. Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Lennard G. Kruger Specialist in Science and Technology Policy June 1, 2009 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL32341 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress c11173008 . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Summary The Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program, also known as fire grants or the FIRE Act grant program, was established by Title XVII of the FY2001 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 106-398). Currently administered by the Grant Programs Directorate of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the program provides federal grants directly to local fire departments and unaffiliated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organizations to help address a variety of equipment, training, and other firefighter-related and EMS needs. A related program is the Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Firefighters (SAFER) program, which provides grants for hiring, recruiting, and retaining firefighters. The fire grant program is now in its ninth year. Over $4.8 billion has been appropriated to the fire grant program since FY2001. The Fire Act statute was reauthorized in 2004 (Title XXXVI of P.L. 108-375) and provides overall guidelines on how fire grant money should be distributed. There is no set geographical formula for the distribution of fire grants—fire departments throughout the nation apply, and award decisions are made by a peer panel based on the merits of the application and the needs of the community. However, the law does require that fire grants be distributed to a diverse mix of fire departments, with respect to type of department (paid, volunteer, or combination), geographic location, and type of community served (e.g. urban, suburban, or rural). On February 17, 2009, the President signed P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. The ARRA included an additional $210 million in firefighter assistance grants for modifying, upgrading, or constructing state and local non-federal fire stations, provided that 5% be set aside for program administration and provided that no grant shall exceed $15 million. The application period for ARRA Assistance to Firefighters Fire Station Construction (FSC) grants is expected to open on June 8 and close on July 10, 2009. For FY2010, the Obama Administration is proposing $170 million for fire grants, a 70% decrease from the FY2009 level, and $420 million for SAFER, double the amount appropriated in FY2009. The total amount requested for firefighter assistance (AFG and SAFER) is $590 million, a 24% decrease from FY2009. The Obama Administration’s FY2010 budget proposal for firefighter assistance is likely to receive heightened scrutiny from the fire community, given what was viewed as inadequate past budget proposals by the Bush Administration, and given the national economic downturn and local budgetary cutbacks that many fire departments are now facing. Concerns over local fire departments’ budgetary problems may also frame debate of the assistance to firefighters grant program reauthorization bill, which is expected to be considered during the first session of the 111th Congress. This report will be updated as events warrant. Congressional Research Service . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Contents Background ................................................................................................................................1 Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program ....................................................................................1 Reauthorization.....................................................................................................................1 Appropriations ......................................................................................................................2 FY2009...........................................................................................................................3 FY2010...........................................................................................................................4 Fire Station Construction Grants in the ARRA.............................................................................4 SAFER Grants ............................................................................................................................5 Program Evaluation ....................................................................................................................6 Distribution of Fire Grants ..........................................................................................................7 Issues in the 111th Congress.........................................................................................................9 Tables Table 1. Major Provisions of the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Reauthorization Act .................................................................................................................2 Table 2. Appropriations for Firefighter Assistance, FY2001-FY2009 ...........................................3 Table 3. Recent and Proposed Appropriations for Firefighter Assistance ......................................3 Table 4. Appropriations for SAFER Program, FY2005-FY2009 ..................................................6 Table 5. State-by-State Distribution of Fire Grants, FY2001-FY2007.........................................9 Table 6. State-by-State Distribution of SAFER Grants, FY2005-FY2007.................................. 