House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Lorraine H. Tong Analyst in American National Government March 30, 2009 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R40478 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Summary The ratio of the majority and minority parties in the House standing committees is the number of members of each party caucus assigned to each committee. Determining committee assignments and ratios are among the first actions taken at the beginning of a Congress. The apportionment of committee seats results from discussions between majority and minority party leaderships. Historically, the number of majority seats on most committees have exceeded, in varying degrees, the strength of the majority party in the House chamber, regardless of which party is in power. In instances of close party division in the House chamber, the majority party has acted to ensure that it has a working majority in committees. The exception has been the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct, for which House Rules guarantee an equal share of the seats to the two parties. The standing rules of the House of Representatives are silent regarding committee party ratios. On occasion, party rules have stated a party’s position on the matter. This report provides statistical information on and selected analyses of the House committee party ratios for 14 Congresses, covering the period from the 98th through the 111th Congresses (1983-2011). Tables for each Congress include the standing committees and a permanent select committee as established and titled in each Congress. For each Congress, a table presents the party divisions in the House chamber and the total number of seats (1) in the chamber, (2) in committee seats, (3) on each committee, (4) assigned to the majority and minority parties and to Independents (where present), and (5) majority and minority party seats on each committee. Data is also provided for the majority-minority seat margin in the chamber, on each committee, as well as the total seat margin for all standing committees and the select committee. A separate table compares majority party strength in the House chamber with total majority committee seats in the 14 Congresses. This report also discusses trends and compares party ratios in selected Congresses. Possible reforms to the apportionment of committee seats are also examined. It will be updated as events warrant. Congressional Research Service House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Contents Sources and Method....................................................................................................................1 Comparative Analysis of Ratios in Selected Congresses .............................................................2 110th and 111th Congresses Comparisons ...............................................................................3 109th and 110th Congresses Comparisons ...............................................................................3 103rd and 104th Congresses Comparisons ...............................................................................4 98th and 102nd Congresses Comparisons ................................................................................4 Controversy and Possible Reforms ..............................................................................................4 Disputes over Committee Ratios ...........................................................................................4 Committee Size.....................................................................................................................5 Concluding Observations ............................................................................................................5 Tables Table 1. Comparison of Majority Party Strength in House Chamber and Total Committee Seats 98th-111th Congresses (1983-2011)...................................................................................6 Table 2. House Committee Party Ratios 111th Congress (2009-2011) ...........................................7 Table 3. House Committee Party Ratios 110th Congress (2007-2009)...........................................8 Table 4. House Committee Party Ratios 109th Congress (2005-2007)...........................................9 Table 5. House Committee Party Ratios 108th Congress (2003-2005)........................................ 10 Table 6. House Committee Party Ratios 107th Congress (2001-2003)......................................... 11 Table 7. House Committee Party Ratios 106th Congress (1999-2001)......................................... 12 Table 8. House Committee Party Ratios 105th Congress (1997-1999)......................................... 13 Table 9. House Committee Party Ratios 104th Congress (1995-1997)......................................... 14 Table 10. House Committee Party Ratios 103rd Congress (1993-1995)....................................... 15 Table 11. House Committee Party Ratios 102nd Congress (1991-1993) ...................................... 16 Table 12. House Committee Party Ratios 101st Congress (1989-1991) ....................................... 17 Table 13. House Committee Party Ratios 100th Congress (1987-1989)....................................... 18 Table 14. House Committee Party Ratios 99th Congress (1985-1987)......................................... 19 Table 15. House Committee Party Ratios 98th Congress (1983-1985)......................................... 20 Contacts Author Contact Information ...................................................................................................... 