Order Code RL32614 Duration of Continuing Resolutions in Recent Years Updated September 11, 2008 Robert Keith Specialist in American National Government Government and Finance Division Duration of Continuing Resolutions In Recent Years Summary Continuing appropriations acts, commonly known as continuing resolutions, have been an integral component of the annual appropriations process for decades. Whenever action on one or more of the regular appropriations acts for a fiscal year is incomplete as the end of a congressional session nears, one issue that arises is the appropriate duration of any period for which continuing resolutions will be used. Continuing resolutions may have a relatively short duration in the expectation that action on the regular appropriations acts will be concluded within several days or weeks. Alternatively, continuing resolutions may have a longer duration to postpone final action on appropriations decisions until after elections or into the beginning of the next congressional session. Finally, a continuing resolution may provide funding for the remainder of the fiscal year. The duration of a continuing resolution refers to the period for which continuing appropriations are made available for the use of agencies. (Legislative provisions, as opposed to funding provisions, contained in a continuing resolution may remain in effect for a longer period, even as permanent law.) The period ends either upon enactment of the applicable regular appropriations act or on an expiration date specified in the continuing resolution, whichever occurs first. Over the past half century, the timing patterns for congressional action on regular appropriations acts have varied considerably, but tardy enactment has been a recurring problem. During the 57-year period covering FY1952-FY2008, all of the regular appropriations acts were enacted on time in only four instances (FY1977, FY1989, FY1995, and FY1997). No continuing resolutions were enacted for three of these fiscal years, but continuing resolutions were enacted for FY1977 to fund certain unauthorized programs whose funding had been dropped from the regular appropriations acts. Further, no continuing resolutions were enacted for FY1953 even though all but one of the regular appropriations were enacted late. Full-year continuing resolutions provide funding for one or more of the regular appropriations acts for the remainder of the fiscal year. While Congress has employed full-year continuing resolutions on many occasions, it has not done so consistently over time. For each of the 11 fiscal years covering FY1978-FY1988, Congress enacted a full-year continuing resolution. Three years later, Congress enacted another full-year continuing resolution, for FY1992. Most recently, a fullyear continuing resolution was enacted for FY2007. During the past 11 fiscal years (FY1998-FY2008), Congress provided funding under continuing resolutions for an average each year of about three and one-half months (110 days). The period for which continuing appropriations were provided in these 11 years ranged from 21 days to 365 days. On average, each of the 75 continuing resolutions enacted during this period lasted for about 16 days. This report will be updated as developments warrant. Contents Features of Continuing Resolutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Persistent Need for Continuing Resolutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Use of Full-Year Continuing Resolutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Recent Congressional Practices (FY1998-FY2008) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 List of Figures Figure 1. Duration of Continuing Resolutions: FY1998-FY2008 . . . . . . . . . . . 10 List of Tables Table 1. Full-Year Continuing Resolutions: FY1978-FY2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Table 2. Number and Duration of Continuing Resolutions: FY1998-FY2008 . . 7 Table 3. Detailed Information on Continuing Resolutions: FY1998-FY2008 . 