Order Code RL34507 The Developmental Disabilities Act Updated June 26, 2008 Andrew R. Sommers Analyst in Public Health and Epidemiology Domestic Social Policy Division The Developmental Disabilities Act Summary The Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act (commonly known as the DD Act) provides federal financial assistance to states and public and nonprofit agencies to support community-based delivery of services to persons with developmental disabilities, which it defines as severe, life-long disabilities attributable to mental and/or physical impairment. Authorizations of appropriations for the DD Act programs expired at the end of FY2007. A bill to reauthorize the DD Act has not been introduced in this session, though a number of amendments to the DD Act have been proposed during the 110th Congress (H.R. 1881, H.R. 2839, H.R. 3995, S. 937). The DD Act aims to help individuals with developmental disabilities maximize their potential through increased independence, productivity, inclusion, and integration into the community. The Act authorizes appropriations for (1) State Councils on Developmental Disabilities, (2) each state’s Protection and Advocacy system for individuals with developmental disabilities, (3) University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities, and (4) Projects of National Significance. These grant programs are designed to help state governments, local communities, and private sector organizations provide developmentally disabled persons with health care services (e.g., diagnosis, therapy, early intervention), education, employment training, and recreational or leisure opportunities. The Administration’s FY2009 budget proposal requests $162.6 million for the DD Act programs, which would represent no change from the FY2008 level of funding. Action is pending on the appropriations bills in both the House and the Senate. This report will be updated as legislative developments warrant. Contents Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DD Act Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 State Councils on Developmental Disabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Protection and Advocacy (P&As) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities Education, Research, and Service (UCEDDs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Projects of National Significance (PNS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 New Programs Authorized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Legislation in the 110th Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Appendix. Allotments for State DD Councils and Protection and Advocacy Programs, FY2000-FY2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 List of Tables Table 1. Protection and Advocacy Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Table 2. Developmental Disabilities Programs: Appropriations for FY2000-FY2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Table 3. State Developmental Disabilities Council Allotments for FY2000-FY2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Table 4. Protection and Advocacy Allotments for FY2000-FY2008 . . . . . . . . . 13 The Developmental Disabilities Act Background The Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act (DD Act) provides federal financial assistance to states and public and nonprofit agencies to support community-based delivery of services to persons with developmental disabilities. The aim of the programs established by the DD Act is to help persons with developmental disabilities maximize their work potential, facilitate their ability to live independently, and foster their integration into the community. The protection of the legal rights of persons with developmental disabilities is another major objective of the DD Act. The current law encourages coordination and collaboration among a state’s developmental disabilities council, various independent living centers, and its protection and advocacy system. Although the Act does not provide direct services, its programs are intended to plan and better coordinate the delivery of services and to advocate on behalf of individuals with developmental disabilities. The Administration on Developmental Disabilities (ADD), part of the Administration for Children and Families in the Department of Health and Human Services, oversees all DD Act programs. The DD Act was originally Title I of the Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act of 1963 (P.L. 88-164). It was renamed the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act by P.L. 95-602 in 1978 and then amended generally and completely reorganized by P.L. 98-527 in 1984. Congress last reauthorized the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act1 (P.L. 106-402) in 2000. Authorizations of appropriations for