American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Anne Leland Information Research Specialist Mari-Jana "M-J" Oboroceanu Information Research Specialist September 15, 2009 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL32492 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Summary This report is written in response to numerous requests for war casualty statistics and lists of war dead. It provides tables, compiled by sources at the Department of Defense (DOD), indicating the number of casualties among American military personnel serving in principal wars and combat actions. Wars covered include the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Civil War, the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam Conflict, and the Persian Gulf War. Military operations covered include the Iranian Hostage Rescue Mission, Lebanon Peacekeeping, Urgent Fury in Grenada, Just Cause in Panama, Desert Shield and Desert Storm, Restore Hope in Somalia, Uphold Democracy in Haiti, and the ongoing Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). For the more recent conflicts, starting with the Korean War, more detailed information on types of casualties, and, when available, demographics have been included. This report also cites sources of published lists of military personnel killed in principal wars and combat actions. This report will be updated as events warrant. Congressional Research Service American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................1 Resources ................................................................................................................................. 20 Sources of Statistics ............................................................................................................ 20 Sources of Published Lists of Names of War Dead............................................................... 20 Additional Websites ............................................................................................................ 26 CRS Reports ....................................................................................................................... 26 Tables Table 1. Principal Wars in Which the United States Participated: U.S. Military Personnel Serving and Casualties .............................................................................................................2 Table 2. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths—Selected Military Operations .................5 Table 3. Active Duty Military Deaths—Race/Ethnicity Summary ................................................6 Table 4. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2008, Part I, Total Military Personnel .................................................................................................................................7 Table 5. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2008, Part II, Cause of Death .............8 Table 6. Comparison of Death, Wounded and Amputation Statistics in American Conflicts ..................................................................................................................................9 Table 7. Korean War: Casualty Summary .................................................................................. 10 Table 8. Vietnam Conflict: Casualty Summary .......................................................................... 11 Table 9. Persian Gulf War: Casualty Summary Desert Shield/Desert Storm ............................... 12 Table 10. Global War on Terrorism: Operation Enduring Freedom by Casualty Category Within Service ....................................................................................................................... 13 Table 11. Operation Enduring Freedom, Demographics of Military Deaths................................ 14 Table 12. Operation Enduring Freedom, Military Wounded in Action ........................................ 15 Table 13. Operation Iraqi Freedom, by Casualty Category Within Service, March 19, 2003, Through August 1, 2009 ............................................................................................... 16 Table 14. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Military Deaths, March 19, 2003, Through August 1, 2009 ...................................................................................................................................... 17 Table 15. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Military Deaths, Since May 1, 2003 ................................... 18 Table 16. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Wounded In Action, Since May 1, 2003.............................. 19 Contacts Author Contact Information ...................................................................................................... 26 Acknowledgments .................................................................................................................... 