11 Duration of Continuing Resolutions In Recent Years Continuing appropriations acts, commonly known as continuing resolutions, have been an integral component of the annual appropriations process for decades. Whenever action on the regular appropriations acts for a fiscal year is incomplete as the end of a congressional session nears, one issue that arises is the most appropriate duration of any period for which continuing resolutions will be used. Continuing resolutions may have a relatively short duration in the expectation that action on the regular appropriations acts will be concluded within several days or weeks. Alternatively, continuing resolutions may have a longer duration to postpone final action on appropriations decisions until after elections or into the beginning of the next congressional session. Finally, a continuing resolution may provide funding for the remainder of the fiscal year. This report provides information on congressional practices with respect to the duration of continuing resolutions, including the use of full-year measures, and focuses particularly on the period covering FY1998-FY2008. Features of Continuing Resolutions The routine activities of most federal agencies are funded by means of annual appropriations provided in one or more of the regular appropriations acts.1 When action on the regular appropriations acts is delayed, Congress turns to one or more continuing appropriations acts to provide stop-gap funding.2 In the absence of regular appropriations, the failure to enact continuing appropriations in a timely manner results in a funding gap.3 Funding gaps usually require that affected federal agencies shut down and furlough many of their employees.4 1 The number of regular appropriations acts varied between 11 and 14 during the past half century, but was fixed at 13 for the period covering FY1968-FY2005. Realignment of the House and Senate Appropriations subcommittees at the beginning of the 109th Congress reduced the number of regular appropriations acts, beginning with FY2006, to 11; further realignment at the beginning of the 110th Congress changed the number to 12, beginning with FY2008. 2 For general information, see CRS Report RL30343, Continuing Resolutions: FY2008 Action and Brief Overview of Recent Practices, by Sandy Streeter. 3 Additional information on this topic is provided in CRS Report RS20348, Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview, by Robert Keith. 4 Exceptions are made under law so that activities for certain authorized purposes, such as protecting property and the safety of human life, may continue during a funding gap. CRS-2 Continuing appropriations acts commonly are referred to as continuing resolutions (or CRs) because usually they provide continuing appropriations in the form of a joint resolution rather than a bill. Occasionally, however, continuing appropriations are provided in bill form. In most of the years in which continuing resolutions have been used, a series of two or more have been enacted into law. Continuing resolutions may be designated by their order (e.g., first continuing resolution, second continuing resolution, and so on) or, after the initial continuing resolution has been enacted, designated merely as a further continuing resolution. The duration of a continuing resolution refers to the period for which continuing appropriations are made available for the use of agencies. (Legislative provisions, as opposed to funding provisions, contained in a continuing resolution may remain in effect for a longer period, even as permanent law.) The period ends either upon enactment of the applicable regular appropriations act or on an expiration date specified in the continuing resolution, whichever occurs first. The duration of a continuing resolution may vary for different agencies covered thereunder as an agency’s regular appropriations act is enacted and its coverage under the continuing resolution ceases. In addition, a continuing resolution may contain an expiration date for one or more agencies or programs that differs from the one that applies generally to the covered agencies and programs. Section 107 of P.L. 108-84 (117 Stat. 1043), the first continuing resolution for FY2004 (which began on October 1, 2003), set the duration of the measure at 31 days: Sec. 107. Unless otherwise provided for in this joint resolution or in the applicable appropriations Act, appropriations and funds made available and authority granted pursuant to this joint resolution shall be available until (a) enactment into law of an appropriation for any project or activity provided for in this joint resolution, or (b) the enactment into law of the applicable appropriations Act by both Houses without any provision for such project or activity, or (c) October 31, 2003, whichever first occurs. Oftentimes, subsequent continuing