the DD Act programs expired at the end of FY2007. A bill to reauthorize the DD Act has not been introduced in the 110th Congress. According to the ADD, there are approximately 4.5 million individuals with developmental disabilities in the United States.2 Although the term developmental disability originally specified disabling conditions such as mental retardation and cerebral palsy, the current definition is based on functional limitations that are manifest prior to adulthood. Section 102(8) of the Act defines developmental disabilities as severe, life-long disabilities attributable to mental and/or physical impairments, manifested before age 22. These impairments must result in substantial limitations in three or more of the following areas of major life activities: capacity for independent living, economic self-sufficiency, learning, mobility, receptive and expressive language, self-care, and self-direction. 1 All sections referenced in this report are part of this Act unless otherwise noted. It is codified in 42 U.S.C. 15001 et seq. 2 See [http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/add/Factsheet.html]. CRS-2 The DD Act also specifies that “an individual from birth to age 9, inclusive, who has a substantial developmental delay or specific congenital or acquired condition, may be considered to have a developmental disability without meeting 3 or more of the criteria described ... if the individual, without services and supports, has a high probability of meeting those criteria later in life.”3 Without appropriate services and supports, the choices open to some people with developmental disabilities, including where they live, work, and play, may be minimal. Many may be isolated rather than fully integrated and included in the mainstream of society. Others may require individually planned and coordinated services and supports (e.g., housing, employment, education, civil and human rights protection, health care) from many providers in order to live in the community. This report describes the programs authorized under the DD Act, including State Councils on Developmental Disabilities, Protection and Advocacy systems, University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities, and Projects of National Significance. These grant programs are designed to help state governments, local communities, and private sector organizations provide health care services, educational opportunities, and employment training to persons with developmental disabilities. A funding history for each of these programs is included is Table 2; Table 3 and Table 4 in the Appendix detail allotments for State Councils on Developmental Disabilities and for Protection and Advocacy systems, respectively, by state and U.S. territory. DD Act Programs State Councils on Developmental Disabilities Each state and U.S. territory receives funding to establish a State Council on Developmental Disabilities (SCDD), which is expected to develop and implement a comprehensive statewide plan for delivering services to individuals with developmental disabilities (and their families), especially those not otherwise served under existing health and welfare programs.4 Members of a state’s Council are appointed by the governor and must be geographically, ethnically, and racially representative of the state as a whole. At least 60% of the members of the Council must be individuals with developmental disabilities (DD), immediate relatives of persons with DD, or legal guardians to such individuals. Representatives from relevant state agencies are also required to sit on each SCDD. SCDDs are given wide latitude to use the DD Act funding they receive. Each is permitted to engage in advocacy activities that promote independent living and social integration. These efforts may include, but are not limited to, public education campaigns, outreach to employers, and the provision of information to policy makers. 3 §102(8) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 15002(8)). 4 §§121-129 of the Act (42 U.S.C. 15021-15029). CRS-3 Funds are allotted to states and territories on the basis of population, extent of need for services for persons with developmental disabilities, and the financial needs of the respective states (see Table 3).5 The DDS Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-402) amended the established minimum allotments for states and territories. P.L. 106-402 stipulates that in years when total appropriations for SSCDs are less than or equal to $70 million, each state will receive at least $400,000 from this program; each territory, $210,000. When appropriations exceed $70 million, minimum allotments for states and territories will be $450,000 and $220,000, respectively.6 Matching funds are required on a 75% federal-25% state basis, except in the case of projects in “poverty areas,” where the federal share may be up to 90%. For projects conducted by Council members or staff to implement state plan activities,7 the federal share may be up to 100% of the aggregate necessary cost of such activities. Total FY2008 funding for the State Councils on Developmental Disabilities was $72.5 million; the President’s FY2009 budget request for these organizations is for the same amount. Protection and Advocacy (P&As) As a condition for receipt of state grants for developmental disabilities councils, states must have in effect a system to protect and advocate for the rights of individuals with developmental disabilities.8 P&As provide information and referral services and investigate reported incidents of abuse and neglect of individuals with developmental disabilities. These programs have the authority to pursue legal, administrative, and other appropriate remedies to protect and defend the legal and human rights of individuals with developmental disabilities. There are 57 protection and advocacy (P&A) systems in the United States. Each state (50), each U.S. territory (5), the District of Columbia (1), and Indian tribes (1) receive P&A funding. Appropriations for all except Indian tribes are detailed in Table 4. 5 Two-thirds of the amount appropriated is allotted to each state based on relative population, weighted by the relative per capita income for each state. One-third of the amount appropriated is allotted according to the percentage of individuals in the state, aged 18 to 65, receiving benefits under the Childhood Disabilities Beneficiary Program [§202(d)(1)(B)(ii) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 402(d)(1)(B)(ii))]. Data used to compute the allotments are supplied annually by the Social Security Administration and the U.S. Department of Commerce. 6 When the DD Act was reauthorized in 2000 (P.L. 106-402), minimum allotments were also constrained so that a state would not be given “less than the amount received by the State for the previous year.” The Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Prevention Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-154) amended the minimum allotment so that each state would receive at least as much money as was appropriated in the previous fiscal year for its SCDD, or it would receive “the amount of Federal appropriations received in fiscal year 2000, 2001, or 2002, whichever is greater.” 7 “State plan” activities include, but are not limited to, outreach activities, training for persons with developmental disabilities, technical assistance, public education efforts, interagency coordination activities, and research that would inform policy makers about the needs of persons with developmental disabilities. 8 §§121-129 of the Act (42 U.S.C. 15001-15029). CRS-4 Funds for protection and advocacy systems are allotted on the same basis as the SSCDs, except no matching funds are required. The Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act Amendments of 1994 (P.L. 103-230) set the minimum allotments under this program at $200,000 for states and $107,000 for territories in fiscal years when the total amount appropriated for the program is at least $20 million, and the current law continues those minimum allotments.9 Although the DD Act provides a mandate for protection and advocacy of persons with developmental disabilities, other federal laws with similar mandates provide protection and advocacy services for similarly vulnerable populations. Table 1 lists protection and advocacy programs that serve persons with developmental disabilities and are administered by federal agencies. These P&A programs require the P&A system designated under the DD Act to implement their program. Table 1. Protection and Advocacy Systems Program Administering Agency P&A for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities (PADD) Administration on Developmental Disabilities Department of Health and Human Services P&A for Voting Access (PAVA) Administration on Developmental Disabilities Department of Health and Human Services P&A for Individuals with Mental Illness (PAIMI) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Department of Health and Human Services P&A for Individual Rights (PAIR) Rehabilitation Services Administration Department of Education P&A for Assistive Technology (PAAT) Rehabilitation Services Administration Department of Education P&A for Beneficiaries of Social Security (PABSS) Social Security Administration P&A for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury (PATBI) Health Resources and Services Administration Department of Health and Human Services Source: State Protection and Advocacy Agencies Systems Fact Sheet, Administration on Developmental Disabilities, United States Department of Health and Human Services, December 6, 2006, at [http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/add/states/pnafactsheet.html]. Total FY2008 funding for the P&A programs, authorized by the DD Act, was $39.0 million; the President’s FY2009 budget request for P&As is for the same amount. 