.00 -1.70 4.85 Hearings -3.99 -13.10 -12.09 -0.62 -14.72 -47.52 Committee Prints -38.89 16.21 5.88 -20.93 24.34 -63.11 Document Category Source: CRS calculations, based on Congressional Printing and Binding Appropriation Volume Increase or Decrease tables submitted by the Government Printing Office in annual appropriations requests, various years. This table excludes calculations of data included in some of those tables, including Daily Record data production (which typically is the same as Daily Record data), the record index, record indexers, U.S. Code and Supplements, miscellaneous printing and binding, and details to Congress. Printing Practices For most printed congressional products, there are differences between the authorized levels of printed versions and the actual number of those documents that are printed. An authorized number of copies for some printed congressional products is set in statute. In practice the actual number of copies printed of the Congressional Record; measures introduced, reported, adopted, or enacted in the House or Senate; and reports and documents printed by the House or Senate is generally lower.24 In addition, the Congressional Record is published in fewer paper formats than authorized, and fewer copies of those remaining formats are produced. These differences reflect Member needs.25 At the same time, the variable distribution of paper copies and the lack of explicit, readily identifiable authority to disseminate electronic versions of some congressional 24 Tracking changes to authorized printing levels of congressional documents is likely to yield incomplete information, since many of the records of changes are not readily available. 25 E-mail communication with GPO staff, October 23, 2009. Congressional Research Service 7 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress documents26 in statute governing congressional printing may call into question the capacity of current controls and processes to ensure systematic management by Congress of its published products. This in turn may raise concerns about the extent to which the public records are available and retrievable, and whether they will be permanently available in electronic form. Congressional Record The JCP controls the arrangement and style of the Congressional Record, and is to provide “that it shall be substantially a verbatim report of proceedings,” while taking “all needed action for the reduction of unnecessary bulk.”27 Current law authorizes the printing of the Congressional Record in three formats: a daily edition, a semimonthly edition, and a bound edition (the semimonthly edition is no longer produced). P.L. 103-40 requires GPO to make a version available online. The daily edition, comprising the proceedings of the previous day’s activities on the House and Senate floors, is typically available electronically by 6 AM and is distributed across Capitol Hill in paper form by 9 AM each day that Congress is in session.28 The authorized distribution of the daily edition and bound volumes is summarized in Table 14, in the data table section below. More than 23,000 copies of the daily edition are authorized in 44 U.S.C. 906. Of that total, approximately 21,600 (93.9%) are to be distributed to Congress. Congressional copies include those for congressional use, and copies for distribution to others, as directed by individual Members. They are charged to the GPO CPB account. Other copies for noncongressional recipients are charged to requesting agencies and subscribers through GPO’s revolving fund or the S&E account. Figure 2. Congressional Record, Daily Edition: Copies Produced FY1985-FY2009 30,000 Printed Copies 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 19 85 19 86 19 87 19 88 19 89 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06 20 07 20 08 20 09 0 Daily Edition Total CPB Charge Agencies and Subscriptions Source: Government Printing Office, annual appropriations requests, various years. Data are taken from Congressional Printing and Binding budget review. 26 The only congressional document explicitly mandated in statute to be distributed electronically is a version of the Congressional Record, pursuant to P.L. 103-40, 41 U.S.C. 4101. 27 44 U.S.C. 901. 28 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2010, Fiscal Year 2010 Legislative Branch Appropriations Requests, 111th Cong., 1st sess., April 22, 2009 (Washington: GPO, 2009), pp. 161-162. Congressional Research Service 8 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Notes: All publication data reported by GPO are approximate. GPO did not provide a breakdown of publication data by CPB and agency and subscription categories in 1985 and 1986. Figure 2 displays the change in the number of copies of the Congressional Record daily edition produced from FY1985-FY2009. Distribution of the paper version of the daily edition of the Congressional Record has declined every year since FY1985, with the total number of copies declining by 83.21% between FY1985 and FY2009. Since FY1987, the daily edition has been printed in lower quantities than authorized. The number of both CPB-charged copies and agency and subscription copies have declined since FY1987, the earliest year for which such data are available. Between FY1987 and FY2009, the number of copies charged to CPB fell 78.57%. During the same period the number of copies charged to agencies and subscriptions fell by 80.91%. More recently, since FY2005, the number of copies has fallen 18.83% for CPB copies and 43.12% for agencies and subscription copies. Table 3 provides summary data of the changes in copies produced between FY1985 and FY2009. Table 4, in the data table section below, provides daily edition publication data and distribution to CPB and agency and subscription recipients between FY1987 and FY2009. Table 3. Congressional Record, Daily Edition: Percentage Change in Copies Produced, FY1985-FY2009 Columns Report Percentage Change For Each Period Listed 19851989 19901995 19962000 20012005 20052009 19872009 -21.03% -13.71% -17.10% -19.41% -27.88% -79.31%a Charged to Congressional Printing & Binding —b -14.76 -8.76 -14.91 -18.83 -78.57 Government Agencies & Subscriptions —b -11.38 -25.82 -26.02 -43.12 -80.91 Total copies, Daily Edition Source: CRS computations, based on Government Printing Office data taken from the Congressional Printing and Binding budget review, in annual appropriations requests, various years, available in Table 8. Each column reports change for the period listed. a. Change, 1985-2009 is -83.21%. b. GPO did not provide information for this category in 1985 and 1986. Congressional Research Service 9 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Figure 3. Distribution of the Congressional Record, Daily Edition Approximate Authorized and FY2009 Levels Most recently, for FY2009, GPO reported the printing of approximately 4,322 copies of the daily edition, of