resolutions simply will replace the expiration date in the preceding continuing resolution with a new one. For example, Section 1 of the second continuing resolution for FY2004, P.L. 108-104 (117 Stat. 1200), stated that “Public Law 108-84 is amended by striking the date specified in Section 107(c) and inserting ‘November 7, 2003’.” This action extended the duration of the preceding continuing resolution by seven days. Based upon their duration, continuing resolutions may be classified as either partial-year or full-year measures. Partial-year continuing resolutions provide funding for periods usually measured in days or weeks (but sometimes months), while full-year continuing resolutions provide funding through September 30 of the next congressional session, the last day of the fiscal year. By enacting a series of partial-year continuing resolutions, Congress secures increments of time for itself to complete action on some or all of the remaining CRS-3 regular appropriations acts before ending the congressional session. The duration of the continuing resolutions may be shortened, sometimes to a single day, to keep pressure on legislators to conclude their business, or may be lengthened to weeks to accommodate lengthy negotiations or congressional recesses. In some cases, continuing resolutions have carried over into the next session when Congress wanted to postpone making difficult political or policy decisions. Finally, when it does not seem likely that one or more of the regular appropriations acts for a fiscal year will be enacted separately, a full-year continuing resolution may be used to complete legislative action. Continuing resolutions usually fund activities under a formula-type approach that provides spending at a restricted level, such as “at a rate for operations not exceeding the current rate” (i.e., generally equivalent to the total amount of appropriations provided for the prior fiscal year). The amount of funding available for particular activities often is increased when the regular appropriations act subsequently is enacted. Congress is not bound by these conventions in determining funding levels, however, and there have been several variations in practice in continuing resolutions over the years. In addition, continuing resolutions generally do not allow new activities to be initiated. Instead, funding usually is available only for activities conducted during the past year, and existing conditions and limitations on program activity are retained. Persistent Need for Continuing Resolutions Over the past half century, the timing patterns for congressional action on regular appropriations acts have varied considerably, but tardy enactment has been a recurring problem. During the 57-year period covering FY1952-FY2008, all of the regular appropriations acts were enacted on time in only four instances (FY1977, FY1989, FY1995, and FY1997). No continuing resolutions were enacted for three of these fiscal years, but continuing resolutions were enacted for FY1977 to fund certain unauthorized programs whose funding had been dropped from the regular appropriations acts. Further, no continuing resolutions were enacted for FY1953 even though all but one of the regular appropriations were enacted late.5 In an effort to reduce the reliance on continuing resolutions, the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 lengthened the time available for Congress to act on annual appropriations measures by moving the start of the fiscal year back three months, from July 1 to October 1.6 Procedures under the act first were implemented fully for FY1977. During the preceding 25 fiscal years, covering FY1952-FY1976, Congress did not once enact all of the regular appropriations acts on time. As a result, one or 5 Section 1414 of P.L. 82-547 (66 Stat. 661) made regular appropriations enacted late available as of July 1, 1952 (the first day of FY1953) and ratified any obligations incurred before their enactment. 