21 Acknowledgments .................................................................................................................... 21 Congressional Research Service House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses T he ratio of the majority and minority parties in the House standing committees is the number of members of each party caucus assigned to each committee. Determining committee assignments and ratios are among the first actions taken at the beginning of a Congress. The apportionment of committee seats results from discussions between majority and minority party leaderships. This report provides statistical information on and selected analyses of House committee party ratios for 14 Congresses from the 98th through the 111th Congresses (1983-2011). Tables for each Congress include the standing committees and a permanent select committee as established and titled in each Congress. An additional table provides a comparison of majority party strength in the House chamber and total committee seats. The standing rules of the House of Representatives are silent regarding committee party ratios. On occasion, party rules have stated a party’s position on the matter.1 An analysis of some trends, party ratios in selected Congresses, and possible reforms to the apportionment of committee seats is provided. Sources and Method The sources for the data covered in this report are the official lists of standing committees and a select committee published by the Clerk of the House early in each Congress.2 Assignment data for each committee from the 98th through the 111th Congresses are provided. The data reflect the full number of seats assigned to each party, even in instances when some assignments made by a party left seats vacant. Data on overall party strength in the House are taken from historical tables in the 2007-2008 Official Congressional Directory, 110th Congress, for the 98th through 110th Congresses. The data for the 111th Congress is from the Clerk of the House website. For each Congress, the total party division numbers reflect party strength after the November elections; however, they do not reflect changes due to deaths, resignations followed by special elections, or changes in party affiliation after the beginning of the Congress.3 The Delegates representing American Samoa, the District of Columbia, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands, as well as the Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico,4 are included in the figures for total number of committee seats. Under House Rule III, the Delegates and Resident Commissioner have the same powers and privileges in committees on which they serve as do Members of the House. They have the right to vote in committees on which they serve, accrue seniority, and be appointed to select and conference committees. They 1 For example, Rules of the Democratic Caucus for the One Hundred Tenth Congress, adopted November 16, 2006, included Rule 12: The Democratic Leadership shall work to ensure that committee ratios are at least as representative of the number of Democrats in the House and that each panel include the greatest number of Democrats possible. Identical language for Rule 12 is contained in Rules of the Democratic Caucus, Adopted temporarily for the 111th Congress on November 18, 2008. 2 The Clerk’s lists used in this study are the earliest available editions. Sources and their issuance dates are footnoted at the end of each table. 3 S. Pub. 110-13, 2007-2008 Official Congressional Directory,110th Congress, (Washington: 2007), p. 553. 4 Delegates and the Resident Commissioner represent the constituencies of territories and possessions owned or administered by the United States but not admitted to statehood. In accordance with P.L. 110-229, Gregorio Kilili Camacho Sablan became the first delegate from the Northern Mariana Islands on January 6, 2009. Congressional Research Service 1 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses are not included in the figures for total House Members because they do not have the right to vote in the full House.5 Total House data and percentages are based on 435 Members. Tables for each Congress reflect the standing and a permanent select committee as established and titled in each Congress. For each Congress, a table presents the party divisions in the House chamber and the total number of seats (1) in the chamber, (2) in committees seats, (3) on each committee, (4) assigned to the majority and minority parties and to Independents (where present), and (5) majority and minority party seats on each committee. Data is also provided for the majority-minority seat margin in the chamber, on each committee, as well as the total seat margin for all standing committees and the select committee. A separate table compares majority party strength in the House chamber with total majority committee seats. For consistency, vacancies on committees are counted in individual and overall committee totals.6 Comparative Analysis of Ratios in Selected Congresses In the 14 Congresses covered in this report, the 98th Congress witnessed the widest majorityminority seat margin at 103 seats in the House chamber, with 269 seats for the majority (Democrat) and 116 seats for the minority (Republican). The Congress with the next widest majority-minority seat margin was the 102nd Congress, which had a majority-minority seat margin of 100. The 107th Congress had the narrowest majority-minority seat margin with nine seats. The party division in this Congress was 221 seats for the majority (Republican) to 212 (Democrat). Of the 859 