27 Congressional Research Service American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Introduction This report is written in response to numerous requests for war casualty statistics and lists of war dead. It provides tables, compiled by sources at the Department of Defense (DOD), indicating the number of fatalities and numbers of wounded among American military personnel serving in principal wars and combat actions from the Revolutionary War to the current Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF; operations in Afghanistan and related conflicts). A review of the composite data reveals the following. • During the period between the Revolutionary War and the present, it was the Civil War that produced the most American fatalities, when Union statistics and Confederate estimates are taken into account. • World War II was the first war in which there were more battle deaths than deaths from other causes such as accidents, disease, and infections. • With a total of 382 in-theater deaths, 147 of which were battle deaths, the Persian Gulf War was the least costly in terms of fatalities (see Table 1). • The ongoing Operation Iraqi Freedom to date has produced more than 10 times the number of in-theater deaths than the Persian Gulf War (which lasted seven months). The casualty statistics for wars long ended are updated periodically, sometimes yearly. This almost always reflects the identification of remains of persons previously listed as missing in action and those persons’ reclassification as dead. Other reasons, much rarer, include the discovery of errors in casualty records for individuals or categories of people. Congressional Research Service 1 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 1. Principal Wars in Which the United States Participated: U.S. Military Personnel Serving and Casualties Casualties War/ Conflict Branch of Service Number Serving Total Deaths Battle Deaths Other Deaths Wounds Not Mortala Revolutionary Warb Total — 4,435 4,435 — 6,188 1775-1783 Army — 4,044 4,044 — 6,004 Navy — 342 342 — 114 Marines — 49 49 — 70 War of 1812c Total 286,730 2,260 2,260 — 4,505 1812-1815 Army — 1,950 1,950 — 4,000 Navy — 265 265 — 439 Marines — 45 45 — 66 Total 78,718 13,283 1,733 11,550 4,152 Army — 13,271 1,721 11,550 4,102 Navy — 1 1 — 3 Marines — 11 11 — 47 Mexican Warc 1846-1848 Civil Warc Total 2,213,363 364,511 140,414 224,097 281,881 (Union Forces Only)d Army 2,128,948 359,528 138,154 221,374 280,040 1861-1865 Navye 84,415 4,523 2,112 2,411 1,710 — 460 148 312 131 Marines Spanish-American War Total 306,760 2,446 385 2,061 1,662 1898-1901 Armyf 280,564 2,430 369 2,061 1,594 Navy 22,875 10 10 — 47 3,321 6 6 — 21 Marines World War I Total 4,734,991 116,516 53,402 63,114 204,002 1917-1918 Armyg 4,057,101 106,378 50,510 55,868 193,663 599,051 7,287 431 6,856 819 78,839 2,851 2,461 390 9,520 Total 16,112,56 6 405,399 291,557 113,842 670,846 Armyi 11,260,000 318,274 234,874 83,400 565,861 Navyj 4,183,466 62,614 36,950 25,664 37,778 669,100 24,511 19,733 4,778 67,207 Navy Marines World War II 1941-1946h Marines Congressional Research Service 2 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Casualties Branch of Service Number Serving Korean Wark Total 5,720,000 36,574 33,739 2,835 103,284 1950-1953 Army 2,834,000 29,856 27,731 2,125 77,596 Navy 1,177,000 657 503 154 1,576 424,000 4,509 4,267 242 23,744 1,285,000 1,552 1,238 314 368 Total 8,744,000 58,220 47,434 10,786 Hosp. Care Req’d: 153,303 No Hospital Care: 150,341 Army 4,368,000 38,224 30,963 7,261 Hosp. Care Req’d: 96,802 No Hospital Care: 104,723 Navy 1,842,000 2,566 1,631 935 Hosp. Care Req’d: 4,178 No Hospital Care: 5,898 794,000 14,844 13,095 1,749 Hosp. Care Req’d: 51,392 No Hospital Care: 37,202 1,740,000 2,586 1,745 841 Hosp. Care Req’d: 931 No Hospital Care: 2,518 War/ Conflict Marines Air Force Vietnam Conflictl Total Deaths Battle Deaths Other Deaths 1964-1973 Marines Air Force Wounds Not Mortala Persian Gulf Warm Total 2,225,000 382 147 235 467 1990-1991 Army 782,000 224 98 126 354 Navy 669,000 55 5 50 12 Marines 213,000 68 24 44 92 Air Force 561,000 35 20 15 9 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/ personnel/CASUALTY/WCPRINCIPAL.pdf. Notes: Data prior to World War I are based on incomplete records in many cases. Casualty data are confined to dead and wounded and, therefore, exclude personnel captured or missing in action who were subsequently returned to military control. a. Marine Corps data for World War II, the Spanish-American War, and prior wars represent the number of individuals wounded, whereas all other data in this column represent the total number (incidence) of wounds. b. Not known, but estimates range from 184,000 to 250,000. c. As reported by the Commissioner of Pensions in the annual report for the FY1903. d. Authoritative statistics for the Confederate forces are not available. Estimates of the number who served range from 600,000 to 1,500,000. The final report of the Provost Marshal General, 1863-1866, Congressional Research Service 3 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics indicated 133,821Confederate deaths (74,524 battle and 59,297 other) based upon incomplete returns. In addition, an estimated 26,000 to 31,000 Confederate personnel died in Union prisons. e. The Marine Corps number serving is included in the Navy total. f. Number serving covers the period April 21 to August 13, 1898, while dead and wounded data are for the period May 1 to August 31, 1898. Active hostilities ceased on August 13, 1898, but ratifications of the Treaty of Peace were not exchanged between the United States and Spain until April 11, 1899. g. Includes air service. Battle deaths and wounds not mortal include casualties suffered by American forces in northern Russia to August 25, 1919, and in Siberia to April 1, 1920. Other deaths cover the period April 1, 1917, to December 31, 1918. h. Data are for the period December 1, 1941, through December 31, 1946, when hostilities were officially terminated by presidential proclamation, but a few battle deaths or wounds not mortal were incurred after the Japanese acceptance of the Allied peace terms on August 14, 1945. Number serving from December 1, 1941, through August 31, 1945, were: Total 14,903,213; Army 10,420,000; Navy 3,883,520; and Marine Corps 599,693. i. Includes Army air forces. j. Battle deaths and wounds not mortal include casualties incurred in October 1941 due to hostile action. k. Worldwide military deaths during the Korean War totaled 54,246. In-theater casualty records are updated annually. l. Number serving covers the period August 5, 1964, (“Vietnam