9 When appropriations for the Protection and Advocacy program do not exceed $20 million, the minimum allotments are $150,000 for each state and $80,000 for each territory. CRS-5 University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities Education, Research, and Service (UCEDDs) Formerly known as “university-affiliated programs,” University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities Education, Research, and Service (UCEDDs) are interdisciplinary research and public service units of universities (or public, not-for-profit entities associated with universities) that provide training and technical assistance, and engage in translational research with a focus on meeting the needs of people with developmental disabilities. These centers are in a unique position to facilitate the flow of research findings and disability-related information from the university environment to the public at-large. UCEDDs educate policy makers, employers, and community leaders about opportunities for persons with disabilities in an effort to increase the capacity of such individuals to live independently and lead economically productive lives.10 UCEDD grants are awarded on a competitive basis for a period of five years. Currently, there are 67 such Centers for Excellence across the nation.11 According to the statute,12 existing UCEDDs receive first priority when DD act funding is being distributed.13 The FY2008 appropriation for the UCEDDs was $36.9 million; the Administration’s FY2009 request is identical to the previous year’s appropriation. Projects of National Significance (PNS) This program funds grants or contracts to public nonprofit institutions to enhance the independence, productivity, and social inclusion of people with developmental disabilities. Projects of National Significance differ from the DD Council and P&A programs, because PNS activities focus on emerging areas of concern, on issues that transcend the border of particular states and territories.14 Such projects may (1) provide support services for families of individuals with developmental disabilities; (2) involve data collection and analysis; (3) support the advocacy, planning, and training functions of SCDDs; or (4) fund other projects, such as conferences and special meetings that may have an impact on federal or state policy. Examples of PNS projects include studies of racial disparities in access to services used by developmentally disabled individuals, or research exploring the 10 §§125-129 of the Act (42 U.S.C. 15025-15029). 11 A complete directory of UCEDDs is available online at [http://www.aucd.org/directory/ displayallprog.cfm?program=UCEDD&CFID=15386&CFTOKEN=58012620]. 12 P.L. 106-402, §152, (42 U.S.C. 15062). 13 If each of the existing Centers reaches a maximum funding level of $500,000 per fiscal year, and there are adequate funds remaining from the annual appropriation, other activities specified under the DD act would be funded. This situation last occurred in FY2008. The activities identified in the DD Act as appropriate recipients of the additional funding are (1) National Training Initiatives and (2) grants for additional Centers, or increased funding for Centers that operate in areas of high need. 14 §§161-163 of the Act (42 U.S.C. 15081-15083). CRS-6 transition from school to work for the DD population. PNS grants are administered by ADD at the federal level. Funding for the PNS grants in FY2008 totaled $14.2 million; the President’s budget for FY2009 requested the same amount. This funding would support 56 grants for youth activities, family support activities, data collection, evaluations of all the DD Act programs, and programs focused on emerging issues of concern for the disability community such as emergency preparedness. New Programs Authorized In addition to reauthorizing the existing programs described above, the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000 authorized three new programs. Title II authorized competitive grants to help states strengthen their family support programs for families with a severely disabled family member.15 Title III authorized one scholarship program to provide vouchers for post-secondary education for direct support workers who assist individuals with developmental disabilities, and a second grant program for the development, evaluation, and dissemination of a staff development curriculum.16 Funding The DD Act of 2000 authorized the following amounts for FY2001: $76 million for the State Councils on Developmental Disabilities, $32 million for Protection and Advocacy, $30 