which 3,082 (71.3%) copies were charged to its CPB account.29 Figure 3 provides the approximate authorized level set by statute for the daily edition of the Congressional Record, in proportion to the approximate distribution in FY2009. The decline in distribution of paper CPB copies of the Congressional Record daily edition in the past 16 years may be attributable in part to two events. The first was the introduction of electronic versions of material printed in the Congressional Record. In 1994, GPO first produced an electronic version of the daily edition as required by Congress under P.L. 103-40. This likely contributes to reductions in the number of Source: 44 U.S.C. 906, and GPO staff. printed copies that began as commercial firms began providing material from the Congressional Record to their subscribers in electronic format prior to 1994. The ongoing decline is presumably attributable to users turning to the electronic version in greater numbers over time. The second event occurred in 1996, when the House ordered the elimination of distribution of CPB copies issued by House Members “for constituent copies and by-law distribution of the Congressional Record.”30 The House’s actions appear to have resulted in a sharp decline in the number of copies produced by GPO from FY1996 to FY1997 and a corresponding decline in the number of copies distributed by Congress to other users. Figure 4 provides the distribution of CPB copies of the Congressional Record daily edition between 1987 and 1990. Similar differences between authorized levels and actual practices apply to other formats of the Congressional Record. For example, the bound edition is considered the official, permanent version, and is typically available within four years of the final adjournment of a Congress. 44 U.S.C. 906 authorizes the printing of approximately 2,400 bound copies of the Congressional Record; in practice GPO prints about 345 copies, of which 92 are paid through CPB. The semimonthly edition is no longer printed, but GPO continues to produce a semimonthly index. 29 See U.S. House, Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2009, (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 777. 30 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Legislative, Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill, 1996, report to accompany H.R. 1854, 104th Cong., 1st sess., June 15, 1995, H.Rept. 104-141 (Washington: GPO, 1995), p. 25. In the same bill, the House proposed the elimination of “the free distribution of copies of bills, reports, and other documents to non-Congressional recipients (other than federal depository libraries).” Following conference negotiations between the House and Senate, some of the distribution of congressional documents was preserved in the final version of the bill, as was distribution of constituent and by-law copies of the daily edition of the Congressional Record by Senators. The measure was subsequently vetoed by the President. Congress subsequently passed the legislative branch appropriations bill for 1996 as H.R. 2492, which was enacted as P.L. 104-53, the Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 1996, 109 Stat. 514. It appears that the House proceeded to enforce the reductions in the distribution of the Congressional Record specified in H.Rept. 104-141 during FY1996. Congressional Research Service 10 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Figure 4. Congressional Record, Daily Edition: Distribution of Congressional Printing and Binding Copies, FY1987-FY2009 16,000 Printed Copies 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 19 87 19 88 19 89 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06 20 07 20 08 20 09 0 CPB Charge Congressional Use Congressional Distribution Source: Government Printing Office, annual appropriations requests, various years. Data are taken from Congressional Printing and Binding budget review. Notes: All publication data reported by GPO are approximate. Table 4. Congressional Record, Daily Edition: Change in Copies and Distribution of Congressional Printing and Binding Copies, FY1987-FY2009 Change, Fiscal Years 19871989 19901995 19962000 20012005 20052009 19872009 Charged to Congressional Printing and Binding -2.00% -14.76% -8.76% -14.91% -18.83% -78.57% Congressional Use -4.69% -7.21% -26.85% -13.62% -18.21% -67.66% Congressional Distribution 0.00% -20.24% 57.76% -17.10% -19.93% -86.69% Source: CRS computations, based on Government Printing Office data taken from the Congressional Printing and Binding budget review, in annual appropriations requests, various years, available in Table 8. Each column reports change for the period listed. Bills and Resolutions All bills and resolutions are printed at least once. Versions of measures that are considered in one chamber are authorized to be printed when introduced or submitted, 31 reported to the chamber, and upon passage or adoption by the chamber.32 Under typical circumstances of consideration, bills and resolutions considered and passed by both chambers may be printed in seven different versions reflecting congressional action.33 Some measures considered by both chambers may 31 While the process is essentially the same, bills are introduced, while resolutions are submitted. Similarly, bills that receive affirmative final approval are passed, while resolutions are adopted or agreed to. Laws governing the printing of bills and resolutions do not recognize these distinctions, and speak of the introduction and passage of all measures. 32 44 U.S.C. 706. In addition, House Rule XII, cl. 7 (b)(4) provides that a measure may be reprinted at the written request of the sponsor if 20 or more cosponsors are added after the last printing of the measure. 33 A measure that is passed by both chambers would be printed when it is introduced, reported, and passed in the originating chamber; transmitted to, and reported and passed in the second chamber; and in an enrolled version reflecting what was finally agreed to by both chambers. Congressional Research Service 11 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress require fewer printings,34 while others require more.35 Measures enacted into law would be printed an additional three times.36 Figure 5 summarizes the various stages at which legislation and items adopted by Congress or enacted into law might be printed by GPO. The authorized numbers of copies, and their distribution to the House and Senate, as specified in statute, are summarized in Table 9, in the data table section below. In practice, the printing and distribution of measures varies by the type of measure. With the exception of simple and concurrent resolutions considered in the House, the number of all other legislative measures printed is less than authorized. Table 10 provides a summary of current distribution of printed copies of legislative measures. 