6 Section 501 (88 Stat. 321) of P.L. 93-344; July 12, 1974. This section later was replaced by the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, but the start of the fiscal year remains October 1 (see 31 U.S.C. 1102). CRS-4 more continuing resolutions were enacted each year during this period, except for FY1953.7 The change made by the 1974 act in the start of the fiscal year yielded immediate results — all 13 of the regular appropriations acts for FY1977 were enacted on time. (Despite this achievement, two continuing resolutions were enacted to fund certain unauthorized programs that had been excluded from the regular appropriations acts.) The initial success was short-lived, and congressional reliance on continuing resolutions has persisted in the ensuing years. After FY1977, all of the regular appropriations acts were enacted on time in only three other instances — for FY1989, FY1995, and FY1997. Consequently, one or more continuing resolutions were needed each year during this period, except for these three fiscal years. In most years, more than one continuing resolution was needed as Congress worked to complete action on the regular appropriations acts. The number of continuing resolutions enacted for a fiscal year during the period covering FY1977FY2008 ranged from zero to 21. On average, about five continuing resolutions were enacted each year during this interval. Use of Full-Year Continuing Resolutions Full-year continuing resolutions provide funding for one or more of the regular appropriations acts for the remainder of the fiscal year (i.e., through June 30 for FY1976 and prior years, and through September 30 for FY1977 and subsequent years). They represent a determination by Congress to abandon any further efforts to enact separately any unfinished regular appropriations acts for the fiscal year, and to bring the annual appropriations process for that year to a close (except for the later consideration of supplemental appropriations acts). While Congress has employed full-year continuing resolutions on many occasions, it has not done so consistently over time. Prior to the full implementation of the 1974 Congressional Budget Act for FY1977, full-year continuing resolutions were used periodically. Full-year continuing resolutions, for example, were enacted into law for four of the six preceding fiscal years (FY1971, FY1973, FY1975, and FY1976).8 Following the successful completion of action on the regular appropriations acts for FY1977, Congress returned to the use of full-year continuing resolutions for more 7 Although regular appropriations measures for FY1953 were enacted into law after the start of the fiscal year on July 1, 1952, no continuing appropriations were provided. Section 1414 of P.L. 82-547 (July 15, 1952), a supplemental appropriations measure for FY1953, resolved the legalities arising from the tardy enactment of appropriations for that year. 8 The full-year continuing resolution for FY1976, P.L. 94-254, provided funding through the end of the fiscal year (June 30, 1976) as well as through the end of a “transition quarter” (September 30, 1976) made necessary by the change in the start of the fiscal year from July 1 to October 1. CRS-5 than a decade. For each of the 11 fiscal years following FY1977, covering FY1978FY1988, Congress enacted a full-year continuing resolution. Three years later, Congress enacted another full-year continuing resolution, for FY1992. Most recently, a full-year continuing resolution was enacted for FY2007. Full-year continuing resolutions may provide appropriations in different ways, including (1) by formulaic provisions (e.g., “at a rate for operations not in excess of the current rate or the rate provided in the budget estimate, whichever is lower”), in which the amounts available for individual projects and activities must be determined by comparing two or more alternatives; (2) by incorporating the full text of the applicable regular appropriations acts (including incorporation by cross-reference to other measures), thereby obviating the need to make any funding determinations; or (3) by a combination of the two. From a functional perspective, full-year continuing resolutions that do not include any formulaic provisions, but instead provide appropriations using the full text of acts (including by cross-reference), may be regarded by some as omnibus appropriations acts rather than continuing resolutions, even if they are entitled an act “making continuing appropriations” or “making further continuing appropriations.” Table 1 identifies the 13 full-year continuing resolutions enacted for the period covering FY1977-FY2007. Seven of the measures included at least one formulaic funding provision, while the remaining six did not. Nine of the 13 full-year continuing resolutions during this period were enacted in the first quarter of the fiscal year — three in October, two