Order Code RL32492 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Updated May 14, 2008 Hannah Fischer Information Research Specialist Knowledge Services Group Kim Klarman Information Research Specialist Knowledge Services Group Mari-Jana “M-J” Oboroceanu Information Research Specialist Knowledge Services Group American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Summary This report is written in response to numerous requests for war casualty statistics and lists of war dead. It provides tables, compiled by sources at the Department of Defense (DOD), indicating the number of casualties among American military personnel serving in principal wars and combat actions. Wars covered include the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Civil War, the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam Conflict, and the Persian Gulf War. Military operations covered include the Iranian Hostage Rescue Mission, Lebanon Peacekeeping, Urgent Fury in Grenada, Just Cause in Panama, Desert Shield and Desert Storm, Restore Hope in Somalia, Uphold Democracy in Haiti, and the ongoing Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). For the more recent conflicts, starting with the Korean War, more detailed information on types of casualties, and, when available, demographics have been included. This report also cites sources of published lists of military personnel killed in principal wars and combat actions. This report will be updated as events warrant. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Sources of Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Sources of Published Lists of Names of War Dead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Additional Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 List of Tables Table 1. Principal Wars in Which the United States Participated: U.S. Military Personnel Serving and Casualties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Table 2. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths — Selected Military Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Table 3. Active Duty Military Deaths — Race/Ethnicity Summary . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Table 4. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2006, Part I, Total Military Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Table 5. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2006, Part II, Cause of Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Table 6. Comparison of Death, Wounded and Amputation Statistics in American Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Table 7. Korean War — Casualty Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Table 8. Vietnam Conflict — Casualty Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Table 9. Persian Gulf War — Casualty Summary Desert Shield/Desert Storm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Table 10. Global War on Terrorism — Operation Enduring Freedom by Casualty Category Within Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Table 11. Operation Enduring Freedom, Demographics of Military Deaths . . . . 14 Table 12. Operation Enduring Freedom, Military Wounded in Action . . . . . . . . 15 Table 13. Operation Iraqi Freedom, By Casualty Category Within Service, March 19, 2003, Through April 5, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Table 14. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Military Deaths, March 19, 2003, Through April 30, 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Table 15. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Military Deaths, May 1, 2003, Through April 5, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Table 16. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Wounded In Action, March 19, 2003, Through April 5, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Introduction This report is written in response to numerous requests for war casualty statistics and lists of war dead. It provides tables, compiled by sources at the Department of Defense (DOD), indicating the number of fatalities and numbers of wounded among American military personnel serving in principal wars and combat actions from the Revolutionary War to the current Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) (operations in Afghanistan and related conflicts). A review of the composite data reveals the following. ! During the period between the Revolutionary War and the present, it was the Civil War that produced the most American fatalities, when Union statistics and Confederate estimates are taken into account. ! World War II was the first war in which there were more battle deaths than deaths from other causes such as accidents, disease, and infections. ! With a total of 382 in-theater deaths, 147 of which were battle deaths, the Persian Gulf War was the least costly in terms of fatalities (see Table 1). ! The ongoing Operation Iraqi Freedom to date has produced more than ten times the number of in-theater deaths than the Persian Gulf War (which lasted seven months). The casualty statistics for wars long ended are updated periodically, sometimes yearly. This almost always reflects the identification of remains