total committee seats in this Congress, there were 469 committee seats for the majority (Republican) and 387 seats for the minority (Democrat). The total number of committee seats was the lowest (779 seats) in the 98th Congress when the majority (Democrat) held 500 committee seats compared to the minority’s 279 seats. The highest number of committee seats totaled 889 in the 103rd Congress when the majority (Democrat) held 544 committee seats to the minority’s 343 seats and the seat margin was 201. The majorityminority division in the chamber was 258 (Democrat) to 176 (Republicans) and 1 Independent. During the period covered by the report, the total number of committee seats has increased incrementally from 779 seats in the 98th Congress to a high of 889 seats in the 103rd Congress. In the 104th Congress, the new majority (Republican) reduced total committee seats by 103 from the previous Congress to a total of 786 seats. The incremental increases since the initial reduction in the 104th Congress included the creation of the Homeland Security Committee which became a standing committee in the 109th Congress.7 5 Under House rules (H.Res. 5) adopted in the 103rd Congress, Delegates and the Resident Commissioner had the same powers as Members when the House was sitting in Committee of the Whole. However, House rules (H.Res. 6) adopted in the 104th Congress rescinded this right. 6 It should be noted that these are not the only sources and methodologies available and that the use of alternate sources and methodologies will yield different data and findings. For example, data in publications issued later in a Congress may yield different results. 7 In 2002, the Committee on Homeland Security was created in the aftermath of September 11, 2001 as a Select, non(continued...) Congressional Research Service 2 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Historically, majority seats on most committees have exceeded, in varying degrees, the strength of the majority party in the House chamber. The exception has been the House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct, for which House Rules guarantee an equal share of the seats to the two parties. In instances of close party divisions in the House chamber, the majority party has acted to ensure that it has a working majority in committees. This trend is reflected in the Congresses covered during which party control changed from the 103rd to the 104th Congresses, and again from the 109th to the 110th Congresses. The data indicate that regardless of which party is in the majority, the majority party’s representation in committee exceeds its party strength in the chamber (see Table 1). 110th and 111th Congresses Comparisons In the 110th Congress, the majority (Democrats) held 233 seats compared to the 202 seats for the minority (Republicans) in the House of Representatives. The majority-minority seat margin in the chamber was 31. Of the total 880 standing and the permanent select committee seats, the majority held 487 seats compared to 393 seats for the minority. The majority (Democrats) maintained its status in the 111th Congress and increased its numbers to 257 seats in the House chamber with the minority (Republican) holding 178 seats. Total committee seats decreased from 880 to 868, with 524 total seats for the majority and 342 seats for the minority. 8 The majority-minority seat margin is 79. Excluding the Committee on Standards of Official Conduct, the majority-minority seat margin ranged from 4 to 15. The four committees with the highest majority seat advantage were Transportation and Infrastructure (15), Appropriations (14), and Energy and Commerce and Financial Services (each 13). In 110th Congress, three committees with the widest seat margins were Appropriations at 8 seats, and both Transportation and Infrastructure and Ways and Means with a seat margin of 7. A comparison of the 110th and 111th Congresses indicate that the majority-minority seat margin increased from 31 to 79 in the House chamber while the overall total of committee seats decreased by 12. 109th and 110th Congresses Comparisons In the 109th Congress, the majority (Republican) held 232 seats compared to the minority’s (Democrat) 202 seats (and 1 Independent) in the House chamber. The majority-minority seat margin in the chamber was 30. Of the total 878 committee seats, the majority (Democrat) held 487 seats compared to 389 seats for the minority (the Independent held 2 seats). Excluding the Committee on Standards of Official Conduct, the majority-minority committee seat margins ranged from three to eight seats. The committees with the widest seat margins were Appropriations (8), Transportation and Infrastructure (7), and Ways and Means (7). (...continued) permanent committee to provide oversight over the development of the Department of Homeland Security. At the beginning of the 109th Congress, the Committee was made permanent and was designated a standing committee. 8 Two seats held by a delegate, an Independent, are included in the 868 total committee seats. Congressional Research Service 3 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses In the 110th Congress when the majority changed, the party division strength in the chamber flipped almost exactly from the 109th Congress. The new majority (Democrat) held 233 seats compared to 202 seats held by the minority (Republican), resulting in a majority-minority seat margin of 31. Total committee seats remained at 487 for the majority 393 seats for a total of 880 committee seats. Excluding the Committee on Standards of Official Conduct, the majorityminority seat margin ranged from two to eight seats. As in the previous Congress, the three committees with the widest seat margins were Appropriations (8), Transportation and Infrastructure (7), and Ways and Means (7). 