era” begins) through January 27, 1973 (date of cease-fire). Deaths include the period November 1, 1955, (commencement date for the Military Assistance Advisory Group) through May 15, 1975 (date last American servicemember left Southeast Asia, i.e. Vietnam). Wounds not mortal exclude 150,332 persons not requiring hospital care. Casualty records are updated annually, including current deaths that are directly attributed to combat in the Vietnam Conflict. Additional detail now on table shows number of WIA servicemembers not requiring hospital care. m. Coast Guard numbers are included with Navy. Report does not include Captain M. Scott Speicher, USN, whose remains were recovered in July 2009. Further information regarding the recovery of Captain Speicher is available at http://www.defenselink.mil/releases/release.aspx?releaseid=12862. n. Casualty records are updated annually. Congressional Research Service 4 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 2. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths—Selected Military Operations Military Operation/Incident Casualty Type Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps Total Iranian Hostage Rescue Mission April 25, 1980 Non-Hostile 0 0 5 3 8 Lebanon Peacekeeping August 25, 1982 - February 26, 1984 Hostile 3 19 0 234 256 Non-Hostile 5 2 0 2 9 Total 8 21 0 236 265 Hostile 11 4 0 3 18 1 0 0 0 1 Total 12 4 0 3 19 Hostile 18 4 0 1 23 —Desert Shield Non-Hostile 21 36 9 18 84 —Desert Storm Hostile 98 6 20 24 148 Non-Hostile 105 14 6 26 151 Subtotal 203 20 26 50 299 Desert Shield/Storm Total 224 56 35 68 383 Restore Hope/Unosom, Somalia, 1992-1994 Hostile 27 0 0 2 29 4 0 8 2 14 31 0 8 4 43 3 0 0 1 4 Urgent Fury, Grenada, 1983 Non-Hostile Just Cause, Panama, 1989 Persian Gulf War, 1990-1991 Non-Hostile Total Uphold Democracy, Haiti, 1994-1996 Non-Hostile Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/ personnel/CASUALTY/table13.htm. Congressional Research Service 5 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 3. Active Duty Military Deaths—Race/Ethnicity Summary (as of July 25, 2009) Race/ Ethnicity Vietnam Conflict Korean War Number of Deaths F M F M Persian Gulf War F Since 1980 (all) M F M American Indian or Alaska Native 104 226 3 27 308 Asian 241 139 1 32 624 3,075 7,243 63 664 7,533 1 67 1,108 Black or African American 3 Hispanic or Latino 306 Hispanic or Latino-One or More Races 576 350 14 37 498 2,853 204 3 57 851 148 229 2 7 177 More Than One Race or Unknown Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander White 2 29,269 8 49,826 12 280 1,604 32,549 Total 2 36,572 8 58,217 15 367 2,495 43,648 Percentagesa F M F M F M F M American Indian or Alaska Native 0.3 0.4 0.8 1.1 .7 Asian 0.7 0.2 0.3 1.3 1.4 Black or African American 8.4 12.4 17.2 26.6 17.3 Hispanic or Latino 0.8 0.3 2.7 2.5 Hispanic or Latino-One or More Races 1.6 0.6 3.8 1.5 1.1 More Than One Race or Unknown 7.8 0.4 0.8 2.3 1.9 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 20.0 White 100.0 80.0 100.0 85.6 80.0 76.3 64.3 74.6 Totalb 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/ personnel/CASUALTY/RACE-OMB-WC.pdf. Note: Prior to the Korean War, race often went untracked. In the few cases in which race was tracked or recorded, soldiers were given the a choice between some variation of “White” or “Black;” categories such as “Hispanic or Latino,” “Asian,” or “Native American” were not used. a. Percentages of total female or male deaths, divided by ethnicity. For instance, in the Persian Gulf War, 20% of female deaths were Black or African American and 80% of female deaths were White. b. Totals may not equal 100.0 due to rounding. Congressional Research Service 6 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 4. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2008, Part I, Total Military Personnel (as of April 22, 2009) Calendar Year Active Duty Full-Time (est.) Guard-Reserve Selected Reserve FTEa Total Military FTE Total Deaths 1980 2,050,758 22,000 86,872 2,159,630 2,392 1981 2,093,032 22,000 91,719 2,206,751 2,380 1982 2,112,609 41,000 97,458 2,251,067 2,319 1983 2,123,909 49,000 100,455 2,273,364 2,465 1984 2,138,339 55,000 104,583 2,297,922 1,999 1985 2,150,379 64,000 108,806 2,323,185 2,252 1986 2,177,845 69,000 113,010 2,359,855 1,984 1987 2,166,611 71,000 115,086 2,352,697 1,983 1988 2,121,659 72,000 115,836 2,309,495 1,819 1989 2,112,128 74,200 117,056 2,303,384 1,636 1990 2,046,806 74,250 137,268 2,258,324 1,507 1991 1,943,937 70,250 184,002 2,198,189 1,787 1992 1,773,996 67,850 111,491 1,953,337 1,293 1993 1,675,269 68,500 105,768 1,849,537 1,213 1994 1,581,649 65,000 99,833 1,746,482 1,075 1995 1,502,343 65,000 94,585 1,661,928 1,040 1996 1,456,266 65,000 92,409 1,613,675 974 1997 1,418,773 65,000 94,609 1,578,382 817 1998 1,381,034 65,000 92,536 1,538,570 827 1999 1,367,838 65,000 93,104 1,525,942 796 2000 1,372,352 65,000 93,078 1,530,430 758 2001 1,384,812 65,000 102,284 1,552,096 891 2002 1,411,200 66,000 149,942 1,627,142 999 2003 1,423,348 66,000 243,284 1,732,632 1,410 2004 1,411,287 66,000 234,629 1,711,916 1,873 2005 1,378,014 66,000 220,000 1,664,014 1,941 2006 1,371,533 72,000 168,000 1,611,533 1,882 2007 1,368,226 72,000 168,000 1,608,226 1,953 2008 1,402,227 73,000 207,917 1,683,144 1,441 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/ personnel/CASUALTY/death_Rates.pdf. Note: Official Department of Defense end-strengths as of December 31 for military pay accounts. Excludes full time Guard and Reserve. a. Full time equivalent (FTE) is based on official Department of Defense fiscal year end selected reserve strength (10% of the figure is used to estimate days on active duty). Congressional Research Service 7 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 5. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2008, Part II, Cause of Death (as of April 22, 2009) Calendar Year Total Deaths Accident 1980 2,392 1981 Hostile Action Self Inflicted Terrorist Attack Undetermined 419 231 1 11 145 457 241 108 446 254 2 16 18 115 419 218 263 19 1 84 374 225 6 16 111 363 275 5 22 2 103 384 269 37 104 383 260 2 25 90 321 285 17 26 58 294 224 74 277 232 112 308 256 676 109 252 238 1 17 1,213 632 86 221 236 29 9 1994 1,075 544 83 206 232 1995 1,040 538 67 174 250 7 4 1996 974 527 52 173 188 19 14 1997 817 433 42 170 159 1998 827 445 26 174 165 1999 796 439 38 154 150 2000 758 397 34 139 151 17 20 2001 891 434 3 49 187 141 55 22 2002 999 543 18 54 195 163 26 2003 1,410 576 344 43 234 1 187 25 2004 1,873 605 739 45 272 3 201 8 2005 1,941 649 739 52 289 5 181 26 2006 1,882 562 769 47 256 9 212 27 2007 1,953 561 847 47 235 29 211 23 2008 1,441 470 352 43 235 83 235 23 Homicide Illness 1,556 174 2,380 1,524 1982 2,319 1,493 1983 2,465 1,413 1984 1,999 1,293 1985 2,252 1,476 1986 1,984 1,199 1987 1,983 1,172 1988 1,819 1,080 1989 1,636 1,000 1990 1,507 880 1991 1,787 931 1992 1,293 1993 23 147 1 Pending 13 27 37 1 43 33 10 13 3 14 15 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/ personnel/CASUALTY/death_Rates.pdf. Note: Distorted versions of Tables 4 and 5 have been circulating through the Internet. As the tables here and on the Department of Defense website show, total military deaths and hostile deaths increased from 2001 to 2005, and then decreased in 2006. Congressional Research Service 8 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 6. Comparison of Death, Wounded and Amputation Statistics in American Conflicts Deathsa Woundeda Amputationsbc Ratio Deaths/ Wounded Ratio Amputations/ Wounded Ratio Amputations/ Deaths 4,301 31,430 1,112 1:7.3 1:28.3 1:3.9 Operation Enduring Freedom 714 3,162 112 1:4.4 1:28.2 1:6.4 Persian Gulf War 382 467 N/A 1:1.2 N/A N/A Vietnam 58,209 153,303 5,283 1:2.6 1:29.0 1:11.0 Korea 36,578 103,284 1,477 1:2.8 1:69.9 1:24.8 World War II 405,399 671,846 7,489 1:1.7 1:89.7 1:54.1 World War I 116,516 204,022 2,610 1:1.8 1:78.2 1:44.6 Operation Iraqi Freedom Sources: For deaths and wounded, Department of Defense Military Casualties website, at http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/castop.htm; amputation information and PowerPoint presentation provided by Dr. Michael Carino of the Office of the Surgeon General, U.S. Army. a. Current as of July 4, 2009, includes deaths due to Hostile and Non-Hostile causes. b. Current as of July 13, 2009; includes Major Limb Amputation and Amputation of Toes, Thumbs, Fingers, Partial Hand, and Partial Foot. c. Individual soldiers may have multiple amputations. Congressional Research Service 9 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 7. Korean War: Casualty Summary (as of May 16, 2008) Casualty Type Total Army Air Force Marines Navy Killed in Action 23,613 19,715 209 3,320 369 Died of Wounds 2,460 1,887 14 532 27 Missing in Action - Declared Dead 4,817 3,337 991 386 103 Captured - Declared Dead 2,849 2,792 24 29 4 33,739 27,731 1,238 4,267 503 8 4 4 Other Deaths 2,827 2,121 310 242 154 Total Non-Hostile Deaths 2,835 2,125 314 242 154 Total In-Theater Deathsa 36,574 29,856 1,552 4,509 657 Total Non-Theater Deaths 17,672 7,277 5,532 1,019 3,844 Total Deaths 54,246 37,133 7,084 5,528 4,501 1,521 1,072 49 252 148 22 22 Missing in Action - Declared Dead—No Remains 4,549 3,276 807 372 94 Captured-Declared Dead—No Remains 1,891 1,850 13 25 3 8 4 4 84 5 37 6 36 8,075 6,229 910 655 281 103,284 77,596 368 23,744 1,576 Number Serving Worldwideb 5,720,000 2,834,000 1,285,000 424,000 1,177,000 Number Serving In-Theaterb 1,789,000 1,153,000 241,000 130,000 265,000 Total Hostile Deaths Missing - Presumed Dead Killed in Action—No Remains Died of Wounds—No Remains Non-Hostile Missing- Presumed Dead—No Remains Non-Hostile Other Deaths—No Remains Total—No Remains Wounded - Not Mortal Source: Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/korea.pdf. a. Inclusive dates are June 25, 1950, to July 27, 1953. Casualty dates after the end date represent service members who were wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds and those service members who were involved in an incident during the period and were later declared dead. b. Estimated figures. Congressional Research Service 10 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 8.Vietnam Conflict: Casualty Summary (as of May 16, 2008) Casualty Type Total Army Air Force Marines Navy Killed in Action 40,934 27,047 1,080 11,501 1,306 Died of Wounds 5,299 3,610 51 1,486 152 Missing in Action-Declared Dead 1,085 261 589 98 137 116 45 25 10 36 47,434 30,963 1,745 13,095 1,631 123 118 0 3 2 10,663 7,143 841 1,746 933 Total Non-Hostile Deaths 10,786 7,261 841 1,749 935 Total In-Theater Deaths 58,220 38,224 2,586 14,844 2,566 Killed in Action—No Remains 575 173 206 102 94 Missing in Action-Declared Dead—No Remains 691 201 339 74 77 Captured-Declared Dead—No Remains 52 32 7 3 10 Non-Hostile Missing-Presumed Dead—No Remains 91 86 3 2 332 69 30 37 196 1,741 561 582 219 379 153,303 96,802 931 51,392 4,178 Number Serving Worldwideb 8,744,000 4,368,000 1,740,000 794,000 1,842,000 Number Serving Southeast Asiab 3,403,000 2,276,000 385,000 513,000 229,000 Number Serving South Vietnamb 2,594,000 1,736,000 293,000 391,000 174,000 Captured-Declared Dead Total Hostile Deaths Missing - Presumed Dead Other Deaths Non-Hostile Other Deaths—No Remains Total—No Remains Wounded - Not Mortal Source: Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/vietnam.pdf. a. Inclusive dates are November 1, 1955, to May 15, 1975. Casualty dates after the end date represent service members who were wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds and those service members who where involved in an incident during the