million for the University Centers of Excellence, $16 million for Projects of National Significance, and $800,000 each for the new scholarships and staff development curriculum grants. The Act authorized such sums as may be necessary for these programs for FY2002 through FY2007. Authorization for the staff development curriculum lapsed after FY2003, while such sums as may be necessary were authorized through FY2007 for the family support program. Known as Family Support 360, this program only received funding in FY2003 (for planning) and FY2004 (for implementation). Since FY2005, ADD has funded the family support program using monies appropriated for Projects of National Significance.17 Congress approved $162.6 million for DD Act programs for FY2008. Table 2 (below) shows the recent history of appropriation levels for the programs funded by the Act. Appropriations for all the DD Act’s programs have increased from $122.3 million in FY2000 to $162.6 for FY2008. Table 3 and Table 4 in the Appendix provide FY2000-FY2009 appropriation levels for the Developmental 15 §§202-212 of the Act (42 U.S.C. 15091-15101). For program details, see [http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/add/pns/fs360factsheet.html]. 16 17 §§304-305 of the Act (42 U.S.C. 15114-15115). Twenty-one states and territories have established and continue to maintain this type of program. For details, see [http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/add/states/pns_map.html]. CRS-7 Disabilities Councils and for Protection and Advocacy programs, respectively, by state and territory. Table 2. Developmental Disabilities Programs: Appropriations for FY2000-FY2009 ($ in millions) Fiscal Year Developmental Disabilities Councils Protection and Advocacy UCEDDs Projects of National Significancea Total 2000 65.8 28.1 18.2 10.2 122.3 2001 67.8 33.0 21.8 10.9 133.5 2002 69.8 35.0 24.0 11.6 140.4 2003 71.1 36.3 25.0 12.4 144.8 2004 73.1 38.4 26.8 11.6 149.9 2005 72.5 38.1 31.5 11.5 153.7 2006 71.8 38.7 33.2 11.4 155.0 2007 71.8 38.7 33.2 11.4 155.1 2008 72.5 39.0 36.9 14.2 162.6 2009 req. 72.5 39.0 36.9 14.2 162.6 Source: Published and unpublished congressional documents and the budget justification for the Administration for Children and Families, HHS. a. PNS funding includes appropriations for the Family Support Program (FY2001- FY2009). Legislation in the 110th Congress Legislation that directly relates to the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act has been introduced in the 110th Congress. H.R. 2839 was introduced by Representative Barney Frank in June 2007. This bill would amend the DD Act to require State Councils on Developmental Disabilities and Protection and Advocacy organizations to obtain authorization from individuals (or their legal guardians) before pursuing legal remedies on their behalf. In effect, litigants would have to “opt-in” to lawsuits filed on their behalf by DD Councils or P&A organizations. H.R. 2839 was referred to the House Energy and Commerce Committee, Subcommittee on Health. H.R. 3995 was also introduced by Representative Frank, intended as a substitute for H.R. 2839. H.R. 3995 reverses the centerpiece of H.R. 2839 — its “opt-in” provision. Introduced in October 2007, H.R. 3995 requires federally funded organizations representing plaintiffs in a class action to give notice to any Intermediate Care Facility for the Mentally Retarded (ICF/MR) that is named in said CRS-8 lawsuit.18 In turn, this ICF/MR would be obliged to give notice of the proposed action to its residents or their legal guardians. Each resident would then have the right to “opt-out” of the suit before it is filed. H.R. 3995 was referred to the House Committee on the Judiciary. Paralleling the bills introduced by Representative Frank, the Administration on Developmental Disabilities has recently proposed a new rule that would modify the implementation regulations for the DD Act. Specifically, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is seeking comment on “whether the current process involving class action lawsuits provides adequate protection for individuals with developmental disabilities,” and on what criteria should be applied, or what clearance process should be followed, to include an individual as a member of a “class.”19 In addition, HHS has asked for feedback about how to handle situations in which there is a difference of opinion between the individual with a developmental disability and his or her guardian regarding whether to become a member of a class action lawsuit. The underlying objective of H.R. 2839, H.R. 3995, and the proposed regulations discussed above is to address some concerns that have been raised about the activities of some federally funded DD Act programs. Specifically, Voice of the Retarded (VOR), an advocacy organization, has argued