103rd and 104th Congresses Comparisons In the 103rd Congress, the majority (Democrat) held 258 seats compared to 176 seats for the minority (Republican) and 1 Independent in the House chamber with a majority-minority seat margin of 82. Of the total 889 committee seats, the majority (Democrat) had 544 committee seats and the minority (Republican) had 343 seats with a committee seat margin of 201 seats. In the 104th Congress, the majority party in the House changed for the first time in 40 years and the new majority (Republican) had 230 seats compared to 204 seats for the minority (Democrat) in the House chamber. The majority-minority seat margin narrowed from 82 seats in the previous Congress to 26 seats. Total committee seats decreased by 103 to a total of 786 committee seats.9 98th and 102nd Congresses Comparisons The 98th Congress had a party division of 269 majority (Democrat) seats and 166 minority (Republican) seats in the House chamber, with a 103 majority-minority seat margin. Total committee seat margin was 221 with widest majority-minority committee seat margin on Appropriations (15) and Public Works and Transportation (14) committees. Excluding the Committee on Standards of Official Conduct, majority-minority committee seat margins ranged from 4 to 15. The 102nd Congress witnessed the next widest majority-minority seat margin. The House composition of 267 majority (Democrat) seats and 167 minority (Republican) seats (with 1 Independent) gave the majority a seat advantage of 100 in the chamber, 3 less seats than the 103 seats in the 98th Congress. There were a total of 870 committee seats in the 102nd Congress, with the widest majority-minority committee seat margin of 15 seats on each of two committees: Appropriations, and Public Works and Transportation. Controversy and Possible Reforms Disputes over Committee Ratios Party ratios on committees have been controversial regardless of which party has controlled the House of Representatives. Consideration of House rules packages at the outset of each Congress has evoked contentious debate on these ratios. Supporters of the majority party have often 9 The data takes into account one Independent Member who served in both the 103rd and 104th Congresses. Congressional Research Service 4 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses considered ratios affording it a “working majority” on committees as a vital element in securing its prerogative to advance its legislative agenda. Especially when its margin of control in the House is narrow, and especially on certain key committees, the majority party may consider the maintenance of a disproportionate majority as crucial to the advancement of its program. These considerations would likely lead the majority to continue to insist on maintaining representation in committees that exceeds the majority party’s ratio in the full chamber. Others argue that under-representation of the minority party on committees is inappropriate, particularly because the potential for influencing legislation is often greatest at the committee stage. They contend that under-representation of the minority at this stage not only tends to diminish the legislative role of its members, but also thereby deprives the electorate of the representation it sought in electing those Members. In addition, dissatisfaction among minority party Members arising from disproportionate committee ratios could have an adverse impact on comity and bipartisanship. These effects may make the legislative process more difficult. Supporters of this view urge that, especially under contemporary conditions of close partisan divisions in the House, it may be in the interest of the institution to reduce internal tensions over committee ratios. Since assignments and ratios are among the first organizing actions that are taken at the beginning of a Congress, such determinations could set the tone for the duration of the Congress. Committee Size Changes in national and legislative priorities may have an impact on the sizes and ratios of certain committees that have jurisdiction over particular issues. Committee sizes may also increase or decrease depending on the interests of individual Members and the party leaders. If there is agreement to increase minority representation on committees, the parties first must consider how to accommodate the increased proportion of minority seats — that is, whether it is desirable to increase the overall size of the committees or whether it is feasible to maintain the sizes of committees. If the sizes are maintained, reducing majority seats on the committee would require some committee Members to give up their seats. The alternative would be to create additional seats for minority party members, which would increase overall committee sizes. Some believe that committees are already too large, and that increasing the sizes of certain committees could make them unwieldy and less efficient. Time for questioning at larger committee hearings may affect time allotted to Members with less seniority. Concluding Observations As the data indicate, regardless of which party is the majority, the majority party’s committee ratios have exceeded its strength in the House chamber. In the absence of a House rule or an established formula to apportion committee party ratios, the data and practices of both parties when in the majority suggest that the subject will likely continue as a controversial issue for