34 For example, S.J.Res. 3, 111th Congress, adjusting the rate of pay for the office of Secretary of Interior, and enacted as P.L. 111-1, required three printed versions during its consideration by Congress. H.R. 3996, 110th Congress, the Temporary Tax Relief Act of 2007, required six printed versions reflecting congressional activity prior to its enactment as P.L. 110-166. 35 For example, H.R. 1, 111th Congress, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, required eight printed versions in the course of congressional consideration before it was enacted as P.L. 111-5. 36 Printing of laws following congressional consideration includes copies for accuracy, slip laws, and final publication in the Statutes at Large. The costs of printing are charged to CPB. Congressional Research Service 12 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Figure 5. Stages at which Legislative Measures Might be Printed by GPO Source: CRS graphic based on requirements taken from 44 U.S.C., Sections 706, 709, 711, 713, 728, and 901. Notes: In addition to the statutory stages of printing, House Rule XII, cl. 7 (b)(4) provides that a measure may be reprinted at the written request of the sponsor if 20 or more cosponsors are added after the last printing of the measure. Reports and Documents The consideration of legislation, the conduct of oversight or investigations by House or Senate committees, or orders of either chamber could necessitate the publication of committee hearings, meeting transcripts, and documents; reports to accompany legislation; conference reports; and other products. The “usual numbers” of printed copies for various types of congressional reports and documents are specified in 44 U.S.C. 701, but have not been used in several years. Instead, GPO produces copies of reports or documents in the quantities directed by the House or Senate. 37 It appears that copies of most types of documents and reports are printed in smaller increments 37 E-mail communication with GPO staff, October 23, 2009. Congressional Research Service 13 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress than authorized. Table 11 summarizes the authorized numbers of printed copies for documents, and reports on bills and joint resolutions in the data tables below. Table 12 provides the authorized numbers of copies of reports on private bills, and concurrent or simple resolutions. The actual numbers of copies of various categories of congressional reports and documents produced by GPO for FY2009 is summarized in Table 13. Discussion and Analysis Any further adjustment to statutory printing requirements may be formally authorized by legislation, committee order, or through report language. In practice, GPO notes that it prints the number of copies of congressional documents requested. In past debate on proposed amendments to appropriations bills to reduce or eliminate printing of the daily edition of the Congressional Record, congressional leaders have said that current levels of distribution to Congress are based on the availability of appropriations to cover the costs of congressional printing. 38 If that is the case, the further reduction or elimination of printed copies may impair the ability of some Members from carrying out their duties. Congressional leaders have also noted that any efforts to change congressional printing practices must proceed through JCP rather than through appropriations bills. 39 Officials at GPO40 suggest that much of the reduction in the number of printed congressional documents could be ascribed to the use of newer printing technologies, and migration by congressional documents users to information technologies that provide congressional information through electronic means. Those transitions have generally resulted in a smaller work force at GPO, a reduction in the number of printed copies produced, arguably, reduced paper consumption, and smaller appropriations. While overall printing costs have gone down, it is not clear that continued reduction in print runs would result in significant reductions of costs. In line with printing industry practices, GPO estimates that prepress processes, actions that must be taken before multiple copies can be made,41 make up approximately two-thirds of the cost of producing the daily edition of the Congressional Record. The balance is spent on printing, binding, and mailing of the finished copies. For FY2009, GPO estimated the cost of producing one page of the Congressional Record at $727. The agency allocates $494 (67.95%) for prepress, which GPO refers to as “data preparation,”42 and $233 (32.05%) for printing. In their budget requests, GPO does not provide estimates for other congressional products broken down by the cost of prepress and printing processes. 43 Table 5 provides some the potential savings that might result by the elimination of the printed versions of several congressional 38 See “Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2008,” Congressional Record, daily edition, June 22, 2007, pp. H6982H6983. 39 See “Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2008,” Congressional Record, daily edition, June 22, 2007, pp. H6993H6994. 40 This section is based in part on conversations with GPO legislative liaison staff between May 28 and June 6, 2008, except as noted otherwise. 41 Prepress activities include content creation, page layout and composition, and plate making. For an overview of the printing process, see Kenneth F. Hird and Charles E. Finley, Offset Lithographic Technology, 4th ed. (Tinley Park, IL: The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc., 2010), pp. 114-417. 42 The prepress cost includes the cost of converting the material into the format for the bound edition. 43 In its cost estimates, GPO provides a unit cost per page which includes the cost of printing all copies charged to CPB. Congressional Research Service 14 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress products, based on the distribution of prepress and printing cost estimates for the Congressional Record. Since most of the prepress costs would be necessary to make the Congressional Record and other congressional documents available to users, whether in electronic or printed form, the extent of any statutory reduction in authorized printing levels or further reductions in the actual number of copies that GPO produces may result in somewhat modest cost savings. Any such cost savings may come at the expense of denying congressional materials to users who prefer the paper-based documents, or those who do not have access to electronic versions. Table 5. Estimated Prepress and Printing Costs per Page of Selected Congressional Publications, FY2009 Category GPO Estimatesa Prepressb Printingc Congressional Record, Daily Editiond $727 $494a $233a Congressional Record Index $353 $240 $113 $139 $94 $45 Calendarsf $110 $75 $35 Bills, Resolutions & Amendments $50 $34 $16 Committee Reports $95 $65 $30 Documents $31 $21 $10 Hearings $64 $43 $21 Committee Prints $75 $51 $24 Miscellaneous Publicationse Source: GPO, Budget Justification, Fiscal Year 2010, p. E-9, available at http://www.gpo.gov/pdfs/congressional/ Budget-Justification_2010.pdf, and CRS calculations. Notes: Prepress and Printing data are based on 67.95% and 32.05%, respectively, of GPO estimates for each product category. This distribution is based on estimated prepress and printing costs for the daily edition of the Congressional Record, as reported by GPO. The prepress cost is determined in part by the original format of the material to be printed, which varies according to the type of document produced. Consequently, the actual prepress costs of documents that are handled differently than the prepress process for the Congressional Record may vary. a. GPO estimates for FY2009. b. Prepress costs would apply to documents prepared for distribution in electronic and printed forms. Some of the prepress costs, such as plate making, would be eliminated if printed copies were no longer produced. GPO does not provide detailed estimates of the costs of individual prepress processes, but it appears that the actual cost of prepress processes would be somewhat lower than the table suggests. c. Printing costs represent potential savings if printing is eliminated. d. Includes data preparation for the bound edition. e. Includes the Congressional Directory, House and Senate Journals, memorial addresses, nominations, serial sets, and unnumbered publications. f. House and Senate business and committee calendars. Any effort to reduce the availability of centrally produced printed versions of congressional documents in favor of electronic delivery and storage may also raise concerns about the preservation and long-term ability to retrieve congressional records and the need for reliable backup systems. While some of the printed records of Congress dating back to the First Congress Congressional Research Service 15 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress (1789-1791) are retrievable in paper form, concerns have been raised about the ability to retrieve some electronic records created in the past few decades.44 Other related challenges might include the costs of document conversion as electronic document creation, management, and storage technologies evolve in a way that might not incorporate records and documents created with obsolete systems. Taken together, these concerns might raise questions about the long-term costs of a “paperless” system in comparison to the current hybrid process of making documents available in electronic and paper form. Of particular concern in the congressional environment could be the preservation of an official, definitive version of a document that is widely accepted by lawmakers, congressional officials, the executive branch, the courts, and the American public. Currently, GPO provides hard copies of the Congressional Record, legislative measures at various stages of consideration, related congressional documents, and laws passed by Congress. Similar materials are available electronically through the Legislative Information System (LIS) for congressional users, and through THOMAS, maintained by the Library of Congress,45 for the general public. 46 Nevertheless, congressional rules require legislative measures to be signed by the Member sponsoring them before introduction, and the preservation of those original, official documents by congressional officials.47 The bound version of the Congressional Record, which may appear up to four years after the conclusion of a Congress, is considered, the official, archival product. Any transition to a more integrated use of electronic documents would likely need to take into account document verification and authentication procedures to ensure the provenance and accuracy of any official record of congressional activity, and facilitate the acceptance of those materials as legitimate. Potential Options for Congress Depending on the degree to which Congress believes that action on matters relating to congressional printing activities might be necessary or desirable, it might consider the following options to maintain the status quo, conduct studies, or consider legislation. Maintain The Status Quo As information publishing and retrieval technologies evolve and demand for paper copies declines, congressional users may continue to access documents through electronic means in greater numbers than through the use of GPO-printed paper copies. This could continue the 44 See Kenneth Thibodeau, “If you build it, will it fly? Criteria for success in a digital repository,” Journal of Digital Information, vol. 8, no. 2 (2007), at http://journals.tdl.org/jodi/article/viewArticle/197/174; Giovanna Pattersona and J. Timothy Sprehe, “Principal Challenges Facing Electronic Records Management in Federal Agencies Today,” Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 19, Issue 3, 2002, Pages 307-315; and U.S. General Accounting Office, “Electronic Records: Management and Preservation Pose Challenges,” Statement of Linda D. Koontz before the House Committee on Government Reform, Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and the Census, July 8, 2003, available at http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d03936t.pdf. 45 http://thomas.loc.gov/. 46 LIS, which is available to congressional users, and THOMAS, which is available to the general public, access a common body of information through different user interfaces. 47 Similarly, there are statutory protocols designating the dispositions of original, signed copies of measures enacted into law, including 1 U.S.C. 106, 1 U.S.C. 106b, and 1 U.S.C. 107. Congressional Research Service 16 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress downward trend in the number of copies of congressional documents GPO provides, which likely would produce marginal reductions in printing costs. It is unlikely that the number of printed copies could be eliminated without legislation, since a number of paper copies must be preserved for archival purposes, and some users may prefer printed formats. If no congressional action is taken, it appears likely that GPO will continue to integrate newer prepress technologies as they become available. These changes might, or might not, contribute further to reductions in printing costs over the long term. Conduct Studies Congress might consider authorizing JCP, the Advisory Committee on the Records of Congress, 48 or another entity to conduct studies related to congressional printing policies. Potential topics might include the following: • how users access congressional documents; • whether current distribution practices for GPO-printed and electronic documents are effective or efficient; • the costs of creating paper and electronic documents, including retention of archival documents, and disposal