of persons previously listed as missing in action and those persons’ reclassification as dead. Other reasons, much rarer, include the discovery of errors in casualty records for individuals or categories of people. CRS-2 Table 1. Principal Wars in Which the United States Participated: U.S. Military Personnel Serving and Casualties Casualtiesa War/ Conflict Branch of Service Number Serving Total Deaths Battle Deaths Other Deaths Wounds Not Mortalb Revolutionary Warc Total — 4,435 4,435 — 6,188 1775-1783 Army — 4,044 4,044 — 6,004 Navy — 342 342 — 114 Marines — 49 49 — 70 War of 1812d Total 286,730 2,260 2,260 — 4,505 1812-1815 Army — 1,950 1,950 — 4,000 Navy — 265 265 — 439 Marines — 45 45 — 66 Mexican Ward Total 78,718 13,283 1,733 11,550 4,152 1846-1848 Army — 13,271 1,721 11,550 4,102 Navy — 1 1 — 3 Marines — 11 11 — 47 Civil Ward Total 2,213,363 364,511 140,414 224,097 281,881 (Union Forces Only)e Army 2,128,948 359,528 138,154 221,374 280,040 1861-1865 Navyf 84,415 4,523 2,112 2,411 1,710 — 460 148 312 131 Total 306,760 2,446 385 2,061 1,662 Armyg 280,564 2,430 369 2,061 1,594 Navy 22,875 10 10 — 47 3,321 6 6 — 21 Marines SpanishAmerican War Marines World War I Total 4,734,991 116,516 53,402 63,114 204,002 1917-1918 Armyh 4,057,101 106,378 50,510 55,868 193,663 599,051 7,287 431 6,856 819 78,839 2,851 2,461 390 9,520 Navy Marines CRS-3 Casualtiesa War/ Conflict Branch of Service Number Serving Total Deaths Battle Deaths Other Deaths Wounds Not Mortalb World War II Total 16,112,566 405,399 291,557 113,842 671,846 1941-1946i Armyj 11,260,000 318,274 234,874 83,400 565,861 Navyk 4,183,466 62,614 36,950 25,664 37,778 669,100 24,511 19,733 4,778 68,207 Marines Korean Warl Total 5,720,000 36,574 33,741 2,833 103,284 1950-1953 Army 2,834,000 29,856 27,731 2,125 77,596 Navy 1,177,000 658 506 152 1,576 424,000 4,508 4,266 242 23,744 Air Force 1,285,000 1,552 1,238 314 368 Vietnam Conflictm Total 8,744,000 58,209 47,424 10,785 Hosp. Care Reqd.: 153,303 No Hospital Care: 150,341 1964-1973 Army 4,368,000 38,218 30,957 7,261 Hosp. Care Reqd: 96,802 No Hospital Care: 104,723 Navy 1,842,000 2,565 1,631 934 Hosp. Care Reqd.: 4,178 No Hospital Care: 5,898 794,000 14,840 13,091 1,749 Hosp. Care Reqd.: 51,392 No Hospital Care: 37,202 Air Force 1,740,000 2,586 1,745 841 Hosp. Care Reqd.: 931 No Hospital Care: 2,518 Persian Gulf Warn Total 2,225,000 382 147 235 467 1990-1991 Army 782,000 224 98 126 354 Navy 669,000 55 5 50 12 Marines 213,000 68 24 44 92 Air Force 561,000 35 20 15 9 Marines Marines Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/WCPRINCIPAL.pdf]. CRS-4 a. Data prior to World War I are based on incomplete records in many cases. Casualty data are confined to dead and wounded and, therefore, exclude personnel captured or missing in action who were subsequently returned to military control. b. Marine Corps data for World War II, the Spanish-American War, and prior wars represent the number of individuals wounded, whereas all other data in this column represent the total number (incidence) of wounds. c. Not known, but estimates range from 184,000 to 250,000. d. As reported by the Commissioner of Pensions in the annual report for the FY1903. e. Authoritative statistics for the Confederate forces are not available. Estimates of the number who served range from 600,000 to 1,500,000. The final report of the Provost Marshal General, 1863-1866, indicated 133,821Confederate deaths (74,524 battle and 59,297 other) based upon incomplete returns. In addition, an estimated 26,000 to 31,000 Confederate personnel died in Union prisons. f. The Marine Corps number serving is included in the Navy total. g. Number serving covers the period April 21 to August 13, 1898, while dead and wounded data are for the period May 1 to August 31, 1898. Active hostilities ceased on August 13, 1898, but ratifications of the Treaty of Peace were not exchanged between the United States and Spain until April 11, 1899. h. Includes air service. Battle deaths and wounds not mortal include casualties suffered by American forces in northern Russia to August 25, 1919, and in Siberia to April 1, 1920. Other deaths cover the period April 1, 1917, to December 31, 1918. i. Data are for the period December 1, 1941, through December 31, 1946, when hostilities were officially terminated by presidential proclamation, but a few battle deaths or wounds not mortal were incurred after the Japanese acceptance of the Allied peace terms on August 14, 1945. Number serving from December 1, 1941, through August 31, 1945, were: Total 14,903,213; Army 10,420,000; Navy 3,883,520; and Marine Corps 599,693. j. Includes Army air forces. k. Battle deaths and wounds not mortal include casualties incurred in October 1941 due to hostile action. l. Worldwide military deaths during the Korean War totaled 54,246. In-theater casualty records are updated annually. m. Number serving covers the period August 5, 1964, (“Vietnam era” begins) through January 27, 1973 (date of cease-fire). Deaths include the period November 1, 1955, (commencement date for the Military Assistance Advisory Group) through May 15, 1975 (date last American servicemember left Southeast Asia, i.e. Vietnam). Wounds not mortal exclude 150,332 persons not requiring hospital care. Casualty records are updated annually, including current deaths that are directly attributed to combat in the Vietnam Conflict. Additional detail now on table shows number of WIA servicemembers not requiring hospital care. n. Coast Guard numbers are included with Navy. Report does not include one POW (Speicher). Casualty records are updated annually. CRS-5 Table 2. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths — Selected Military Operations Military Operation/Incident Casualty Type Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps Total Non-Hostile 0 0 5 3 8 Lebanon Peacekeeping Hostile August 25, 1982 Non-Hostile February 26, 1984a Total 3 19 0 234 256 5 2 0 2 9 8 21 0 236 265 Hostile 11 4 0 3 18 Non-Hostile 1 0 0 0 1 Total 12 4 0 3 19 Hostile 18 4 0 1 23 Iranian Hostage Rescue Mission April 25, 1980 Urgent Fury, Grenada, 1983 Just Cause, Panama, 1989 Persian Gulf War, 1990-1991 — Desert Shield Non-Hostile 21 36 9 18 84 — Desert Storm Hostile 98 6 20 24 148 Non-Hostile 105 14 6 26 151 Subtotal 203 20 26 50 299 Desert Shield/Storm Total 224 56 35 68 383 Restore Hope/Unosom, Somalia, 1992-1994 Hostile 27 0 0 2 29 Non-Hostile 4 0 8 2 14 Total 31 0 8 4 43 Non-Hostile 3 0 0 1 4 Uphold Democracy, Haiti, 1994-1996 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/table13.htm]. a. Place of casualty, Lebanon. CRS-6 Table 3. Active Duty Military Deaths — Race/Ethnicity Summary (as of March 15, 2003) Race/ Ethnicity Number of Deaths Korean War F M Vietnam Conflict F M Persian Gulf War F Since 1980 (all) M F M American Indian or Alaska Native 104 226 3 12 151 Asian 241 139 1 15 332 3,075 7,241 63 472 5,998 1 24 366 Black or African American 3 Hispanic or Latino 306 Hispanic or Latino-One or More Races 575 349 14 18 322 More Than One Race or Unknown 2,853 204 3 37 590 148 229 2 2 120 2 29,272 8 49,802 12 280 1,250 24,699 2 36,574 8 58,190 15 367 1,830 32,578 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander White Total a Percentages F M F M F M F M American Indian or Alaska Native 0.3 0.4 0.8 0.7 0.5 Asian 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.8 1.0 Black or African American 8.4 12.4 17.2 25.8 18.4 Hispanic or Latino 0.8 0.3 1.3 1.1 Hispanic or Latino-One or More Races 1.6 0.6 3.8 1.0 1.0 More Than One Race or Unknown 7.8 0.4 0.8 2.0 1.8 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.4 20.0 White 100.0 80.0 100.0 85.6 80.0 76.3 68.3 75.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/RACE-OMB-WC.pdf]. Note: Prior to the Korean War, race often went untracked. In the few cases in which race was tracked or recorded, soldiers were given the a choice between some variation of “White” or “Black”; categories such as “Hispanic or Latino”, “Asian”, or “Native American” were not used. a. Percentages of total female or male deaths, divided by ethnicity. For instance, in the Persian Gulf War, 20% of female deaths were Black or African American and 80% of female deaths were White. CRS-7 Table 4. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2006, Part I, Total Military Personnel 2,050,758 Full-Time (est.) GuardReserve 22,000 Selected Reserve FTEb 86,872 Total Military FTE 2,159,630 1981 1982 2,093,032 2,112,609 22,000 41,000 91,719 97,458 2,206,751 2,251,067 1983 1984 2,123,909 2,138,339 49,000 55,000 100,455 104,583 2,273,364 2,297,922 1985 1986 1987 2,150,379 2,177,845 2,166,611 64,000 69,000 71,000 108,806 113,010 115,086 2,323,185 2,359,855 2,352,697 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2,121,659 2,112,128 2,046,806 1,943,937 1,773,996 1,675,269 1,581,649 1,502,343 1,456,266 1,418,773 1,381,034 1,367,838 1,372,352 1,384,812 72,000 74,200 74,250 70,250 67,850 68,500 65,000 65,000 65,000 65,000 65,000 65,000 65,000 65,000 115,836 117,056 137,268 184,002 111,491 105,768 99,833 94,585 92,409 94,609 92,536 93,104 93,078 102,284 2,309,495 2,303,384 2,258,324 2,198,189 1,953,337 1,849,537 1,746,482 1,661,928 1,613,310 1,578,382 1,538,570 1,525,942 1,530,430 1,552,196 2002 2003 2004 2005 1,411,200 1,423,348 1,411,287 1,378,014 66,000 66,000 66,000 66,000 149,942 243,284 234,629 220,000 1,627,142 1,732,632 1,711,916 1,664,014 2006 1,412,362 66,000 168,000 1,646,362 Calendar Year Active Dutya 1980 Total Deaths 2,392 2,380 2,319 2,465 1,999 2,252 1,984 1,983 1,819 1,636 1,507 1,787 1,293 1,213 1,075 1,040 974 817 827 796 758 891 999 1,410 1,873 1,941 1,875 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/Death_Rates1.pdf]. a. Official Department of Defense end-strengths as of December 31 for military pay accounts. Excludes full time Guard and Reserve. b. Full time equivalent (FTE) is based on official Department of Defense fiscal year end selected reserve strength (10% of the figure is used to estimate days on active duty). CRS-8 Table 5. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2006, Part II, Cause of Death (as of November 22, 2007) Self Terrorist Hostile Homicide Illness Pending Inflicted Attack Action Undetermined Calendar Year Total Deaths Accident 1980 2,392 1,556 174 419 231 1981 2,380 1,524 145 457 241 13 1982 2,319 1,495 108 446 254 16 1983 2,465 1,413 18 115 419 218 263 19 1984 1,999 1,293 1 84 374 225 6 16 1985 2,252 1,476 111 363 275 5 22 1986 1,984 1,199 2 103 384 269 1987 1,983 1,172 37 104 383 260 2 25 1988 1,819 1,080 90 321 285 17 26 1989 1,636 1,000 58 294 224 1990 1,507 880 74 277 232 1991 1,787 931 112 308 256 1992 1,293 676 109 252 238 1 17 1993 1,213 632 86 221 236 29 9 1994 1,075 544 83 206 232 1995 1,040 538 67 174 250 7 4 1996 974 527 52 173 188 19 14 1997 817 433 42 170 159 1998 827 445 26 168 10 161 1999 796 436 37 150 13 145 2000 758 398 34 138 2001 891 434 3 49 187 2002 999 542 18 53 2003 1,228 576 343 2004 1,874 605 2005 1,942 644 23 147 1 1 11 27 37 1 43 33 10 13 3 14 15 151 17 20 1 141 55 21 194 4 162 26 42 234 5 186 24 739 45 272 4 201 7 739 52 289 16 175 26 2006 530 761 42 247 85 192 1,858 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/Death_Rates.pdf]. 18 Analysis Division, Note: Distorted versions of Tables 4 and 5 have been circulating through the Internet. As the tables here and on the Department of Defense website show, total military deaths and hostile deaths increased from 2001 to 2005, and then decreased in 2006. CRS-9 Table 6. Comparison of Death, Wounded and Amputation Statistics in American Conflicts Deathsa Woundeda Amputationsb,c Ratio Deaths/ Wounded Ratio Amputations/ Wounded Ratio Amputations/ Deaths 4,058 29,911 664 1:7.4 1:45.0 1:6.1 Operation Enduring Freedom 490 1,937 45 1:4.0 1:43.0 1:10.9 Persian Gulf War 382 467 N/A 1:1.2 N/A N/A Vietnam 58,209 153,303 5,283 1:2.6 1:29.0 1:11.0 Korea 36,578 103,284 1,477 1:2.8 1:69.9 1:24.8 World War II 405,399 671,846 7,489 1:1.7 1:89.7 1:54.1 World War I 116,516 204,002 2,610 1:1.8 1:78.2 1:44.6 Operation Iraqi Freedom Sources: For deaths and wounded, Department of Defense Military Casualties website, at [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/castop.htm]; for amputations, PowerPoint presentation provided by Col. Michael Carino in the Office of the Surgeon General. a. Current as of April 30, 2008. b. Current as of December 12, 2007. c. Individual soldiers may have multiple amputations. CRS-10 Table 7. Korean War — Casualty Summary (as of June 15, 2004) Casualty Type Killed in Action Died of Wounds Missing in Action - Declared Dead Captured - Declared Dead Total Hostile Deaths Missing - Presumed Dead Other Deaths Total Non-Hostile Deaths Total In-Theater Deaths Total Non-Theater Deaths Total Deaths Killed in Action — No Remains Died of Wounds — No Remains Missing in Action - Declared Dead — No Remains Captured-Declared Dead — No Remains Non-Hostile Missing- Presumed Dead — No Remains Non-Hostile Other Deaths — No Remains Total — No Remains Wounded - Not Mortal Number Serving Worldwideb Number Serving In-Theaterb Total 23,615 2,460 4,817 2,849 33,741 8 2,825 2,833 36,574 17,672 54,246 1,533 22 Army 19,715 1,887 3,337 2,792 27,731 4 2,121 2,125 29,856 7,277 37,133 1,081 22 Air Force 209 14 991 24 1,238 4 310 314 1,552 5,532 7,084 49 Marines 3,320 532 386 29 4,267 Navy 371 27 103 4 505 242 242 4,509 1,019 5,528 255 152 152 657 3,844 4,501 148 4,578 3,302 809 373 94 1,901 1,860 13 25 3 8 4 4 84 5 37 6 36 8,126 103,284 5,720,000 1,789,000 6,274 77,596 2,834,000 1,153,000 912 368 1,285,000 241,000 659 23,744 424,000 130,000 281 1,576 1,177,000 265,000 Source: Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/korea.pdf]. a. Inclusive dates are June 25, 1950, to July 27, 1953. Casualty dates after the end date represent service members who were wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds and those service members who were involved in an incident during the period and were later declared dead. b. Estimated figures. CRS-11 Table 8. Vietnam Conflict — Casualty Summary (as of June 15, 2004) Casualty Type Total Army Air Force Marines Navy Killed in Action 40,934 27,047 1,080 11,501 1,306 Died of Wounds 5,289 3,604 51 1,482 152 Missing in Action-Declared Dead 1,085 261 589 98 137 116 45 25 10 36 47,424 30,957 1,745 13,091 1,631 123 118 0 3 2 Other Deaths 10,662 7,143 841 1,746 932 Total Non-Hostile Deaths 10,785 7,261 841 1,749 934 Total In-Theater Deaths a 58,209 38,218 2,586 14,840 2,565 Killed in Action — No Remains 622 181 221 123 97 Missing in Action-Declared Dead — No Remains 737 216 366 75 80 Captured-Declared Dead — No Remains 53 32 7 4 10 Non-Hostile Missing-Presumed Dead — No Remains 97 92 3 2 336 70 30 37 199 1,845 591 624 242 388 153,303 96,802 931 51,392 4,178 8,744,000 4,368,000 1,740,000 794,000 1,842,000 Number Serving Southeast Asiab 3,403,000 2,276,000 385,000 513,000 229,000 Number Serving South Vietnamb 2,594,000 1,736,000 293,000 391,000 174,000 Captured-Declared Dead Total Hostile Deaths Missing - Presumed Dead Non-Hostile Other Deaths — No Remains Total — No Remains Wounded - Not Mortal Number Serving Worldwide b Source: Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, [[http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/vietnam.pdf]]. a. Inclusive dates are November 1, 1955, to May 15, 1975. Casualty dates after the end date represent service members who were wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds and those service members who where involved in an incident during the period and were later declared dead. b. Estimated figures. CRS-12 Table 