period and were later declared dead. b. Estimated figures. Congressional Research Service 11 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 9. Persian Gulf War: Casualty Summary Desert Shield/Desert Storm (as of May 16, 2008) Casualty Type Total Army Air Force Marines Navy Killed in Action 143 96 20 22 5 Died of Wounds 4 2 Total Hostile Deaths 147 98 Missing - Presumed Dead 12 Other Deaths 223 Total Non-Hostile Deaths 2 Missing in Action-Declared Dead Captured-Declared Dead 20 24 5 2 8 2 126 13 36 48 235 126 15 44 50 Total In-Theater Deathsa 382 224 35 68 55 Total Non-Theater Deaths 1,565 608 299 171 487 Total Deaths 1,947 832 334 239 542 Killed in Action—No Remains 2 2 Missing in Action—No Remains Captured-Declared Dead—No Remains Non-Hostile Missing- Presumed Dead—No Remains 12 2 8 2 Non-Hostile Other Deaths—No Remains Total—No Remains 14 0 2 8 4 Wounded - Not Mortal 467 354 9 92 12 2,225,000 782,000 561,000 213,000 669,000 Serving In-Theater—Active Duty 584,342 271,654 70,741 90,866 151,081 Serving In-Theater—Recalled 110,208 78,512 11,666 12,660 7,370 Serving Worldwideb Source: http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/GWSUM.pdf. a. Inclusive dates are August 7, 1990, to September 14, 1991. Any casualty date in the detailed records after the end date represents a service member who was wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds or a service member who was in a missing status during a part of the war period and later declared dead. b. Estimated figures includes Coast Guard. Report does not include Captain M. Scott Speicher, USN, whose remains were recovered in Iraq, in July, 2009. Further information regarding Captain Speicher may be found at http://www.defenselink.mil/releases/release.aspx?releaseid=12862. Tables 10 through 12 provide statistics on casualties during Operation Enduring Freedom, which began on October 7, 2001, and is ongoing. Table 10 provides statistics on total casualties by type. Table 11 provides statistics on the demographics of military deaths. Table 12 provides statistics on the demographics of service members who have been wounded in action. These statistics may be revised as circumstances are investigated and records are processed through the U.S. military system. Daily casualty summaries are available at DOD’s website at http://www.defenselink.mil/ news/casualty.pdf. Congressional Research Service 12 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 10. Global War on Terrorism: Operation Enduring Freedom by Casualty Category Within Service (from October 7, 2001 through August 1, 2009) Casualty Type Total Army Navya Marines Air Force Killed in Action 426 343 27 40 16 Died of Woundsb 95 66 3 23 3 Total Hostile Deaths 521 409 30 63 19 Accident 165 116 8 23 18 Illness 20 12 4 3 1 Homicide 4 3 Self-Inflicted 33 26 3 2 2 Undetermined 7 4 1 1 1 Pendingc 9 2 3 4 Total Non-Hostile Deaths 238 163 19 34 22 Total Deaths 759 572 49 97 41 Total Wounded In Action 3,442 2,784 62 492 104 Wounded – No Medical Air Transport Required 1,731 1,368 33 277 53 Wounded – Medical Air Transport Required 1,711 1.416 29 215 51 Total – Non-Hostile Related Medical Air Transports 8,336 6,272 406 501 1,157 Non-Hostile Injuries – Medical Air Transport Required 2,168 1,574 121 190 283 Diseases/Other Medical – Medical Air Transport Required 6,168 4,698 285 311 874 10,047 7,688 435 716 1,208 Died While Missing In Action Died While Captured Total Medical Air Transported (Hostile and Non-Hostile) 1 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/ personnel/CASUALTY/wotsum.pdf accessed on August 28, 2009. a. Navy totals include Coast Guard. b. Includes died of wounds where wounding occurred in theater and death occurred elsewhere. c. Pending means final category to be determined at a later date. Congressional Research Service 13 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 11. Operation Enduring Freedom, Demographics of Military Deaths (from October 7, 2001, through August 1, 2009) Casualty Type Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force Hostile 521 409 30 63 19 Non-hostile 238 163 19 34 22 Total 759 572 49 97 41 Male 741 563 46 96 36 Female 18 9 3 1 5 Total 759 572 49 97 41 Officer 117 85 9 13 10 E5-E9 317 244 24 28 21 E1-E4 325 243 16 56 10 Total 759 572 49 97 41 Age <22 156 112 7 33 4 22-24 149 110 7 24 8 25-30 207 159 14 24 10 31-35 106 78 11 10 7 >35 141 113 10 6 12 Total 759 572 49 97 41 Active 611 432 47 93 39 Reserve 34 28 2 4 National Guard 114 112 Total 759 572 49 97 41 American Indian or Alaska Native 10 5 3 1 1 Asian 9 6 3 Black or African American 60 50 4 6 Hispanic or Latino 58 43 2 8 5 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 5 3 1 1 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 10 8 1 White 607 457 36 81 33 Total 759 572 49 97 41 2 1 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/ personnel/CASUALTY/oefdeaths.pdf. Note: Casualty areas include in/around Afghanistan, Republic of the Philippines, Southwest Asia, and other locations. Congressional Research Service 14 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 12. Operation Enduring Freedom, Military Wounded in Action (from October 7, 2001, through August 1, 2009) Casualty Type Totals Army Navya Marines Air Force Hostile 3,442 2,784 62 492 104 Total 3,442 2,784 62 492 104 Male 3,414 2,761 60 492 101 Female 28 23 2 Total 3,442 2,784 62 492 104 Officer 289 245 6 23 15 E5-E9 1,363 1,118 30 140 75 E1-E4 1,790 1,421 26 329 14 Total 3,442 2,784 62 492 104 Age <22 658 585 6 64 3 22-24 799 733 11 42 13 25-30 880 779 22 41 38 31-35 360 318 11 8 23 >35 358 322 6 3 27 Not Available 387 47 6 334 Total 3,442 2,784 62 492 104 Active 2,887 2,238 62 490 97 Reserve 78 75 2 1 National Guard 477 471 3,442 2,784 62 492 104 American Indian or Alaska Native 40 25 4 10 1 Asian 55 