of obsolete materials; • the extent to which current congressional printing and document distribution practices support Congress in its work; and • what potential changes to congressional rules and practices might be necessary if Congress were to transition to “paperless” operations. The entity could be charged to report findings, or recommend potential administrative or legislative actions. Consider Legislation Congress might amend current printing authorizations to reflect current printing practices. As written, 44 U.S.C. 906, regarding the Congressional Record, and 44 U.S.C. 701, authorizing a “usual number” of congressional documents and reports, provides authorization for the printing and distribution of thousands of copies more than GPO produces. Entities that no longer exist, including the Governor of the Canal Zone and national homes for disabled volunteer soldiers, are technically entitled to receive copies of one or more versions of the Congressional Record. Some officials, including the Delegates from American Samoa and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, are not authorized to receive copies in the manner specified for other Members of Congress. Other recipients may no longer have a need for as many printed copies of congressional documents as they are authorized to receive. On the other hand, the relatively small number of copies of the daily and bound editions, and the elimination of the semimonthly edition, suggest that authorized recipients who want or need the Congressional Record may either have adequate access or no longer require access. Similar provisions may apply regarding congressional reports and documents. 48 See 44 U.S.C. 2701 et seq. Congressional Research Service 17 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress In addition, Congress might consider enacting more explicit statutory instructions defining the expectations for the production and dissemination of congressional information by GPO or other official entities. Congressional Printing: Data Tables Appropriations for the Government Printing Office, Congressional Printing and Binding Account Table 6. Government Printing Office, Congressional Printing and Binding Account Appropriations, FY1985-FY2009 Nominal and Constant Dollars, Thousands of Dollars Fiscal Year CPB Appropriation Nominal $ GPO Appropriation Nominal $ CPB 2009 $ GPO 2009 $ CPB % 2009 $96,828 $140,567 — — 68.88% 2008 $89,775 $124,688 $89,996 $124,996 72.00% 2007 $87,209 $120,213 $90,781 $125,137 72.55% 2006 $87,209 $122,193 $93,366 $130,820 71.37% 2005 $88,090 $119,787 $97,352 $132,382 73.54% 2004 $90,573 $134,767 $103,487 $153,983 67.21% 2003 $89,557 $119,025 $105,051 $139,618 75.24% 2002 $81,000 $114,639 $97,179 $137,537 70.66% 2001 $71,305 $99,198 $86,900 $120,894 71.88% 2000 $73,297 $103,169 $91,870 $129,311 71.05% 1999 $74,465 $103,729 $96,471 $134,383 71.79% 1998 $81,669a $110,746 $108,141 $146,643 73.74% 1997 $81,669 $110,746 $109,825 $148,927 73.74% 1996 $83,770 $114,077 $115,235 $156,926 73.43% 1995 $89,724 $121,931 $127,070 $172,683 73.59% 1994 $88,404 $117,486 $128,749 $171,103 75.25% 1993 $89,591 $118,673 $133,819 $177,257 75.49% 1992 $91,591 $118,673 $140,901 $182,564 77.18% 1991 $77,365 $103,110 $122,599 $163,397 75.03% 1990 $70,468b $98,363 $116,369 $162,434 71.64% 1989 $72,000a $97,155 $125,323 $169,108 74.11% 1988 $70,359 $89,521 $128,367 $163,328 78.59% 1987 $72,700 no reportc $138,126 — — 1986 $64,936d $102,472 $127,878 $201,797 63.37% 1985 $80,800 $124,004 $162,076 $248,739 65.16% Congressional Research Service 18 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Source: Actual appropriations reported by GPO in annual appropriations requests, in Summary of Appropriations Estimates tables, various years, and CRS calculations. Notes: In different budget requests, GPO may report different data for some years. These data generally are taken from the appropriations request after the year reported, e.g. 2009 data are taken from the FY2010 budget request. These data may not include all sequestrations, restrictions, reductions, rescissions, transfers from the GPO Revolving Fund to which the GPO appropriations may have been subject, or supplemental appropriations. a. Includes transfer from GPO Revolving Fund. b. After sequestration, restriction on funds, and reduction. c. In its FY1988 funding request, GPO did not report an overall appropriation for FY1987, in part because FY1987 funding processes were concluded after FY1988 request materials were prepared for submission to Congress. d. After sequestration. Congressional Research Service 19 Congressional Printing: Page Volume Table 7. Congressional Printing and Binding, Page Volume of Selected Categories, FY1985-FY2010 Calendars Bills, Resolutions & Amendments Committee Reports Documents Hearings Committee Prints 13,300,000 33,300 142,800 39,300 31,600 308,200 21,700 33,000 11,600,000 21,800 149,300 42,100 34,600 302,300 33,200 32,000 28,800 13,000,000 30,000 122,500 40,900 30,000 291,000 23,000 — 29,100 31,000 12,700,000 20,600 165,600 36,400 38,600 377,397 39,700 2006 — 32,700 30,700 10,500,000 30,700 114,600 33,000 35,200 354,475 26,700 2005 — 28,500 26,000 9,000,000 17,000 138,000 39,000 33,000 271,300 34,000 2004 — 30,000 30,000 15,000,000 34,000 106,000 36,000 42,000 323,807 34,000 2003 — 30,000 30,000 17,000,000 25,000 97,000 39,000 43,000 301,424 44,000 2002 — 30,000 32,000 22,000,000 30,000 109,000 49,000 38,000 278,000 30,000 2001 — 24,000 92,000 18,000,000 29,000 105,000 39,000 30,000 273,000 43,000 2000 30,000 29,000 54,000 20,000,000 31,000 80,000 42,000 50,000 400,000 36,000 1999 30,000 29,500 41,000 16,000,000 18,000 85,000 39,000 50,000 305,000 39,000 1998 38,000 29,500 40,000 24,000,000 25,000 71,000 48,000 51,500 356,000 25,500 1997 30,000 22,200 43,000 28,000,000 19,000 96,000 37,000 33,000 410,000 54,000 1996 37,000 39,000 40,000 30,000,000 33,000 117,000 57,000 32,000 455,000 34,000 1995 38,000 31,500 97,000 27,000,000 22,000 99,000 38,000 24,700 510,000 78,000 1994 38,000 37,500 47,000 42,200,000 30,300 162,600 47,000 32,200 460,000 41,000 1993 38,000 29,968 38,897 27,120,000 22,871 110,448 38,103 35,853 429,911 69,557 1992 42,160 42,159 40,982 37,715,000 41,868 200,055 77,862 41,128 515,540 48,469 1991 38,000 36,790 55,880 39,400,000 21,910 137,660 50,700 34,610 586,910 67,120 1990 39,000 37,000 51,000 46,400,000 33,000 110,000 43,000 31,000 553,000 55,000 1989 39,000 30,000 76,000 41,000,000 26,000 112,000 33,000 27,000 532,000 60,000 Fiscal Year Bound Recorda Daily Record Miscellaneous Publications Document Envelopes & Franks 2010b — 34,000 30,000 2009 — 30,000 2008 — 2007 CRS-20 Fiscal Year Bound Recorda Daily Record Miscellaneous Publications Document Envelopes & Franks Calendars Bills, Resolutions & Amendments Committee Reports Documents Hearings Committee Prints 1988 37,000 40,800 54,000 38,500,000 33,000 96,000 39,000 30,000 495,000 54,000 1987 41,000 