9. Persian Gulf War — Casualty Summary Desert Shield/Desert Storm (as of June 15, 2004) Total Army Air Force Marines Navya,b Killed in Action 143 96 20 22 5 Died of Wounds 4 2 Total Hostile Deaths 147 98 Missing - Presumed Dead 12 Other Deaths 223 Total Non-Hostile Deaths a Casualty Type 2 Missing in Action-Declared Dead Captured-Declared Dead 20 24 5 2 8 2 126 13 36 48 235 126 15 44 50 382 224 35 68 55 Total Non-Theater Deaths 1,590 608 299 171 512 Total Deaths 1,972 832 334 239 567 Total In-Theater Deaths Killed in Action — No Remains 2 2 Missing in Action — No Remains Captured-Declared Dead — No Remains Non-Hostile Missing- Presumed Dead — No Remains 12 2 8 2 Total — No Remains 14 2 8 4 Wounded - Not Mortal 467 354 9 92 12 2,225,000 782,000 561,000 213,000 669,000 Serving In-Theater — Active Duty 584,342 271,654 70,741 90,866 151,081 Serving In-Theater — Recalled 110,208 78,512 11,666 12,660 7,370 Non-Hostile Other Deaths — No Remains Serving Worldwide b Source: [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/GWSUM.pdf]. a. Inclusive dates are August 7, 1990, to September 14, 1991. Any casualty date in the detailed records after the end date represents a service member who was wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds or a service member who was in a missing status during a part of the war period and later declared dead. b. Estimated figures includes Coast Guard. Report does not include one POW (Speicher). CRS-13 Tables 10-12 provide statistics on casualties during Operation Enduring Freedom, which began on October 7, 2001, and is ongoing. Table 10 provides statistics on total casualties by type. Table 11 provides statistics on the demographics of military deaths. Table 12 provides statistics on the demographics of service members who have been wounded in action. These statistics may be revised as circumstances are investigated and records are processed through the U.S. military system. Daily casualty summaries are available at DOD’s website at [http://www.defenselink.mil/news/casualty.pdf]. Table 10. Global War on Terrorism — Operation Enduring Freedom by Casualty Category Within Service (from October 7, 2001, through April 5, 2008) Casualty Type Total Navyc Army Killed in Action 240 207 Died of Woundsa 52 44 Total Hostile Deaths 292 251 Accident 147 16 Marines 18 Air Force 7 8 5 3 18 12 11 102 7 22 16 12 3 1 Died While Missing In Action Died While Captured Illness Homicide 1 1 Self-Inflicted 21 15 3 2 1 Undetermined 6 4 1 1 Pendingb 4 1 2 1 Total Non-Hostile Deaths 195 133 15 29 18 Total Deaths 487 384 33 41 29 Total Wounded In Action 1,914 1,687 19 126 82 Total Medical Air Transported (Hostile and Non-Hostile) 7,751 5,977 317 441 1,016 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/WOTSUM.pdf]. Analysis Division, a. Includes died of wounds where wounding occurred in theater and death occurred elsewhere. b. Pending means final category to be determined at a later date. c. Navy totals include Coast Guard. CRS-14 Table 11. Operation Enduring Freedom, Demographics of Military Deaths (from October 7, 2001, through April 5, 2008) Casualty Type Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force Hostile 292 251 18 12 11 Nonhostile 195 133 15 29 18 Total 487 384 33 41 29 Male 474 377 31 40 26 13 7 2 1 3 Total 487 384 33 41 29 Officer 73 57 6 6 4 E5-E9 227 180 17 12 18 E1-E4 187 147 10 23 7 Total 487 384 33 41 29 Age <22 71 53 3 15 22-24 95 74 4 10 7 25-30 147 121 11 9 6 31-35 77 59 8 4 6 >35 97 77 7 3 10 Total 487 384 33 41 29 Active 396 299 32 37 28 Reserve 28 23 1 4 National Guard 63 62 487 384 33 41 29 American Indian or Alaska Native 7 3 2 1 1 Asian 6 5 1 Black or African American 39 31 4 4 Hispanic or Latino 38 31 2 2 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 2 2 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 6 5 White 389 307 24 34 24 Total 487 384 33 41 29 Female Total 1 3 1 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/OEFDEATHS.pdf]. Analysis Division, Note: Casualty areas include in/around Afghanistan, Republic of the Phillippines, Southwest Asia, and other locations. CRS-15 Table 12. Operation Enduring Freedom, Military Wounded in Action (from October 7, 2001, through April 5, 2008) Casualty Type Hostile Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force 1,914 1,687 19 126 82 Total 1,914 1,687 19 126 82 Male 1,900 1,675 19 126 80 14 12 1,914 1,687 Officer 187 164 E5-E9 827 717 E1-E4 900 Total Nonhostile Female 2 126 82 12 11 13 36 61 806 6 78 10 1,914 1,687 19 126 82 Age <22 301 267 2 30 2 22-24 474 436 4 27 7 25-30 574 521 4 20 29 31-35 233 203 3 6 21 >35 247 218 3 3 23 85 42 3 40 1,914 1,687 19 126 82 American Indian or Alaska Native 23 19 2 1 1 Asian 33 29 1 3 Black or African American 114 104 5 5 Hispanic or Latino 115 105 7 3 73 50 3 17 3 3 5 White 1,553 1,377 13 93 70 Total 1,914 1,687 19 126 82 Total Not Available Total Multiple races, pending, or unknown Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 19 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/OEFWIA.pdf], accessed on May 2, 2008. Note: Casualty areas include in/around Afghanistan, Republic of the Phillippines, Southwest Asia, and other locations. CRS-16 Tables 13-16 