debate. Congressional Research Service 5 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Table 1. Comparison of Majority Party Strength in House Chamber and Total Committee Seats 98th-111th Congresses (1983-2011) Majority % Total Committee Seats % Difference of Majority Between House Chamber and Total Committees Seats Congress Majority Party Majority % of House Chamber 111th Democrat 59.1% 60.4% 1.3% 110th Democrat 53.6% 55.3% 1.7% 109th Republican 53.3% 55.5% 2.2% 108th Republican 52.6% 54.6% 2.0% 107th Republican 50.8% 54.6% 3.8% 106th Republican 51.3% 54.9% 3.6% 105th Republican 52.0% 55.4% 3.4% 104th Republican 52.9% 55.3% 2.4% 103rd Democrat 59.3% 61.2% 1.9% 102nd Democrat 61.4% 62.1% 0.7% 101st Democrat 59.8% 61.2% 1.4% 100th Democrat 59.3% 61.0% 1.7% 99th Democrat 58.2% 60.4% 2.2% 98th Democrat 61.8% 64.2% 2.4% Source: Data are from the official committee lists issued by the Clerk of the House. The Clerk’s lists used are the earliest available editions. Percentages were calculated by computer and rounded. Data for the House chamber are based on a total of 435 Members. Note: The use of alternate sources and methodologies may yield different data. Congressional Research Service 6 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Table 2. House Committee Party Ratios 111th Congress (2009-2011) Distribution of Seats Indp. Majority-Minority Seat Margin Total Majority (D) Minority (R) Total House Members 435 257 178 Total Committee Seats 868 524 342 Agriculture 46 28 18 10 Appropriations 60 37 23 14 Armed Services 62 37 25 12 Budget 39 24 15 9 Education and Labor 49 29 19 Energy and Commerce 59 36 23 13 Financial Services 71 42 29 13 Homeland Security 34 21 13 8 House Administration 9 6 3 3 Foreign Affairs 47 28 19 9 Judiciary 39 23 16 7 Natural Resources 49 28 20 Oversight and Government Reform 41 25 16 9 Rules 13 9 4 5 Science and Technology 44 27 17 10 Small Business 29 17 12 5 Standards of Official Conduct 10 5 5 0 Transportation and Infrastructure 75 45 30 15 Veterans’ Affairs 29 18 11 7 Ways and Means 41 26 15 11 Permanent Select on Intelligence 22 13 9 4 79 2 182 Committee 1 1 10 8 Source: List of Standing Committees and Select Committees of the House of Representatives of the United States with an Alphabetical List of the Members and their Committee Assignments, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, Prepared under the direction of Lorraine C. Miller, Clerk of the House of Representatives, February 11, 2009, (Washington: 2009). Data for total House Member numbers are from http://clerk.house.gov. Note: One delegate, an Independent, is not included in the data for Total House Members. Congressional Research Service 7 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Table 3. House Committee Party Ratios 110th Congress (2007-2009) Distribution of Seats Total Majority (D) Minority (R) Majority-Minority Seat Margin Total House Members 435 233 202 31 Total Committee Seats 880 487 393 94 Agriculture 46 25 21 4 Appropriations 66 37 29 8 Armed Services 62 34 28 6 Budget 39 22 17 5 Education and Labor 49 27 22 5 Energy and Commerce 57 31 26 5 Financial Services 70 37 33 4 Homeland Security 34 19 15 4 House Administration 9 6 3 3 Foreign Affairs 50 27 23 4 Judiciary 40 23 17 6 Natural Resources 49 27 22 5 Oversight and Government Reform 41 23 18 5 Rules 13 9 4 5 Science and Technology 46 24 22 2 Small Business 33 18 15 3 Standards of Official Conduct 10 5 5 0 Transportation and Infrastructure 75 41 34 7 Veterans’ Affairs 29 16 13 3 Ways and Means 41 24 17 7 Permanent Select on Intelligence 21 12 9 3 Committee Source: List of Standing Committees Together with an Alphabetical List of the Members and their Committee Assignments of the House of Representatives of the United States, the One Hundred Tenth Congress, Prepared under the direction of Lorraine C. Miller, Clerk of the House of Representatives, March 6, 2008, (Washington: 2008). Data for total House Member numbers are from S. Pub. 110-13, 2007-2008 Official Congressional Directory, 110th Congress, (Washington: 2007), p. 553. Congressional Research Service 8 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Table 4. House Committee Party Ratios 109th Congress (2005-2007) Distribution of Seats Total Majority (R) Minority (D) Indp. Majority-Minority Seat Margin Total House Members 435 232 202 1 30 Total Committee Seats 876 487 389 2 98 Agriculture 46 25 21 4 Appropriations 66 37 29 8 Armed Services 62 34 28 6 Budget 39 22 17 5 Education and the Workforce 49 27 22 5 Energy and Commerce 57 31 26 5 Financial Services 69 37 32 1 5 Government Reform 40 23 17 1 6 Homeland Security 34 19 15 4 House Administration 9 6 3 3 International Relations 50 27 23 4 Judiciary 40 23 17 6 Resources 49 27 22 5 Rules 13 9 4 5 Science 44 24 20 4 Small Business 33 18 15 3 Standards of Official Conduct 10 5 5 0 Transportation and Infrastructure 75 41 34 7 Veterans’ Affairs 29 16 13 3 Ways and Means 41 24 17 7 Permanent Select on Intelligence 21 12 9 3 Committee Source: Standing Committees of the House of Representatives of the Untied States, One Hundred Ninth Congress, Prepared under the direction of Jeff Trandahl, Clerk of the House of Representatives, March 16, 2005, (Washington: 2005). Data for total House Member numbers are from S. Pub. 110-13, 2007-2008 Official Congressional Directory, 110th Congress, (Washington: 2007), p. 553. Note: If Independent Members caucus with the majority or the minority party, they are not so noted in the Clerk’s lists. Congressional Research Service 9 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Table 5. House Committee Party Ratios 108th Congress (2003-2005) Distribution