33,500 69,000 46,000,000 24,000 107,000 33,000 25,000 538,000 46,000 1986 42,000 42,331 63,000 63,000,000 35,000 92,000 46,000 29,000 547,000 68,000 1985 41,000 31,001 69,000 49,000,000 32,000 95,000 38,000 33,000 576,000 90,000 Source: Government Printing Office, annual appropriations requests, various years. Data are taken from Congressional Printing and Binding Appropriation Volume Increase or Decrease tables. This table excludes data provided by GPO in some years, including Daily Record data production (which typically is the same as the Daily Record), record index, record indexers, U.S. Code and Supplements, miscellaneous printing and binding, and details to Congress. Notes: Data units are original, individual pages produced in each category, except document envelopes and franks, which are reported by GPO in units of 1,000. The data for document envelopes and franks are converted to more closely reflect page counts. At different times, GPO may report different data for some years. These data generally are taken from the appropriations request after the year reported, e.g. 2009 data are taken from the FY2010 budget request. Data for 2010 are estimated by GPO. a. GPO did not provide data for the bound edition of the Congressional Record after 2000. b. GPO estimates. CRS-21 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Congressional Record, Daily Edition: Publication and Congressional Distribution Data Table 8. Congressional Record, Daily Edition: Copies Produced and Distribution, FY1985-FY2009 Fiscal Year Total Copies, Daily Edition Govt. Agencies & Subscriptions Charged to Congressional Printing and Binding CPB Distributed to Congress CPB Distributed by Congressional Instruction 2009 4,551 1,336 3,215 2,070 1,145 2008 4,759 1,474 3,285 2,053 1,232 2007 5,604 1,776 3,828 2,521 1,307 2006 5,360 1,758 3,602 2,325 1,277 2005 6,310 2,349 3,961 2,531 1,430 2004 6,595 2,457 4,138 2,625 1,513 2003 7,122 2,787 4,335 2,734 1,601 2002 7,541 2,886 4,655 2,930 1,725 2001 7,830 3,175 4,655 2,930 1,725 2000 8,800 3,850 4,950 3,120 1,830 1999 9,220 4,265 4,955 2,960 1,995 1998 9,160 4,190 4,970 2,975 1,995 1997 10,412 4,932 5,480 3,255 2,225 1996 10,615 5,190 5,425 4,265 1,160 1995 18,120 5,760 12,360 5,660 6,700 1994 18,280 5,700 12,580 5,800 6,780 1993 19,500 6,040 13,460 6,010 7,450 1992 20,000 6,300 13,700 8,000 5,700 1991 20,400 6,300 14,100 6,300 7,800 1990 21,000 6,500 14,500 6,100 8,400 1989 21,400 6,700 14,700 6,100 8,600 1988 21,700 6,900 14,800 6,500 8,300 1987 22,000 7,000 15,000 6,400 8,600 1986 26,200a — — — — 1985 27,100a — — — — Source: Government Printing Office, annual appropriations requests, various years. Data are taken from Congressional Printing and Binding budget review. Notes: All publication data reported by GPO are approximate. Total copies are the sum of Government Agencies and Subscription copies, and copies charged to Congressional Printing and Binding. CPB, Distributed to Congress and CPB, Distributed per Congressional Instruction rows provide distribution of Charged to Congressional Printing and Binding copies. Congressional Research Service 22 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress a. Beginning in 1987, GPO changed the manner in which it reported the printing and distribution of the daily edition of the Congressional Record. Distribution data prior to 1987 are not readily comparable to current agency practices. Legislative Measures Table 9. Authorized Distribution of Legislative Measures Measure Bills and joint resolutions, each chambera Simple and concurrent resolutionsb Senate private billc House private billd Copies Authorized 625 260 295 260 Recipient Distribution Senate document room 225 Secretary of Senate 15 House document room 385 Senate document room 135 Secretary of the Senate 15 House document room 100 Superintendent of Documents 10 Senate document room 170 Secretary of the Senate 15 House document room 100 Superintendent of Documents 10 Senate document room 135 Secretary of the Senate 15 House document room 100 Superintendent of Documents 10 Source: 44 U.S.C. 706. a. 44 U.S.C. 706 requires that “unless specially ordered by either House,” bills and joint resolutions “shall be printed only when referred to a committee, when favorably reported back, and after their passage by either House.” b. 44 U.S.C. 706 provides for the printing of concurrent and simple resolutions “when reported, and after their passage by either House.” c. 44 U.S.C. 706 requires the printing of a Senate private bill when it is introduced, reported and passed. d. 44 U.S.C. 706 requires the printing of a House private bill when it is introduced, reported and passed. Congressional Research Service 23 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Table 10. GPO Distribution of Legislative Measures, FY2009 House Senate Committeesa Oversb Difference from Authorized Public Bill, Introduced or Referred in the House 200 25 75 54 -271 Joint Resolution, Introduced or Referred in the House 150 25 75 54 -321 Public Bills and Joint Resolutions, Reported in House 400 25 75 54 -71 Private Bills Introduced in the House 95 20 75 66 -4 Private Bills Reported or Referred in the House 95 20 75 36 -34 Simple and Concurrent Resolutions in the House 300 25 75 54 194 Public Bills in the Senate 40 50 50 64 -421 Joint Resolutions in the Senate 40 50 50 64 -421 Public Bills and Joint Resolutions, Referred in the Senate 40 50 50 64 -421 Private Bills Introduced in the Senate 10 20 51 -214 Private Bills Reported or Referred in the Senate 50 50 — — 31 -164 Simple and Concurrent Resolutions in the Senate 25 25 75 79 -421 Amendments in the Senate 25 200 50 79 — GPO Category Source: Information provided by GPO for FY2009. Data in the table include copies billed to GPO’s Congressional Printing and Binding (CPB) appropriation, which pays for the cost of preparing congressional documents for printing (including the prepress, or front-end cost) and for the number of copies distributed to congressional recipients. Excludes the number of copies billed to federal agency requisitions, the Salaries and Expenses (S&E) appropriation, and reimbursements from public sales. “—” indicates no distribution to that recipient. a. GPO does not specify a distribution plan for committee copies. b. Extra copies to replace damaged or missing copies, and billed by GPO to the CPB account. Congressional Documents and Reports Table 11. Authorized “Usual Number” of House and Senate Documents and Reports House Recipient Senate Unbound Bound Unbound Bound Senate document room 150 15 220 — Secretary of the Senate 10 — 10 — House document room NTE 500 — — 15 Congressional Research Service 24 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress House Recipient Senate Unbound Bound Unbound Bound Clerk of the House 20 — NTE 500 — Library of Congress 10a NTE 150b 10 — House Library — 15 10c NTE 25a Superintendent of Documents — as requiredd — — Department of Statee 20 20 Source: Authorized in 44 U.S.C. 701(b), except as noted otherwise. Notes: “—” indicates no authorization in that category. “NTE” indicates statutory authorization not to exceed the number specified. a. Authorized in 44 U.S.C. 1718. b. 44 U.S.C. 701 provides House documents to the Library for distribution as specified in 44 U.S.C. 1718. c. 44 U.S.C. 701 provides Senate documents to the Library for distribution as specified in 44 U.S.C. 1718. d. 44 U.S.C. 701 (b) authorizes the printing of “as many copies as may be required for distribution to State libraries and designated depositories.” e. 44 U.S.C. 715. Table 12. Authorized Recipients and Copies of Reports on Private Bills, and Concurrent or Simple Resolutions Recipient Senate Measures House Measures Senate document room 220 135 Secretary of the Senate 15 15 House document room 100 100 Superintendent of Documents 10 10 Library of Congressa 10 10 Source: Source: 44 U.S.C. 701, except as noted otherwise. a. Authorized in 44 U.S.C. 1718. Table 13. GPO Distribution of Congressional Documents and Reports, FY2009 Housea House Clerk Senate Committees Oversb House Report 500c — 50 150 55 House Report, Simple Resolution 300d — 25 75 55 House Report, Concurrent Resolution 200e — 50 75 80 House Report, Private Bill 95 — 25 75 39 House Document 60 5 25 75 79 House Document, Appropriationsf 60 5 25 145g 59 Senate Report 40 — 100 150 65 Senate Report, Simple Resolution 40 — 100 — 65 GPO Category Congressional Research Service 25 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Housea House Clerk Senate Committees Oversb Senate Report, Concurrent Resolution 40 — 200 — 65 Senate Report, Private Bill 25 — 25 — 34 Senate Document 30 5 150 — 59 Senate Document, Appropriationsf — 5 150 120h 69 GPO Category Source: Information provided by GPO for FY2009. Notes: Data include copies billed to GPO’s Congressional Printing and Binding (CPB) appropriation, which pays for the cost of preparing congressional documents for printing (including the prepress or front-end cost) and for the number of copies distributed to congressional recipients. Excludes copies billed to federal agency requisitions, the Salaries and Expenses (S&E) appropriation, and reimbursements from public sales. “—” indicates no distribution to that recipient. a. GPO delivers all House copies to room B-25 of the Ford House Office Building, except as noted. b. Extra copies to replace damaged or missing copies. c. GPO delivers 200 copies to room B-106, Cannon House Office Building, and 300 copies to room B-25 of the Ford House Office Building. d. GPO delivers 150 copies to room B-106, Cannon House Office Building, and room B-25 of the Ford House Office Building. e. GPO delivers 50 copies to the Legislative Resources Center, room B-106, Cannon House Office Building, and 150 copies to room B-25 of the Ford House Office Building. f. This category appears to fulfill the requirements of 44 U.S.C. 725 requiring the printing of the “usual number” of annual statements of appropriations prepared pursuant to 2 U.S.C. 105. g. Distribution is specified as 75 copies for the House Committee on Appropriations, and 70 copies for the Senate Committee on Appropriations. h. Distribution is specified as 50 copies for the House Committee on Appropriations, and 70 copies for the Senate Committee on Appropriations. Congressional Research Service 26 Table 14. Authorized Distribution of the Congressional Record Daily Edition and Bound Copies Daily Edition Copies Daily Edition Total Bound Copies Bound Total Vice President 100 100 5 5 Senators, each 50 5,000 5 500 Copies of the daily edition may be transferred only to public agencies and institutions. Representatives, each 37 16,095 3 1,305 Of the total, 34 may be transferred only to public agencies and institutions. Of the remaining three copies, one each is delivered to the Member’s residence, office, and the Capitol. Resident Commissioner 37 37 3 3 Of the daily edition total, 34 may be transferred only to public agencies and institutions. Of the remaining three copies, one each is delivered to the Member’s residence, office, and the Capitol. Delegate, District of Columbia 34 34 — — May be transferred only to public agencies and institutions. Delegate, Guam 34 34 — — May be transferred only to public agencies and institutions. Delegate, Virgin Islands 34 34 — — May be transferred only to public agencies and institutions. Former Senators, Representatives, and Resident Commissioners, each 1 U — — Copies are provided upon request to the Public Printer. House Committees, one each 1 22 — — For a list of House Committees, see http://www.house.gov/house/ CommitteeWWW.shtml. Senate Committees, one each 1 20 — — For a list of Senate Committees, see http://www.senate.gov/pagelayout/ committees/d_three_sections_with_teasers/committees_home.htm. Joint Committees, each 2 U 1 4 Distribution is as may be designated by JCP. Totals include distributions for the Joint Committees on Printing, Taxation and the Library and the Joint Economic Committee. Joint Committee on Printing — — NTE 100 NTE 100 Recipient CRS-27 Notes Daily Edition Copies Daily Edition Total Bound Copies Bound Total Congressional Commissions 1 up to 82 — — Office of the Speaker of the House 6 6 — — House Clerk 25 37 2 2 House Clerk NTE 50 NTE 50 — — Authorized copies “for official use.” House Clerk NTE 75 NTE 75 — — For use on the House floor. House Sergeant at Arms 25 25 — — House Parliamentarian 6 6 2 2 House Legislative Counsel 3 3 1 1 House Library 5 5 NTE 28 NTE 28 House Official Reporters of Debate 15 15 3 3 House Committee Stenographers 4 4 — — House Document Room Superintendent 3 3 1 1 House Publications Distribution Service, Foreman and Superintendent, each 1 2 — — Chaplain 1 1 — — The statute does not explicitly identify House or Senate officials. Postmaster 1 1 — — The statute does not explicitly identify House or Senate officials. Sergeant At Arms 1 1 — — The statute does not explicitly identify House or Senate officials. Senate Secretary 25 25 2 2 Senate Secretary NTE 35 NTE 35 — — Recipient CRS-28 Notes As many as 82 currently active entities have membership provisions requiring participation by Members of Congress. An indeterminate number of those entities may be considered by some to be “congressional commissions.” See CRS Report RL33313, Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups, by Matthew Eric Glassman, Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups, by Matthew Eric Glassman. 