that P&A organizations have been complicit in the neglect, and even death, of some individuals with severe mental retardation by bringing class action lawsuits, which have ultimately led to the closure of some ICFs/MR.20 VOR contends that some low-functioning persons would have preferred to remain in an institutional setting and would have been able to do so, if P&As had been required to secure the approval of the families (or guardians) of these developmentally disabled individuals before filing class action suits “on their behalf.”21 By contrast, organizations like American Disabled for Attendant Programs Today (ADAPT) have argued that the administrative burden associated with “optingin” to a lawsuit is unreasonable and would only delay or hinder efforts to deinstitutionalize services for individuals with disabilities. Moreover, they contend, by limiting the number of class action suits brought against ICFs/MR, the “opt-in” provision in H.R. 2839 would have insulated facilities that provide substandard care, 18 An ICF/MR is an institution whose primary purpose is to provide health or rehabilitation services to individuals with mental retardation or related conditions. ICFs/MR must meet standards outlined in federal regulations (42 CFR Part 483, Subpart I, §§483.400-483.480). In addition, all ICFs/MR residents must be financially eligible for the Medicaid program. 19 Department of Health and Human Services, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), 45 CFR Parts 1385, 1386, 1387, and 1388, Developmental Disabilities Program, Federal Register, vol. 73, no. 70 (April 10, 2008), pp. 19707-19741, at [http://www.acf.hhs.gov/ programs/add/NPRM.html]. 20 For some evidence of higher mortality rates among persons with DD who were transferred out of ICFs/MR, see Robert Shavelle, David Strauss, and Steve Day, “Deinstitutionalization in California: Mortality of Persons with Developmental Disabilities after Transfer into Community Care, 1997-1999,” Journal of Data Science, vol. 3 (2005), pp. 371-380. 21 Mary McTernan, The Need for Immediate Reforms, Elk Grove, Illinois, January 2007, at [http://vor.net/VORDDAct2007Presentation2.doc]. CRS-9 making it more difficult to penalize these institutions. ADAPT and other advocacy groups welcomed Representative Frank’s substitution of H.R. 3995 for H.R. 2839.22 Finally, the Expanding the Promise for Individuals With Autism Act of 2007 (S. 937, H.R. 1881) deals with DD Act programs. Sponsored by Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton and Representative Mike Doyle, respectively, these companion bills would award additional grants to UCEDDs to (1) provide services and address the unmet needs of individuals with autism and their families, (2) make grants to P&A systems to address the needs of individuals with autism and other emerging populations of individuals with disabilities, and (3) award a grant to a national nonprofit organization for the establishment and maintenance of a national technical assistance center for autism services and information dissemination. Although individuals with autism already receive services funded under the DD Act, these bills would give additional monies to SCDDs and P&A organizations for the purposes of funding services specifically geared towards autistic individuals. 22 Personal communication with Tom Wilson, ADAPT Board Member, May 22, 2008. CRS-10 Appendix. Allotments for State DD Councils and Protection and Advocacy Programs, FY2000-FY2008 Table 3. State Developmental Disabilities Council Allotments for FY2000-FY2008 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 States Alabama $1,262,258 $1,280,704 $1,283,663 $1,312,274 $1,315,925 $1,315,925 $1,303,749 $1,287,350 $1,304,421 Alaska 403,093 408,984 446,374 450,000 462,315 462,315 461,733 461,111 462,315 Arizona 852,424 864,880 1,056,129 1,144,633 1,285,145 1,285,145 1,273,254 1,257,240 1,342,090 Arkansas 736,835 747,603 762,418 805,462 805,462 805,462 798,009 787,972 787,972 5,577,058 5,658,558 6,543,380 6,517,570 6,795,666 6,795,666 6,732,793 6,648,112 6,653,416 Colorado 702,519 712,785 733,877 769,862 836,106 836,106 828,370 817,950 841,994 Connecticut 636,590 645,893 639,635 650,630 690,715 690,715 684,377 675,805 695,612 Delaware 403,093 408,984 446,374 450,000 462,315 462,315 461,733 461,111 462,315 Dist. of Columbia 403,093 408,984 446,374 450,000 462,315 462,315 461,733 461,111 462,315 Florida 2,738,067 2,778,080 3,311,207 3,509,166 3,641,185 3,641,185 3,607,497 3,562,124 3,583,358 Georgia 1,588,851 1,612,070 1,807,722 1,885,140 1,904,329 1,904,329 1,866,710 1,862,979 1,962,493 Hawaii 403,093 408,984 446,374 450,000 462,315 462,315 461,733 461,111 462,315 Idaho 403,093 408,984 446,374 450,000 462,315 462,315 461,733 461,111 462,315 Illinois 2,546,852 2,584,071 2,624,831 2,669,813 2,669,813 2,669,813 2,645,112 