of Seats Total Majority (R) Minority (D) Indp. Majority-Minority Seat Margin Total House Members 435 229 204 1 15 Total Committee Seats 862 471 389 2 82 Agriculture 51 27 24 3 Appropriations 65 36 29 7 Armed Services 62 33 29 4 Budget 43 24 19 5 Education and the Workforce 49 27 22 5 Energy and Commerce 57 31 26 5 Financial Services 70 37 32 1 5 Government Reform 44 24 19 1 5 House Administration 9 6 3 3 International Relations 49 26 23 3 Judiciary 37 21 16 5 Resources 52 28 24 4 Rules 13 9 4 5 Science 47 25 22 3 Small Business 37 19 18 1 Standards of Official Conduct 10 5 5 0 Transportation and Infrastructure 75 41 34 7 Veterans’ Affairs 31 17 14 3 Ways and Means 41 24 17 7 Permanent Select on Intelligence 20 11 9 2 Committee Source: Standing Committees of the House of Representatives of the Untied States, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Compiled by Jeff Trandahl, Clerk of the House of Representatives, Corrected to March 5, 2003, (Washington: 2003). Data on the Select Committee on Homeland Security are excluded because the panel was temporary in the 107th and 108th Congresses. Data for total House Member numbers are from S. Pub. 110-13, 2007-2008 Official Congressional Directory, 110th Congress, (Washington: 2007), p. 553. Congressional Research Service 10 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Table 6. House Committee Party Ratios 107th Congress (2001-2003) Distribution of Seats Total Majority (R) Minority (D) Indp. Majority-Minority Seat Margin Total House Members 435 221 212 2 9 Total Committee Seats 859 469 387 3 82 Agriculture 51 27 24 Appropriations 65 35 29 Armed Services 60 32 28 4 Budget 43 24 19 5 Education and the Workforce 49 27 22 5 Energy and Commerce 57 31 26 5 Financial Services 70 37 32 1 5 Government Reform 44 24 19 1 5 House Administration 9 6 3 3 International Relations 49 26 23 3 Judiciary 37 21 16 5 Resources 52 28 24 4 Rules 13 9 4 5 Science 47 25 22 3 Small Business 36 19 17 2 Standards of Official Conduct 10 5 5 0 Transportation and Infrastructure 75 41 34 7 Veterans’ Affairs 31 17 14 3 Ways and Means 41 24 17 7 Committee 3 1 6 Source: List of Standing Committees and Select Committees and Their Subcommittees of the House of Representatives of the United States Together with Joint Committees of the Congress with An Alphabetical List of the Members and Their Committee Assignments, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Prepared under the direction of Jeff Trandahl, Clerk of the House of Representatives, http://clerk.house.gov, June 28, 2001, (Washington: 2001). Data on the Select Committee on Homeland Security are excluded because the panel was temporary in the 107th Congress. Data for total House Member numbers are from S. Pub. 110-13, 2007-2008 Official Congressional Directory, 110th Congress, (Washington: 2007), p. 553. Congressional Research Service 11 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Table 7. House Committee Party Ratios 106th Congress (1999-2001) Distribution of Seats Total Majority (R) Minority (D) Indp. Majority-Minority Seat Margin Total House Members 435 223 211 1 12 Total Committee Seats 835 458 375 2 83 Agriculture 51 27 24 3 Appropriations 61 34 27 7 Armed Services 60 32 28 4 Banking and Financial Services 60 32 27 Budget 43 24 19 5 Commerce 53 29 24 5 Education and the Workforce 49 27 22 5 Government Reform 44 24 19 House Administration 9 6 3 3 International Relations 49 26 23 3 Judiciary 37 21 16 5 Resources 52 28 24 4 Rules 13 9 4 5 Science 47 25 22 3 Small Business 36 19 17 2 Standards of Official Conduct 10 5 5 0 Transportation and Infrastructure 75 41 34 7 Veterans’ Affairs 31 17 14 3 Ways and Means 39 23 16 7 Permanent Select on Intelligence 16 9 7 2 Committee 1 1 5 5 Source: List of Standing Committees and Select Committees and Their Subcommittees of the House of Representatives of the United States Together with Joint Committees of the Congress with An Alphabetical List of the Members and Their Committee Assignments, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Prepared under the direction of Jeff Trandahl, Clerk of the House of Representatives, March 4, 1999, (Washington: 1999). Data for total House Member numbers are from S. Pub. 110-13, 2007-2008 Official Congressional Directory, 110th Congress, (Washington: 2007), p. 553. Congressional Research Service 12 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Table 8. House Committee Party Ratios 105th Congress (1997-1999) Distribution of Seats Total Majority (R) Minority (D) Indp. Majority-Minority Seat Margin Total House Members 435 226 207 2 19 Total Committee Seats 816 452 362 2 90 Agriculture 50 27 23 4 Appropriations 60 34 26 8 Banking and Financial Services 58 31 26 Budget 43 24 19 5 Commerce 51 28 23 5 Education and the Workforce 45 25 20 5 Government Reform and Oversight 44 24 19 House Oversight 9 6 3 3 International Relations 48 26 22 5 Judiciary 35 20 15 5 National Security 57 31 26 5 Resources 50 27 23 4 Rules 13 9 4 5 Science 46 25 21 4 Small Business 35 19 16 3 Standards of Official Conduct 14 7 7 0 Transportation and Infrastructure 73 40 33 7 Veterans’ Affairs 30 17 13 4 Ways and Means 39 23 16 7 Permanent Select on Intelligence 16 9 7 2 Committee 1 1 5 5 Source: List of Standing Committees and Select Committees and Their Subcommittees of the House of Representatives of the United States Together with Joint Committees of the Congress, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Prepared under the direction of Robin H. Carle, Clerk of the House of Representatives, Aug. 4, 1997, (Washington: 1997). Data for total House Member numbers are from S. Pub. 110-13, 