44 U.S.C. 906 does not specify what entities qualify as commissions for purposes of Congressional Record distribution. As a consequence, the authorized distribution of the daily edition could fall in the range of zero to 82. Eight copies of the bound version may be bound in a style and manner approved by JCP. Authorized copies “for official use.” Daily Edition Copies Daily Edition Total Bound Copies Bound Total Senate Sergeant at Arms 25 25 2 2 Senate Sergeant at Arms NTE 50 NTE 50 — — Senate Legislative Counsel 3 3 1 1 Senate Secretaries of the Majority and Minority, one each 1 2 — — Senate Official Reporters of Debate 15 15 3 3 Senate Library 3 3 NTE 15 NTE 15 Senate Document Room Superintendent 3 3 1 1 Senate Service Department, Foreman 1 1 — — Senate Service Department, Superintendent 1 1 — — Office of the Congressional Record Index 10 10 — — NTE 145 NTE 145 150 150 3 3 1 1 NTE 75 NTE 75 2 2 U.S. Botanic Garden 2 2 — — President of the United States 10 10 1 1 Office of the Vice President 6 6 — — Former Presidents 1 4 — — Former Vice Presidents 1 5 — — Executive Department Library, each 2 40 1 20 NTE 150 NTE 150 — — 5 5 2 2 Recipient Library of Congress Architect of the Capitol Public Printer Department of State, for U.S. Embassies and Legations Abroad Archivist of the United States CRS-29 Notes For use on the Senate floor. Based on executive departments listed in The United States Manual, 20082009 (Washington: GPO, 2008), pp. vii-viii. Daily Edition Copies Daily Edition Total Bound Copies Bound Total Federal Independent Office, each 2 218 1 109 Smithsonian Institution Library 2 2 1 1 Naval Observatory Library 2 2 1 1 Armed Forces Retirement Home, each facility 1 2 — — Of the two armed forces retirement homes, only the Washington, DC facility is currently operational. The Gulfport, MS, facility was destroyed by Hurricane Katrina and is being rebuilt. National Homes for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, each facility 1 U — — National Homes for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers have been incorporated into facilities maintained by the Department of Veterans’ Affairs. The number of facilities of this type could not be determined. State Soldiers’ Homes, each 1 133 — — NA U NA U Chief Justice of the United States 1 1 — — United States Supreme Court Associate Justices, each 1 8 — — Marshal of the Supreme Court 2 2 — — Clerk of the Supreme Court 2 2 — — United States district judges 678 678 — — Copies are furnished “upon request to a member of Congress and notification by the Member to the Public Printer,” in addition to those authorized to be furnished to Members under 44 U.S.C. 906. United States circuit judges 179 179 — — Copies are furnished “upon request to a member of Congress and notification by the Member to the Public Printer,” in addition to those authorized to be furnished to Members under 44 U.S.C. 906. United States Court of Federal Claims chief judge and each associate judge 16 16 — — Copies are furnished “upon request to a member of Congress and notification by the Member to the Public Printer,” in addition to those authorized to be furnished to Members under 44 U.S.C. 906. United States Court of International Trade chief judge and each associate judge 9 9 — — Copies are furnished “upon request to a member of Congress and notification by the Member to the Public Printer,” in addition to those authorized to be furnished to Members under 44 U.S.C. 906. Recipient Superintendent of Documents Distribution to Depository Libraries CRS-30 Notes Based on independent establishment, government corporations, boards, commissions, and committees listed in The United States Manual, 2008-2009 (Washington: GPO, 2008), pp. viii-ix and 555-558. Authorizes “as many daily and bound copies as may be required for distribution to depository libraries.” Daily Edition Copies Daily Edition Total Bound Copies Bound Total Tax Court of the United States chief judge and each associate judge 19 19 — — Copies are furnished “upon request to a member of Congress and notification by the Member to the Public Printer ...,” in addition to those authorized to be furnished to Members under 44 U.S.C. 906. United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims, chief judge and each associate judge 7 7 — — Copies are furnished “upon request to a member of Congress and notification by the Member to the Public Printer,” in addition to those authorized to be furnished to Members under 44 U.S.C. 906. United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, chief judge and each associate judge 5 5 — — Copies are furnished “upon request to a member of Congress and notification by the Member to the Public Printer ...,” in addition to those authorized to be furnished to Members under 44 U.S.C. 906. U.S. Supreme Court Library 2 2 NTE 5 NTE 5 U.S. Court of Federal Claims Library 1 1 1 1 Both versions are provided upon request to the Public Printer. U.S. Court of International Trade Library 1 1 1 1 Both versions are provided upon request to the Public Printer. Tax Court of the United States Library 1 1 1 1 Both versions are provided upon request to the Public Printer. U.S. Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims Library 1 1 1 1 Both versions are provided upon request to the Public Printer. U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces Library 1 1 1 1 Both versions are provided upon request to the Public Printer. U.S. Court of Appeals Libraries 1 12 1 12 Both versions are provided upon request to the Public Printer. U.S. District Courts Libraries 1 94 1 94 Both versions are provided upon request to the Public Printer. State Governors 1 50 1 50 Offices of the Governors of Puerto Rico, Guam and the Virgin Islands, each 5 15 5 15 District of Columbia Government Establishments’ Libraries each 2 12 1 5 District of Columbia Municipal Libraries, each 2 54 1 27 NA — — Recipient Distribution to Depository Libraries CRS-31 Notes Daily Edition Copies Daily Edition Total Bound Copies Bound Total Foreign Embassies and Legations Reciprocal Copies 1 U — — House Press Gallery 2 2 1 1 Senate Press Gallery 2 2 1 1 Up to 528 U 1 U Recipient Each newspaper correspondent listed in the Congressional Directory Notes Upon application. Up to 528 NTE 4 for each press bureau. Source: 44 U.S.C. 906, some CRS calculations. Quotations in the notes are taken from 44 U.S.C. 906. Each recipient is authorized to receive one copy, unless otherwise noted. Notes: This table excludes distributions to the Governor of the Canal Zone, and national homes for disabled volunteer soldiers. “NTE” means not exceed, and is taken from the statute. “—” means no distribution is authorized. “NA” means not available. “U” means unknown. CRS-32 Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress Author Contact Information R. Eric Petersen Analyst in American National Government epetersen@crs.loc.gov, 7-0643 Acknowledgments Jennifer E. Manning, Information Research Specialist, and Jared Conrad Nagel, Reference Assistant, both in the Knowledge Services Group, provided research assistance. Amber Hope Wilhelm, Graphics Specialist in the Electronic Research Products Office, provided support and assistance with various figures in the report. Ida A. Brudnick, Analyst on the Congress, provided technical assistance. Congressional Research Service 33