44 2 7 2 Black or African American 192 165 3 18 6 Hispanic or Latino 161 136 1 21 3 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 188 80 8 97 3 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 10 6 2 2 White 2,796 2,328 42 337 89 Total 3,442 2,784 62 492 104 Non-hostile Total 3 6 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/ personnel/CASUALTY/oefwia.pdf. Note: Casualty areas include in/around Afghanistan, Republic of the Philippines, Southwest Asia, and other locations. a. Navy totals include one Coast Guard death. Congressional Research Service 15 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Tables 13 through 16 provide statistics on casualties during Operation Iraqi Freedom, which began on March 19, 2003, and is ongoing. Table 13 provides statistics on total casualties by type. Table 14 and Table 15 provide statistics on the demographics of military deaths, divided between the period of major combat operations (March 19, 2003, through April 30, 2003) and the ongoing presence of U.S. forces in Iraq after the end of major combat operations (May 1, 2003, through present). Table 16 provides statistics on the demographics of service members who have been wounded in action. These statistics may be revised as circumstances are investigated and records are processed through the U.S. military system. Daily casualty summaries are available at DOD’s website at http://www.defenselink.mil/news/casualty.pdf. Table 13. Operation Iraqi Freedom, by Casualty Category Within Service, March 19, 2003,Through August 1, 2009 Casualty Type Total Army Navya Marines Air Force Killed in Action 2,652 1,897 63 664 28 792 603 2 187 Died While Missing In Action 7 7 Died While Captured 5 5 3,456 2,512 65 851 28 Accident 526 377 16 120 13 Illness 86 68 8 5 5 Homicide 34 22 4 6 2 Self-Inflicted 192 158 4 29 1 Undetermined 12 10 2 Pendingc 14 3 2 9 864 638 36 169 21 Total Deaths 4,320 3,150 101 1,020 49 Total Wounded in Action (WIA) 31,460 21,785 631 8,623 421 Wounded—No Medical Air Transport Required 21,848 14,481 464 6,576 327 Wounded – Medical Air Transport Required 9,612 7,304 167 2,047 94 38,199 31,745 1,342 3,313 1,799 Non-Hostile Injuries – Medical Air Transport Required 9,999 7,881 374 1,298 446 Disease/Other Medical – Medical Air Transport Required 28,200 23,864 968 2,015 1,353 Total – Medical Air Transports (Hostile and Non-Hostile) 47,811 39,049 1,509 5,360 1,893 Died of Woundsb Total Hostile Deaths Total Non-Hostile Deaths Total—Non-Hostile Medical Air Transports Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/ personnel/CASUALTY/oif-total.pdf. a. Navy totals include Coast Guard. b. Includes died of wounds where wounding occurred in theater and death occurred elsewhere. c. Pending means final category to be determined at a later date. Congressional Research Service 16 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 14. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Military Deaths, March 19, 2003,Through August 1, 2009 Casualty Type Totals Army Navya Marines Air Force Hostile 3,456 2,512 65 851 28 864 638 36 169 21 Total 4,320 3,150 101 1,020 49 Male 4,217 3,068 91 1,012 46 Female 103 82 10 8 3 Total 4,320 3,150 101 1,020 49 Officer 415 318 11 75 11 E5-E9 1,415 1,171 47 171 26 E1-E4 2,490 1,661 43 774 12 Total 4,320 3,150 101 1,020 49 Age <22 1,265 771 15 473 6 22-24 1,049 769 17 256 7 25-30 1,099 849 31 203 16 31-35 420 347 16 49 8 >35 487 414 22 39 12 Total 4,320 3,150 101 1,020 49 Active 3,518 2,514 79 881 44 Reserve 317 153 22 139 3 National Guard 485 483 4,320 3,150 101 1,020 American Indian or Alaska Native 42 27 1 14 Asian 81 53 5 23 Black or African American 416 355 11 43 7 Hispanic or Latino 458 296 12 146 4 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 48 39 1 6 2 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 50 41 1 8 White 3,225 2,339 70 780 36 Total 4,320 3,150 101 1,020 49 Non-Hostile Total 2 49 Source: http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/oif-deaths-total.pdf. Note: Data subject to change. a. Navy totals include one Coast Guard death. Congressional Research Service 17 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 15. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Military Deaths, Since May 1, 2003 Casualty Type Totals Army Navya Marines Air Force 3,347 2,465 62 795 25 834 619 35 160 20 Total 4,181 3,084 97 955 45 Male 4,079 3,003 87 947 42 Female 102 81 10 8 3 Total 4,181 3,084 97 955 45 Officer 387 307 8 64 8 E5-E9 1,379 1,152 47 155 25 E1-E4 2,415 1,625 42 736 12 Total 4,181 3,084 97 955 45 Age <22 1,226 754 15 451 6 22-24 1,019 752 17 243 7 25-30 1,069 841 28 186 14 31-35 401 334 16 43 8 >35 466 403 21 32 10 Total 4,181 3,084 97 955 45 Active 3,392 2,453 76 822 41 Reserve 308 151 21 133 3 National Guard 481 480 4,181 3,084 97 955 American Indian or Alaska Native 40 25 1 14 Asian 79 52 5 22 Black or African American 393 340 10 36 7 Hispanic or Latino 435 287 11 133 4 Multiple Races, pending or unknown 46 38 1 5 2 Native Hawaiian or Pacific islander 48 40 1 7 White 3,140 2,302 68 738 32 Total 4,181 3,084 97 955 45 Hostile Non-Hostile Total 1 45 Source: http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/OIF-Deaths-After.pdf. Note: After the end of major combat operations; data subject to change—as of August 1, 2009 a. Navy totals include one Coast Guard death. Congressional Research Service 18 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Table 16. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Wounded In Action, Since May 1, 2003 Casualty Type Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force Hostile 30,912 21,512 619 8,363 418 Total 30,912 21,512 619 8,363 418 Male 30,314 20,988 614 8,322 390 Female 598 524 5 41 28 Total 30,912 21,512 619 8,363 418 Officer 1,807 1,343 34 394 36 E5-E9 10,033 8,053 236 1,519 225 E1-E4 19,072 12,116 349 6,450 157 Total 30,912 21,512 619 8,363 418 Age <22 8,623 5,112 127 3,325 59 22-24 7,731 5,580 148 1,911 92 25-30 7,270 5,721 129 1,294 126 31-35 2,962 2,489 72 351 50 >35 2,763 2,362 90 221 90 Not Available 1,563 248 53 1,261 1 Total 30,912 21,512 619 8,363 418 Active 24,428 16,231 518 7,338 341 Reserve 2,400 1,257 101 1,025 17 National Guard 4,084 4,024 30,912 21,512 619 8,363 418 American Indian or Alaska Native 329 211 24 92 2 Asian 503 358 19 123 3 Black or African American 2,572 2,221 39 286 26 Hispanic or Latino 1,924 1,459 20 415 30 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 1,619 668 65 864 22 184 145 5 30 4 White 23,781 16,450 447 6,553 331 Total 30,912 21,512 619 8,363 418 Non-Hostile Total Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 60 Source: http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/oif-wounded-after.pdf. Congressional Research Service 19 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Resources Sources of Statistics The Department of Defense Directorate of Information, Operations, and Reports (DIOR) provides detailed historical tables as well as annual statistics on active duty military deaths at http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/castop.htm. The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has published statistics derived from its Southeast Asia Combat Area Casualties Current File. This includes tables on Vietnam casualty data by branch of service, race, religion, state, and other categories at http://www.archives.gov/ research/vietnam-war/casualty-statistics.html. Sources of Published Lists of Names of War Dead The Congressional Research Service also receives requests for lists of the names of war dead, often for use on memorials, tributes, or for other ceremonial purposes. This report cites the following sources of published lists of U.S. military personnel killed in major wars and other combat actions. World War II Army casualty lists for World War II are published in World War II Honor List of the Dead and Missing (U.S. War Department, 1946). The lists are also available online at http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/ww2/army-casualties/index.html. Navy casualty lists are published in State Summary of War Casualties (U.S. Navy Department, 1946). The National Archives also publishes casualty lists online at http://www.archives.gov/ research/arc/ww2/navy-casualties/index.html. Korean War and Vietnam War The National Archives has made state-level casualty lists from the Korean War and the Vietnam War available at http://www.archives.gov/research/korean-war/casualty-lists/. Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) The DIOR website lists the names of individuals killed in OEF at http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/ personnel/CASUALTY/oef_list_of_names.pdf. Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) The DIOR website lists the names of individuals killed in OIF at http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/ personnel/CASUALTY/oif_list_of_names.pdf. Congressional Research Service 20 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Wars Prior to World War II Lists of casualties that are not available from a central source may be obtained on a state level from each state’s Adjutant General’s office. 1 The Adjutant General of each state is the military commander of the state’s national guard. The following is a list of these offices. Alabama Major General A C. Blalock, P.O. Box 3711, Montgomery, AL 36109, (334) 271-7200 Alaska Brigadier General Thomas H. Katkus, (Acting, as of August 28, 2009), P.O. Box 5800, Fort Richardson, AK 99505-5800, (907) 428-6007 Arizona Major General Hugo Salazar, Emergency and Military Affairs Department, 5636 East McDowell Road, Phoenix, AZ 85008-3495, (602) 267-2710 Arkansas Major General William D. Wofford, Camp J.T. Robinson, North Little Rock, AR 72199-9600, (501) 212-5001 California Major General William H. Wade, II, P.O. 269101, Sacramento, CA 95826, (916) 854-3500 Colorado Major General H. Michael Edwards, 6848 South Revere Parkway, Centennial, CO 80112-6709, (720) 250-1500 Connecticut Major General Thaddeus J. Martin, William J. O’Neill Armory, 360 Broad Street, Hartford, CT 06105-3706, (860) 524-4953 Delaware Major General Francis D. Vavala, USA, National Guard, First Regiment Road, Wilmington, DE 19808-2191, (302) 326-7001 1 Sources: via CRS contact, the Adjutants General Association of the United States at http://www.agaus.org/ Documents/TAGSContact29April09.pdf, and the Leadership Library at http://www.leadershipdirectories.com/, by subscription only. Congressional Research Service 21 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics District of Columbia Major General Errol R. Schwartz, DC National Guard, 2001 East Capitol Street, SE, Washington, DC 20003, (202) 685-9798 Florida Major General Douglas Burnett, St. Francis Barracks, P.O. Box 1008, Saint Augustine, FL 320851008, (904) 823-0100 Georgia Major General William T. “Terry” Nesbitt, Georgia Department of Defense, P.O. Box 1970, Marietta, GA 30061, (678) 569-6001 Guam Major General Don Goldhorn, 430 Army Drive, Building 300,, Barrigada, GU 96913-4421, (671) 735-0400 Hawaii Major General Robert G. F. Lee, 3949 Diamond Head Road, Honolulu, HI 96816-4495, (808) 733-4246 Idaho Major General Lawrence Lafrenz, Gowen Field, 4040 West Guard Street, Boise, ID 83705-5004, (208) 422-5242 Illinois Major General William L. Enyart, Military Affairs Department, 1301 N. MacArthur Boulevard, Springfield, IL 62702-2399, (217) 761-3500 Indiana Major General R. Martin Umbarger, Joint Forces Headquarters-Indiana, 2002 South Holt Road, Indianapolis, IN 46241-4839, (317) 247-3559 Iowa Brigadier General Timothy E. Orr, 7105 NW 70th