11 Table 7. Requests and Awards for Fire Grant Funding, FY2007 ................................................. 13 Contacts Author Contact Information ...................................................................................................... 14 Congressional Research Service . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Background Firefighting activities are traditionally the responsibility of states and local communities. As such, funding for firefighters is provided mostly by state and local governments. During the 1990s, shortfalls in state and local budgets, coupled with increased responsibilities of local fire departments, led many in the fire community to call for additional financial support from the federal government. While federally funded training programs existed (and continue to exist) through the National Fire Academy, and while federal money was available to first responders for counterterrorism training and equipment through the Department of Justice,1 there did not exist a dedicated program, exclusively for firefighters, which provided federal money directly to local fire departments to help address a wide variety of equipment, training, and other firefighterrelated needs. Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program During the 106th Congress, many in the fire community asserted that local fire departments require and deserve greater support from the federal government. The Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program (AFG), also known as fire grants or the FIRE Act grant program, was established by Title XVII of the FY2001 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 106-398).2 Currently administered by the Grant Programs Directorate of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the program provides federal grants directly to local fire departments and unaffiliated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organizations to help address a variety of equipment, training, and other firefighter-related and EMS needs. Reauthorization On October 28, 2004, the President signed the FY2005 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 108-375). Title XXXVI of P.L. 108-375 is the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Reauthorization Act of 2004, which reauthorizes the fire grant program through FY2009. Table 1 provides a summary of key provisions of the current reauthorization. 1 For a list of federal programs providing assistance to state and local first responders, see CRS Report R40246, Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress, by Shawn Reese. 2 “Firefighter assistance” is codified as section 33 of the Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2229). Congressional Research Service 1 . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Table 1. Major Provisions of the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Reauthorization Act Grant recipient limits: populations over 1 million—lesser of $2.75 million or 0.5% of total appropriation populations of 500K to 1 million—$1.75 million populations under 500K—$1 million no single grant can exceed 0.5% of total funds appropriated for a single fiscal year DHS can waive the funding limits for populations up to 1 million in instances of extraordinary need; however the lesser of $2.75 million or 0.5% limit cannot be waived Nonfederal match requirements: 20% for populations over 50K 10% for populations 20K to 50K 5% for populations less than 20K No match requirement for non-fire department prevention and firefighter safety grants Authorized for five years: FY2005—$900 million FY2006—$950 million FY2007—$1 billion FY2008—$1 billion FY2009—$1 billion Expands grant eligibility to emergency medical service squads, not less than 3.5% of fire grant money for EMS, but no more than 2% for nonaffiliated EMS Provides grants for firefighter health and safety R&D Requires the USFA Administrator to convene an annual meeting of non-federal fire service experts to recommend criteria for awarding grants and administrative changes Requires fire service peer review of grant applications Requires the USFA, in conjunction with the National Fire Protection Association, to conduct a $300,000, 18-month study on the fire grant program and the need for federal assistance to state and local communities to fund firefighting and emergency response activities Source: Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Reauthorization Act of 2004, Section XXXVI of P.L. 108-375, FY2005 National Defense Authorization Act Appropriations From FY2001 through FY2003, the Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program (as part of USFA/FEMA) received its primary appropriation through the VA-HUD-Independent Agencies Appropriation Act. In FY2004, the Assistance to Firefighters Program began to receive its annual appropriation through the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Homeland Security. The fire grant program is in its ninth year. Table 2 shows the appropriations history for firefighter assistance, including AFG, SAFER, and the fire station construction grants provided in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Over $4.8 billion has been appropriated to the AFG program since FY2001, its initial year. Table 3 shows recent and proposed appropriated funding for the AFG and SAFER grant programs. Congressional Research Service 2 . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Table 2. Appropriations for Firefighter Assistance, FY2001-FY2009 AFG SAFER ARRAa Total FY2001 $100 million $100 million FY2002 $360 million $360 million FY2003 $745 million $745 million FY2004 $746 million $746 million FY2005 $650 million $65 million $715 million FY2006 $539 million $109 million $648 million FY2007 $547 million $115 million $662 million FY2008 $560 million $190 million $750 million FY2009 $565 million $210 million $210 million $985 million Total $4.812 billion $689 million $210 million $5.711 billion a. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (P.L. 111-5) provided $210 million in the firefighter assistance account for fire station construction grants. Table 3. Recent and Proposed Appropriations for Firefighter Assistance (millions of dollars) FY2008 (P.L. 110-161) FY2009 Admin. request FY2009 (P.L. 110-329) FY2010 Admin. request FIRE Grants (AFG) 560 300 565 170 SAFER Grants 190 0 210 420 Total 750 300 775 590 FY2009 The Bush Administration proposed $300 million for fire grants in FY2009, a 46% cut from the FY2008 level of $560 million. No funding was proposed for SAFER grants. The total request for firefighter assistance was 60% below the FY2008 level for fire and SAFER grants combined. According to the budget justification, “the Administration believes that $287 million is an appropriate level of funding given the availability of significant amounts of funding for first responder preparedness missions from other DHS grant programs which are coordinated with state and local homeland security strategies and, unlike AFG, are allocated on the basis of risk.” Priority would be given to applications that enhance capabilities needed for terrorism response and other major incidents. Funding would only be available for critical response equipment, training, and personal protective gear, and would not be available for wellness/fitness activities or modifications to facilities for firefighter safety. On June 19, 2008, the Senate Appropriations Committee approved the FY2009 appropriations bill for the Department of Homeland Security (S. 3181; S.Rept. 110-396). The bill would provide Congressional Research Service 3 . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding $750 million for firefighter assistance, including $560 million for fire grants and $190 million for SAFER grants. This is the same funding level approved for FY2008. The Committee directed DHS to continue the present practice of funding applications according to local priorities and those established by the U.S. Fire Administration, and further directed DHS to continue direct funding to fire departments and the peer review process. Additionally, $3 million was made available for foam firefighter equipment used in remote areas. On June 24, 2008, the House Appropriations Committee approved its version of the FY2009 appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security, and reported its bill on September 18, 2008 (H.R. 6947; H.Rept. 110-862). The Committee would provide $800 million for firefighter assistance, consisting of $570 million for fire grants and $230 million for SAFER grants. The Committee directed FEMA to continue granting funds directly to local fire departments and to include the U.S. Fire Administration during the grant administration process, while also maintaining an all-hazards focus and not limiting the list of eligible activities. The Committee would continue the requirement that FEMA peer review grant applications that meet criteria established by FEMA and the fire service, rank order applications according to peer review, fund applications according to their rank order, and provide official notification detailing why applications do not meet the criteria for review. The Committee also directed FEMA to encourage regional applications. The Consolidated Security, Disaster Assistance, and Continuing Appropriations Act, 2009 (P.L. 110-329)—which contains the FY2009 Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act— provided $775 million for firefighter assistance, including $565 million for fire grants and $210 million for SAFER. The DHS explanatory statement directed FEMA to continue the present practice of funding applications according to local priorities and those established by the USFA. FY2010 For FY2010, the Obama Administration is proposing $170 million for AFG, a 70% decrease from the FY2009 level, and $420 million for SAFER, double the amount appropriated in FY2009. The total amount requested for firefighter assistance (AFG and SAFER) is $590 million, a 24% decrease from FY2009. The FY2010 budget proposal states that the firefighter assistance grant process “will give priority to applications that enhance capabilities for terrorism response and other major incidents.”3 Fire Station Construction Grants in the ARRA Since its inception, the traditional fire grant program has provided money specifically for health and safety related modifications of fire stations, but has not funded major upgrades, renovations, or construction. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 (P.L. 111-5) provided an additional $210 million in firefighter assistance grants for modifying, upgrading, or constructing state and local non-federal fire stations, provided that 5% be set aside for program administration and provided that no grant shall exceed $15 million. The Conference Report (H.Rept. 111-16) cited DHS estimates that this spending would create 2,000 jobs. The ARRA also 3 Office of Management and Budget, Appendix: Budget of the United States Government, FY2010, p. 547. Congressional Research Service 4 . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding included a provision (section 603) that waived the matching requirement for SAFER grants funded by appropriations in fiscal years 2009 and 2010. The application period for ARRA Assistance to Firefighters Fire Station Construction (FSC) grants is expected to open on June 8 and close on July 10, 2009. DHS estimates receiving 5,000 to 10,000 applications requesting over $30 billion in requested funding. Of this, DHS anticipates awarding approximately 100 grants. There is no cost share requirement for FSC grants. Eligible applicants are non-federal fire departments that provide fire protection services to local communities. Ineligible applicants include federal fire departments, EMS or rescue organizations, airport fire departments, for-profit fire departments, fire training centers, emergency communications centers, auxiliaries and fire service organizations or associations, and search and rescue teams or similar organizations without fire suppression responsibilities. Details on eligible and ineligible items for funding, other allowable costs, and detailed application guidelines are available at http://www.firegrantsupport.com/docs/2009AFSCGguidance.pdf. SAFER Grants In response to concerns over the adequacy of firefighter staffing, the 108th Congress enacted the Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER) Act as Section 1057 of the FY2004 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 108-136; signed into law November 24, 2003). The SAFER grant program is codified as Section 34 of the Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act of 1974 (15 U.S.C. 2229a). The SAFER Act authorizes grants to career, volunteer, and combination fire departments for the purpose of increasing the number of firefighters to help communities meet industry minimum standards and attain 24-hour staffing to provide adequate protection from fire and fire-related hazards. Also authorized are grants to volunteer fire departments for activities related to the recruitment and retention of volunteers. P.L. 108-136 authorizes over one billion dollars per year through FY2010 for SAFER. Two types of grants are authorized by the SAFER Act: hiring grants and recruitment and retention grants. Hiring grants cover a four-year term and are cost-shared with the local jurisdiction. According to the statute, the federal share shall not exceed 90% in the first year of the grant, 80% in the second year, 50% in the third year, and 30% in the fourth year. The grantee must commit to retaining the firefighter or firefighters hired with the SAFER grant for at least one additional year after the federal money expires. Total federal funding for hiring a firefighter over the four-year grant period may not exceed $100,000, although that total may be adjusted for inflation. While the majority of hiring grants will be awarded to career and combination fire departments, the SAFER Act specifies that 10% of the total SAFER appropriation be awarded to volunteer or majority-volunteer departments for the hiring of personnel. Additionally, at least 10% of the total SAFER appropriation is set aside for recruitment and retention grants, which are available to volunteer and combination fire departments for activities related to the recruitment and retention of volunteer firefighters. Also eligible for recruitment and retention grants are local and statewide organizations that represent the interests of volunteer firefighters. No local cost sharing is required for recruitment and retention grants. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5) included a provision (section 603) that waives the matching requirement for SAFER grants in fiscal years 2009 and 2010. Congressional Research Service 5 . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Table 4 shows the SAFER program’s appropriations history. $479 million has been appropriated to the SAFER program since FY2005, its initial year. For more information on the SAFER program, see CRS Report RL33375, Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program, by Lennard G. Kruger. Table 4. Appropriations for SAFER Program, FY2005-FY2009 Fiscal year Appropriation FY2005 $65 million FY2006 $109 million FY2007 $115 million FY2008 $190 million FY2009 $210 million Total $689 million Program Evaluation On May 13, 2003, the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) released the first independent evaluation of the Assistance to Firefighters Program. Conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Leadership Development Academy Executive Potential Program, the survey study presented a number of recommendations and concluded overall that the program was “highly effective in improving the readiness and capabilities of firefighters across the nation.”4 Another evaluation of the fire grant program was released by the DHS Office of Inspector General in September 2003. The report concluded that the program “succeeded in achieving a balanced distribution of funding through a competitive grant process,”5 and made a number of specific recommendations for improving the program. At the request of DHS, the National Academy of Public Administration conducted a study to help identify potential new strategic directions for the Assistance to Firefighters Grant program and to provide advice on how to effectively plan, manage, and measure program accomplishments. Released in April 2007, the report recommended consideration of new strategic directions related to national preparedness, prevention vs. response, social equity, regional cooperation, and emergency medical response. According to the report, the “challenge for the AFG program will be to support a gradual shift in direction without losing major strengths of its current management approach—including industry driven priority setting and its well-respected peer review process.”6 4 For full report see http://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/affgp-fy01-usda-report.pdf. 5 Department of Homeland Security, Office of Inspections, Evaluations, and Special Reviews, “A Review of the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program,” OIG-ISP-01-03, September 2003, p. 3. Available at http://www.dhs.gov/ xoig/assets/mgmtrpts/OIG_Review_Fire_Assist.pdf. 6 National Academy of Public Administration, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program: Assessing Performance, April 2007, p. xvii. Available at http://www.napawash.org/pc_management_studies/ Fire_Grants_Report_April2007.pdf. Congressional Research Service 6 . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding The Administration’s FY2008 budget proposal was accompanied by program evaluations called the Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART). For assessment year 2007, PART gave the fire grant program a rating of “Effective,” (an improvement from the previous rating of “Results Not Demonstrated”). The PART directed DHS to embark on an improvement plan encompassing three elements: establishing a continuing strategic planning process, improving program transparency, and increasing outreach. 7 The Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-161), in the accompanying Joint Explanatory Statement, directed the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to review the application and award process for fire and SAFER grants. Additionally, FEMA was directed to peer review grant applications that best address the program’s priorities and criteria as established by FEMA and the fire service. Those criteria necessary for peer-review must be included in the grant application package. Applicants whose grant applications are not reviewed must receive an official notification detailing why the application did not meet the criteria for review. Applications must be rank-ordered, and funded following the rank order. Distribution of Fire Grants The FIRE Act statute prescribes 14 different purposes for which fire grant money may be used (see 15 U.S.C. 2229(b)(3)). These are: hiring firefighters; training firefighters; creating rapid intervention teams; certifying fire inspectors; establishing wellness and fitness programs; funding emergency medical services; acquiring firefighting vehicles; acquiring firefighting equipment; acquiring personal protective equipment; modifying fire stations for health and safety; enforcing fire codes; funding fire prevention programs; educating the public about arson prevention and detection; and providing incentives for the recruitment and retention of volunteer firefighters. The DHS has the discretion to decide which of those purposes will be funded for a given grant year. Since the program commenced in FY2001, the majority of fire grant funding has been used by fire departments to purchase firefighting equipment, personal protective equipment, and firefighting vehicles. Eligible applicants are limited primarily to fire departments (defined as an agency or organization that has a formally recognized arrangement with a state, local, or tribal authority to provide fire suppression, fire prevention and rescue services to a population within a fixed geographical area). Emergency Medical Services (EMS) activities are eligible for fire