provide statistics on casualties during Operation Iraqi Freedom, which began on March 19, 2003, and is ongoing. Table 13 provides statistics on total casualties by type. Tables 14 and 15 provide statistics on the demographics of military deaths, divided between the period of major combat operations (March 19, 2003, through April 30, 2003) and the ongoing presence of U.S. forces in Iraq after the end of major combat operations (May 1, 2003, through present). Table 16 provides statistics on the demographics of service members who have been wounded in action. These statistics may be revised as circumstances are investigated and records are processed through the U.S. military system. Daily casualty summaries are available at DOD’s website at [http://www.defenselink.mil/news/casualty.pdf]. Table 13. Operation Iraqi Freedom, By Casualty Category Within Service, March 19, 2003, Through April 5, 2008 Casualty Type Killed in Action Total Navyc Army Marines Air Force 2,543 1,805 62 649 714 536 1 177 Died While Missing In Action 7 7 Died While Captured 3 3 Total Hostile Deaths 3,267 2,351 63 826 27 482 339 12 118 13 Illness 73 58 8 4 3 Homicide 21 13 3 3 2 147 120 4 23 Undetermined 8 7 1 Pendingb 7 3 2 2 738 540 30 150 18 4,005 2,891 93 976 45 Total Wounded in Action 29,676 20,258 616 8,426 376 Total Medical Air Transported (Hostile and Non-Hostile) 41,009 33,585 1,226 4,673 1,525 Died of Wounds a Accident Self-Inflicted Total Non-Hostile Deaths Total Deaths Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Division[http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/OIF-total.pdf]. 27 Analysis a. Includes died of wounds where wounding occurred in theater and death occurred elsewhere. b. Pending means final category to be determined at a later date. c. Navy totals include Coast Guard. CRS-17 Table 14. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Military Deaths, March 19, 2003, Through April 30, 2003 (As of April 5, 2008) Casualty Type Hostile Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force 109 47 3 56 3 30 19 1 9 1 Total 139 66 4 65 4 Male 138 65 4 65 4 1 1 Total 139 66 4 65 4 Officer 28 11 3 11 3 E5-E9 36 19 16 1 E1-E4 75 36 1 38 Total 139 66 4 65 Age <22 33 15 18 22-24 30 14 16 25-30 35 13 31-35 19 12 >35 22 12 1 7 2 Total 139 66 4 65 4 Active 126 61 3 59 3 Reserve 9 2 1 6 National Guard 4 3 139 66 American Indian or Alaska Native 2 2 Asian 2 1 Black or African American 23 15 1 7 Hispanic or Latino 23 9 1 13 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 2 1 1 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 2 1 1 White 85 37 2 42 4 Total 139 66 4 65 4 NonHostile Female Total 3 17 4 2 7 1 4 65 4 1 Source: [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/OIF-Deaths-Before.pdf]. Note: The President’s statement concerning the end of major combat operations in Iraq can be found in the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, May 1, 2003, p. 516. CRS-18 Table 15. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Military Deaths, May 1, 2003, Through April 5, 2008 Casualty Type Hostile Totals Navya Army Marines Air Force 3,158 2,304 60 770 24 708 521 29 141 17 Total 3,866 2,825 89 911 41 Male 3,774 2,750 80 905 39 92 75 9 6 2 3,866 2,825 89 911 41 346 273 6 59 8 E5-E9 1,270 1,059 44 145 22 E1-E4 2,250 1,493 39 707 11 Total 3,866 2,825 89 911 41 898 552 9 333 4 22-24 1,059 727 16 310 6 25-30 1,066 828 29 194 15 31-35 394 332 15 41 6 >35 449 386 20 33 10 Total 3,866 2,825 89 911 41 Active 3,138 2,251 69 781 37 Reserve 284 131 20 130 3 National Guard 444 443 3,866 2,825 89 911 American Indian or Alaska Native 38 23 1 14 Asian 73 46 5 22 Black or African American 359 312 8 33 6 Hispanic or Latino 406 266 10 126 4 Multiple Races, pending or unknown 42 35 1 4 2 Native Hawaiian or Pacific islander 43 37 1 5 White 2,905 2,106 63 707 29 Total 3,866 2,825 89 911 41 Nonhostile Female Total Officer Age <22 Total 1 Source: [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/OIF-Deaths-After.pdf]. Note: After the end of major combat operations. a. Navy totals include one Coast Guard death. 41 CRS-19 Table 16. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Wounded In Action, March 19, 2003, Through April 5, 2008 Casualty Type Hostile Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force 29,676 20,258 616 8,426 376 Total 29,676 20,258 616 8,426 376 Male 29,107 19,755 611 8,390 351 569 503 5 36 25 Total 29,676 20,258 616 8,426 376 Officer 1,744 1,278 34 404 28 E5-E9 9,576 7,594 232 1,540 210 E1-E4 18,356 11,386 350 6,482 138 Total 29,676 20,258 616 8,426 376 Age <22 6,653 3,764 94 2,761 34 22-24 8,222 5,553 151 2,428 90 25-30 7,549 5,784 145 1,500 120 31-35 2,926 2,409 76 395 46 >35 2,897 2,447 98 268 84 Not Available 1,429 301 52 1,074 2 29,676 20,258 616 8,426 376 American Indian or Alaska Native 302 197 24 79 2 Asian 438 317 19 99 3 Black or African American 2,430 2,132 39 236 23 Hispanic or Latino 1,924 1,429 24 444 27 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 2,559 652 63 1,824 20 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 171 139 5 23 4 White 21,852 15,392 442 5,721 297 Total 29,676 20,258 616 8,426 376 Nonhostile Female Total Source: [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/oif-wounded-total.pdf]. CRS-20 Additional Resources Sources of Statistics The Department of Defense Directorate of Information, Operations, and Reports (DIOR) provides detailed historical tables as well as annual statistics on active duty military deaths at [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/castop.htm]. The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has published statistics derived from its Southeast Asia Combat Area Casualties Current File. This includes tables on Vietnam casualty data by branch of service, race, religion, state, and other categories at [http://www.archives.gov/research/vietnam-war/casualtystatistics.html]. Sources of Published Lists of Names of War Dead The Congressional Research Service also receives requests for lists of the names of war dead, often for use on memorials, tributes, or for other ceremonial purposes. This report cites the following sources of published lists of U.S. military personnel killed in major wars and other combat actions. World War II Army casualty lists for World War II are published in World War II Honor List of the Dead and Missing (U.S. War Department, 1946). The lists are also available online at [http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/ww2/army-casualties/index.html]. Navy casualty lists are published in State Summary of War Casualties (U.S. Navy Department, 1946). The National Archives also publishes casualty lists online at [http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/ww2/navy-casualties/index.html]. Korean War and Vietnam War The National Archives has made state-level casualty lists from the Korean War and the Vietnam War available at [http://www.archives.gov/research/korean-war/ casualty-lists/]. Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) The DIOR website lists the names of individuals killed in OEF at [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/oef_list_of_names.pdf]. CRS-21 Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) The DIOR website lists the names of individuals killed in OIF at [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/oif_list_of_names.pdf]. Wars Prior to World War II Lists of casualties that are not available from a central source may be obtained on a state level from each state’s Adjutant General’s office. The Adjutant General of each state is the military commander of the state’s national guard. The following is a list of these offices. Alabama Major Aber C. Blalock, 1720 Cong. W. L. Dickinson Dr., Montgomery, AL 36109, (334)271-7200 Alaska Major General Craig E. Campbell, P.O. Box 5800, Fort Richardson, AK 99505-5800, (907) 428-6007, craig.campbell2@us.army.mil American Samoa Attorney General Sialega Malaetasi Togafau, America Samoa Government, P.O. Box 7, Pago Pago, AS 96799, (684) 633-4163 Arizona Major General David P. Rataczak, Emergency and Military Affairs Department, 5636 East McDowell Road, Phoenix, AZ 85008-3495, (602) 267-2710 Arkansas Major General William D. Wofford, Camp Robinson, North Little Rock, AR 72199-9600, (501) 212-5001, e-mail to assistant: edie.wilkerson@ar.ngb.army.mil California Adjutant General William H. Wade, II, 9800 Goethe Road, Sacramento, CA 95826, (916) 854-3500 Colorado (Acting) Major General H. Michael Edwards, USAF, 6848 South Revere Parkway, Centennial , CO 80112-6709, (720) 250-1500, tag.assistant@dmva.state.co.us Connecticut Major General Thaddeus J. Martin, William J. O’Neill Armory, 360 Broad Street, Hartford, CT 06105-3706, (860) 524-4953 Delaware Major General Francis D. Vavala, USA, National Guard, First Regiment Road, Wilmington, DE 19808-2191, (302) 326-7001, frank.vavala@us.army.mil District of Columbia Commanding General David F. Wherley, Jr., DC National Guard, 2001 East Capitol Street, SE, Washington, DC 20003, (202) 685-9798, david.wherley@dc.gov Florida Major General Douglas Burnett, St. Francis Barracks, P.O. Box 1008, Saint Augustine, FL 32085-1008, (904) 823-0100 CRS-22 Georgia Major General William T. “Terry” Nesbitt, USA, Defense Department, 935 East Confederate Avenue, SE, Atlanta, GA 30316-0965, (678) 569-6001, Guam Brigadier General Don Goldhorn, Fort Juan Muna, 622 East Harmon Industrial Park Road, Tamuning GU 96911-4421, (671) 475- 0802 Hawaii Major General Robert G. F. Lee, 3949 Diamond Head Road, Honolulu, HI 96816-4495, (808) 733-4246 Idaho Major General Lawrence Lafrenz, Gowen Field, 4040 West Guard Street, Boise, ID 83705-5004, (208) 422-5242 Illinois Major General William L. Enyart, Military Affairs Department, 1301 N. MacArthur Boulevard, Springfield, IL 62702-2399, (217) 761-3500, william.enyart@us.army.mil Indiana Major General R. Martin Umbarger, Joint Forces Headquarters-Indiana, 2002 South Holt Road, Indianapolis, IN 46241-4839, (317) 247-3559, marty.umbarger@us.army.mil Iowa Major General Ron Dardis, 7105 NW 70th Avenue, Johnston, IA 50131-1824, (515) 252-4211, ron.dardis@ia.ngb.army.mil Kansas Major General Tod Bunting, 2800 SW Topeka Boulevard, Topeka, KS 666111287, (785) 274-1001, tod.bunting@us.army.mil Kentucky Brigadier General Edward W. Tonini, Boone National Guard Center, 100 Minuteman Parkway, Frankfort, KY 40601, (502) 