Avenue, Johnston, IA 50131-1824, (515) 2524211 Kansas Major General Tod Bunting, 2800 SW Topeka Boulevard, Topeka, KS 66611-1287, (785) 2741001 Congressional Research Service 22 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Kentucky Brigadier General Edward W. Tonini, Boone National Guard Center, 100 Minuteman Parkway, Frankfort, KY 40601, (502) 607-1558 Louisiana Major General Bennett C. Landreneau, Camp Beauregard, Building 304 F Street, Pineville, LA 71360, (318) 641-3858 Maine Major General John W. “Bill” Libby, Camp Keyes, Augusta, ME 04333-0033, (207) 626-4271 Maryland Adjutant General James A. Adkins, 5th Regiment Armory, 29th Division Street, Baltimore, MD 21201-2288, (410) 576-6097 Massachusetts Major General Joseph C. Carter, Headquarters, Massachusetts National Guard, 50 Maple Street, Milford, MA 01757, (508) 233-6552 Michigan Major General Thomas Cutler, 2500 S. Washington Avenue, Lansing, MI 48906, (517) 481-8083 Minnesota Major General Larry W. Shellito, 20 West 12th Street, St. Paul, MN 55155-2004, (651) 268-8924 Mississippi Major General William “Bill” Freeman, Jr., P.O. Box 5027, Jackson, MS 39296-5027, (601) 3136232 Missouri Brigadier General Stephen L. Danner, 2302 Militia Drive, Jefferson City, MO 65101-1203, (573) 638-9710 Montana Brigadier General John E. Walsh, 1956 Mt. Majo Street, P.O. Box 4789, Fort Harrison, MT 59636-4789, (406) 324-3010 Nebraska Brigadier General Judd H. Lyons, 1300 Military Road, Lincoln, NE 68508-1090, (402) 309-7210 Congressional Research Service 23 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Nevada Brig Gen William R. Burks, Nevada National Guard JFHQ, 2460 Fairview Drive, Carson City, NV 89701-5502, (775) 887-7302 New Hampshire Major General William N. Reddel III, 1 Minuteman Way, Concord, NH 03301-5652, (603) 2251200 New Jersey Major General Glenn K. Rieth, New Jersey Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, 101 Eggert Crossing Road, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648-2805, (609) 530-6956 New Mexico Major General Kenny C. Montoya, 47 Bataan Boulevard, Santa Fe, NM 87508, (505) 474-1210 New York Major General Joseph J. Taluto, 330 Old Niskayuna Road, Latham, NY 12110-2224, (518) 7864502 North Carolina Major General William E. Ingram, Jr., 4105 Reedy Creek Road, Raleigh, NC 27607-6410, (919) 664-6101 North Dakota Major General David A. Sprynczynatyk, P.O. Box 5511, Bismarck, ND 58506-5511, (701) 3332000 Ohio Major General Gregory L. Wayt, 2825 West Dublin Granville Road, Columbus, OH 43235-2789, (614) 336-7070 Oklahoma Major General Myles L. Deering, 3501 Military Circle, Oklahoma City, OK 73111-4398, (405) 228-5201 Oregon Major General Raymond Fred Rees, P.O. Box 14350, Salem, OR 97309-5047, (503) 584-3991 Congressional Research Service 24 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Pennsylvania Major General Jessica L. Wright, Building S-O-47, Fisher Avenue, Fort Indiantown Gap, Annville, PA 17003-5002, (717) 861-8500 Puerto Rico Major General Antonio J. Vicens-Gonzalez, P.O. Box 9023786, San Juan, PR 00904-3786, (787) 289-1631 Rhode Island Major General Robert Thomas Bray, Headquarters, Rhode Island National Guard, Command Readiness Center, 645 New London Avenue, Cranston, RI 02920-3097, (401) 275-4102 South Carolina Major General (Ret.) Stanhope S. Spears, One National Guard Road, Columbia, SC 29201-4766, (803) 806-4217 South Dakota Major General Steven R. Doohen, 2823 West Main, Rapid City, SD 57702-8170, (605) 737-6702 Tennessee Major General Gus L. Hargett, Jr., Houston Barracks, 3041 Sidco Drive, Nashville, TN 372041502, (615) 313-3001 Texas Major General Jose S. Mayorga, P.O. Box 5218, Austin, TX 78763-5218, (512) 782-5006 U.S. Virgin Islands Major General Renaldo Rivera, 4031 La Grande Princesse, Lot #1B, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI 00820-4353, (340) 773-7710 Major General Brian L. Tarbet, 12953 S. Minuteman Drive, Draper, UT 84020-1776, (801) 4324402 Vermont Major General Michael D. Dubie, 789 Vermont National Guard Road, Colchester, VT 054463099, (802) 338-3124 Virginia Major General Robert B. Newman, Jr.,1100 Bank Street, 3rd Floor, Richmond VA 23219, (804) 371-2526 Congressional Research Service 25 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Washington Major General Timothy J. Lowenberg, Camp Murray, Building 1, Tacoma, WA 98430-5000, (253) 512-8201 West Virginia Major General Allen E. Tackett, 1703 Coonskin Drive, Charleston, WV 25311-1085, (304) 5616316 Wisconsin Brigadier General Donald Dunbar, P.O. Box 8111, Madison, WI 53704, (608) 242-3001 Wyoming Major General Edward L. Wright, 5500 Bishop Boulevard, Cheyenne, WY 82009-3320, (307) 772-5234 Additional Websites Defenselink, the official website for the Department of Defense, issues news releases every weekday that identify military personnel killed, available at http://www.defenselink.mil/news/. U.S. Department of Defense at http://www.defense.gov CRS Reports CRS Report RS21578, Iraq: U.S. Casualties, by Susan G. Chesser. CRS Report RS22537, Iraqi Civilian Casualties Estimates, by Hannah Fischer. CRS Report RS22532, Iraqi Police and Security Forces Casualties Estimates, by Hannah Fischer. CRS Report RS22452, United States Military Casualty Statistics: Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, by Hannah Fischer. Author Contact Information Anne Leland Information Research Specialist aleland@crs.loc.gov, 7-4704 Congressional Research Service Mari-Jana "M-J" Oboroceanu Information Research Specialist moboroceanu@crs.loc.gov, 7-6329 26 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Acknowledgments The author wishes to acknowledge Ann Eschete, reference assistant, and Barbara Salazar Torreon, information research specialist, for their contributions to this report. Congressional Research Service 27