grants, including a limited number (no more than 2% of funds allocated) to EMS organizations not affiliated with hospitals. Additionally, a separate competition is held for fire prevention and firefighter safety research and development grants, which are available to national, state, local, or community fire prevention or safety organizations (including, but not limited to, fire departments). For official program guidelines, frequently-asked-questions, the latest awards announcements, and other information, see the Assistance to Firefighters Grant program web page at http://www.firegrantsupport.com/. The FIRE Act statute provides overall guidelines on how fire grant money will be distributed and administered. The law directs that volunteer departments receive a proportion of the total grant funding that is not less than the proportion of the U.S. population that those departments protect 7 Office of Management and Budget, ExpectMore.gov, Detailed Information on the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Grants and Training Office Assistance to Firefighters Grants Assessment, Assessment Year 2007, available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/expectmore/detail/10001071.2007.html. Congressional Research Service 7 . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding (currently 55%). The Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Reauthorization Act of 2004 (Title XXXVI of P.L. 108-375) raised award caps and lowered nonfederal matching requirements (based on recipient community population), extended eligibility to nonaffiliated emergency medical services (i.e. ambulance services not affiliated with fire departments), and expanded the scope of grants to include firefighter safety R&D. There is no set geographical formula for the distribution of fire grants—fire departments throughout the nation apply, and award decisions are made by a peer panel based on the merits of the application and the needs of the community. However, the law does require that fire grants should be distributed to a diverse mix of fire departments, with respect to type of department (paid, volunteer, or combination), geographic location, and type of community served (e.g. urban, suburban, or rural).8 The Fire Act’s implementing regulation provides that: In a few cases, to fulfill our obligations under the law to make grants to a variety of departments, we may also make funding decisions using rank order as the preliminary basis, and then analyze the type of fire department (paid, volunteer, or combination fire departments), the size and character of the community it serves (urban, suburban, or rural), and/or the geographic location of the fire department. In these instances where we are making decisions based on geographic location, we will use States as the basic geographic unit.9 According to the FY2009 Program Guidance for the Assistance to Firefighters Program, career (paid) departments will compete against other career departments for up to 45% of the available funding, while volunteer and combination departments will compete for at least 55% of the available funding. 10 However, given that less than 10% of fire grant applications are historically received from career departments, funding levels are likely not to reach the 45% ceiling for career departments. Additionally, each fire department that applies is classified as either urban, suburban, or rural. In FY2005, 4.3% of the total number of fire grant awards went to urban areas, 17.8% to suburban areas, and 77.7% to rural areas. Of the total amount of federal funding awarded, 7.7% went to urban areas, 18.2% to suburban areas, and 73.9% to rural areas.11 Finally, in an effort to maximize the diversity of awardees, the geographic location of an applicant (using states as the basic geographic unit) is used as a deciding factor in cases where applicants have similar qualifications. Table 5 shows a state-by-state breakdown of fire grant funding for FY2001 through FY2007, while Table 6 shows a state-by-state breakdown of SAFER grant funding for FY2005 through FY2007. Table 7 provides an in-depth look at the FY2007 fire grants, showing, for each state, the number of fire departments in each state,12 the number of fire grant applications, the total amount requested, the total amount awarded, and the amount of funds 8 15 U.S.C. 2229(b)(9). 44 CFR Part 152.6(c). 10 For the FY2008 round of awards, no less than 34% of AFG funds must be awarded to combination departments, and no less than 21% of AFG funds must be awarded to all-volunteer departments. See Department of Homeland Security, Fiscal Year 2009 Assistance to Firefighters Grants: Guidance and Application Kit, April 2009, p. 25. 11 Department of Homeland Security, Grant Programs Directorate, Grant Development and Administration Division, Report on Fiscal Year 2006 Assistance to Firefighters Grants, p. 11. 12 The fire grant program sets a limit of up to three applications per fire department per year (a vehicle application, an application for operations and safety, and a regional application). Thus, the number of fire departments in a state plays a major factor in the number of fire grant applications submitted and the amount of total funding awarded within a given state. For example, because Pennsylvania has—by far—the largest number of fire departments, it is not surprising that it leads the nation in the number of fire grants applications and the amount of funding awarded. 