607-1558 Louisiana Major General Bennett C. Landreneau, USA, Camp Beauregard, Building 304 F Street, Pineville, LA 71360, (318) 641-3858 Maine Major General John W. “Bill” Libby, Camp Keyes, Augusta, ME 04333-0033, (207) 626-4271, John.W.Libby@maine.gov Maryland Adjutant General James A. Adkins, 5th Regiment Armory, 29th Division Street, Baltimore, MD 21201-2288, (410) 576-6097 Massachusetts Major General Joseph C. Carter, 50 Maple Street, Milford, MA 01757, (508) 233-6552 Michigan Major General Thomas Cutler, 3411 North Martin Luther King Boulevard, Lansing, MI 48906, (517) 481-8083 Minnesota Adjutant General Larry W. Shellito, 20 West 12th Street, St. Paul, MN 551552004, (651) 268-8924 Mississippi (Designate) Brigadier General William “Bill” Freeman, Jr., P.O. Box 5027, Jackson, MS 39296-5027, (601) 313-6232 CRS-23 Missouri Major General King E. Sidwell, 2302 Militia Drive, Jefferson City, MO 651011203, (573) 638-9710 Montana Major General Randall D. Mosley, P.O. Box 4789, Fort Harrison, MT 596364789, (406) 324-3010, randall.mosley@us.army.mil Nebraska Brigadier General Tim Kadavy, 1300 Military Road, Lincoln, NE 68508-1090, (402) 309-7210 Nevada Major General Cynthia N. Kirkland, 2460 Fairview Drive, Carson City, NV 89701-5502, (775) 887-7302, cindy.kirkland@nvreno.ang.af.mil New Hampshire Major General Kenneth R. Clark, Four Pembroke Road, Concord, NH 033015652, (603) 225-1200, k.clark@us.army.mil New Jersey Major General Glenn K. Rieth, USA, 101 Eggert Crossing Road, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648-2805, (609) 530-6956, glenn.rieth@njdmava.state.nj.us New Mexico Brigadier General Kenny C. Montoya, 47 Bataan Boulevard, Santa Fe, NM 87508, (505) 474-1210, Kenny.Montoya@nm.ngb.army.mil New York Major General Joseph J. Taluto, USA, 330 Old Niskayuna Road, Latham, NY 12110-2224, (518) 786-4502 North Carolina Major General William E. Ingram, Jr., ARNG, 4105 Reedy Creek Road, Raleigh, NC 27607-6410, (703) 695-7785 North Dakota Major General David A. Sprynczynatyk, USA, P.O. Box 5511, Bismarck, ND 58506-5511, (701) 333-2000 Ohio Major General Gregory L. Wayt, 2825 West Dublin Granville Road, Columbus, OH 43235-2789, (614) 336-7070 Oklahoma Major General Harry M. “Bud” Wyatt, III, 3501 Military Circle, Oklahoma City, OK 73111-4398, (405) 228-5201 Oregon Major General Raymont Fred Rees, 1776 Militia Way, SE, Salem, OR 97309-5047, (503) 584-3991 Pennsylvania Major General Jessica L. Wright, Building S-O-47, Fort Indiantown Gap, Annville, PA 17003-5002, (717) 861-8500, Jessica.Wright@pa.ngb.army.mil Puerto Rico Adjutant General David Carrión-Baralt, P.O. Box 9023786, San Juan, PR 00902-3786, (787) 289-1631 CRS-24 Rhode Island Major General Robert Thomas Bray, 645 New London Avenue, Cranston, RI 02920-3097, (401) 275-4102, robert.bray@us.army.mil South Carolina Major General Stanhope S. Spears, One National Guard Road, Columbia, SC 29201-4766, (803) 806-4217, stanhope.spears@sc.ngb.army.mil South Dakota Major General Steven R. Doohen, 2823 West Main, Rapid City, SD 577028186, (605) 737-6702 Tennessee Major General Gus L. Hargett, Jr., Houston Barracks, 3041 Sidco Dri ve, Nashville, TN 37204-1502, (615) 313-3001,gus.hargett@tn.ngb.army.mil Texas Lieutenant General Charles G. Rodriguez, P.O. Box 5218, Austin, TX 787635218, (512) 782-5006 U.S. Virgin Islands Brigadier General Renaldo Rivera, 4031 La Grande Princesse, Lot #1B, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI 00820-4353, (340) 773-2244 Utah Major General Brian L. Tarbet, USA, P.O. Box 1776, Draper, UT 84020-1776, (801) 523-4401, brian.tarbet@us.army.mil Vermont Major General Michael D. Dubie, USAFR, 789 Vermont National Guard Road, Colchester, VT 05446-3099, (802) 338-3124 Virginia Major General Robert B. Newman, Jr.,202 North Ninth Street, Richmond VA 23219, (434) 298-6102 Washington Major General Timothy J. Lowenberg, Camp Murray, TA-20, Tacoma, WA 98430-5000, (253) 512-8201 West Virginia Major General Allen E. Tackett, 1703 Coonskin Drive, Charleston, WV 253111085, (304) 561-6316, allen.tackett@wv.ngb.army.mil Wisconsin Brigadier General Donald Dunbar, USAF, 2400 Wright Street, Madison, WI 53704, (608) 242-3001 Wyoming Major General Edward L. Wright, USA, 5500 Bishop Boulevard, Cheyenne, WY 82009-3320, (307) 772-5234, edward.wright@us.army.mil Source: The Leadership Library® on the Internet, a proprietary database, at [http://ldi.bvdep.com/version-502c/default.asp?UserId=74952&CompanyId=2858 &DfltProdId=1&BookFilter=%2D1&curp=1&fhp=1]. Additional Reading Defenselink, the official website for the Department of Defense, issues news releases every weekday that identify military personnel killed at [http://www.defenselink.mil/news/]. CRS-25 CRS Report RS21578. Iraq: U.S. Casualties, by JoAnne O’Bryant. CRS Report RS22537. Iraqi Civilian Casualties Estimates, by Hannah Fischer. CRS Report RS22532. Iraqi Police and Security Forces Death Estimates, by Hannah Fischer. CRS Report RS22452. United States Military Casualty Statistics: Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, by Hannah Fischer. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures (Jefferson, NC, and London: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2001)