2007-2008 Official Congressional Directory, 110th Congress, (Washington: 2007), p. 553. Congressional Research Service 13 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Table 9. House Committee Party Ratios 104th Congress (1995-1997) Distribution of Seats Total Majority (R) Minority (D) Indp. Majority-Minority Seat Margin Total House Members 435 230 204 1 26 Total Committee Seats 786 435 348 3 87 Agriculture 49 27 22 5 Appropriations 56 32 24 8 Banking and Financial Services 50 27 22 Budget 42 24 18 6 Commerce 46 25 21 4 Economic and Educational Opportunities 43 24 19 5 Government Reform and Oversight 50 27 22 House Oversight 12 7 5 International Relations 43 23 19 Judiciary 35 20 15 5 National Security 55 30 25 5 Resources 45 25 20 5 Rules 13 9 4 5 Science 50 27 23 4 Small Business 41 22 19 3 Standards of Official Conduct 10 5 5 0 Transportation and Infrastructure 61 33 28 5 Veterans’ Affairs 33 18 15 3 Ways and Means 36 21 15 6 Permanent Select on Intelligence 16 9 7 2 Committee 1 1 5 5 2 1 4 Source: List of Standing Committees and Select Committees and Their Subcommittees of the House of Representatives of the United States Together with Joint Committees of the Congress, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Prepared under the direction of Robin H. Carle, Clerk of the House of Representatives, March 22, 1995, (Washington: GPO, 1995). Data for total House Member numbers are from S. Pub. 110-13, 2007-2008 Official Congressional Directory, 110th Congress, (Washington: 2007), p. 553. Congressional Research Service 14 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Table 10. House Committee Party Ratios 103rd Congress (1993-1995) Distribution of Seats Total Majority (D) Minority (R) Indp. Majority-Minority Seat Margin Total House Members 435 258 176 1 82 Total Committee Seats 889 544 343 2 201 Agriculture 45 27 18 9 Appropriations 60 37 23 14 Armed Services 56 34 22 12 Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs 51 30 20 Budget 43 26 17 9 District of Columbia 12 8 4 4 Education and Labor 42 27 15 12 Energy and Commerce 44 27 17 10 Foreign Affairs 45 27 18 9 Government Operations 42 25 16 House Administration 19 12 7 5 Judiciary 35 21 14 7 Merchant Marine and Fisheries 46 28 18 10 Natural Resources 43 28 15 13 Post Office and Civil Service 24 15 9 6 Public Works and Transportation 63 39 24 15 Rules 13 9 4 5 Science, Space and Technology 55 33 22 11 Small Business 45 27 18 9 Standards of Official Conduct 14 7 7 0 Veterans’ Affairs 35 21 14 7 Ways and Means 38 24 14 10 Permanent Select on Intelligence 19 12 7 5 Committee 1 1 10 9 Source: List of Standing Committees and Select Committees and Their Subcommittees of the House of Representatives of the United States Together with Joint Committees of the Congress, One Hundred Third Congress, Prepared under the direction of Donnald K. Anderson, Clerk of the House of Representatives, Feb. 25, 1993, (Washington: GPO, 1993). Data for total House Member numbers are from S. Pub. 110-13, 2007-2008 Official Congressional Directory, 110th Congress, (Washington: 2007), p. 553. Congressional Research Service 15 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Table 11. House Committee Party Ratios 102nd Congress (1991-1993) Distribution of Seats Total Majority (D) Minority (R) Indp. Majority-Minority Seat Margin Total House Members 435 267 167 1 100 Total Committee Seats 870 540 328 2 212 Agriculture 45 27 18 9 Appropriations 59 37 22 15 Armed Services 55 33 22 11 Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs 52 31 20 Budget 37 23 14 9 District of Columbia 12 8 4 4 Education and Labor 39 25 14 11 Energy and Commerce 43 27 16 11 Foreign Affairs 46 28 18 10 Government Operations 41 25 15 House Administration 24 15 9 6 Interior and Insular Affairs 46 29 17 12 Judiciary 34 21 13 8 Merchant Marine and Fisheries 46 29 17 12 Post Office and Civil Service 23 15 8 7 Public Works and Transportation 57 36 21 15 Rules 13 9 4 5 Science, Space and Technology 51 32 19 13 Small Business 44 27 17 10 Standards of Official Conduct 14 7 7 0 Veterans’ Affairs 34 21 13 8 Ways and Means 36 23 13 10 Permanent Select on Intelligence 19 12 7 5 Committee 1 1 11 10 Source: List of Standing Committees and Select Committees and Their Subcommittees of the House of Representatives of the United States Together with Joint Committees of the Congress, One Hundred Second Congress, Prepared under the direction of Donnald K. Anderson, Clerk of the House of Representatives, March 25, 1991, (Washington: GPO, 1991). Data for total House Member numbers are from S. Pub. 110-13, 2007-2008 Official Congressional Directory, 110th Congress, (Washington: 2007), p. 553. Congressional Research Service 16 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Table 12. House Committee Party Ratios 101st Congress (1989-1991) Distribution of Seats Total Majority (D) Minority (R) Majority-Minority Seat Margin Total House Members 435 260 175 85 Total Committee Seats 842 515 327 188 Agriculture 45 27 18 9 Appropriations 57 35 22 13 Armed Services 54 32 22 10 Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs 51 31 20 11 Budget 35 21 14 7 District of Columbia 12 8 4 4 Education and Labor 35 22 13 9 Energy and Commerce 43 26 17 9 Foreign Affairs 47 28 19 9 Government Operations 39 24 15 9 House Administration 21 13 8 5 Interior and Insular Affairs 41 26 15 11 Judiciary 35 21 14 7 Merchant Marine and Fisheries 45 27 18 9 Post Office and Civil Service 24 15 9 6 Public Works and Transportation 51 31 20 11 Rules 13 9 4 5 Science, Space and Technology 49 30 19 11 Small Business 44 27 17 10 Standards of Official Conduct 12 6 6 0 Veterans’ Affairs 