ȱ Š’—ȱ–Ž›’ŒŠȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›’‹‹ŽŠ—DZȱŠŒȱ‘ŽŽȱ ˜—ȱŽŠŽ›œȱŠ—ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—œȱ Š›”ȱǯȱž••’ŸŠ—ȱ ™ŽŒ’Š•’œȱ’—ȱŠ’—ȱ–Ž›’ŒŠ—ȱŠ’›œȱ ž•’œœŠȱ ˜–Ž£Ȭ ›Š—Ž›ȱ —˜›–Š’˜—ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱ™ŽŒ’Š•’œȱ Š›Œ‘ȱŗŖǰȱŘŖŖşȱ ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŝȬśŝŖŖȱ    ǯŒ›œǯ˜Ÿȱ şŞȬŜŞŚȱ ȱŽ™˜›ȱ˜›ȱ˜—›Žœœ Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress ȱ Š’—ȱ–Ž›’ŒŠȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›’‹‹ŽŠ—DZȱŠŒȱ‘ŽŽȱ˜—ȱŽŠŽ›œȱŠ—ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—œȱ ž––Š›¢ȱ This fact sheet tracks the current heads of government in Central and South America, Mexico, and the Caribbean, and provides the dates of the last and next election for head of government. It also provides the national independence date for each country. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ȱ Š’—ȱ–Ž›’ŒŠȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›’‹‹ŽŠ—DZȱŠŒȱ‘ŽŽȱ˜—ȱŽŠŽ›œȱŠ—ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—œȱ ˜—Ž—œȱ Š‹•Žœȱ Table 1. South America ................................................................................................................... 1 Table 2. Mexico and Central America ............................................................................................. 1 Table 3. Caribbean........................................................................................................................... 2 ˜—ŠŒœȱ Author Contact Information ............................................................................................................ 2 ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Š’—ȱ–Ž›’ŒŠȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›’‹‹ŽŠ—DZȱŠŒȱ‘ŽŽȱ˜—ȱŽŠŽ›œȱŠ—ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—œȱ ȱ Table 1. South America Country Independence Date Head of Government Last Election Next Election Argentina July 9, 1816 Oct. 28, 2007 Oct. 2011 Bolivia Aug. 6, 1825 FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER, Cristina MORALES, Evo Dec. 6, 2009 Brazil Sept. 7, 1822 DA SILVA, Luis Inácio Lula Chile Sept. 18, 1810 BACHELET, Michelle Colombia July 20, 1810 URIBE, Alvaro Ecuador May 24, 1822 CORREA, Rafael Paraguay May 14, 1811 LUGO, Fernando Peru July 28, 1821 GARCIA, Alan Uruguay Venezuela Aug. 25, 1825 July 5, 1811 VÁZQUEZ, Tabaré CHÁVEZ, Hugo Dec. 18, 2005 Oct. 1/ Oct. 29, 2006 Dec. 11, 2005/ Jan. 15, 2006 May 28, 2006 Oct. 15/Nov. 26, 2006 Apr. 20, 2008 Apr. 9, 2006/ June 4, 2006 Oct. 31, 2004 Dec. 3, 2006 Table 2. Mexico and Central America Oct. 2010 Dec.11, 2009 May 2010 Apr. 26, 2009 Apr. 2013 Apr. 2011 Oct. 25, 2009 Dec. 2012 Country Independence Date Head of Government Last Election Next Election Mexico Costa Rica El Salvador Sept. 16, 1810 Sept. 15. 1821 Sept. 15, 1821 CALDERÓN, Felipe ARIAS, Oscar SACA, Elías Antonio (Tony) July 2012 Feb. 2010 Mar. 15, 2009 Guatemala Sept. 15, 1821 COLOM, Alvaro Honduras Nicaragua Panama Sept. 15, 1821 Sept. 15, 1821 Nov. 3, 1903 ZELAYA, Manuel ORTEGA, Daniel TORRIJOS, Martin July 2, 2006 Feb. 5, 2006 Mar. 21, 2004 Sept. 9, 2007/ Nov. 4, 2007 Nov. 27, 2005 Nov. 5, 2006 May 2, 2004 ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ by Nov. 2011 Nov. 2009 Nov. 2011 May 3, 2009 ŗȱ Š’—ȱ–Ž›’ŒŠȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ›’‹‹ŽŠ—DZȱŠŒȱ‘ŽŽȱ˜—ȱŽŠŽ›œȱŠ—ȱ•ŽŒ’˜—œȱ ȱ Table 3. Caribbean Country Independence Date Head of Government Last Election Next Election Antigua and Nov. 1, 1981 SPENCER, Baldwin Mar. 23, 2004 March 12, 2009 Barbuda Bahamas July 10, 1973 INGRAHAM, Hubert May 2, 2007 by May 2012 Barbados Nov. 30, 1966 THOMPSON, David Jan. 15, 2008 by Jan. 2013 Belize Sept. 21, 1981 BARROW, Dean Feb.7, 2008 February 2013 Cuba May 20, 1902 CASTRO RUZ, Raúl Dominica Nov. 3, 1978 SKERRITT, Roosevelt May 5, 2005 by May 2010 Dominican Feb. 27, 1844 FERNANDEZ, Leonel May 16, 2008 May 2012 Republic Grenada Feb. 7, 1974 THOMAS, Tillman July 8, 2008 July 2013 Guyana May 26, 1966 BHARRAT, Jagdeo Aug. 28, 2006 by Aug. 2011 Haiti Jan. 1, 1804 PRÉVAL, Réne Feb. 7, 2006 2011 Jamaica Aug. 6, 1962 GOLDING, Bruce Sept. 3, 2007 by Sept. 2012 St. Kitts and Sept. 19, 1983 DOUGLAS, Denzil Oct. 25, 2004 by Oct. 2009 Nevis Dec. 11, 2006 by Dec. 2011 St. Lucia Feb. 22, 1979 KING, Stephenson St. Vincent and Oct. 27, 1979 GONSALVES, Ralph Dec. 7, 2005 by Dec. 2010 the Grenadines Suriname Nov. 25, 1975 VENETIAAN, Ronald May 25, 2005 May 2010 Trinidad and Aug. 31, 1962 MANNING, Patrick Nov. 5, 2007 by Nov. 2012 Tobago a. On February 24, 2008, Raúl Castro was selected by Cuba’s legislature as President of the Council of State, a position that makes him head of state and government. Raúl had been serving as acting President since July 31, 2006, when Cuba’s long-serving communist leader, Fidel Castro, stepped down provisionally because of poor health. Since the 1959 Cuban Revolution, there have been no elections for head of government. b. Stephenson King was sworn in as Prime Minister on September 10, 2007, following the death of Prime Minister John Compton, who had been elected in December 2006. a a b ž‘˜›ȱ˜—ŠŒȱ —˜›–Š’˜—ȱ Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs msullivan@crs.loc.gov, 7-7689 ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Julissa Gomez-Granger Information Research Specialist jgomezgranger@crs.loc.gov, 7-8981 Řȱ