2,617,997 2,624,831 Indiana 1,405,033 1,425,566 1,488,546 1,514,002 1,514,002 1,514,002 1,499,994 1,484,670 1,488,546 Iowa 763,027 774,177 743,276 756,826 774,177 774,177 773,202 772,161 774,177 Kansas 585,694 594,253 614,589 621,286 621,286 621,286 615,537 612,988 614,589 Kentucky 1,167,866 1,184,933 1,187,596 1,205,456 1,225,694 1,225,694 1,214,354 1,199,080 1,220,209 Louisiana 1,355,909 1,375,723 1,315,691 1,358,920 1,385,313 1,385,313 1,373,991 1,372,141 1,375,723 403,093 408,984 446,374 450,000 462,315 462,315 461,733 461,111 462,315 California Maine CRS-11 FY2000 Maryland FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 888,140 901,119 1,008,160 1,026,488 1,026,488 1,026,488 1,016,990 1,005,535 1,008,160 Massachusetts 1,232,540 1,250,543 1,298,126 1,308,789 1,367,725 1,367,725 1,355,070 1,338,027 1,363,763 Michigan 2,260,428 2,293,461 2,469,330 2,477,214 2,540,965 2,540,965 2,517,456 2,485,792 2,508,955 Minnesota 966,203 980,322 1,025,295 1,041,526 1,041,526 1,041,526 1,031,889 1,022,625 1,025,295 Mississippi 899,331 912,473 914,238 944,426 948,925 948,925 940,145 928,320 928,320 Missouri 1,271,438 1,290,019 1,353,961 1,385,181 1,385,181 1,385,181 1,372,365 1,355,103 1,355,103 Montana 403,093 408,984 446,374 450,000 462,315 462,315 461,733 461,111 462,315 Nebraska 408,345 414,312 446,374 450,000 462,315 462,315 461,733 461,111 462,315 Nevada 403,093 408,984 446,374 450,000 462,315 462,315 461,733 461,111 469,691 New Hampshire 403,093 408,984 446,374 450,000 462,315 462,315 461,733 461,111 462,315 1,431,866 1,452,791 1,553,320 1,587,659 1,589,253 1,589,253 1,574,549 1,554,744 1,555,332 443,040 449,515 490,241 514,035 521,855 521,855 571,026 510,523 510,523 New York 3,978,194 4,036,228 3,964,223 4,110,221 4,263,616 4,263,616 4,224,169 4,171,039 4,237,731 North Carolina 1,742,316 1,767,777 1,910,719 1,989,293 1,989,293 1,989,293 1,970,887 1,946,099 1,946,099 403,093 408,984 446,374 450,000 462,315 462,315 461,733 461,111 462,315 2,751,460 2,791,669 2,846,721 2,866,334 2,891,529 2,891,529 2,864,776 2,839,309 2,846,721 Oklahoma 875,043 887,831 897,250 914,772 914,772 914,772 906,308 894,914 897,250 Oregon 674,084 683,935 729,341 756,326 785,280 785,280 778,013 768,227 770,874 Pennsylvania 2,982,930 3,026,521 2,979,345 3,040,598 3,113,657 3,113,657 3,084,849 3,046,050 3,068,727 Rhode Island 403,093 408,984 446,374 450,000 462,315 462,315 461,733 461,111 462,315 1,015,658 1,030,500 1,097,001 1,132,839 1,132,839 1,132,839 1,122,357 1,108,241 1,108,241 403,093 408,984 446,374 450,000 462,315 462,315 461,733 461,111 462,315 Tennessee 1,384,131 1,404,358 1,461,395 1,516,063 1,517,325 1,517,325 1,503,287 1,484,379 1,487,918 Texas 4,113,190 4,173,299 4,384,764 4,509,851 4,775,777 4,775,777 4,731,777 4,672,079 4,813,721 Utah 500,192 507,501 545,015 570,336 602,828 602,828 597,250 589,738 613,228 Vermont 403,093 408,984 446,374 450,000 462,315 462,315 461,733 461,111 462,315 New Jersey New Mexico North Dakota Ohio South Carolina South Dakota CRS-12 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 Virginia 1,317,943 1,337,203 1,501,929 1,524,134 1,524,134 1,524,134 1,510,032 1,498,018 1,501,929 Washington 1,022,074 1,037,010 1,149,422 1,165,304 1,196,582 1,196,582 1,185,511 1,170,600 1,189,607 728,693 739,342 674,547 676,145 772,441 772,441 765,293 755,667 769,832 Wisconsin 1,231,658 1,249,657 1,293,164 1,309,753 1,309,753 1,309,753 1,297,635 1,289,797 1,293,164 Wyoming 403,093 408,984 446,374 450,000 462,315 462,315 461,733 461,111 462,315 61,681,182 62,582,458 66,355,677 67,838,327 69,611,287 69,611,287 69,064,578 68,310,060 69,012,025 American Samoa 211,625 214,718 234,348 234,348 240,761 240,761 240,458 240,134 240,761 Guam 211,625 214,718 234,348 234,348 240,761 240,761 240,458 240,134 240,761 Northern Mariana Islands 211,625 214,718 234,348 234,348 240,761 240,761 240,458 240,134 240,761 2,275,418 2,308,670 2,506,931 2,358,881 2,506,931 2,506,931 2,503,776 2,500,404 2,506,931 211,625 214,718 234,348 234,348 240,761 240,761 240,458 240,134 240,761 3,121,918 3,167,542 3,444,323 3,296,273 3,469,975 3,469,975 3,465,608 3,460,940 3,469,975 64,803,100 65,750,000 69,800,000 71,134,600 73,081,262 73,081,262 72,530,186 71,771,000 72,482,000 West Virginia Subtotal, states Territories Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Subtotal, territories Total Sources: Published and unpublished congressional documents and the budget justification for the Administration for Children and Families, HHS. CRS-13 Table 4. Protection and Advocacy Allotments for FY2000-FY2008 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 States Alabama $440,488 $465,705 $577,381 $599,332 $627,475 $629,286 $616,974 $624,790 $631,160 Alaska 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 Arizona 366,883 388,730 481,860 529,268 579,111 587,829 593,445 626,294 632,690 