9 Congressional Research Service 8 . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding awarded as a percentage of funds requested. As Table 7 shows, the entire pool of fire department applicants received, to date, about 16% of the funds they requested in FY2007. This is down from 21% in FY2006, 22% in FY2005, 28% in FY2004, and 34% in FY2003. This reflects the fact that the number of applications and federal funds requested have trended upward over these years, while appropriations for the fire grant program have declined over the same period. Issues in the 111th Congress The Obama Administration’s FY2010 budget proposal for firefighter assistance is likely to receive heightened scrutiny from the fire community, given what was viewed as inadequate past budget proposals by the Bush Administration, and given the national economic downturn and local budgetary cutbacks that many fire departments are now facing. Concerns over local fire departments’ budgetary problems may also frame debate of the assistance to firefighters grant program reauthorization bill, which is expected to be considered during the first session of the 111th Congress. Possible reauthorization issues might include whether the scope and size of the program should be altered, as well as how grant allocation rules and criteria might be modified. Table 5. State-by-State Distribution of Fire Grants, FY2001-FY2007 (millions of dollars) FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 Total AL 3.085 12.503 23.329 25.097 20.836 22.027 19.903 126.78 AK 1.303 2.641 5.242 2.522 3.111 0.754 2.454 18.027 AZ 1.37 3.6 7.490 9.808 7.905 4.041 4.932 39.146 AR 1.337 4.635 10.675 13.680 10.402 7.699 7.799 56.227 CA 5.905 18.978 30.060 29.793 25.631 17.856 18.730 146.953 CO 1.003 3.968 6.168 5.585 6.073 3.213 4.742 30.752 CT 1.828 4.675 10.841 9.991 7.287 5.479 6.630 46.731 DE 0.132 0.372 1.096 1.755 1.161 1.107 0.518 6.141 DC 0 0.22 0 0 0.453 0 0.376 1.049 FL 2.865 10.16 16.344 15.969 17.922 6.787 8.288 78.335 GA 2.375 6.079 13.791 11.857 10.168 8.887 9.068 62.225 HI 0 1.182 0.947 0.864 1.205 0.264 0.436 4.898 ID 0.916 2.744 6.001 4.828 4.684 2.712 4.297 26.182 IL 2.417 13.398 28.810 27.238 25.433 21.120 21.923 140.339 IN 2.703 8.739 20.456 18.646 15.779 14.447 13.831 94.601 IA 1.301 7.284 16.087 16.430 13.119 10.064 9.298 73.583 KS 1.153 5.118 10.850 10.211 7.165 4.984 5.502 44.983 KY 2.215 7.896 19.832 16.150 14.215 13.308 13.081 86.697 LA 3.344 10.084 12.248 11.101 11.630 6.935 5.473 60.815 ME 1.296 4.319 10.323 10.031 6.124 6.702 5.486 44.281 Congressional Research Service 9 . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 Total MD 0.739 4.08 8.153 10.227 8.771 10.368 7.712 50.05 MA 2.301 8.386 15.715 13.958 13.529 8.957 11.644 74.49 MI 2.815 8.948 17.247 20.005 15.088 15.798 15.399 95.3 MN 2.133 8.149 17.510 18.609 14.894 14.718 16.600 92.613 MS 1.763 6.755 15.679 11.329 9.856 7.885 8.052 61.319 MO 3.079 10.291 19.573 17.757 14.246 13.202 10.611 88.759 MT 1.164 3.726 8.361 7.271 6.656 5.839 7.330 40.347 NE 1.034 2.392 7.820 6.577 5.116 4.399 4.443 31.781 NV 0.282 1.446 3.312 1.405 1.946 0.857 1.530 10.778 NH 0.594 1.887 4.584 5.694 4.563 3.307 3.219 23.848 NJ 2.596 6.339 19.982 16.488 14.691 12.386 13.266 85.748 NM 1.455 3.463 5.048 3.653 2.259 1.461 1.367 18.706 NY 3.978 14.728 34.320 35.030 36.009 33.804 22.664 180.533 NC 1.949 10.239 22.864 22.360 19.315 18.309 20.031 115.067 ND 0.546 2.613 5.105 3.391 2.673 2.459 3.100 19.887 OH 2.731 13.742 26.997 29.107 27.344 25.380 26.433 151.734 OK 1.864 4.939 10.540 10.393 8.757 10.852 7.220 54.565 OR 1.596 4.892 9.896 10.122 10.014 9.288 5.943 51.751 PA 2.89 16.97 45.179 47.898 39.233 41.259 43.610 237.039 RI 0.407 1.507 2.327 1.917 2.129 2.025 0.855 11.167 SC 1.554 5.257 11.832 14.150 10.544 8.028 10.470 61.835 SD 0.904 3.142 5.602 4.693 3.570 2.989 2.474 23.374 TN 2.46 11.509 19.306 18.686 15.047 11.209 12.955 91.172 TX 3.697 15.644 29.264 30.118 23.480 18.035 17.691 137.929 UT 0.9 2.754 4.628 3.880 2.188 2.213 3.378 19.941 VT 0.451 1.971 5.163 4.747 2.071 1.456 1.820 17.679 VA 2.066 8.79 15.816 16.668 14.357 8.317 10.403 76.417 WA 1.535 7.544 18.808 19.565 15.763 16.150 12.951 92.316 WV 1.067 3.966 9.942 9.133 10.143 5.838 7.164 47.253 WI 2.077 7.518 18.234 19.668 17.685 13.994 19.439 98.615 WY 1.09 1.612 3.507 1.811 2.032 1.197 1.645 12.894 PR 0.657 0.382 1.643 1.140 1.104 0.528 0.019 5.473 MP 0.145 0.225 0 0 0.220 0.172 0 0.762 GU 0 0.016 0 0 0 0.287 0 0.303 AS 0.164 0 0 0.284 0 0 0 0.448 VI 0.741 0 0.544 0 0 0 0 1.285 Tot. 91.972 334.417 Congressional Research Service 695.121 679.305 585.619 491.375 494.221 3372.03 10 . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Source: Department of Homeland Security. As of March 27, 2009, FY2008 grants continue to be awarded. For the latest state-by-state statistics for FY2008 fire grants, see http://www.firegrantsupport.com/afg/awards/08/ 2008afg_winners_states.aspx Table 6. State-by-State Distribution of SAFER Grants, FY2005-FY2007 (millions of dollars) FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 Total Alabama 1.611 6.215 4.236 12.062 Alaska 1.051 0.205 0.418 1.674 Arizona 1.560 3.559 4.428 9.547 Arkansas 0.394 1.820 0.377 2.591 California 5.221 5.212 4.259 14.692 Colorado 1.584 3.479 1.730 6.793 Connecticut 0.130 0.191 0.856 1.177 Delaware 0 0.135 0 0.135 District of Columbia 0 0 0 0 Florida 6.576 9.329 6.217 22.122 Georgia 5.354 2.085 2.842 10.281 Hawaii 0 0 0 0 Idaho 0.063 0.621 0.626 1.31 Illinois 1.340 4.463 9.933 15.736 Indiana 0 0.099 2.687 2.786 Iowa 0.169 0.144 0.980 1.293 Kansas 0.667 0.045 1.029 1.741 Kentucky 0.152 2.890 0.429 3.471 Louisiana 3.430 3.078 4.728 11.236 Maine 0.081 0 0.316 0.397 Maryland 0.096 1.862 1.526 3.484 Massachusetts 1.300 2.079 4.372 7.751 Michigan 1.759 0.592 0 2.351 Minnesota 0.300 1.089 0.375 1.764 Mississippi 0.756 0.594 0.115 1.465 Missouri 1.467 3.547 4.551 9.565 Montana 0.034 0.255 2.635 2.924 Nebraska 0 0.873 0.632 1.505 Nevada 1.500 1.714 0.632 3.846 New Hampshire 0.400 1.035 1.528 2.963 Congressional Research Service 11 . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 Total New Jersey 6.374 3.971 2.953 13.298 New Mexico 0 3.123 1.309 4.432 New York 1.540 2.991 2.845 7.376 North Carolina 2.155 5.533 5.371 13.059 North Dakota 0 0.609 0 0.609 Ohio 1.319 1.881 2.255 5.455 Oklahoma 0.147 0.699 0.531 1.377 Oregon 1.710 2.141 2.649 6.5 Pennsylvania 1.244 1.475 2.633 5.352 Rhode Island 0.400 0 0.105 0.505 South Carolina 0.456 0.863 3.218 4.537 South Dakota 0.063 0.311 0.211 0.585 Tennessee 2.700 2.719 3.683 9.102 Texas 0.951 10.961 8.779 20.691 Utah 0.900 3.312 2.098 6.31 Vermont 0 0.621 0.632 1.253 Virginia 2.091 3.554 0.782 6.427 Washington 2.298 2.897 7.340 12.535 West Virginia 0 0.187 0.681 0.868 Wisconsin 0 0.072 1.223 1.295 Wyoming 0 0 0.316 0.316 Puerto Rico 0 0 0 0 Northern Mariana Islands 0 0 0 0 Marshall Islands 0 0 0 0 Guam 0 0 0 0 American Samoa 0 0 0 0 Virgin Islands 0 0 0 0 Republic of Palua 0 0 0 0 Total 61.356 105.142 113.665 280.163 Source: Department of Homeland Security. As of March 27, 2009, FY2008 grants continue to be awarded. For the latest state-by-state statistics for FY2008 fire grants, see http://www.firegrantsupport.com/safer/awards/08/ 2008safer_winners_states.aspx Congressional Research Service 12 . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Table 7. Requests and Awards for Fire Grant Funding, FY2007 State Alabama Number of fire/EMS departmentsa Number of applications Federal funds requested ($millions) Federal funds awarded ($millions) Funds awarded as a % of funds requested 958 720 91.230 19.903 21.8% Alaska 72 72 13.759 2.454 17.8% Arizona 281 166 36.489 4.932 13.5% Arkansas 826 458 58.209 7.799 13.3% California 802 499 100.560 18.730 18.6% Colorado 371 197 29.258 4.742 16.2% Connecticut 393 220 40.017 6.630 16.5% Delaware 77 32 6.217 0.518 8.3% District of Columbia 18 2 0.418 0.376 89.9% Florida 748 293 60.133 8.288 13.7% Georgia 792 331 57.090 9.068 15.8% Hawaii 18 4 1.168 0.436 37.3% Idaho 211 111 18.762 4.297 22.9% Illinois 1081 858 130.841 21.923 16.7% Indiana 656 480 83.228 13.831 16.6% Iowa 862 531 61.512 9.298 15.1% Kansas 674 298 36.207 5.502 15.1% Kentucky 797 618 86.117 13.081 15.1% Louisiana 555 256 40.891 5.473 13.3% Maine 426 300 41.620 5.486 13.1% Maryland 408 202 40.003 7.712 19.2% Massachusetts 407 339 65.842 11.644 17.6% Michigan 858 755 107.539 15.399 14.3% Minnesota 768 574 74.210 16.600 22.3% Mississippi 756 498 64.418 8.052 12.4% Missouri 862 587 76.915 10.611 13.7% Montana 279 232 36.531 7.330 20.0% Nebraska 485 201 23.130 4.443 19.2% Nevada 159 27 6.640 1.530 23.0% New Hampshire 255 143 18.716 3.219 17.1% New Jersey 1037 609 93.805 13.266 14.1% New Mexico 337 99 14.804 1.367 9.2% New York 1880 1238 162.786 22.664 13.9% NorthCarolina 1407 721 112.471 20.032 17.8% Congressional Research Service 13 . Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding Number of fire/EMS departmentsa State North Dakota Number of applications Federal funds requested ($millions) Federal funds awarded ($millions) Funds awarded as a % of funds requested 322 163 20.217 3.100 15.3% 1332 984 160.235 26.433 16.4% Oklahoma 772 478 59.814 7.221 12.0% Oregon 358 202 31.343 5.943 18.9% Pennsylvania 2624 2031 299.338 43.611 14.5% Rhode Island 98 71 13.980 0.855 6.1% South Carolina 591 381 53.721 10.471 19.4% South Dakota 345 172 19.604 2.474 12.6% Tennessee 642 634 84.878 12.955 15.2% Texas 1873 826 128.511 17.691 13.7% Utah 219 123 18.785 3.378 17.9% Vermont 254 115 17.402 1.820 10.4% Virginia 810 318 56.800 10.403 18.3% Washington 538 359 74.687 12.951 17.3% West Virginia 476 299 48.579 7.164 14.7% Wisconsin 898 746 103.653 19.439 18.7% Wyoming 134 45 8.843 1.645 18.6% Ohio Puerto Rico Not available 109 7.420 0.019 0.2% Northern Marianas Not available 1 0.204 0 0% Guam Not available 1 0.451 0 0% Total 31,822 20,731 3100.309 494.221 15.94% Source: Department of Homeland Security. a. Data from http://firehouse.com, updated January 2008. Author Contact Information Lennard G. Kruger Specialist in Science and Technology Policy lkruger@crs.loc.gov, 7-7070 Congressional Research Service 14