34 21 13 8 Ways and Means 36 23 13 10 Permanent Select on Intelligence 19 12 7 5 Committee Source: List of Standing Committees and Select Committees and Their Subcommittees of the House of Representatives of the United States Together with Joint Committees of the Congress, One Hundred First Congress, Prepared under the direction of Donnald K. Anderson, Clerk of the House of Representatives, Jan. 23, 1990, (Washington: GPO, 1990). Data for total House Member numbers are from S. Pub. 110-13, 2007-2008 Official Congressional Directory, 110th Congress, (Washington: 2007), p. 553. Congressional Research Service 17 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Table 13. House Committee Party Ratios 100th Congress (1987-1989) Distribution of Seats Total Majority (D) Minority (R) Majority-Minority Seat Margin Total House Members 435 258 177 81 Total Committee Seats 824 503 321 182 Agriculture 43 26 17 9 Appropriations 57 35 22 13 Armed Services 52 31 21 10 Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs 51 31 20 11 Budget 35 21 14 7 District of Columbia 12 8 4 4 Education and Labor 34 21 13 8 Energy and Commerce 42 25 17 8 Foreign Affairs 45 27 18 9 Government Operations 41 24 17 7 House Administration 19 12 7 5 Interior and Insular Affairs 41 26 15 11 Judiciary 35 21 14 7 Merchant Marine and Fisheries 42 25 17 8 Post Office and Civil Service 22 14 8 6 Public Works and Transportation 52 32 20 12 Rules 13 9 4 5 Science, Space and Technology 45 27 18 9 Small Business 44 27 17 10 Standards of Official Conduct 12 6 6 0 Veterans’ Affairs 34 21 13 8 Ways and Means 36 23 13 10 Permanent Select on Intelligence 17 11 6 5 Committee Source: Standing Committees and Select Committees and Their Subcommittees of the House of Representatives of the United States Together with Joint Committees of the Congress, One Hundredth Congress, Prepared under the direction of Donnald K. Anderson, Clerk of the House of Representatives, Corrected to Feb. 19, 1987. Data for total House Member numbers are from S. Pub. 110-13, 2007-2008 Official Congressional Directory, 110th Congress, (Washington: 2007), p. 553. Congressional Research Service 18 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Table 14. House Committee Party Ratios 99th Congress (1985-1987) Distribution of Seats Total Majority (D) Minority (R) Majority-Minority Seat Margin Total House Members 435 253 182 71 Total Committee Seats 797 481 316 165 Agriculture 43 26 17 9 Appropriations 57 35 22 13 Armed Services 47 27 20 7 Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs 49 30 19 11 Budget 33 20 13 7 District of Columbia 12 8 4 4 Education and Labor 32 19 13 6 Energy and Commerce 42 25 17 8 Foreign Affairs 42 25 17 8 Government Operations 39 23 16 7 House Administration 19 12 7 5 Interior and Insular Affairs 41 25 16 9 Judiciary 35 21 14 7 Merchant Marine and Fisheries 42 25 17 8 Post Office and Civil Service 22 14 8 6 Public Works and Transportation 48 29 19 10 Rules 13 9 4 5 Science and Technology 41 24 17 7 Small Business 42 25 17 8 Standards of Official Conduct 12 6 6 0 Veterans’ Affairs 34 20 14 6 Ways and Means 36 23 13 10 Permanent Select on Intelligence 16 10 6 4 Committee Source: List of Standing Committees and Select Committees and Their Subcommittees of the House of Representatives of the United States Together with Joint Committees of the Congress, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Prepared under the direction of Benjamin J. Guthrie, Clerk of the House of Representatives, April 25, 1985, (Washington: GPO, 1985). Data for total House Member numbers are from S. Pub. 110-13, 2007-2008 Official Congressional Directory, 110th Congress, (Washington: 2007), p. 553. Congressional Research Service 19 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Table 15. House Committee Party Ratios 98th Congress (1983-1985) Distribution of Seats Total Majority (D) Minority (R) Majority-Minority Seat Margin Total House Members 435 269 166 103 Total Committee Seats 779 500 279 221 Agriculture 41 26 15 11 Appropriations 57 36 21 15 Armed Services 45 29 16 13 Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs 47 30 17 13 Budget 31 20 11 9 District of Columbia 12 8 4 4 Education and Labor 32 21 11 10 Energy and Commerce 42 27 15 12 Foreign Affairs 37 24 13 11 Government Operations 39 25 14 11 House Administration 19 12 7 5 Interior and Insular Affairs 42 28 14 14 Judiciary 31 20 11 9 Merchant Marine and Fisheries 40 26 14 12 Post Office and Civil Service 25 16 9 7 Public Works and Transportation 50 32 18 14 Rules 13 9 4 5 Science and Technology 41 26 15 11 Small Business 41 26 15 11 Standards of Official Conduct 12 6 6 0 Veterans’ Affairs 33 21 12 9 Ways and Means 35 23 12 11 Permanent Select on Intelligence 14 9 5 4 Committee Source: Source for data is List of Standing Committees and Select Committees and Their Subcommittees of the House of Representatives of the United States Together with Joint Committees of the Congress, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Prepared under the direction of Benjamin J. Guthrie, Clerk of the House of Representatives, May 2, 1983, (Washington: GPO, 1983). Data for total House Member numbers are from S. Pub. 110-13, 2007-2008 Official Congressional Directory, 110th Congress, (Washington: 2007), p. 553. Congressional Research Service 20 House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-111th Congresses Author Contact Information Lorraine H. Tong Analyst in American National Government ltong@crs.loc.gov, 7-5846 Acknowledgments Julius C. Jefferson Jr. Information Research Specialist jjefferson@crs.loc.gov, 7-5593 Congressional Research Service 21