Arkansas 263,838 277,337 342,954 367,922 387,602 388,340 379,748 385,083 389,010 2,238,705 2,347,035 2,944,722 2,978,192 3,181,700 3,195,668 3,183,331 3,269,612 3,302,985 Colorado 281,419 294,498 365,076 387,881 415,010 414,702 408,703 419,637 422,685 Connecticut 262,297 276,297 346,433 357,896 378,592 378,998 376,728 378,401 379,761 Delaware 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 Dist. of Columbia 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 1,107,462 1,188,948 1,489,867 1,603,400 1,745,277 1,749,350 1,751,019 1,818,094 1,836,650 Georgia 615,186 653,949 813,299 861,232 933,374 928,659 934,345 982,659 992,686 Hawaii 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 Idaho 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 Illinois 899,454 951,104 1,180,647 1,219,417 1,284,415 1,281,987 1,281,999 1,291,826 1,305,000 Indiana 504,761 536,953 669,613 691,560 727,760 729,561 722,342 735,665 743,167 Iowa 260,532 273,978 340,450 352,266 371,121 370,786 368,535 366,994 368,238 Kansas 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 Kentucky 407,830 435,383 534,120 550,505 577,979 578,589 567,565 581,840 587,769 Louisiana 465,862 478,649 591,736 620,599 646,343 651,487 629,491 645,244 651,820 Maine 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 Maryland 344,455 364,046 453,580 468,934 498,207 496,219 478,650 483,737 488,672 Massachusetts 445,897 466,490 583,738 597,599 621,094 616,816 602,505 599,590 605,699 Michigan 829,459 893,221 1,110,559 1,131,229 1,190,195 1,182,440 1,164,400 1,176,513 1,188,505 California Florida CRS-14 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 Minnesota 348,788 378,784 461,218 475,743 502,232 500,234 492,891 499,792 504,889 Mississippi 314,344 332,243 411,202 431,326 453,210 450,056 436,384 445,745 450,289 Missouri 461,734 490,603 609,069 632,709 665,767 665,060 660,742 673,574 680,443 Montana 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 Nebraska 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 Nevada 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 New Hampshire 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 New Jersey 524,188 551,995 698,666 725,127 764,947 766,400 749,910 758,626 766,360 New Mexico 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 1,392,058 1,423,590 1,782,631 1,876,815 1,959,198 1,953,358 1,931,732 1,952,446 1,972,345 North Carolina 648,421 690,481 859,512 908,709 976,006 977,015 984,385 1,026,804 1,037,277 North Dakota 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 Ohio 978,964 1,037,007 1,280,363 1,309,037 1,369,182 1,367,093 1,350,619 1,359,530 1,373,390 Oklahoma 310,330 329,068 403,708 417,943 437,177 438,101 420,929 426,890 431,245 Oregon 266,748 281,919 349,503 365,481 390,425 391,568 391,212 396,213 399,022 Pennsylvania 1,028,682 1,073,080 1,339,885 1,388,495 1,443,211 1,444,385 1,417,757 1,426,488 1,441,027 Rhode Island 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 South Carolina 369,392 395,715 493,458 517,436 549,365 547,408 541,043 557,541 563,226 South Dakota 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 Tennessee 495,137 525,514 657,310 692,425 732,439 728,411 718,684 733,221 740,697 1,546,785 1,594,404 1,973,255 2,060,863 2,232,558 2,235,839 2,243,796 2,313,870 2,337,493 Utah 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 Vermont 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 Virginia 513,852 543,539 675,665 696,222 739,346 741,878 726,148 737,259 744,779 Washington 396,806 413,862 517,232 532,454 567,799 566,996 564,196 589,007 595,017 West Virginia 274,742 289,650 358,713 371,782 390,425 392,097 388,931 388,670 390,134 New York Texas CRS-15 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 Wisconsin 444,030 470,485 581,669 598,214 629,285 626,865 611,617 621,843 628,184 Wyoming 254,508 267,768 333,400 345,429 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 365,940 24,630,673 25,934,486 32,280,294 33,535,735 35,554,747 35,560,401 35,277,676 35,880,418 36,169,234 American Samoa 136,161 143,255 178,367 184,802 195,775 195,775 195,775 195,775 195,775 Guam 136,161 143,255 178,367 184,802 195,775 195,775 195,775 195,775 195,775 Northern Mariana Islands 136,161 143,255 178,367 184,802 195,775 195,775 195,775 195,775 195,775 Puerto Rico 853,915 897,039 1,271,871 1,077,750 1,114,058 1,108,404 1,090,269 1,084,348 1,095,411 Virgin Islands 136,161 143,255 178,367 184,802 195,775 195,775 195,775 195,775 195,775 1,398,559 1,470,059 1,985,339 1,816,958 1,897,158 1,891,504 1,873,369 1,867,448 1,878,511 26,029,232 27,404,545 34,265,633 35,352,693 37,451,905 37,451,905 37,151,045 37,747,866 38,047,745 Subtotal, states Territories Subtotal, territories Total Sources: Published and unpublished congressional documents and the budget justification for the Administration for Children and Families, HHS.