in November, and four in December. The four remaining measures, however, were enacted during the following session, between February 15 and June 5. As Table 1 shows, full-year continuing resolutions enacted during the first five years of this period were relatively short measures, ranging in length from one to four pages in the Statutes-at-Large. Beginning with FY1983 and extending through FY1988, however, the measures became much lengthier, ranging in length from 19 to 451 pages (averaging 244 pages). The greater page length of full-year continuing resolutions enacted for the period covering FY1983-FY1988 may be explained by two factors. First, full-year continuing resolutions enacted prior to FY1983 generally established funding levels by a formulaic reference to pending regular appropriations acts. With regard to a specific appropriations act, for example, funding levels may have been keyed to the lesser of the amounts provided in the House-passed or Senate-passed versions of the act. Beginning with FY1983, however, Congress largely abandoned the use of formulaic references to establish funding levels. Instead, the full text of some or all of the covered regular appropriations acts usually was incorporated into the full-year continuing resolution, thereby increasing its length considerably. Secondly, the number of regular appropriations acts covered by full-year continuing resolutions increased significantly during the FY1983-FY1988 period. For the period covering FY1978-FY1982, the number of regular appropriations acts covered by continuing resolutions for the full fiscal year ranged from one to five CRS-6 (averaging 2.4). Beginning with FY1983 and extending through FY1988, the number of covered acts ranged from four to 13 (averaging 8.7). Table 1. Full-Year Continuing Resolutions: FY1978-FY2008 Fiscal Year Public Law Number Enactment Date Page Length (Statutesat-Large) Included Formulaic Funding Provision(s)? 1978 95-205 12-09-1977 2 No 1979 95-482 10-18-1978 4 No 1980 96-123 11-20-1979 4 Yes 1981 97-12 06-05-1981 2a Yes 1982 97-161 03-31-1982 1 Yes 1983 97-377 12-21-1982 95 Yes 1984 98-151 11-14-1983 19 Yes 1985 98-473 10-12-1984 363 No 1986 99-190 12-19-1985 142 No 1987 99-591 10-30-1986 391 No 1988 100-202 12-22-1987 451 No 1989 [none] — — — 1990 [none] — — — 1991 [none] — — — 1992 102-266 04-01-1992 8 Yes 19932006 [none] — — — 2007 110-5 02-15-2007 53 Yes 2008 [none] — — — Source: Prepared by the Congressional Research Service. a. Full-year continuing appropriations for FY1981 were provided as part of a supplemental appropriations act (H.R. 3512); see Title IV, “Further Continuing Appropriations,” at 95 Stat. 96-97. CRS-7 Recent Congressional Practices (FY1998-FY2008) Continuing resolutions were an important element of the annual appropriations process during the last 11 fiscal years, covering FY1998-FY2008. (FY1997 was the most recent year for which no continuing resolutions were needed.) As shown in Table 2, a total of 75 continuing resolutions were enacted into law during the period. While the average number of such measures enacted per year was about 7 (6.8), the actual number enacted ranged from three measures (for FY2005 and FY2006) to 21 (for FY2001). Table 2. Number and Duration of Continuing Resolutions: FY1998-FY2008 Fiscal Year Number of Acts Duration in Daysa Average Duration for Each Act Final Expiration Date 1998 6 57 9.5 11-26-1997 1999 6 21 3.5 10-21-1998 2000 7 63 9.0 12-02-1999 2001 21 82 3.9 12-21-2000 2002 8 102 12.8 01-10-2002 2003 8 143 17.9 02-20-2003 2004 5b 123 24.6 01-31-2004 2005 3 69 23.0 12-08-2004 2006 3 92 30.7 12-31-2005 2007 4 365 91.3 09-30-2007 2008 4 92 23.0 12-31-2007 Total 75 1,209 — — Annual Average 6.8 110 16.1 — Source: Prepared by the Congressional Research Service. a. Duration is measured, in the case of the initial continuing resolution for a fiscal year, from the first day of the year (October 1). For subsequent continuing resolutions for a fiscal year, duration is measured from the expiration date of the preceding continuing resolution. As of the date of this writing, action on appropriations acts for FY2008 is not complete. b. The fifth continuing resolution for FY2004 did not change the expiration date of January 31, 2004, established in the preceding continuing resolution. CRS-8 During these last 11 years, Congress provided funding by such means for an average each year of about three and one-half months (110 days). Taking into account all of the continuing resolutions enacted for each year, the period for which continuing appropriations were provided ranged from 21 days to 365 days. On average, each of the 75 continuing resolutions enacted lasted for 16 days.9 One fullyear continuing resolution was used during this period, covering FY2007. In the first four instances, the expiration date in the final continuing resolution was set in the first quarter of the fiscal year, on a date occurring between October 21 and December 21. The expiration date in the final continuing resolution for the next three fiscal years, however, was set in the following session on a date occurring between January 10 and February 20. The expiration dates for the next two fiscal years shown in the table, FY2005 and FY2006, and for the final fiscal year, FY2008, were in the first quarter of the fiscal year (between December 8 and December 31). Finally, the final continuing resolution for FY2007 provided funding through the remainder of the fiscal year, with an expiration date of September 30, 2007. Figure 1 presents a representation of both the number and duration of continuing resolutions for FY1998-FY2008. As the figure shows, there is no significant correlation between these two variables. Six continuing resolutions were enacted for both FY1998 and FY1999, but the same number of measures lasted for a period of 57 days for FY1998 and only 21 days for FY1999. The largest number of continuing resolutions enacted for a single fiscal year during this period — 21 for FY2001 — covered a period lasting 82 days, at an average duration of 3.9 days per act; the smallest number enacted — three for FY2005 and for FY2006 — covered 69 days and 92 days, respectively, but at average durations of 23.0 (for FY2005) and 30.7 (for FY2006) days per act. Figure 1 also shows considerable mix in the use of shorter-term and longer-term continuing resolutions for a single fiscal year. For FY2001, for example, 21 continuing resolutions covered the first 82 days of the fiscal year. The first 25 days were covered by a series of four continuing resolutions lasting between five and eight days each. The next 10 days, a period of intense legislative negotiations leading up to the national elections on November 7, 2000, were covered by a series of 10 oneday continuing resolutions. The next 31 days were covered by only two continuing resolutions, the first lasting 10 days and the second lasting 21 days. The first of these two continuing resolutions was enacted into law on November 4, the Saturday before the election, and extended through November 14, the second day of a lame-duck session. The second continuing resolution was enacted into law on November 15; it expired on December 5, 10 days before the lame-duck session ended. The remaining five continuing resolutions, which ranged in duration from one to six days, covered the remainder of the lame-duck session and several days beyond 9 The fifth continuing resolution enacted for FY2004, P.L. 108-185, did not change the expiration date of January 31, 2004, set in the preceding continuing resolution. CRS-9 (as the final appropriations legislation passed by Congress was processed for the President’s approval). Table 3 provides more detailed information on the number and duration of continuing appropriations acts enacted for FY1998-FY2008. CRS-10 Figure 1. Duration of Continuing Resolutions: FY1998-FY2008 1998 1999 2000 Fiscal Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 0 100 200 300 400 Number of Days Note: Each segment of a bar for a fiscal year represents the duration of one continuing resolution. The left-most segment represents the first continuing resolution, effective beginning on October 1 (the start of the fiscal year). Duration is measured, in the case of the initial continuing resolution for a fiscal year, from the first day of the year through the expiration date. For subsequent continuing resolutions for a fiscal year, duration is measured from the expiration date of the preceding continuing resolution. CRS-11 Table 3. Detailed Information on Continuing Resolutions: FY1998-FY2008 Fiscal Year Public Law No. 1998 105-46 1999 2000 2001 Statutes-at-Large Citation Enactment Date Expiration Date Duration in Daysa 111 Stat. 1153-1158 09-30-97 10-23-97 23 105-64 111 Stat. 1343 10-23-97 11-07-97 15 105-68 111 Stat. 1453 11-07-97 11-09-97 2 105-69 111 Stat. 1454 11-09-97 11-10-97 1 105-71 111 Stat. 1456 11-10-97 11-14-97 4 105-84 111 Stat. 1628 11-14-97 11-26-97 12 105-240 112 Stat. 1566-1571 09-25-98 10-09-98 9 105-249 112 Stat. 1868 10-09-98 10-12-98 3 105-254 112 Stat. 1888 10-12-98 10-14-98 2 105-257 112 Stat. 1901 10-14-98 10-16-98 2 105-260 112 Stat. 1919 10-16-98 10-20-98 4 105-273 112 Stat. 2418 10-20-98 10-21-98 1 106-62 113 Stat. 505-509 09-30-99 10-21-99 21 106-75 113 Stat. 1125 10-21-99 10-29-99 8 106-85 113 Stat. 1297 10-29-99 11-05-99 7 106-88 113 Stat. 1304 11-05-99 11-10-99 5 106-94 113 Stat. 1311 11-10-99 11-17-99 7 106-105 113 Stat. 1484 11-18-99 11-18-99 1 106-106 113 Stat. 1485 11-19-99 12-02-99 14 106-275 114 Stat. 808-811 09-29-00 10-06-00 6 106-282 114 Stat. 866 10-06-00 10-14-00 8 106-306 114 Stat. 1073 10-13-00 10-20-00 6 106-344 114 Stat. 1318 10-20-00 10-25-00 5 106-358 114 Stat. 1397 10-26-00 10-26-00 1 106-359 114 Stat. 1398 10-26-00 10-27-00 1 106-381 114 Stat. 1450 10-27-00 10-28-00 1 106-388 114 Stat. 1550 10-28-00 10-29-00 1 CRS-12 Fiscal Year 2002 2003 Public Law No. Statutes-at-Large Citation Enactment Date Expiration Date Duration in Daysa 106-389 114 Stat. 1551 10-29-00 10-30-00 1 106-401 114 Stat. 1676 10-30-00 10-31-00 1 106-403 114 Stat. 1741 11-01-00 11-01-00 1 106-416 114 Stat. 1811 11-01-00 11-02-00 1 106-426 114 Stat. 1897 11-03-00 11-03-00 1 106-427 114 Stat. 1898 11-04-00 11-04-00 1 106-428 114 Stat. 1899 11-04-00 11-14-00 10 106-520 114 Stat. 2436-2437 11-15-00 12-05-00 21 106-537 114 Stat. 2562 12-05-00 12-07-00 2 106-539 114 Stat. 2570 12-07-00 12-08-00 1 106-540 114 Stat. 2571 12-08-00 12-11-00 3 106-542 114 Stat. 2713 12-11-00 12-15-00 4 106-543 114 Stat. 2714 12-15-00 12-21-00 6 107-44 115 Stat. 253-257 09-28-01 10-16-01 16 107-48 115 Stat. 261 10-12-01 10-23-01 7 107-53 115 Stat. 269 10-22-01 10-31-01 8 107-58 115 Stat. 406 10-31-01 11-16-01 16 107-70 115 Stat. 596 11-17-01 12-07-01 21 107-79 115 Stat. 809 12-07-01 12-15-01 8 107-83 115 Stat. 822 12-15-01 12-21-01 6 107-97 115 Stat. 960 12-21-01 01-10-02 20 107-229 116 Stat. 1465-1468 09-30-02 10-04-02 4 107-235 116 Stat. 1482 10-04-02 10-11-02 7 107-240 116 Stat. 1492-1495 10-11-02 10-18-02 7 107-244 116 Stat. 1503 10-18-02 11-22-02 35 107-294 116 Stat. 2062-2063 11-23-02 01-11-03 50 108-2 117 Stat. 5-6 01-10-03 01-31-03 20 108-4 117 Stat. 8 01-31-03 02-07-03 7 108-5 117 Stat. 9 02-07-03 02-20-03 13 CRS-13 Fiscal Year Public Law No. 2004 108-84 2005 2006 2007 2008 Statutes-at-Large Citation Enactment Date Expiration Date Duration in Daysa 117 Stat. 1042-1047 09-30-03 10-31-03 31 108-104 117 Stat. 1200 10-31-03 11-07-03 7 108-107 117 Stat. 1240 11-07-03 11-21-03 14 108-135 117 Stat. 1391 11-22-03 01-31-04 71 108-185 117 Stat. 2684 12-16-03 [n/a]b — 108-309 118 Stat. 1137-1143 09-30-04 11-20-04 51 108-416 118 Stat. 2338 11-21-04 12-03-04 13 108-434 118 Stat. 2614 12-03-04 12-08-04 5 109-77 119 Stat. 2037-2042 09-30-05 11-18-05 49 109-105 119 Stat. 2287 11-19-05 12-17-05 29 109-128 119 Stat. 2549 12-18-05 12-31-05 14 109-289c 120 Stat. 1311-1316 09-29-06 11-17-06 48 109-369 120 Stat. 2642 11-17-06 12-08-06 21 109-383 120 Stat. 2678 12-09-06 02-15-07 69 110-5 121 Stat. 8-60 02-15-07 09-30-07 227 110-92 121 Stat. 989-998 09-29-07 11-16-07 47 110-116d 121 Stat. 1341-1344 11-13-07 12-14-07 28 110-137 121 Stat. 1454 12-14-07 12-21-07 7 110-149 121 Stat. 1819 12-21-07 12-31-07 10 Sources: Prepared by the Congressional Research Service using data from: (1) the Legislative Information System; and (2) Congressional Research Service, Appropriations Status Tables (various fiscal years), available at: [http://www.crs.gov/products/appropriations/appover.shtml]. a. Duration is measured, in the case of the initial continuing resolution for a fiscal year, from the first day of the year (October 1) through the expiration date. For subsequent continuing resolutions for a fiscal year, duration is measured from the expiration date of the preceding continuing resolution. b. P.L. 108-185 contained provisions affecting funding levels for two specified programs, but did not contain a provision affecting the expiration date of January 31, 2004, established in the preceding continuing resolution (P.L. 108-135). c. Continuing appropriations for FY2007 were provided by Division B of P.L. 109-289, the Defense Appropriations Act for FY2007. d. Continuing appropriations for FY2008 were provided by Division B of P.L. 110-116, the Defense Appropriations Act for FY2008